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Sample records for broad bean lentil

  1. Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly: a food–based dietary guideline

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Venter; Vorster, H H; Ochse, R; Swart, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review recent scientific evidence to support the food-based dietary guideline (FBDG): “Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”. In this review, legumes are synonymous with the term “pulses”, while soy beans are classified as “oilseeds”. The FBDG was originally introduced to address both under- and overnutrition in South Africa. The nutrient and non-nutrient content, results of recent epidemiological and intervention studies on health e...

  2. Imazamox Absorption, Translocation and Metabolism in Red Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) and Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazamox is an imidazolinone herbicide used to control many grasses and broadleaf weeds in leguminous crops such as soybeans, alfalfa and dry beans; however, imazamox cannot be used on red lentils because of unacceptable injury. Studies were conducted to compare imazamox absorption, translocation a...

  3. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs of 5 mg/kg in soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg in sunflower seed, 0.05 mg/kg in rape seed and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg in lentils. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 5 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.08 mg/kg on sunflower seed, the limit of quantification (LOQ of 0.05 mg/kg on rape and mustard seed and 0.3 mg/kg on lentils. In the countries of origin the MRLs are set at 3 mg/kg on soya bean, 0.05 mg/kg on sunflower, rape and mustard seed and 0.2 mg/kg on lentils. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of imazapyr in the crops under consideration. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed uses of imazapyr in soya bean, sunflower seed, rape seed, mustard seed and lentils will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore are unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  4. Reasoned opinion on the setting of MRLs for imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean and other oilseeds and in lentils

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS), received an import tolerance application from Exponent International Ltd., on behalf of BASF Corporation, to set MRLs for the use of the active substance imazapyr in genetically modified soya bean grown in Brazil, imidazolinone-tolerant lentils, rape and mustard plants grown in Canada and sunflowers in Argentina. The United Kingdom proposed to set MRLs o...

  5. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammad, Manal H.; Saeed, Amjed H.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  8. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads.

  9. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. PMID:25952846

  10. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  11. THE RESPONSE STRATEGY OF MAIZE, PEA AND BROAD BEAN PLANTS TO DIFFERENT OSMOTIC POTENTIAL STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad; SHADADD M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differen...

  12. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy diets and have many benefits. Beans, lentils, and ...

  13. Effect of Radiation processing on sensory and chemical characteristics of broad beans (Giza,2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad bean is the important leguminous protein consumed in egypt as a source of protein diet. The most popular way of preparing beans is the stewd form (Fool Medames). However, great losses due to insect infestation occur during storage. To combat these losses radiation processing has been used as an effective alternative of chemical fumigants to combat insect pets. The beans were irradiated at 25.5, 10 and kgy. The effects of treatments were investigated on sensory and chemical characteristics and on the solubility of broad beans protein, the amino acids content and on the nutritive value of bean protein from the view of its amino acids profile. The results of study indicate that the sensory evaluation of sewed irradiated 2.5 and 5 kGy samples revealed no significantdiffference in hardness, gumminess and acceptability. moreover, no significant changes in adhesivess, between samples irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 KGy, irradiation up to 20 KGy was found to improve the hardness of stewed broad bean which would improve the quality of broad of bean

  14. [Broad beans (Vicia fava, L.) as an alternative source of protein in chick diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezares, A; Cuca, M; Avila, E; Velásquez, C

    1980-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study the possibility of improving the nutritive value of broad beans (Vicia faba, L.) in poultry diets. In the first experiment, raw and autoclaved (1.0 kg/cm2/15 min) beans, with and without antibiotic supplementation, were studied. The results after 21 days showed no significant differences among treatments in regard to body weight. In feed conversion, however, a significant difference was observed when diets prepared with raw beans were supplemented with 20 ppm of flavomycin. In the second experiment raw and autoclaved beans were supplemented with 0, 10, and 20 ppm of virginiamycin and 200 and 400 ppm of flavomycin to study the effect of these two antibiotics. After 28 days, the results indicated no significant differences with antibiotic supplementation in either raw or autoclaved beans. However, a significant difference (P < 0.05) in body weight was found when beans were autoclaved. In the third experiment, two levels, 31 and 76% of raw and autoclaved beans, were included in the chick diets. The results in body weight, after 28 days, did not show any significant differences between raw and autoclaved beans fed at a 31% level. With the 76% level the autoclaved treatment, however, induced a significantly higher body weight than the diets containing raw beans. PMID:7447590

  15. Characterization of non-host resistance in broad bean to the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-host resistance (NHR confers plant species immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens and represents the most robust and durable form of plant resistance in nature. As one of the main genera of rust fungi with economic and biological importance, Puccinia infects almost all cereals but is unable to cause diseases on legumes. Little is known about the mechanism of this kind of effective defense in legumes to these non-host pathogens. Results In this study, the basis of NHR in broad bean (Vicia faba L. against the wheat stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, was characterized. No visible symptoms were observed on broad bean leaves inoculated with Pst. Microscopic observations showed that successful location of stomata and haustoria formation were significantly reduced in Pst infection of broad bean. Attempted infection induced the formation of papillae, cell wall thickening, production of reactive oxygen species, callose deposition and accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant cell walls. The few Pst haustoria that did form in broad bean cells were encased in reactive oxygen and callose materials and those cells elicited cell death. Furthermore, a total of seven defense-related genes were identified and found to be up-regulated during the Pst infection. Conclusions The results indicate that NHR in broad bean against Pst results from a continuum of layered defenses, including basic incompatibility, structural and chemical strengthening of cell wall, posthaustorial hypersensitive response and induction of several defense-related genes, demonstrating the multi-layered feature of NHR. This work also provides useful information for further determination of resistance mechanisms in broad bean to rust fungi, especially the adapted important broad bean rust pathogen, Uromyces viciae-fabae, because of strong similarity and association between NHR of plants to unadapted pathogens and basal

  16. The Response Strategy of Maize, Pea and Broad Bean Plants to Different Osmotic Potential Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was conducted to study the tolerance strategy of maize, broad bean and pea plants to salinity stress with exogenous applications of proline or phenylalanine on seed germination and seedlings growth. From the results obtained, it can be observed that osmotic stress affected adversely the rate of germination in maize, broad bean and pea plants. The excessive inhibition was more prominent at higher concentration of NaCl. The seeds and grains tested were exhibited some differential responses to salinity, in a manner that the inhibitory effect of salinity on seed germination ran in the order, maize higher than broad bean and the later was higher than pea plant. Treatment with proline or phenylalanine (100 ppm significantly increased these seed germination and seedlings growth characteristics even at lowest salinity level tested.

  17. Nutritional and Biochemical Studies on Irradiated Broad Beans (Giza-2)(Vicia Faba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad bean is an important source of dietary protein in Egypt. High losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. Radiation processing is an excellent alternative method which could be used to combat these losses. The beans were irradiated at doses of 2.5,5, 10 and 20 kGy. The effects of treatments were investigated on trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutination activity, in vitro protein digestibility, in vivo protein efficiency ratio (PER) and short-term rats feeding. A dose of 20 kGy significantly caused a great reduction in trypsin inhibitor (by 67.12%) and hemagglutination activity (by 87.5%) in broad bean, whereas its in vitro protein digestibility increased from 67.15 to 80, 68% and PER also increased from 1.01 to 1.22. The results of short term of rat feeding experiments indicated that the growth of young rats given raw or irradiated beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy was much lower than that of rats given diet based upon casein or irradiated beans up to 20 kGy. Feeding raw and processed beans at 2.5 and 5 kGy, caused a significant increase in the relative weight of pancreas while feeding irradiated beans at 10 and 20 kGy normalized the relative pancreas weight. No changes have been observed in relative weight for stomach, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs in rats fed casein diet as compared with those fed raw and irradiated beans up to 20 kGy for 8 weeks

  18. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  19. A Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth-stimulating Peptide from Broad Bean (Vicia faba . Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, broad bean protein hydrolysates (BPH produced by alcalase with strong-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB was first time reported. In order to obtain the key peptide that have growth-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB, gel filtration chromatography and Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC were applied to isolate and purify the peptides from BPH. Finally, F4-2 elicited the highest activity for LAB, corresponding to amino acid sequence Ser-Ala-Gln (304.10Da was identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS. Thus, this study shows that broad bean peptide is a good source to promote the LAB growth and this function is reported for the first time.

  20. Multi-effects and Mechanism of Broad Bean M1 Root-tip Cells Implanted by Low Energy N+ Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Broad beans were divided into six groups and implanted with N+ beam of 30 KeV, 8 × 1016/cm2 per time for various radiating times respectively. Besides the statistics of its vigor of germination, the M1 root-tip cells of these broad beans were systematically analyzed on their changes in mitotic percentage, morphology and behavior of chromosomes, along with the structure of cytoskeletons, including microtubule and intermediate filament. Based on all results of these studies, our opinions have been expressed in the report on the mechanism of low-energy N+ beams effecting on higher dicotyledons such as broad bean.

  1. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.) Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sener AKINCI; Tamer B�Y�KKESK?N; Ahmet ERO?LU; Birsen Eygi ERDO?AN

    2009-01-01

    Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected...

  2. A Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth-stimulating Peptide from Broad Bean (Vicia faba .) Protein Hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xiao; Yuan Liu; Rizwan-ur-Rehman; Ran Kang; Yanping Wang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, broad bean protein hydrolysates (BPH) produced by alcalase with strong-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was first time reported. In order to obtain the key peptide that have growth-stimulating activity for lactic acid bacteria (LAB), gel filtration chromatography and Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) were applied to isolate and purify the peptides from BPH. Finally, F4-2 elicited the highest activity for LAB, corresponding to amin...

  3. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki Yuji; Choi Sun; Atsumi Go; Kitazawa Hiroaki; Nakahara Kenji S; Uyeda Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum). To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase) using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes,...

  4. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Nozomi Satoh; Tatsuya Kon; Noriko Yamagishi; Tsubasa Takahashi; Tomohide Natsuaki; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic sym...

  5. Influences of the radiation supply on assimilation rate and grain yield of broad bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 3 years a field experiment was carried out at two sites with different soil conditions to study distribution of 14CO2 labelled assimilation products in single plants of broad bean. One part of the plants was shaded to simulate the light conditions within a stand of broad beans. The plant tops remained always free of shading. (1) The shedding of influorescences and young pods was reduced on the more favourable soil conditions corresponding to a higher grain yield. The assimilation rate of the plants on the better soil was increased too. (2) Shading reduced the assimilation rates at the two sites on the average by 48%, enhanced the shedding of inflorescences and young pods and decreased the mean yield by 41%. (3) The assimilation products of the plant top moved predominantly into the generative organs. However, leaves below the top did not supply an essential amount of assimilates to the top. (4) Inflorescences and young pods, organs endangered to be dropped, received assimilates in particular from the adjoining leaves. (5) It seems that the shedding of inflorescences and pods depends on the assimilation capacity of these leaves

  6. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  7. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  8. Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector as Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Mosaic Diseases in Pea, Broad Bean, and Eustoma Plants by Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Satoh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases.

  9. Scavenging effects of methanolic extracts of broad beans on free-radical species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M; Okada, Y; Inaba, R; Iwata, H

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the antioxidant characteristics of methanolic extracts from broad beans (Vicia fava). The methanolic extracts of broad beans (MEBB) exhibited a marked scavenging effect on superoxide. MEBB also exerted scavenging activities on hydrogen peroxide and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The radical scavenging activity of MEBB was highest when the scavenging effect of MEBB on Superoxide (IC(50) = 0.15 mg/ml) was examined. These results suggest that MEBB have effective activities both as a radical scavenger and as a hydrogen donor. The chelating activity of MEBB (0.70 mg/ml) on Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) was 31.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The antioxidant effect of MEBB on lipid peroxidation might be attributed to their properties of scavenging free-radical species and their chelating activity on metal ions. The antioxidant activity of MEBB against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP)-induced oxidative stress in WI-38 cells was assessed. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured as indices of oxidative stress. WI-38 cells incubated with 0.1 mM BHP for 2 hr exhibited the increase of SOD, catalase and GSH-Px activities over the control. When the cells incubated in MEBB (45-450 μg/ml) for 18 hr were subjected to a BHP challenge test, SOD activity returned to its control value or lower at all levels tested. When catalase activity was determined, a similar trend occurred except in the cells incubated in 112.5 μ g/ml MEBB. These results imply that MEBB inhibit oxidative stress in WI-38 cells. PMID:21432501

  10. EVALUATION OF LENTIL GERMPLASM FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE TO FUSARIUM WILT (FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. LENTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetelina Stoilova

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic. is one of the oldest known protein-rich food legumes. Lentil is the second pulse crop after dry bean in Bulgaria. Diseases such as Ascochyta blight and Lentil wilt play a major role in reducing lentil yield. Thirty two lentil genotypes with different geographical origin were screened for reaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis during 2003-2004 from the Institute for Plant Genetic Resourses, Sadovo under greenhouse conditions. Three of the studied accessions (91-001, 91-028 and 98-001 were susceptible with 45 and 50 % of total wilted plant.

  11. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuji

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba and pea (Pisum sativum. To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI, and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP. We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression.

  12. Screening and analysis of genes expressed upon infection of broad bean with Clover yellow vein virus causing lethal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Kenji S; Kitazawa, Hiroaki; Atsumi, Go; Choi, Sun Hee; Suzuki, Yuji; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) causes lethal systemic necrosis in legumes, including broad bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum). To identify host genes involved in necrotic symptom expression after ClYVV infection, we screened cDNA fragments in which expression was changed in advance of necrotic symptom expression in broad bean (V. faba cv. Wase) using the differential display technique and secondarily with Northern blot analysis. Expression changes were confirmed in 20 genes, and the six that exhibited the most change were analyzed further. These six genes included a gene that encodes a putative nitrate-induced NOI protein (VfNOI), and another was homologous to an Arabidopsis gene that encodes a glycine- and proline-rich protein GPRP (VfGPRP). We recently reported that necrotic symptom development in ClYVV-infected pea is associated with expression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins and requires SA-dependent host responses. Interestingly, VfNOI and VfGPRP expression was correlated with that of the putative SA-dependent PR proteins in ClYVV-infected broad bean. However, broad bean infected with a recombinant ClYVV expressing the VfGPRP protein showed weaker symptoms and less viral multiplication than that infected with ClYVV expressing the GFP protein. These results imply that VfGPRP plays a role in defense against ClYVV rather than in necrotic symptom expression. PMID:21767375

  13. Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2 on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79% out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%, GS-II (3.9% and GS-III (56.9%. BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.

  14. [Molecular identification and sequence analysis of broad bean wilt virus 2 isolates from atractylodes macrocephala Koidz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanbing; Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ximei; Zhao, Huiqi; Zhao, Baojia

    2015-01-01

    To identity the pathogen that causes the mosaic and yellowing symptoms on Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz in Jiangxian, Shanxi province, biological inoculation, sequence-independent amplification (SIA),RT-PCR and other identification methods were used. The results showed that the chlorotic and necrosis symptoms occurred in the indicator plant Chenopodium quinoa after it was infected with the pathogen,and the same symptoms appeared after the reinoculation of healthy Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz; this reflected that the disease was likely to be caused by a virus. The results of SIA and sequencing showed that Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) was present in severely mosaic Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz leaves. To further characterize the BBWV2 isolate from Atractylodes macrocephala (BBWV2-Am), the polyprotein partial gene encoded by BBWV2-Am RNA2 was cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed that the nucleotide sequence identity of BBWV2-Am SCP and LCP genes ranged from 79.3% to 87.2% and from 80.1% to 89.2% compared to other BBWV2 strains,respectively; the deduced amino acid sequence similarities of the two gene products ranged from 91.2% to 95.7% and from 89.44 to 95.5%, respectively,compared to those of other BBWV2 strains. Phylogenetic comparisons showed that BBWV2-Am was most likely to be related to BBWV2-Rg,but formed an independent branch. This is the first report of BBWV2 in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. PMID:25997332

  15. Thiamin and Salicylic Acid as Biological Alternatives for Controlling Broad Bean Rot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive effects of fungi (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani) infection and thiamin or salicylic acid on growth rate, membrane stability, K+ efflux, UV-absorbing metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, cell wall components and lipid fractions of broad bean plants (30-day-old) were studied. Fungal infection induced a reduction in growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. Application of thiamin or salicylic acid increased growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. The K+ efflux and the leakage of UV-absorbing metabolites were stimulated with fungal infection. However, thiamin and salicylic acid treatment partially retarded the stimulatory effect on leakage of K+ and UV-absorbing metabolites of fungal infected plants. Fungal infection produced a reduction in the content of pectin and cellulose, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols fraction of shoots and roots and phospholipids of roots. On the other hand, the contents of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots and phospholipids of shoots were stimulated by fungal infection. Soaking seeds in thiamin or salicylic acid counteracts partially or completely the adverse effect of fungal infection on pectin and cellulose composition, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols of either shoots or roots. On the other side, thiamin or salicylic acid treatments retarded the phospholipids accumulation in shoots of infected plants, and in roots the phospholipids accumulation was partially or completely alleviated. The content of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots were antagonistically lowered by the application of thiamin or salicylic acid. (author)

  16. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  17. Histopathological And Biological Studies On The Role Of Soybean And Broad Bean AgainstRadiation Induce Damage In Rat Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Fathy Waer, **Abdel El ­ Rahman Mohamed Attia

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the physiological and histological activities in the animal body are disturbed after exposure to ionizing radiation. These disturbances are either due to direct harmful effect of radiation on the biological systems or to the indirect effect of free radicals formed in the body after irradiation. There is growing evidence that the type of food plays an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The biological disturbance due to ionizing radiation makes search for ways of protecting living organisms essential for controlling the radiation hazards. Much of the world population relies on legumes, as a stable food. Legumes can affectively protect cells and tissues against damage. Our present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of single dose !"#$%#&f the possible protective effect of feeding beans (broad beans and soybeans against radiation exposure. Histopathological, and biological changes of kidney function in irradiated, and bean fed animals were carried out. Animals were weighted and daily food intake was determined. The result obtained revealed that soybean is an extremely rich source of protein and fat as compared to faba bean. Radiations cause a reduction in food intake and weight gain. It causes great changes in the kidney glomeruli and collecting tubules. The recovery of the cells depend on the type of feeding so, feeding soybean gives a significant radiation protection and decreases the extent of changes induced by radiation

  18. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Indira Devi; Talukdar, N. C.; K. Chandradev Sharma; Jeyaram, K.; Rohinikumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference...

  19. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. PMID:26775956

  20. Induction of systemic protection against rust infection in broad bean by saccharin: effects on plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Celia; Walters, Dale

    2005-08-01

    Here, we examine the effect of saccharin on the induction of systemic resistance in broad bean (Vicia faba) to the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Saccharin was applied to beans at the three-leaf stage, either as a soil drench or by painting the solution on to first leaves. Plants were then challenge inoculated with the rust 1, 6, 10 and 14 d following saccharin treatment, after which they were harvested, assessed for the intensity of rust infection and plant growth measurements conducted. Foliar application of saccharin did not induce systemic protection to rust infection until 14 d after application and was less effective than saccharin applied as a soil drench. When saccharin was applied as a drench, systemic protection was not observed until 6 d after application, but was still apparent in plants 14 d after application of the drench. Irrespective of the method of application, saccharin had no significant effect on fresh and dry weights or leaf area of the plants. Saccharin applied as a drench did, however, reduce the number of leaflets produced.

  1. Screening of Rhizobacteria for Their Plant Growth Promotion Ability and Antagonism Against Damping off and Root Rot Diseases of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira Devi, S; Talukdar, N C; Chandradev Sharma, K; Jeyaram, K; Rohinikumar, M

    2011-01-01

    Development of microbial inoculants from rhizobacterial isolates with potential for plant growth promotion and root disease suppression require rigorous screening. Fifty-four (54) fluorescent pseudomonads, out of a large collection of rhizobacteria from broad bean fields of 20 different locations within Imphal valley of Manipur, were initially screened for antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani, of diseased roots of broad bean and also three other reference fungal pathogens of plant roots. Fifteen fluorescent pseudomonas isolates produced inhibition zone (8-29 mm) of the fungal growth in dual plate assay and IAA like substances (24.1-66.7 μg/ml) and soluble P (12.7-56.80 μg/ml) in broth culture. Among the isolates, RFP 36 caused a marked increase in seed germination, seedling biomass and control of the root borne pathogens of broad bean. PCR-RAPD analysis of these isolates along with five MTCC reference fluorescent pseudomonas strains indicated that the RFP-36 belonged to a distinct cluster and the PCR of its genomic DNA with antibiotic specific primers Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and 2, 4-diacetyl phloroglucinol suggested possible occurrence of gene for the potent antibiotics. Overall, the result of the study indicated the potential of the isolate RFP 36 as a microbial inoculant with multiple functions for broad bean. PMID:22282623

  2. Cooking Adaptability Evaluation of Twenty Broad Bean Varieties in China%20种中国蚕豆的烹煮加工适用性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭斌; 谭洪卓; 田晓红; 刘明

    2009-01-01

    Aiming to probe into the cooking adaptability of broad beans,20 broad bean varieties from main growth areas in China were chosen for chemicophysical property measurement and sequential cooking quality evaluation.Five broad bean varieties among them were discovered as variety with the best cooking quality.The correlations between chemicophysical properties and cooking quality of the 20 broad bean varieties were studied.Results: There are significant correlations between ash content and chemieophysical properties and cooking quality of broad beans.It is obvious that the cooking property of broad beans is impacted greatly by the soil and climate conditions of their growth areas.The other correlative parameters with the cooking quality in turn according to r value are starch content in cotyledon,seed coat ratio,fibre content in seed coat,amylose content in cotyledon,and protein content in cotyledon.The physical parameter,100-seeds volume,is considered as an important index for predicting the cooking quality of broad beans.%为探索我国蚕豆烹煮加工的适用性,在前期选取了来自全国各主产区的20种蚕豆作为分析对象,对其化学组分、物理特性进行了测定和分析,在此基础上,继续对其烹煮品质进行评价,结果发现通鲜l号等5个品种的烹煮品质最佳.将蚕豆的理化性质与烹煮品质三者之间进行相关性分析,结果表明,蚕豆的灰分含量与蚕豆的物理性质、烹煮品质相关性最高,说明蚕豆的烹煮加工品质特性受地域土壤环境影响很大.影响烹煮品质的其他指标依次是子叶淀粉、皮重比例、皮粗纤维、子叶直链淀粉、子叶蛋白,而物理指标中的百粒体积可作为预测蚕豆烹煮品质的重要指标.

  3. Lentil genetic and genomic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris spp. culinaris) has a long history associated with the early civilizations 11,000 BP in southwestern Asia. The progenitor taxon is Lens culinaris spp. orientalis. The primary source of germplasm for lentil crop improvement is from the International Center for Agricultural Rese...

  4. STABILITY PARAMETERS IN LENTIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B TUBA BİÇER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen lentil genotypes were tested for grain yield in Southeastern Anatolia ecological conditions, over our consecutive years to classify these cultivars for yield stability. Seed yield ranged from 1.903 t/ha to 1.367 t/ha. RM76, RM601 and RM152 showed regression coeffi cient above 1.00, but RM76 among these lines was consistently produced the highest yields. The unstable cultivars, RM601 and RM152 had the highest S2 values and high C.V. for grain yield.

  5. Physiological Effect of Aluminum Stress to Broad Bean Seeding%铝胁迫对蚕豆幼苗生理的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋桂芳

    2012-01-01

    利用水培方法,研究了不同质量浓度铝对蚕豆种子的萌发及幼苗生理特性的影响.结果表明,低质量浓度铝(< 50 mg/L)对蚕豆生长有促进作用,根系活力、株高、鲜质量有所增加;随着铝质量浓度的升高,蚕豆种子萌发率下降、生长受阻,根系活力及叶绿素含量下降,可溶性蛋白含量有所降低,丙二醛含量升高,过氧化物酶活性上升,表现出铝胁迫对蚕豆生长的抑制作用,尤其是高质量浓度( ≥500 mg/L)的抑制作用最为明显.%The effect of aluminum solution on germination of broad bean seed and physiological characteristics of seedling was studied under different treatments of aluminum with the water culture method. The result showed that the vigor of root systems and the weight of plant were promoted with lower mass concentration ( > 50 mg/L) of aluminum. The germination of broad bean, vigor of root, growth of plants and the chlorophyll were injured and decreased under the increase of aluminum concentration, however the MDA was increased. The young broad bean seedling was inhibited under the high aluminum concentration.

  6. 蚕豆—甜玉米—晚稻高产栽培技术%High-yielding cultivation techniques of broad bean, sweet corn, late rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光敏

    2012-01-01

    总结了蚕豆—甜玉米—晚稻高产栽培技术,包括选用良种、合理轮作、种植规格、育苗、田间管理、病虫防治、适时收获等技术内容,为该栽培模式的推广应用提供参考。%Summaried high-yielding cultivation techniques of broad bean, sweet corn, late rice, including the selection of goodvarieties, reasonable rotation, cultivation, breeding specifications, field management, pest control, harvesting timing.

  7. A study of arsenic speciation in soil, irrigation water and plant tissue: A case study of the broad bean plant, Vicia faba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-11-01

    Samples of soil, the broad bean plant, Vicia faba and irrigation water were collected from the same agricultural site in Dokan, in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation were determined in all materials by ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively. Available arsenic (11%) was also determined within the soil, together with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of total arsenic were: soil (5.32μgg(-1)), irrigation water (1.06μgL(-1)), roots (2.065μgg(-1)) and bean (0.133μgg(-1)). Stems, leaves and pods were also measured. Inorganic As(V) dominated soil (90%) and root (78%) samples. However, organo-arsenic (MMA, 48% and DMA, 19%) was the more dominant species in the edible bean. The study provides an insight into the uptake, preferred disposal route, speciation changes and loss mechanism involved for arsenic with this food source. PMID:27211659

  8. Alcalase碱性蛋白酶酶解蚕豆蛋白的研究%Study on Hydrolyzing of Protein from Broad Bean by Alcalase Protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淳; 张海英; 韩涛; 卞科

    2011-01-01

    Broad bean was peeled and smashed to separate starch and then to obtain crude proteins. Alcalase protease was used to hydrolyze isolated broad bean protein for investigating the degree of hydrolysis of the protein. The effects of main parameters, including pH value, substrate mass fraction, enzyme dosage ( E: S ) and hydrolysis temperature, were observed. The suitable conditions obtained by single -factor and orthogonal tests,I. E. Hydrolysis temperature 60℃ , substrate mass fraction 3% , enzyme dosage (E: S) 8%,pH9.0, and the degree of hydrolysis was 21.67% under the condition. The result was close to those from the hydrolyzations in soybean protein, green bean protein and wheat protein by Alcalase protease.%蚕豆经去皮、粉碎、除淀粉后,得到蚕豆粗蛋白.采用Alcalase碱性蛋白酶酶解蚕豆蛋白制备蚕豆蛋白水解物.通过单因素试验,调查了pH、底物质量分数、酶用量(E∶S)和酶解温度等因素对Alcalase碱性蛋白酶酶解蚕豆蛋白效果的影响.通过正交试验设计,确定Alcalase碱性蛋白酶酶解蚕豆蛋白适宜的工艺参数:酶解温度60℃,底物质量分数3%,酶用量(E∶nS)8%,pH 9.0,此条件下,蚕豆蛋白水解度(DH)达最大,为21.67%.该结果与Alcalase碱性蛋白酶水解大豆蛋白、绿豆蛋白和小麦蛋白等适宜条件参数接近.

  9. 毛霉型蚕豆豆豉粑工艺研究%Research on the process of broad-bean cake fermented by mucor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓妙

    2014-01-01

    该实验以蚕豆为主要原料、毛霉为主要发酵菌种制作豆豉粑,研究生产工艺中的制曲工艺、后发酵工艺、干制工艺等关键技术点,以确定较优的工艺参数。研究结果表明:以1∶1的冷水(室温)将蚕豆浸泡4~5 h,使蚕豆去皮熟化后的水分含量约为40%左右,按原料质量的2%接种毛霉菌液(孢子浓度约为1×105个/mL),混匀后置于25℃培养5 d制曲,制曲过程中每天翻曲,然后用2%的米酒汁润湿成曲,再加入12%的食盐,混匀,捣碎,密闭后置于30℃恒温后熟至少30 d,然后再取出制成薄饼状,置于50℃烘箱中干制8 h左右使水分含量降至30%左右可制得质量上乘的蚕豆豆豉粑。%The formented broad-bean cake was produced with broad-bean as the main material and Mucor as the main fermenting stain. And the Koji-making process,post-fermentation process and drying process were studied in experiment to determine the optimum technologic parameters of Douchiba. The results showed that soaking broad bean in 1∶1 cold water(room temperature)for 4~5 h resulted in moisture content of cooked peeling broad bean being about 40%,then inoculating it with 2%(V/W)of Mucor spore liquid(spore concentration of about 1×105/mL),blending and making koji at 25℃for 5 days. And then koji was sprayed with 2%of rice wine juice to wet the surface,added 12%of salt,blanded,masked to piece and closed at 30℃to after-fermented for at least 30 days. Then taking out to make pancakes and put in 50℃oven for 8 h to cut the moisture content down to around 30%,so the broad bean cake of good quality can be obtained.

  10. Determining radio frequency heating uniformity of mixed beans during disinfestation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since chickpeas and lentils are difficulty to artificially infest with live insects for radio frequency (RF) treatment validation, black-eyed peas and mung beans were selected to infest with insects before mixing with chickpeas and lentils. Temperature difference between black-eyed pea and chickpea ...

  11. Pb对蚕豆根生长发育的影响%Effects of Pb on Growth and Development of Broad Bean Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同浓度硝酸铅溶液对蚕豆种子根生长的影响.[方法]用6种不同浓度的pb2+处理蚕豆根,每隔24 h检测根的色泽、弯曲程度和根长,连续测量5次.随后将根尖固定、解离,利用改良的苯酚品红染液染色,在电子显微镜下观察根尖细胞的有丝分裂.[结果] Pb2+在浓度≤20 mg/L时,能够促进蚕豆根的生长,细胞的有丝分裂指数增加,但对根的色泽和弯曲程度的影响不明显.当pb2+浓度>20 mg/L时,则抑制蚕豆根尖的生长,颜色逐渐加深,弯曲程度逐渐增加,细胞的有丝分裂指数减少.[结论] Pb2+对蚕豆生长的影响有两面性,低浓度时起促进作用,高浓度时有较明显的抑制作用.其影响的程度具有时间效应与浓度效应.%[Objective] This study aimed to investigate the influence of Pb2+ on the growth and development of broad bean roots.[Method] The effects of Pb2+ solution of different concentrations on root length,color,bending and mitotic index frequency of root tip cells of broad bean were measured and observed.[Result] Pb2+ at concentration lower than 20 mg/L promoted the growth and development of roots,increased the cell mitotic indexes,but had little influence on root color and bending.When the Pb2+ concentration was higher than 20 mg/L,the root growth was inhibited; the root color gradually turned deeper; the roots bended,but the cell mitotic index was decreased.[Conclusion] Pb2+ promoted the growth of broad bean at low concentration but inhibited the growth at high concentration,and the influence was related to Pb2+ concentration and time.

  12. Molecular and biological characterization of highly infectious transcripts from full-length cDNA clones of broad bean wilt virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriol, Inmaculada; Ambrós, Silvia; da Silva, Dorivaldo M; Falk, Bryce W; Rubio, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1), genus Fabavirus, has a genome composed of two single-stranded positive-sense RNAs of ∼5.8 (RNA1) and 3.4kb (RNA2). Full-length cDNA clones of both genomic RNAs (pBenR1 and pBenR2) from BBWV-1 isolate Ben were constructed under the control of the T7 promoter. In vitro derived capped transcripts were infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana, Chenopodium quinoa and Vicia faba plants. The biological activity of viral transcripts was not affected by extra bases at the 5'-terminus introduced during in vitro transcription. Virions derived from the infectious cDNA clones displayed similar viral infectivity and accumulation, as well as symptom induction as the wild-type BBWV-1 isolate. PMID:26951858

  13. 蚕豆中抗营养因子的生理功能%Physiological function of antinutritional factors in broad beans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐杰; 薛文通; 张惠

    2013-01-01

    People have always been trying to remove the antinutritional factors in broad beans such as proanthocyanidins,phytic acid, phytohemagglutinin, proteinase inhibitor, which were traditionally considered as something not good for nutrient absorption.However,as life gets better,people suffer all kinds of chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia for overnutrition.Recent researches showed that some antinutritional factors in broad beans were proved to have biological functions such as antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, hypoglycemic effect and prevent obesity effect.They were good for human health when taken appropriately and should be reevaluated and exploited for further utilization.%一直以来,人们利用各种方法去除蚕豆中所含的原花青素、植酸、凝集素、蛋白酶抑制剂等被认为是不利于营养吸收的物质,但随着人们生活状况的改善,营养过剩引起了各类慢性疾病,例如糖尿病、高血压、高血脂等等.近期的研究表明,蚕豆中的这些抗营养因子具有诸如抗氧化、抗肿瘤、降血糖、预防肥胖等生理功能,适量摄入有利于人体健康,需要人们对其进行新的评价和开发利用.

  14. 酶解蚕豆蛋白制备多肽酒及其抗氧化性研究%Study on Hydrolyzing and Preparation of Polypeptide Wine from Broad Bean Protein and Its Antioxidant Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨希娟; 党斌; 刘玉皎; 耿贵工

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain the broad bean peptides wine, broad bean protein was hydrolyzed by alkaline protease and alcoholic fermentation in this experiment. Antioxidant of the broad bean peptides wine was investigated. The result showed that the optimum conditions for the protein hydrolysates of broad bean; substrate concentration 32 g/L, enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 43. 2℃ ,enzyme activity 9 821. 12 U/g,pH value 9. 50,and the degree of hydrolysis was 19. 64% under the condition of enzymolysis time of 2 h. The fermentation of broad bean peptides wine were as follows;20% sugar,0. 22% yeast quantity,28 ℃ for 6 days. The alcohol content of broad bean peptides wine was 9.6% and it showed transparent brown -yellow color,balance of flavor and taste. The broad bean peptides wine has stronger antioxidant activity under the condition.%以蚕豆蛋白为原料,采用碱性蛋白酶酶解、酒精发酵制备蚕豆多肽酒,并对其抗氧化性进行了研究.结果表明:蚕豆蛋白酶解优化工艺为底物浓度32 g/L,水解温度43.2℃,酶用量9 821.12 U/g,pH 9.50,在此条件下酶解2h,蚕豆蛋白的水解度达到19.64%.以蚕豆酶解液为原料制备多肽酒的发酵工艺为加糖量20%,酵母接种量0.22%,发酵温度28℃,发酵时间6d,在此条件下制得的蚕豆多肽酒的酒精含量为9.6%,呈透明的棕黄色,口感醇正、鲜爽、具有发酵酒的醇香.本试验条件下制备的蚕豆多肽酒具有较强的抗氧化性.

  15. Microstructure of Lentil Seeds (Lens Culinaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Joe S.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1986-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the microstructure of five cultivars of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris). Lentil cot yledons contain sphericai starch granules surrounded by protein bodies similar to starch granules and protein bodies observed in cotyledons of other food legumes. Examination of the lentil seed coat in cross - section revealed outer palisade and inner parenchyma layers characteris tic of legumes. The subepidermal layer, however, is comprised of hourglass...

  16. Source-sink manipulations suggest an N-feedback mechanism for the drop in N2 fixation during pod-filling in pea and broad bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Joachim

    2003-05-01

    Various legume species show a marked decline in N2 fixation during pod-filling. The objective of this study was to clarify whether this is a result of impaired nodule assimilate supply or whether re-moblised N from senescing lower leaves initiates the phenomenon through an N-feedback impact. In model experiments on pea and broad bean plants during vegetative and reproductive growth, 30 or 60% of green leaves were either excised or individually darkened, thus removing the same photosynthetic capacity yet allowing N to be re-mobilised from darkened leaves. Results are consistent with an N-feedback down-regulation of nitrogenase in that 1. leaf darkening reduced N2 fixation to a greater extent then excision, 2. darkened leaves quickly senesced and N from these leaves was re-mobilised in substantial amounts, 3. N and amino acids (AA) accumulated and C/N ratios decreased in nodules of plants with darkened leaves versus excision or untreated controls. These findings further support various indirect evidence that nitrogenase is regulated by an N-feedback mechanism that is not yet fully understood.

  17. Current Knowledge on Genetic Biofortification in Lentil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gupta, Debjyoti Sen; Kumar, Shiv; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singh, Narendra Pratap

    2016-08-24

    Micronutrient deficiency in the human body, popularly known as "hidden hunger", causes many health problems. It presently affects >2 billion people worldwide, especially in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Biofortification of food crop varieties is one way to combat the problem of hidden hunger using conventional plant breeding and transgenic methods. Lentils are rich sources of protein, micronutrients, and vitamins including iron, zinc, selenium, folates, and carotenoids. Lentil genetic resources including germplasm and wild species showed genetic variability for these traits. Studies revealed that a single serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of micronutrients and vitamins for adults. Therefore, lentils have been identified as a food legume for biofortification, which could provide a whole food solution to the global micronutrient malnutrition. The present review discusses the current ongoing efforts toward genetic biofortification in lentils using classical breeding and molecular marker-assisted approaches. PMID:27507630

  18. Genetic characterization and cotyledon color in lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit Erdoğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic characterization of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. cultivars is important for lentil breeding. Therefore, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis were carried out to evaluate genetic diversity in 13 Turkish lentil cultivars. A total of eight RAPD primers were used in this study; 61 bands were produced and 55 of them were polymorphic (89.78%. The RAPD primers OPA-10, OPB-11, and OPI-13 had the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. As a result of SDS-PAGE analysis, variations in the seed protein pattern were observed among the lentil cultivars being studied. The SDS-PAGE similarity matrices indicated higher genetic similarity estimates among the lentil cultivars than RAPD. In addition, principal components analysis (PCA was performed for both SDS-PAGE and RAPD where the first three components accounted for 75.760% and 68.121% of the total variation for SDS-PAGE and RAPD analysis, respectively. It was noted that the lentil cultivars with factor loadings greater than 0.5 for each principal component (PC were also grouped together in the SDS-PAGE and RAPD dendrogram. In addition to genetic diversity, cotyledon color (an important market criterion values were measured for lightness (L*, redness (a*, and yellowness (b*. As for cotyledon color, values for brightness, redness, and yellowness varied significantly among lentil cultivars. Among the red lentil cultivars, 'Cagil' and 'Yerli Kirmizi' had the highest cotyledon L* values of 70.83 and 70.74, respectively. The results of both genetic diversity analyses and cotyledon color of lentil cultivars would help in planning future breeding programs to improve high yielding marketable lentil cultivars.

  19. Leaf area expansion and dry matter accumulation during establishment of broad bean and sorghum at different temperatures and soil water contents in two types of soil in mediterranean Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, José; Abreu, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Crop establishment is a major factor determining crop productivity in the field and is strongly controlled by soil temperature and soil moisture. Fast leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation during crop establishment are required for an adequate establishment. Leaf area expansion and accumulation of dry matter during the establishment of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) were studied at different soil temperatures and soil moisture contents in a Vertisol (Lisbo...

  20. Study on genotoxicity effect of domestic sewage on cell of broad bean root tip%生活污水对蚕豆根尖细胞致畸效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚青; 李屹

    2013-01-01

    以蚕豆根尖为材料,采用蚕豆根尖细胞的微核试验和染色体畸变试验方法,研究不同取样点生活污水对蚕豆根尖细胞的致畸效应.结果表明:生活污水能诱发微核率升高,而且在一定范围内,其微核率随污染物浓度升高而增加,但高于一定浓度后有下降趋势;不同取样点的污水均使蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数下降;生活污水还能诱导蚕豆根尖细胞产生较高频率的染色体畸变.所以生活污水蚕豆根尖细胞具有明显的致畸效应.%The paper investigated the genotoxicity effect of domestic sewage from different treatment processes on the cell of broad bean root tip.The micronucleus and chromosome aberration assay were conducted to determine the micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate of broad bean root tip cells induced by domestic sewage.The result indicated that domestic sewage could increase the micronucleus rate of the sells of broad bean root tip.Within certain concentration range of pollutant,the micronucleus rate increased with the increase of the concentration of pollutants,but beyond certain range,the micronucleus rate decreased with further increase of the concentration of pollutants.Domestic sewage could decrease the cell mitosis index.Furthermore,it also caused the increase of chromosome aberration rate.The conclusion is that domestic sewage has obvious genotoxicity effect on the cell of broad bean root tip.

  1. 灰葡萄孢蚕豆分离物的遗传多样性%Genetic Diversity of Botrytis cinerea Isolates from Broad Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 朱振东; 段灿星; 武小菲; 东方阳

    2014-01-01

    Objective]Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important pathogens causing chocolate spot, blossom blight and pod rot in broad bean. B. cinerea is a species complex that comprises two cryptic species, Group I and Group II, and exhibits a great morphological and genetic diversity. However, the status of B. cinerea species complex from broad bean as well as their genetic characteristics have been poorly understood. Therefore, this study aims to determine the status and investigate the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of isolates of B. cinerea complex from broad bean obtained from six different geographic regions.[Method]The B. cinerea isolates were observed for cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar. Transposons types of the isolates were detected using Flipper-and Boty-specific primers. Group determination of the isolates was analyzed by PCR-RFLP of Bc-hch gene, and their genetic characteristics was analyzed using SSR markers. [Result] All the 100 isolates were identified as B. cinerea group II. Three colony types, including mycelial type, sclerotial type and conidial type, were produced, and 76 isolates belonged to sclerotial type. Three transposon genotypes were identified in 92 isolates, which contained Boty-only, Fliper-only and Boty+Fliper genotypes. The most prevalent transposon genotype was Boty-only which was detected in isolates from Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu and Hebei, while genotype Fliper-only was only found in isolates from Jiangsu. SSR analysis detected 92 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) among the 100 isolates with averaged gene and genotypic diversity of 0.5140 and 0.9982, respectively. Analysis of AMOVA revealed that genetic variation within populations accounted for 86.70%of the total genetic variation. The standardized index of association (rD) was estimated to range from 0.0312 to 0.1261 with the average value of 0.0491. In all comparsions, the values of fixation index (FST) ranged from 0.0085-0.2650 with the average value of 0

  2. 过氧化氢和水杨酸对蚕豆根尖生长过程的影响%Effect of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid on growth process of broad bean root tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红星; 赵锦慧; 邢璐璐; 周琳

    2016-01-01

    Broad bean root tips were selected in this experiment,the effect of different concentrations of hydrogen perox-ide and salicylic acid on external morphology,protein content,sugar content of broad bean root tips and root tip cells micro-nucleus rate was researched.The results showed that a certain concentration of hydrogen peroxide (0.2%)and salicylic acid (0.4 mmol/L)could promote growth of broad bean,reduce cell micronucleus rate and increase the content of sugar and pro-tein.But when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid were higher than 0.2% and 0.4 mmol/L respective-ly,the growth of aboveground and underground parts of broad bean seedling was inhibited,specific performance was the fol-lowing:height of seedling was reduced,root length was shorter,external morphology of root was abnormal.The above showed that the growth of broad bean seedling and root growth process suffered different influences under hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid.%以蚕豆根尖为材料,研究不同浓度的过氧化氢和水杨酸对蚕豆根尖外部形态、根尖蛋白质含量和糖含量及根尖细胞微核率的影响.结果表明,一定浓度的过氧化氢(0.2%)和一定浓度的水杨酸(0.4 mmol/L)具有促进蚕豆的生长、降低细胞微核率、提高糖和蛋白质含量的作用.当过氧化氢和水杨酸的浓度分别高于0.2%和0.4 mmol/L 时,蚕豆幼苗的地上部分和地下部分生长均受到抑制,具体表现为苗高降低、根长变短、根畸形等.上述结果说明过氧化氢和水杨酸对蚕豆幼苗的生长及根尖生长过程均有不同程度地影响.

  3. Evaluation of Meteorological Factors during Growing Period of Broad Bean Based on Fuzzy Mathematics Theory%基于模糊数学理论的蚕豆发育期气象条件评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 王鹏云; 曾艳; 田燕; 李卫红

    2009-01-01

    Based on temperature, precipitation and sunshine time, the suitability degree of meteorological fac-tors in broad bean growing stage were analyzed. It can provide theoretical foundation for the quantitative evalu-ation of Crop Climate. By using fuzzy mathematics theory, the membership function model of temperature, pre-cipitation and sunshine time for broad bean were established, and the membership degree of temperature, pre-cipitation and sunshine in the growth and development of broad bean was calculated to estimate the climatic suitability to broad bean quantitatively. The meteorological factors during growth and development of broad bean in 2007 and 2008 was calculated, results indicated that the membership degree for the temperature and sunshine was relative high, but for the precipitation was low with large variable extents. These explained that the temperature and sunshine were able to satisfy the growth and development of broad bean. The lack of the natural precipitation was a limited factor for the formation of the broad bean yield. Dynamic model for crop cli-matic suitability degree based on fuzzy mathematics theory can objective reflect the suitability degree of meteo-rological factors for crop growth, and it can provide the basis for the improvement of weather service quality.%从温度、降水及日照等角度,分析了蚕豆发育期气象条件的适宜度,为作物气候评价的定量化提供参考和依据.运用模糊数学理论,分别建立了气温、降水量和日照时数对昆明蚕豆生长发育适宜程度的隶属函数模型,据此模型分别计算蚕豆不同生育阶段的温度、降水、日照及光温水综合因子对蚕豆生长发育的隶属度,进而分析气象条件的适宜程度.对2007年度和2008年度各气象因子进行计算,结果得出:温度和日照对蚕豆生长发育的隶属度较高,说明温度和日照条性能够满足蚕豆生长发育的需要.而降水的隶属度变化幅度较大,且隶属

  4. Does ascorbate in the mesophyll cell walls form the first line of defence against ozone? Testing the concept using broad bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsányi, E; Lyons, T; Plöchl, M; Barnes, J

    2000-05-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) plants were exposed, in duplicate controlled environment chambers, to charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA-grown plants) or to 75 nmol mol(-1) ozone (O(3)) for 7 h d(-1) (O(3)-grown plants) for 28 d, and then exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3 )for 8 h. The concentration of ascorbate (ASC) was determined in leaf extracellular washing fluid (apoplast) and in the residual leaf tissue (symplast) after 0, 4 and 8 h acute fumigation, and after a 16 h "recovery" period in CFA. Changes in stomatal conductance were measured in vivo in order to model pollutant uptake, while the light-saturated rate of CO(2) assimilation (A:(sat)) was recorded as an indicator of O(3)-induced intracellular damage. Measurements of A:(sat) revealed enhanced tolerance to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3) in plants pre-exposed to the pollutant compared with equivalent plants grown in CFA, consistent with the observed reduction in pollutant uptake due to lower stomatal conductance. The concentration of ASC in the leaf apoplast (ASC(apo)) declined upon O(3)-treatment in both CFA- and O(3)-grown plants, consistent with the oxidation of ASC(apo) under O(3)-stress. Furthermore, the decline in ASC(apo) was reversible in O(3)-grown plants after a 16 h "recovery" period, but not in plants grown in CFA. No significant change in the level and/or redox state of ASC in the symplast (ASC(symp)) was observed in plants exposed to 150 nmol mol(-1) O(3), and there was no difference in the constitutive level of ASC(symp) between CFA- and O(3)-grown plants. Model calculations indicated that the reaction of O(3) with ASC(apo) in the leaves of Vicia faba is potentially sufficient to intercept a substantial proportion (30-40%) of the O(3)entering the plant under environmentally-relevant conditions. The potential role of apoplastic ASC in mediating the tolerance of leaves to O(3) is discussed.

  5. Future Role Of Cooperatives In Marketing Beans, Peas, And Lentils

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Art

    1980-01-01

    Pulse production in the United States has become geographically specific and concentrated, and the marketing channels for pulses have changed dramatically over the past 30 years. The most marked change has be~n the growth of large proprietary marketing firms which are vertically integrated as national packagers and exporters, and procure directly from pulse producers through their own elevators. Farmer cooperatives as a whole have been unable to effectively countervail this growth in market c...

  6. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  7. 预糊化替代复合磷酸盐在油炸蚕豆中的应用%Compound phosphate replaced by pre-gelatinizing in the application of frying broad bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶先军; 汪立成; 刘春梅; 袁霞

    2012-01-01

    Compound phosphate replaced by pre-gelatinizing in the application of frying broad bean were applied. The compound phosphate,re-watering and pre-gelatinizing on quality of frying broad bean were studied,and the pre-gelatinizing optimal process parameters were determined through orthogonal experiment.The optimal process parameters were:the re-watering time was 48h, pre-gelatinizing temperature was 80℃, pre-gelatinizing time was 9min .It could keep the shape of broad bean,and it was very crisp and delicious. Pre-gelatinizing could replace the compound phosphate used in production, reducing waste of water resource and the pollution of environment.%运用预糊化技术替代了复合磷酸盐在油炸蚕豆生产中的使用,研究了复水时间、预糊化温度、预糊化时间对油炸蚕豆品质的影响,并采用正交实验确定了最佳优化工艺参数:复水时间48h;预糊化温度80℃;预糊化时间9min。结果表明:蚕豆经过预糊化能保持豆粒完整的外形,油炸后产品酥脆可口;预糊化可以替代复合磷酸盐在生产上的使用,以减少对水资源的浪费和环境的污染。

  8. 西北地区蚕豆苗期干旱胁迫下表型差异性与抗旱性研究%Study on phenotypic diversity and drought resistance of northwest broad bean seedling under drought stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雁霞; 李萍; 刘玉皎

    2015-01-01

    采用盆栽人工控水方法,选择西北地区7份蚕豆主栽品种为材料,研究不同水分胁迫(轻度LS和重度WS)下蚕豆苗期地上部、地下部及叶片生理生化指标与抗旱性的关系.结果表明,干旱胁迫对蚕豆幼苗地上、地下部分均有不同程度影响,幼苗株高、茎粗、叶面积、侧根数量及蚕豆主根长度生长受到抑制,且随干旱胁迫程度加剧,抑制作用明显(P临蚕6号>青蚕14号>青海12号>马牙>临蚕9号>临蚕8号;通过主成分分析和灰色关联分析,筛选出WSS、REC、RWC、SOD等生理指标和株高、叶面积、根长等形态指标,可作为蚕豆品种苗期抗旱能力评价必不可少的指标.%By the method of potted artificial water control ed, the article studied the relationship of aboveground, underground part and the leaf physiological and biochemical indices in seven northwest origin broad beans under drought stress (LS and WS). The results showed that drought stress had different influ-ence on aboveground, underground part of broad bean seedling, drought stress inhibited the growth of plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, taproot length and the number of lateral root of broad bean, with the in-crease of drought stress, inhibitory effect was obvious (PLincan6>Qingcan14>Qinghai12>Maya>Lincan9>Lincan8; Com-bined with principal components analysis and grey correlation analysis selected WSS, REC, RWC, SOD and plant height, leaf area, root length as broad bean seedling drought resistance evaluation indices.

  9. Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) as a source of dietary selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter discusses the nutritional value of lentils, with a focus on factors affecting lentils as a source of dietary selenium. It addresses the chemical nature of lentil-selenium, pointing out that more than 90% is present in organic compounds which are generally well absorbed by humans. The se...

  10. Dynamics of endogenous phytohormone in broad bean leaf infected by Olpidium Viciae%巢豆油壶菌与蚕豆相互作用下植物内源激素的动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严吉明; 叶华智

    2013-01-01

    To understand the physiological mechanism of induced histopathology and symptom of broad bean blister caused by Olpidium Viciae,the endogenous phytohormone levels of Zeatin (ZT),Indoleacetic acid (IAA),Gibberellin (GA),Cytokinins (KT) and Abscisic acid (ABA) in diseased and healthy tissues of leaves were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HLPC).The results showed that the levels of five endogenous hormones were higher in diseased tissues than in healthy tissues.At the early period of symptom development,a large increase in level of five hormones in the diseased tissue was detected along with active the cell division.At the late period of symptom development,the cell division in tumor tissues gradually stopped with the exception of a continuous increase in the rate of GA in tumor tissue.The increase rate of other hormones in tumor tissues decreased obviously but the contents of those hormones were still higher in diseased tissues than in healthy tissues.Changes in level of five endogenous hormones in diseased tissues reflected physiological mechanism of inducing histopathological change and symptom of broad bean blister.

  11. 蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术监测湛河水质状况%Monitoring the Water Qualitv of Zhanhe River bv Micronucleus Technique of Root Tip Cell of Broad Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘秋生; 郭端强; 田勋; 张亚杰; 郭文龙

    2011-01-01

    The water pollution of Zhanhe river was monitored by micronucleus technique of root tip cell of broad bean and the micronucleus permillage and pollution index of root tip cell of broad bean in water samples from various sampling sites were determined for F test. The results showed that the polluted degree of water body in Zhanhe river got some increment in Mar, ~ May ,the pollution state of water body in beach area was aggravated gradually and the control of water quality needed to be enhanced.%利用蚕豆根尖细胞微核技术监测湛河水质污染状况,测定各样点水样中蚕豆根尖细胞的微核千分率及污染指数,并进行F检验.结果表明,3~5月湛河水体受污染程度有所增加,沿岸水体污染状况逐渐加重,需加强水质治理工作.

  12. Tecnología de producción de haba y características socioeconómicas de productores en Puebla y Tlaxcala Broad bean production technology and socioeconomic characteristics of farmers in Puebla and Tlaxcala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rojas-Tiempo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue conocer la tecnología aplicada al cultivo de haba, para la producción de grano en diferentes comunidades de Puebla y Tlaxcala, México; con la finalidad de encontrar las prácticas débiles y las características socioeconómicas esenciales; así como, los caracteres deseables por los productores de una variedad de haba. El trabajo se desarrolló en la región productora de haba en México. Se aplicaron 100 cuestionarios, 20 por comunidad y una entrevista semiestructurada a informantes clave más información de los agricultores, mediante observaciones directas. Predominan los productores con rasgos de campesinado tradicional en el uso de la tecnología de producción de haba, basada en herramientas tradicionales y el uso de animales de trabajo en la preparación del terreno. La fuente de semillas para la siembra, son las variedades locales que ellos siembran año con año. Entre las características socioeconómicas destacan, que 4% es del sexo femenino y la edad promedio es de 49 años. La región productora de haba cuenta con una combinación de productores, con diferentes grados de campesinidad alternado con productores comerciales o en transición de serlo. Los caracteres de interés deseados por sus variedades, son tamaño de semilla grande o mediana, abundantes en flores, vainas y semillas, que sean precoces y resistentes a las principales plagas, enfermedades y sequía.The research objective was to determine the technology applied to the broad bean crop for grain production in different communities of Puebla and Tlaxcala, Mexico, in order to find weak practices and key socioeconomic characteristics; as well as desirable traits by the producers of a variety of bean. The work was developed in the broad bean-producing region in Mexico. 100 questionnaires were applied, 20 per community and a semi-structured interviews with key informants plus information for farmers, through direct observation. Peasant

  13. Effects of Feeding Broad Bean and Dehulling Broad Bean Diets on Growth Performance, Muscle Quality and Blood Physiological-Biochemical Indices of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛盼; 胡毅; 郇志利; 黄云; 余建波; 肖调义

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究投喂蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料对草鱼生长性能、肌肉品质及血液生理生化指标的影响。试验选取初始体重为(860±40) g的草鱼450尾,随机分为3组,分别为对照组、蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组,每组设置3个重复,每个重复放养50尾草鱼。对照饲料参考草鱼商品饲料配方配制,蚕豆饲料和去皮蚕豆饲料分别用蚕豆和去皮蚕豆部分替代对照饲料中的豆粕、菜籽粕及棉籽粕,蚕豆和去皮蚕豆的用量均为80%。试验期为20周。结果表明:与对照组相比,蚕豆组和去皮蚕豆组草鱼的增重率和饲料系数无显著变化(P>0.05),但脏体指数和肝体指数显著降低(P0 . 05 ) , but the viscerosomtic index and hepato-somatic index were significantly reduced ( P <0 . 05 ) . Feeding BB and DBB diets significantly increased the number of red blood cells and white blood cells, the contents of serum glucose, total cholesterol and urea nitro-gen and the activity of serum glutamic-oxal(o)acetic transaminase (P<0. 05), but significantly reduced the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group, the muscle moisture content and water loss rate in BB and DBB groups were significantly decreased ( P<0 . 05 ) , but the crude lipid content was significantly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) , the myofibril length and muscular fiber diameter were signifi-cantly raised ( P<0 . 05 ) , and the contents of delicious amino acids and essential amino acids were significant-ly increased ( P<0 . 05 ) . The results indicate that feeding BB and DBB diets have no negative effects on the growth performance, but all can change the muscle quality of grass carp, and there is no necessary association between the change of muscle quality and broad bean skin.

  14. Effect of meteorological factors on the development of lentil stemphylium blight at different sowing dates in rampur, chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemphylium species are pathogenic to a number of crops under broad geography and diverse environments. Stemphylium blight of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik caused by Stemphylium botryosum Walr is becoming a serious emerging threat to lentil cultivation and become widespread throughout major legume growing areas in Nepal. Lentil was sown in different dates to observed incidence and severity of stemphylium blight in Rampur, Chitwan during two consecutive years 2012-2014. Lentil seeds sown up to middle of November escaped the disease severity and also resulted higher yield compared to other dates. Disease severity increased with the advancement of sowing date from November 1 to December 21 with decreased yields. The trends of disease development were similar in both years. The maximum and minimum temperatures, total rainfall and sunshine hour ranging from 22.42-24.23°C (mean 23.32°C, 4.12-13.00°C(mean 8.56°C, 9.6-30.5mm (mean 24.85mm and 200.05-309.85 hour (mean 254.95 hour respectively were favorable for disease development. A multiple linear regression model with temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours was developed to predict stemphylium blight disease severity on lentil plants.

  15. PI3P 和 NO 在 UV-B 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭中的关系%The interactions of PI3P and NO in UV-B-induced stomatal closure of broad bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊彩明; 王静; 胡洁; 贺军民

    2015-01-01

    By stomatal bioassay and measurement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO)level in guard cells,the interactions of NO and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P)[the product of phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)]in UV-B-induced stomatal closure were studied in the epidermal strips of abaxial surface of broad bean(Vicia faba L.)leaves.The results showed that both the NO production in guard cells and stomatal closure induced by UV-B were significantly inhibited by PI3K inhibitors wortmannin (WM)and LY294002 (LY).Meanwhile,exogenous NO-relea-sing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP)could completely reverse the inhibitory effect of LY and WM on the UV-B-induced stomatal closure,and WM and LY could not inhibit exogenous SNP-induced stomatal closure of broad bean.These results indicate that PI3P acts upstream of NO in the signal transduction pathway of UV-B-induced stomatal closure of broad bean.%以蚕豆(Vicia faba L.)叶片下表皮为材料,结合气孔开度分析和保卫细胞内源一氧化氮(NO)水平的测定,研究了 NO 和磷脂酰肌醇3-激酶(PI3K)的催化产物磷脂酰肌醇3-磷酸(PI3P)在紫外线 B(UV-B)诱导气孔关闭中的关系。结果显示:UV-B 辐射诱导蚕豆保卫细胞 NO 产生和气孔关闭的效应能被 PI3K 抑制剂沃曼青霉素(WM)和 LY294002(LY)显著抑制。同时,外源 NO释放剂硝普钠(SNP)处理能完全逆转 WM 和 LY 对 UV-B 诱导气孔关闭的抑制效应,而 WM 和LY 却不能抑制外源 SNP 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的效应。结果说明,在 UV-B 诱导蚕豆气孔关闭的信号转导途径中 PI3P 的作用在 NO 上游。

  16. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Rocio Campos-Vega; B Dave Oomah; Guadalupe Loarca-Piña; Haydé Azeneth Vergara-Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils) consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, pep...

  17. INPUT OF CADMIUM FROM SOIL INTO LENTIL AND FABABEAN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram Ismael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the plant, the polyphenols create in the defense mechanism against stress conditions, such as heavy metals. In view of the above aspects, therefore we will work focused on monitoring the influence of accumulation of cadmium on the formation of polyphenols in lentil and faba bean in a model vegetation conditions, in which have been deliberately added dose of Cd with 5,10,15 multiple as the limit value claimed by the limits of the Law no. 220/2004 Z.z. to assess the state of soil contamination. In all scenarios exceed the maximum permitted levels for Food Codex SR for cadmium in grains of both crops. Influence of soil contamination on the content of polyphenols was significantly confirmed, although the content of polyphenols in some variants show some tendency with increasing dose of heavy metal, but results both indicate that the formation of polyphenols (as response to stress is probably genetically determined.doi:10.5219/208

  18. Effects of laser pretreatment on cells of broad bean in UV-B-induced damage protection%激光预处理可保护蚕豆细胞免受UV-B辐射的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐智; 岳明; 王勋陵

    2000-01-01

    The embryos of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated for 5 min by a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm,1.63 J·mm-2) or for 1 min by a CO2 laser (1,060 nm,2.53 J·mm-2).Afterwards they were cultivated in Petri dish in the constant temperature incubator in Knop until the length of epicotyl of broad bean was perhaply 3 cm that could be treated by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation.The epicotyl of broad bean was irradiated for 7 h by 1.02,3.03,4.52 kJ·m-2 UV-B respectively in the ambient condition of 70 μmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the growth cabinet.According to the changes of content of MDA,ascorbate acid (AsA) and UV-B absorbing compounds (absorbance at 300 nm),the effects of protecting of laser to the epicotyl of broad bean from UV-B radiation were tested.The results showed that laser pretreatment on the embryos could enhance the resistance of UV-B stress in epicotyl.Comparing with the control (without UV-B or laser radiation) and UV-B radiation alone,the MDA content was decreased significantly while AsA content was increased in the condition of laser pretreatment.It was also found that laser pretreatment alone could improve the content of UV-B absorbing compounds.If laser pretreatment followed UV-B radiation,the content of UV-B absorbing compounds was improved higher than laser treatment and UV-B treatment respectively.We suppose that laser pretreatment could enhance stress resistance in plant by a pathway of increasing the content of AsA and UV-B absorbing compounds while decreasing the MDA concentration.%当蚕豆的胚被He-Ne激光(632.8 nm,1.63 J·mm-2)照射5 min或被CO2激光(1060 nm,2.53 J·mm-2) 照射1 min后,将其置入Knop营养液中进行恒温培养.当蚕豆的上胚轴长到大约3 cm时,在光背景(PAR)为70 μmol·m-2·s-1条件下,分别用1.02、3.03、4.52 kJ·m-2的UV-B 辐射蚕豆的上胚轴7 h.根据蚕豆丙二醛(MDA)、抗坏血酸(AsA)和UV-B吸收物的含量变化,来测试激光对UV-B照射蚕豆的上

  19. 响应面法优化速冻蚕豆的微波烫漂工艺%Optimization of the microwave blanching of quick-frozen broad beans using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 唐明霞; 袁春新; 王学军

    2013-01-01

    为掌握蚕豆微波烫漂的最佳工艺,在单因素试验结果的基础上,采用响应面法( RSM )优化能保持较高蚕豆硬度、叶绿素保留率和较低过氧化物酶( POD)相对活性的烫漂条件,得到微波功率、时间的最佳工艺组合。试验结果表明,当微波功率为589 W,时间为67 s时,蚕豆的硬度为3245.17 g,叶绿素保留率为91.12%,POD相对活性为6.08%。%In order to optimize the microwave blanching process of the broad beans , the present study was conducted using the response surface methodology ( RSM) on the basis of single factor test .The results indicated that using RSM to optimize the blanching conditions of microwave power and time could maintain a higher hardness , a higher retention rate of chlorophyll and a lower relative activity of peroxidase ( POD) .Validation test suggested that the hard-ness of broad beans was 3 245.17 g, the retention rate of chlorophyll was 91.12%, and the relative activity of the POD was 6.08%when the blanching condition was set with the microwave power at 589 W and microwave time at 67 s.

  20. A Novel cooked extruded lentils analog: physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud; Alavi, Sajid; Al-Shathri, Abdulaziz

    2015-07-01

    Developing an extruded lentil analog is our aim. Lentil analog with six formulations were produced using a pilot-scale single (SS) and twin screw (TS) extruders. Texture analysis of lentil analogs prepared for consumption revealed that the products formulated with 60:40 and 70:30 soy: wheat ratios exhibited a significantly higher hardness, adhesiveness and lower springiness as compared to all other treatments. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) results indicated that all starches in dry blend are completely 100 % gelatinized by extrusion for all treatments at 100 °C. The maximum peak of viscosity for TS was formed after 5.58 min. from the run at 89.9 °C for the best treatment. However, this lentil analog product can provide a high quality lentil which can be used as a substitute for regular lentils.

  1. 420 Lentil Allergy: First Report from Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Albarran, Carlos; Hulett, Arnaldo Capriles

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergy to lentils is infrequent in Latin America: this a first case report from Venezuela. A 5 year old female preschooler attended our allergology clinic with chief complaint of generalized giant urticaria inmediately after ingestion of cooked lentils; clinical history revealed frequent (>3) emergency visits, since the age of one year, with facial angioedema and generalized urticaria even from inhalation of vapors while cooking of lentils at home; moreover, also symptoms describe...

  2. A Novel cooked extruded lentils analog: physical and chemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Ghoush, Mahmoud; Alavi, Sajid; Al-Shathri, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Developing an extruded lentil analog is our aim. Lentil analog with six formulations were produced using a pilot-scale single (SS) and twin screw (TS) extruders. Texture analysis of lentil analogs prepared for consumption revealed that the products formulated with 60:40 and 70:30 soy: wheat ratios exhibited a significantly higher hardness, adhesiveness and lower springiness as compared to all other treatments. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) results indicated that all starches in dry ...

  3. Valle Agricola lentil, an unknown lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) seed from Southern Italy as a novel antioxidant and prebiotic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicola; Pacifico, Severina; Piccolella, Simona; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Mezzacapo, Maria C; Ragucci, Sara; Iannuzzi, Federica; Zarrelli, Armando; Di Maro, Antimo

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote 'Valle Agricola' lentil, an autochthonous lentil of the Campania Region, a thorough investigation of its biochemical and nutritional properties has been carried out. The macronutrient content (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids), free and total amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were determined. The antioxidant capability of raw 'Valle Agricola' lentils, as well as of boiled ones, was estimated in terms of their total phenol content (TPC), ORAC value, and free radical scavenging capacities using DPPH and ABTS assays. The data obtained evidenced that the boiling process slightly decreased Valle Agricola lentil's antioxidant power. Furthermore, when trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities were measured, a large decrease of the levels of anti-nutritional factors was estimated. In order to have a phytochemical overview of this autochthonous lentil seed, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was applied to raw and boiled lentil extracts. Flavonol glycosides and free flavanols, as well as typical seed prebiotic saccharides, were the most representative constituents. PMID:26222801

  4. Transcriptome sequencing of lentil based on second-generation technology permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Materne Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a cool-season grain legume which provides a rich source of protein for human consumption. In terms of genomic resources, lentil is relatively underdeveloped, in comparison to other Fabaceae species, with limited available data. There is hence a significant need to enhance such resources in order to identify novel genes and alleles for molecular breeding to increase crop productivity and quality. Results Tissue-specific cDNA samples from six distinct lentil genotypes were sequenced using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, generating c. 1.38 × 106 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. De novo assembly generated a total of 15,354 contigs and 68,715 singletons. The complete unigene set was sequence-analysed against genome drafts of the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify 12,639, and 7,476 unique matches, respectively. When compared to the genome of Glycine max, a total of 20,419 unique hits were observed corresponding to c. 31% of the known gene space. A total of 25,592 lentil unigenes were subsequently annoated from GenBank. Simple sequence repeat (SSR-containing ESTs were identified from consensus sequences and a total of 2,393 primer pairs were designed. A subset of 192 EST-SSR markers was screened for validation across a panel 12 cultivated lentil genotypes and one wild relative species. A total of 166 primer pairs obtained successful amplification, of which 47.5% detected genetic polymorphism. Conclusions A substantial collection of ESTs has been developed from sequence analysis of lentil genotypes using second-generation technology, permitting unigene definition across a broad range of functional categories. As well as providing resources for functional genomics studies, the unigene set has permitted significant enhancement of the number of publicly-available molecular genetic markers as tools for improvement of this species.

  5. Towards Managing Stemphylium Blight of Lentil in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemphylium blight of lentil, caused by the fungus Stemphylium botryosum, has recently emerged as a disease problem in the Pacific Northwest, particularly on the recently released lentil cultivar ‘Morena’. The first step toward managing the disease is to correctly identify early signs of the diseas...

  6. TO THE PROBLEM OF BIOFORTIFICATION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF LENTIL CROP

    OpenAIRE

    Kondykov, I.; Ikonnikov, A.; Chuvasheva, E.; Kirsanova, E.; Dmitrieva, E.; Amelin, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the review the lentil role as the most valuable pulse crop for consumers is shown. It is noticed that biochemical structure of lentil grain leads it to the class of irreplaceable dietary products used both in daily ration, and in medical, children's and vegetarian food. Directions of biofortification and consumer diversification of crop are specified.

  7. Nutritional and health-beneficial quality of lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an ancient, domesticated legume that has been nourishing humans for millennia. As with most pulse seeds, lentil can provide several dietary nutrients; these include amino acids (in the form of protein), energy (primarily in the form of starch), most essential miner...

  8. Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a rich source of folates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Debjyoti; Thavarajah, Dil; Knutson, Phil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; McGee, Rebecca J; Coyne, Clarice J; Kumar, Shiv

    2013-08-14

    The potential for genetic biofortification of U.S.-grown lentils ( Lens culinaris L.) with bioavailable folate has not been widely studied. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the folate concentration of 10 commercial lentil cultivars grown in Minot and McLean counties, North Dakota, USA, in 2010 and 2011, (2) to determine the genotype (G) × environmental (E) interactions for folate concentration in lentil cultivars, and (3) to compare the folate concentration of other pulses [field peas ( Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)] grown in the United States. Folate concentration in lentil cultivars ranged from 216 to 290 μg/100 g with a mean of 255 μg/100 g. In addition, lentil showed higher folate concentration compared to chickpea (42-125 μg/100 g), yellow field pea (41-55 μg/100 g), and green field pea (50-202 μg/100 g). A 100 g serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of dietary folates (54-73%) for adults. A significant year × location interaction on lentil folate concentration was observed; this indicates that possible location sourcing may be required for future lentil folate research. PMID:23865478

  9. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormeño-Orrillo Ernesto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical

  10. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Shweta [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada); Vandenberg, Albert [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8 (Canada); Smits, Judit, E-mail: judit.smits@ucalgary.ca [Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  11. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0 ppm As) or As (40 ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3 ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (< 0.01 ppm Se) diets for 14 weeks. Rats on high Se diets had higher glutathione levels regardless of As exposure, recovered antibody responses in As-exposed group, higher fecal and urinary As excretion and lower renal As residues. Selenium deficiency caused greater hepatic peroxidative damage in the As exposed animals. Thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), were not different. After 14 weeks of As exposure, health indicators in rats improved in response to the high Se lentil diets. Our results indicate that high Se lentils have a potential to mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans. - Highlights: • We reduce chronic arsenic toxicity in rats with a whole food solution. • High selenium lentils decrease liver damage and increase blood glutathione levels. • High selenium lentil diets increase urinary and fecal arsenic excretion. • High selenium lentil diets decrease arsenic levels in kidney, the storage organ. • High selenium lentil diets reverse arsenic suppression of the B cell

  12. 低能N离子注入对蚕豆根尖细胞的诱变效应%Effects of Irradiation with Low-energy Nitrogen Ion Injection on Root Tip Cells of Broad Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雅琴; 李尽哲; 黄群策

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the cytogenetic effects of low-energy nitrogen ion irradiation, broad bean seed embryo was irradiated by different doses of nitrogen ions. Micronucleus rate, mitotic index and chromo- some aberration in root-tip cells were analyzed. The results showed that the injection of ions inhibited mi- tosis of root tip cells, interfered the normal process of mitosis, caused aberrations of chromosome struc- ture, behavior and number. The frequency of micronucleus and chromosomal aberrations increased with the increasing radiation dosage, while mitotic index decreased.%为了研究低能N离子束的细胞遗传学效应,以不同剂量的N离子束对蚕豆种子的种胚进行辐照,观察分析根尖细胞的微核率、有丝分裂指数和染色体畸变效应。研究发现,离子柬的注入抑制了根尖细胞的有丝分裂,干扰了正常的有丝分裂过程,引发了染色体的结构、行为和数目畸变;随着离子注入剂量的增加,微核率增加、有丝分裂指数降低、染色体畸变率增加。

  13. Study on the Formula and Process of Black-Broad Bean Compound Soy Sauce%黑豆蚕豆复合酱油的配方及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑凤荣; 付成康

    2015-01-01

    The production of compound soy sauce by the technical of solid and liquid fermentation with black soybean and broad bean as material and a quantitative of wheat bran was studied. The optimum technical conditions were determined respectively through single factor experiment and orthogonal test as follows:material ratio was 60 ∶ 20 ∶ 20,under 42 ℃ fermentation temperature ,and the concentration of salt water was 13 ° Be′,with the quantity of salt water was 1∶1.4 (mass ratio).The product showed taste delicious, bright color, aromatic flavor, the physical and chemical indicators had reached the ideal standard.%以黑豆和蚕豆为主要原料,加入一定量麸皮采用固稀发酵技术生产复合型酱油。通过单因素试验和正交试验,以制作出的产品感官指标为检验项目,确定最佳工艺条件:制曲物料配比为60∶20∶20、发酵过程温度为42℃、食盐水浓度为13°Be′、拌盐水量为1∶1.4(质量比)。制得的酱油滋味鲜美、色泽鲜艳、香味浓郁,各项理化指标均达到理想标准。

  14. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  15. Field Pea and Lentil Marketing Strategies for Northern Plains Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Flaskerud, George

    2006-01-01

    Marketing strategies are analyzed for field pea and lentil producers in the Northern Plains. Seasonal price patterns were derived from the 1999-2003 marketing years. Correlations indicate that corn futures may provide risk reduction for cross-hedging pea prices. Relationships were too weak to consider a cross-hedge for lentils. Combining a pre-harvest strategy with a marketing loan strategy offered the best total net price for the pea crop in 2004. No one marketing loan strategy performed bes...

  16. Mutagenesis as a breeding method in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mutagenesis was used to develop cultivars with good adaptability to exogenous factors and with increased productivity. By means of this alternative breeding procedure, increases in biological and nutritive value of the seeds were studied. To increase genetic variability in lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.) breeding material, experimental mutagenesis was applied parallel to conventional breeding methods. The aim was to characterize the mutant lines as well as determine whether some of them could be directly registered as cultivars or as gene donors in breeding programme. Within the period 1993-1996, eight mutant lentil lines were studied under field conditions. They were obtained as a result of gamma rays (60Co) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treatment of the small seeded cultivar 'Tadjikskaya 95'. Air-dried seeds were treated. During the vegetative stage, phenological observation was made. The structural elements of productivity were established by biometrical analysis of 25-30 plants from each of the variants. Phytopathological evaluations were made using the scoring procedure established by ICARDA. Protein content was determined by the Kiejdhal method. The technological qualities of the seeds were determined using the method of Tretyakova and Ustinova. The mutant lines differed considerably in their biological traits from the parent cultivar. The vegetative period ranged from 84 to 89 days. The mutant lines were latermaturing than parent variety Tadjikskaya 95 by 1-5 days. As a result of mutagen treatment, the range in plant height was expanded from 1 to 8.3 cm. Line 96-8, obtained after irradiation with gamma rays, was the tallest (40.3 cm). Lodging of the mutant lines was greater than that of the initial cultivar and ranged from 20.0 to 66.7%. The trait varied to a great extent depending on environmental conditions. Mutagenic treatments also caused changes in seed size and seed coat colour. Development of resistance to important diseases of lentil in

  17. Effects of feeding Ascochyta-infected and normal lentils to rats (short-term study).

    OpenAIRE

    Tarwid, J N; Morrall, R A; Mills, J H

    1985-01-01

    Weanling, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either rat chow with no lentils, 80% normal lentils or 80% diseased lentils heavily infected with the fungus Ascochyta lentis. Body weight, feed consumption and clinical appearance were monitored over 90 days and blood samples were collected at the termination of the experiment. Weight gain and feed consumption were similar in the control group and the group fed diseased lentils. Weight gain was slightly depressed in the group fe...

  18. Genetic Damage of Root Tip Cells in Broad Bean Plant (Vicia faba) Induced by Water in Liao River Valley%辽河流域水诱发蚕豆根尖细胞遗传损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利红; 徐成斌; 陈忠林; 苏丹; 王家懿

    2009-01-01

    以辽河流域12个不同断面的河水为诱变剂,运用蚕豆根尖微核检测技术和染色体畸变实验方法,测定蚕豆根尖细胞的有丝分裂指数、微核率和染色体畸变率.结果表明:不同断面的河水均能降低蚕豆根尖细胞有丝分裂指数,能诱发较高频率的微核和染色体畸变,产生染色体断片、核突起和核碎裂.所有样点微核率和染色体畸变率均高于对照组.根据采样点水质污染指数分析町知,福德店水质属重度污染,东辽河、条子河、红庙子水质属中度污染,招苏台河水质属轻度污染.%Water in 12 sections of Liao River Valley was sampled as mutagen and micronucleus test and chromosome aberration assay were used to detect mitotic index,micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio of root tip cells in broad bean plant(Viciafaba).Results showed that water in different sections can decrease the mitotic index in Vicia faba root tip ceHs,induce higher raftos of either micronucleus or chromosome aberration and produce chromosomal segments,nuclear protuberances and fragments.Micronucleus ratio and chromosome aberration ratio in different sections were higher than those of the control group.Analysis of pollution index in 12 sections showed that water quality Was graded as heavy pollution in Fudedian River,moderate pollution in Dongliao River,Tiaozi River and Hongmiaozi River and light pollution in Zhaosutai River.

  19. Inhibition of lipoxygenase in lentil protoplasts by expression of antisense RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Hilbers, M.P.; Finazzi Agrò, A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of plasmids were constructed containing chimeric genes consisting of fragments of antisense-oriented lentil lipoxygenase cDNA. The different constructs were tested for their ability to lower lipoxygenase activity in lentil protoplasts. Plasmids containing a full length lentil lipoxygenase c

  20. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Peas, and Lentils AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA ACTION: Notice... Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To ensure that the standards and... current U.S. Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils are meeting the needs in today's...

  1. Response of vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea to pre- or post-emergence applied herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasilakoglou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad-leaved weeds constitute a serious problem in the production of winter legumes, but few selective herbicides controlling these weeds have been registered in Europe. Four field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and repeated in 2010/11 in Greece to study the response of common vetch (Vicia sativa L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and red pea (Lathyrus cicera L. to several rates of the herbicides pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine and flumioxazin applied pre-emergence, as well as imazamox applied post-emergence. Phytotoxicity, crop height, total weight and seed yield were evaluated during the experiments. The results of this study suggest that common vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea differed in their responses to the herbicides tested. Pendimethalin at 1.30 kg ha-1, S-metolachlor at 0.96 kg ha-1 and flumioxazine at 0.11 kg ha-1 used as pre-emergence applied herbicides provided the least phytotoxicity to legumes. Pendimethalin at 1.98 kg ha-1 and both rates of S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine provided the greatest common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. control. Imazamox at 0.03 to 0.04 kg ha-1 could also be used as early post-emergence applied herbicide in common vetch and red pea without any significant detrimental effect.

  2. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba) Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus) com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    I.S Alsaadawi; A Khaliq; A.A Al-Temimi; A Matloob

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  3. Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a rich source of folates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulses contain folates in the form of reduced tetrahydrofolate which is the biologically active form absorbed in the jejunum. Genetic biofortification potential of US-grown lentils (Lens culinaris L.) with the bioavailable form of folate has not been widely studied. The objectives of this study wer...

  4. Heterogeneity and developmental changes of lipoxygenase in etiolated lentil seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Hilbers, M.P.; Kerkhoff, B.; Finazzi Agrò, A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lipoxygenase activity in developing etiolated lentil seedlings showed a continuous decline in the cotyledons, whereas the lipoxygenase activity in the expanding tissues increased up to 6 days after germination, followed by a decrease. SDS-PAGE and IEF analysis showed the presence of at least two dif

  5. Treating chronic arsenic toxicity with high selenium lentil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shweta; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2013-10-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity causes serious health problems in humans, especially in the Indo-Gangetic plains and mountainous areas of China. Selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient is a potential mitigator of As toxicity due to its antioxidant and antagonistic properties. Selenium is seriously deficient in soils world-wide but is present at high, yet non-toxic levels in the great plains of North America. We evaluate the potential of dietary Se in counteracting chronic As toxicity in rats through serum biochemistry, blood glutathione levels, immunotoxicity (antibody response), liver peroxidative stress, thyroid response and As levels in tissues and excreta. To achieve this, we compare diets based on high-Se Saskatchewan (SK) lentils versus low-Se lentils from United States. Rats drank control (0ppm As) or As (40ppm As) water while consuming SK lentils (0.3ppm Se) or northwestern USA lentils (mitigate As toxicity in laboratory mammals, which we hope will translate into benefits for As exposed humans.

  6. Lentil production in Germany : testing different mixed cropping systems, sowing dates and weed controls

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lina

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of legume crop, lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) with their high nutritional value are grown mainly for human consumption in many regions of the world. The crop has benefits in crop rotation due to its symbiotic N-fixation, which is important especially in organic farming, and it can also increase crop biodiversity in arable land. In Europe, lentils are considered one of the popular leguminous food crops. However, the cultivation and scientific research on lentils were neglected in G...

  7. FEATURES OF CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY FOR LENTIL IN CONDITIONS OF FOOTHILL ZONE OF KBR

    OpenAIRE

    Коnоnеnко S. I.; Hanieva I. M.; Chapaev T. M.; Kanukova K. R.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the data of the effect of sowing date, biologics and fertilizers on parameters of photosynthetic activity and symbiotic crops, yield and technological properties of lentil seeds. The calculation of the specific activity of the symbiosis (UAS) for the largest consumption of nitrogen by plants and lentils active symbiotic potential (TSA) crops of lentils, collection of protein per unit area under foothill zone of Kabardino-Balkaria

  8. FEATURES OF CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY FOR LENTIL IN CONDITIONS OF FOOTHILL ZONE OF KBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Коnоnеnко S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the effect of sowing date, biologics and fertilizers on parameters of photosynthetic activity and symbiotic crops, yield and technological properties of lentil seeds. The calculation of the specific activity of the symbiosis (UAS for the largest consumption of nitrogen by plants and lentils active symbiotic potential (TSA crops of lentils, collection of protein per unit area under foothill zone of Kabardino-Balkaria

  9. A study of the desorption isotherms of lentils

    OpenAIRE

    Barrozo M.A.S.; Oliveira D.T.; Sancineti G.P.; Rodrigues M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the main equilibrium equations used for grains to find the best way to represent the equilibrium conditions between lentil and air. The experimental study was based on the static method using saturated salt solutions. We developed criteria for distinguish between some existing equations used for grains. To distinguishing between these equations we explored some nonlinearity measures. The results obtained showed that the Halsey modified equation was the best...

  10. Lentils biodiversity: the characterization of two local landraces

    OpenAIRE

    Viscosi, Vincenzo; Ialiciccio, Manuela; Rocco, Mariapina; Trupiano, Dalila; Arena, Simona; CHIATANTE, DONATO; Scaloni, Andrea; SCIPPA, GABRIELLA STEFANIA

    2010-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary approach was used to characterize two autochthonous lentil landraces from Molise region (Central Italy). Different mature seed populations for each landrace were provided by the Molise Germoplasm Bank at the University of Molise (Pesche, Italy), and analyzed at the morphological and molecular (DNA and protein) levels. Nuclear ISSR markers were used to assess genetic differences, whereas phenotypic variability was detected by biochemical (proteomics) and ...

  11. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Władysław Błaszczak; Grażyna Ellmann-Wąsik; Renata Lesiak-Jerzyk

    2013-01-01

    Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV) differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV) when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing prim...

  12. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  13. Genome wide association study using the ICARDA Lentil Reference set and agronomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is the world’s fifth most important pulse crop. It is self-pollinated diploid (2n=14) and has a relatively large genome size of approximately 4Gb. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology was used to genotype the ICARDA Lentil Reference set using the two-enzyme (Pst...

  14. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of natural populations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on lentils in eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity and population differentiation of natural populations of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on lentils in eastern Washington. X. Wang and W. Chen. Washington State University, Pullman, WA, and USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA 99163 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is the causal agent of white mold on lentils....

  15. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, they have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in different environments and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on tho...

  16. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts.

  17. Impact of Elicitation on Antioxidant and Potential Antihypertensive Properties of Lentil Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Limón, Rocío I; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Restani, Patrizia; Pihlanto, Anne; Frias, Juana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of elicitors (500 μM ascorbic acid, 50 μM folic acid, 5 mM glutamic acid and 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid) during lentil germination up to 8 days as a strategy to increase germination rate and to enhance the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and phenolic compounds. The effect of elicitation on the protein profile and antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of sprouted lentils was also evaluated. The application of elicitors did not negatively affect the germination yield of lentils and no significant changes on the protein pattern of lentils germinated in the presence of elicitors were observed. Chitosan/glutamic acid increased by 1.6-fold the GABA content in lentil sprouts, whilst ascorbic and folic acids as well as chitosan/glutamic acid were highly effective to enhance the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of sprouted lentils. All elicited lentil sprouts showed ability to inhibit ACE activity (IC50: 9.5-11.9 μg peptides/mL). Therefore, elicitation can be considered a promising approach to improve the content of compounds with antioxidant and potential antihypertensive activities in lentil sprouts. PMID:26433888

  18. The use of ESR technique for assessment of heating temperatures of archaeological lentil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydaş, Canan; Engin, Birol; Dönmez, Emel Oybak; Belli, Oktay

    2010-01-01

    Heat-induced paramagnetic centers in modern and archaeological lentils ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) were studied by X-band (9.3 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The modern red lentil samples were heated in an electrical furnace at increasing temperatures in the range 70-500 °C. The ESR spectral parameters (the intensity, g-value and peak-to-peak line width) of the heat-induced organic radicals were investigated for modern red lentil ( Lens culinaris, Medik.) samples. The obtained ESR spectra indicate that the relative number of heat-induced paramagnetic species and peak-to-peak line widths depends on the temperature and heating time of the modern lentil. The g-values also depend on the heating temperature but not heating time. Heated modern red lentils produced a range of organic radicals with g-values from g = 2.0062 to 2.0035. ESR signals of carbonised archaeological lentil samples from two archaeological deposits of the Van province in Turkey were studied and g-values, peak-to-peak line widths, intensities and elemental compositions were compared with those obtained for modern samples in order to assess at which temperature these archaeological lentils were heated in prehistoric sites. The maximum temperatures of the previous heating of carbonised UA5 and Y11 lentil seeds are as follows about 500 °C and above 500 °C, respectively.

  19. Processing, cooking, and cooling affect prebiotic concentrations in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentil is an important staple food crop in many regions world-wide and is a good source of protein (20-30%) and various micronutrients. Lentil contains raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO), resistant starch (RS), and other prebiotic compounds essential for maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal ...

  20. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, those have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in six locations, and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on those LMWC...

  1. Microencapsulation of canola oil by lentil protein isolate-based wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Varankovich, N; Nickerson, M T

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal was to encapsulate canola oil using a mixture of lentil protein isolate and maltodextrin with/without lecithin and/or sodium alginate by spray drying. Initially, emulsion and microcapsule properties as a function of oil (20%-30%), protein (2%-8%) and maltodextrin concentration (9.5%-18%) were characterized by emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity, surface oil and entrapment efficiency. Microcapsules with 20% oil, 2% protein and 18% maltodextrin were shown to have the highest entrapment efficiency, and selected for further re-design using different preparation conditions and wall ingredients (lentil protein isolate, maltodextrin, lecithin and/or sodium alginate). The combination of the lentil protein, maltodextrin and sodium alginate represented the best wall material to produce microcapsules with the highest entrapment efficiency (∼88%). The lentil protein-maltodextrin-alginate microcapsules showed better oxidative stability and had a stronger wall structure than the lentil protein-maltodextrin microcapsules. PMID:27374532

  2. Wild Help for Enhancing Genetic Resistance in Lentil Against Fungal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Vijai; Wong, Melissa M L; Bett, Kirstin E; Banniza, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris) is one of the cool season grain legume crops and an important source of dietary proteins and fibre. Fungal diseases are main constraints to lentil production and account for significant yield and quality losses. Lentil has a narrow genetic base presumably due to a bottleneck during domestication and as a result, any resistance to fungal diseases in the cultivated genepool is gradually eroded and overcome by pathogens. New sources of resistance have been identified in wild lentil (Lens ervoides). This article provides an overview of harnessing resistance potential of wild germplasm to enhance genetic resistance in lentil cultivars using next-generation sequencing-based genotyping, comparative genomics and marker-assisted selection breeding. PMID:26363611

  3. Chemical Form of Selenium in Naturally Selenium-Rich Lentils (Lens Culinaris L.) From Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thavarajah, D.; Vandenberg, A.; George, G.N.; Pickering, I.J.

    2009-06-04

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are a source of many essential dietary components and trace elements for human health. In this study we show that lentils grown in the Canadian prairies are additionally enriched in selenium, an essential micronutrient needed for general well-being, including a healthy immune system and protection against cancer. Selenium K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the selenium biochemistry of two lentil cultivars grown in various locations in Saskatchewan, Canada. We observe significant variations in total selenium concentration with geographic location and cultivar; however, almost all the selenium (86--95%) in these field-grown lentils is present as organic selenium modeled as selenomethionine with a small component (5--14%) as selenate. As the toxicities of certain forms of arsenic and selenium are antagonistic, selenium-rich lentils may have a pivotal role to play in alleviating the chronic arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh.

  4. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Lentil Byproduct on Performance and Oxidative Stability of Eggs in Laying Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çabuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty-eight 11-week-old laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica were fed one of the following three diets: (1 control: basal diet with no lentil (Lens culinaris L. byproduct; (2 inclusion of 10% lentil byproduct; (3 inclusion of 20% lentil byproduct. In the recent years, colour sorting machines are used in order to separate red lentils according to their colours. The goal is to select the items which are discoloured, not as ripe as required, or still with hull even after dehulling of lentil seed. During the sorting, a new byproduct called “sorting byproduct” leftover is obtained. The byproduct is cleaner and is of a higher quality than other lentil byproducts. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of the inclusion of different levels of lentil byproduct on laying quail performance. The experimental treatment included 10% or 20% lentil byproduct in the diet, and this was fed to quails aged between 11 and 22 weeks. The inclusion of 10% and 20% levels of lentil byproduct in the diet significantly increased egg production, but feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not significantly affected. Egg weight decreased significantly following the inclusion of 20% lentil byproduct. The inclusion of lentil byproduct in the diet increased the deposition of yellow yolk pigments and decreased malonaldehyde formation in the yolk.

  5. Preliminary Assessment of the Nutritional Quality of two Types of Lentils (Lens Culinaris by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy Technology (Nirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Moldovan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritive value of two varieties of lentils (Lens culinaris, namely green and red varieties. For this purpose the chemical components: crude protein, starch, ash, sugars (monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, crude fat, total fibers and dry matter of two lentils varieties (green and red were determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology (NIRS. Results show that green lentils had higher contents in ash (minerals, crude protein and total fibers, while the red lentils had higher contents in crude fat and total carbohydrates. The metabolizable energy (MJ/kg of the red lentils was slightly higher than green lentils. In conclusion both type of lentils (green and red revealed good nutritional quality with slight differences.

  6. A study of the desorption isotherms of lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. Barrozo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the main equilibrium equations used for grains to find the best way to represent the equilibrium conditions between lentil and air. The experimental study was based on the static method using saturated salt solutions. We developed criteria for distinguish between some existing equations used for grains. To distinguishing between these equations we explored some nonlinearity measures. The results obtained showed that the Halsey modified equation was the best model in terms of nonsignificance for bias and nonlinearity measures.

  7. Diversity of Macro- and Micronutrients in the Seeds of Lentil Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Karaköy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the amount of bioavailable mineral elements in plant foods would help to improve the nutritional status of populations in developing countries. Legume seeds have the potential to provide many essential nutrients. It is important to have information on genetic variations among different lentil populations so that plant breeding programs can use new varieties in cross-breeding programs. The main objective of this study was to characterize the micro- and macronutrient concentrations of lentil landraces seeds collected from South-Eastern Turkey. We found impressive variation in the micro- and macroelement concentrations in 39 lentil landraces and 7 cultivars. We investigated the relationships of traits by correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA. The concentrations of several minerals, particularly Zn, were positively correlated with other minerals, suggesting that similar pathways or transporters control the uptake and transport of these minerals. Some genotypes had high mineral and protein content and potential to improve the nutritional value of cultivated lentil. Cross-breeding of numerous lentil landraces from Turkey with currently cultivated varieties could improve the levels of micro- and macronutrients of lentil and may contribute to the worldwide lentil quality breeding program.

  8. Construction of a comparative genetic map in faba bean (Vicia faba L.; conservation of genome structure with Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila Carmen M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of genetic markers is complex and costly in species with little pre-existing genomic information. Faba bean possesses one of the largest and least studied genomes among cultivated crop plants and no gene-based genetic maps exist. Gene-based orthologous markers allow chromosomal regions and levels of synteny to be characterised between species, reveal phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal evolution, and enable targeted identification of markers for crop breeding. In this study orthologous codominant cross-species markers have been deployed to produce the first exclusively gene-based genetic linkage map of faba bean (Vicia faba, using an F6 population developed from a cross between the lines Vf6 (equina type and Vf27 (paucijuga type. Results Of 796 intron-targeted amplified polymorphic (ITAP markers screened, 151 markers could be used to construct a comparative genetic map. Linkage analysis revealed seven major and five small linkage groups (LGs, one pair and 12 unlinked markers. Each LG was comprised of three to 30 markers and varied in length from 23.6 cM to 324.8 cM. The map spanned a total length of 1685.8 cM. A simple and direct macrosyntenic relationship between faba bean and Medicago truncatula was evident, while faba bean and lentil shared a common rearrangement relative to M. truncatula. One hundred and four of the 127 mapped markers in the 12 LGs, which were previously assigned to M. truncatula genetic and physical maps, were found in regions syntenic between the faba bean and M. truncatula genomes. However chromosomal rearrangements were observed that could explain the difference in chromosome numbers between these three legume species. These rearrangements suggested high conservation of M. truncatula chromosomes 1, 5 and 8; moderate conservation of chromosomes 2, 3, 4 and 7 and no conservation with M. truncatula chromosome 6. Multiple PCR amplicons and comparative mapping were suggestive of

  9. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  10. Identification QTLs Controlling Genes for Se Uptake in Lentil Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is an excellent source of protein and carbohydrates and is also rich in essential trace elements for the human diet. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient for human health and nutrition, providing protection against several diseases and regulating important biological systems. Dietary intake of 55 μg of Se per day is recommended for adults, with inadequate Se intake causing significant health problems. The objective of this study was to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL of genes controlling Se accumulation in lentil seeds using a population of 96 recombinant inbred lines (RILs developed from the cross "PI 320937" × "Eston" grown in three different environments for two years (2012 and 2013. Se concentration in seed varied between 119 and 883 μg/kg. A linkage map consisting of 1,784 markers (4 SSRs, and 1,780 SNPs was developed. The map spanned a total length of 4,060.6 cM, consisting of 7 linkage groups (LGs with an average distance of 2.3 cM between adjacent markers. Four QTL regions and 36 putative QTL markers, with LOD scores ranging from 3.00 to 4.97, distributed across two linkage groups (LG2 and LG5 were associated with seed Se concentration, explaining 6.3-16.9% of the phenotypic variation.

  11. Induced mutant for male-sterility of lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Lentil has very small flowers which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety LL-78 were irradiated with gamma rays 5 to 20 krad. In M2 some male-sterile plants were observed. Male-sterile plants could easily be identified at the start of maturity. They remain green and continue flowering when other plants mature. Due to natural outcrossing a few seeds formed on these male-sterile plants. These were grown in M2 for progeny testing. Some M3 lines were having both normal seed set and male-sterile plants in the ratio of 3 normal : 1 male-sterile, whereas in other lines all the plants were male-sterile. The former are assumed to be genic male-sterile and the latter cytoplasmic male-sterile. When the putative cytoplasmic male-sterile plants were selfed, there was no seed setting. Cytoplasmic male-sterility has not yet been reported in lentil. its use could make cross-breeding easier. (author)

  12. Identification QTLs Controlling Genes for Se Uptake in Lentil Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Duygu; Sever, Tugce; Aldemir, Secil; Yagmur, Bulent; Temel, Hulya Yilmaz; Kaya, Hilal Betul; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Kahraman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2016-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an excellent source of protein and carbohydrates and is also rich in essential trace elements for the human diet. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health and nutrition, providing protection against several diseases and regulating important biological systems. Dietary intake of 55 μg of Se per day is recommended for adults, with inadequate Se intake causing significant health problems. The objective of this study was to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) of genes controlling Se accumulation in lentil seeds using a population of 96 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from the cross "PI 320937" × "Eston" grown in three different environments for two years (2012 and 2013). Se concentration in seed varied between 119 and 883 μg/kg. A linkage map consisting of 1,784 markers (4 SSRs, and 1,780 SNPs) was developed. The map spanned a total length of 4,060.6 cM, consisting of 7 linkage groups (LGs) with an average distance of 2.3 cM between adjacent markers. Four QTL regions and 36 putative QTL markers, with LOD scores ranging from 3.00 to 4.97, distributed across two linkage groups (LG2 and LG5) were associated with seed Se concentration, explaining 6.3-16.9% of the phenotypic variation. PMID:26978666

  13. 优质大粒鲜食蚕豆‘通蚕鲜7号’的选育及应用前景%Breeding and utilization prospect of ‘Tongcanxian 7',a table variety of high-quality and large-grained broad bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯华; 王学军; 缪亚梅; 季张娟; 陈满峰; 唐明霞; 卢玉兵

    2012-01-01

    ‘通蚕鲜7号’系江苏沿江地区农业科学研究所以(93009/97021)F2//97021早世代选择和回交相结合选育而成的优质高产大粒鲜食蚕豆新品种,属秋播大粒鲜食蚕豆类型,全生育期220 d左右(采收鲜荚生育期209 d);大荚大粒,干籽粒百粒重205 g左右,鲜籽粒百粒重410~450 g;产量高,江苏省区域试验鲜荚平均产量19 600.2 kg/hm2;品质优,蛋白质含量30.5%,淀粉含量53.8%;抗逆性强,耐寒性好,中抗赤斑病、锈病,较耐白粉病,综合性状优良;适宜在江苏、浙江、福建、上海及长江中下游地区作秋播鲜食蚕豆种植.%Tongcanxian 7',a table variety of autumn-sown high-quality and large-grained broad bean,was bred by this institute through early generation selection and backcross of 93009/97021F2/ 97021. Its whole growth period is about 220 d and the period from seeding to harvesting fresh pods is 209 d;Its 100-grain weight is about 205 g for dry seeds and 410 - 450 g for fresh seeds; Its fresh pod yield in the Jiangsu regional trial is averagely 19 600.2 kg/hm2;Its seeds are good in quality,30.5% in protein content and 53.8% in starch content,-It has high adverse resistance,good cold hardiness,moderate resistance to red spot disease and rust disease,high tolerance to powdery mildew,and good comprehensive character;And so it is suitable to planting as an autumn-sown table variety of broad bean in Jiangsu, Zhejiang,Fujian and Shanghai as well as the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze.

  14. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Campos-Vega

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  15. Toxicity of ricin present in castor bean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Nayanna Brunna da Silva Fonseca; Benito Soto-Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a bush from Euphorbiacea family cultivated for obtaining oil from the seeds. This oil has broad industrial employment, particularly for biodiesel. However, castor bean seeds exhibit a potent toxin, ricin. It is a glycoprotein with highly toxic action of inactivating ribosomes. The toxic action of ricin is due to inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, causing cell death. Only one molecule of ricin that enters the cytosol is able to inactivate...

  16. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Susan M Tosh; Farnworth, Edward R; Yolanda Brummer; Duncan, Alison M; Wright, Amanda J; Boye, Joyce I; Michèle Marcotte; Marzouk Benali

    2013-01-01

    Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because ...

  17. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Migliozzi; Dil Thavarajah; Pushparajah Thavarajah; Powell Smith

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-co...

  18. Effect of Different Control Methods on Weeds, Yield Components and Nodulation in the Spring Lentil

    OpenAIRE

    TEPE, Işık

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted on the lentil cultivar Malazgirt 89 during 1999 and 2000 to determine the most appropriate method for controlling weeds. In the experiments, hand hoeing, trifluralin, imazethapyr, linuron, prometryn, phenmedipham + desmediphame, trifluralin + hand hoeing and linuron + hand hoeing which should be used as an alternative to hand weeding, were tested. The effects of herbicides on nodulation in lentils were also investigated. Centaurea depressa in the first year, and Ranun...

  19. Preliminary Assessment of the Nutritional Quality of two Types of Lentils (Lens Culinaris) by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy Technology (Nirs)

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Moldovan; Adriana Păucean; Romina Vlaic; Maria Doiniţa Borş; Sevastiţa Muste

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritive value of two varieties of lentils (Lens culinaris), namely green and red varieties. For this purpose the chemical components: crude protein, starch, ash, sugars (monosaccharides and oligosaccharides), crude fat, total fibers and dry matter of two lentils varieties (green and red) were determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology (NIRS). Results show that green lentils had higher contents in ash (minerals), crud...

  20. THE EFFECT OF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN SPRING LENTIL-WHEAT ROTATION ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    AVCI, Muzaffer; ATAMAN, Yener

    1994-01-01

    Various management techniques in spring lentil-wheat rotation were compared as yield, emergence and some physical properties of soil in order to find a suitable method which provides less compaction of soil and high grain yields. After lentil harvest, lowest bulk density, highest total and  aeration porosities and hydraulic conductivity of soil were obtained with the method of "fall plowing, sweep + harrowing in spring and seeding lentil with cereal drill". The analysis of samples taken after...

  1. Viruses of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Morocco; surveying, identification, and ecological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Fortass, M

    1993-01-01

    A systematic virus survey covering the main areas where faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) is grown in Morocco was conducted in 1988 and 1990. From the 240 leaf samples collected on the basis of symptoms suggestive of virus infection from 52 fields, the following viruses were detected by means of electron microscopy, biological indexing, and serology, and their incidence and geographical distribution were assessed: alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), broad bean mottle virus (B...

  2. Effects of Marketing Loans on U.S. Dry Peas and Lentils: Supply Response and World Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, William W.; Lucier, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The 2002 Farm Act required USDA to implement marketing loans for the 2002-07 crops of dry peas, lentils, and small chickpeas. This provision led to expanded acreage for dry peas and lentils, crops analyzed in this study. The analysis found that marketing loans played a role in expansion for dry peas in 2003-05 and for lentils in 2003. For dry peas and lentils, marketing loans contributed to acreage expansion in North Dakota and Montana. Simulation model results suggest that marketing loans ha...

  3. Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Lentil Byproduct on Performance and Oxidative Stability of Eggs in Laying Quail

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Çabuk; Serdar Eratak; Hatice Basmacioğlu Malayoğlu

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-eight 11-week-old laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed one of the following three diets: (1) control: basal diet with no lentil (Lens culinaris L.) byproduct; (2) inclusion of 10% lentil byproduct; (3) inclusion of 20% lentil byproduct. In the recent years, colour sorting machines are used in order to separate red lentils according to their colours. The goal is to select the items which are discoloured, not as ripe as required, or still with hull even aft...

  4. Baked Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Two pieces of tender bean curd, shredded shrimp, minced fat and lean pork, minced ham, minced fresh mushrooms, fried dried shrimps, mashed scallion, ginger and garlic, cooking wine, salad oil, salt, MSG and pepper powder. Directions:

  5. Current Knowledge in lentil genomics and its application for crop improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv eKumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the lentil growing countries face a certain set of abiotic and biotic stresses causing substantial reduction in crop growth, yield, and production. Until-to date, lentil breeders have used conventional plant breeding techniques of selection-recombination-selection cycle to develop improved cultivars. These techniques have been successful in mainstreaming some of the easy-to-manage monogenic traits. However in case of complex quantitative traits, these conventional techniques are less precise. As most of the economic traits are complex, quantitative and often influenced by environments and genotype-environment (GE interaction, the genetic improvement of these traits becomes difficult. Genomics assisted breeding is relatively powerful and fast approach to develop high yielding varieties more suitable to adverse environmental conditions. New tools such as molecular markers and bioinformatics are expected to generate new knowledge and improve our understanding on the genetics of complex traits. In the past, the limited availability of genomic resources in lentil could not allow breeders to employ these tools in mainstream breeding program. The recent application of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS and Genotyping by sequencing (GBS technologies has facilitated to speed up the lentil genome sequencing project and large discovery of genome-wide SNP markers. Recently, several linkage maps have been developed in lentil through the use of Expressed Sequenced Tag (EST-derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. These maps have emerged as useful genomic resources to identify QTL imparting tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in lentil. In this review, the current knowledge on available genomic resources and its application in lentil breeding program are discussed.

  6. Energy Consumption Pattern of Organic and Conventional Lentil in Iran A Case Study: Kuhdasht County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asakereh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy use in organic and conventional farming of lentil in Kuhdasht county of Iran to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption. Data were collected from 47 organic lentil farms and 39 nonorganic farms by using a face-to-face questionnaire method. The results revealed that total energy consumption and output energy in organic lentil production was less than nonorganic production but energy ratio was higher in organic lentil production with 2.12. Total input energy was 5062 and 6196.5 MJ/ha in organic and nonorganic lentil, respectively. Diesel fuel and seed are the major energy inputs in but farms that diesel fuel mostly consumed in tillage operation. Net energy gain in the nonorganic farms was 6498.1 MJ/ha that was more than organic farms. Renewable energy in the organic farms with 1115.6 MJ/ha (22% was more than nonorganic farms with 1099.2 M J/ha (17.7% .

  7. RISK OF LENTIL SEED CONTAMINATION BY RISK METALS FROM THE SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the grown locality on risky metal intake from the soil to the lentil seeds. The research was realised in four different localities of Iraq (Qushtopa, Shaklawa, Kalak and Koysinjaq using the same lentil cultivar. In all soil samples the determined Co, Ni, Cr and Cd content in the soil extract by aqua regia exceeded the limit values (by 39% - 49%, 249% - 276%, 26% - 46% and 530% - 670% respectively. In two localities (Kalak, Koysinjaq also the Cu content by 1% - 4% exceeded maximal allowed value given by the legislative. In all sample sites also the maximal available soil content of mobile Pb forms was by 55% - 150% exceeded. Despite of extremely high soil contents of Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd the investigated lentil seeds are from the point of risky metal contamination safe. All determined values of heavy metal contents are lower than hygienic limits. Based on our results we could suppose that lentil can be grown also in the soil with enhanced amounts of risky metals without danger of lentil seeds contamination.

  8. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (pextract of red lentil has protective effect on Catatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism.

  9. Nutritional Impacts of Saskatchewan Grown Lentils (Lens culinaris L) Feeding on Samples of Healthy and Clinical Children in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian grown Lentil is a rich source of micronutrients. It has high levels of selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), folic acid and carotenes (Thavarajah, et al., 2007; 2008, 2009, Wilmot et al., 2009). In addition, our latest finding shows that Canadian lentil has naturally low levels of antinutri...

  10. Urticaria and anaphilaxis in a child after inhalation of lentils vapours: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliti Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age. Case report A 22 -month-old child was admitted to our Pediatric Department for anaphylaxis and urticaria. At the age of 9 months she presented a first episode of angioedema and laryngeal obstruction, due to a second assumption of lentils in her diet. At admission we performed routine analyses that were all in the normal range, except for the dosage of specific IgE, that revealed a positive result for lentils. Prick tests too were positive for lentils, while they were all negative for other main food allergens. The child also performed a prick by prick that gave the same positive result (with a wheal of 8 mm of diameter. The child had not previously eaten lentils and other legumes, but her pathological anamnesis highlighted that the allergic reaction appeared soon after the inhalation of cooking lentil vapours when the child entered the kitchen Therefore a diagnosis of lentils vapours allergy was made. Conclusions Our case shows the peculiarity of a very early onset. In literature there are no data on episodes of anaphylaxis in so young children, considering that our child was already on lentils exclusion diet. Therefore a diet of exclusion does not absolutely preserve patients from allergic reactions, that can develop also after their cooking steams inhalation.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Pegg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2 were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g; the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract.

  12. Phenotypic Variability and Diversity Analysis of Bean Traits of Some Cocoa Hybrids in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Oyedokun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to understand the economic potential and superiority among cocoa hybrids. Therefore, the present study aims at detecting variability among cocoa hybrids for bean index in Nigeria. Dried bean of fourteen genotypes of cocoa were evaluated for their bean values. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to understand the variability among the fourteen genotypes and Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed to identify distinguishing traits and the grouping of the genotypes based on similarities. The fourteen cocoa genotypes were significantly (p≤0.05 different from each other with respect to weight of one bean, bean length, width, thickness, 100 bean weight, bean length to width, length to thickness and width to thickness ratio. All the studied morphometric characters exhibited high (>70% broad sense heritability. G8, the hybrid between T53/5 and N38 was the most superior genotype for bean weight and some other bean characteristics. The mass of seventy-four dried cocoa bean of G8 approximated 100 g. The first three Principal Component axes explained 91% of the total variation and the PCA grouped the fourteen genotypes into four distinct clusters. Genotypes could be selected for specific traits and improvement of traits seemed to be genetically reliable.

  13. Influence of thermal processing on IgE reactivity to lentil and chickpea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamón, Eva; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodriguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    In the last years, legume proteins are gaining importance as food ingredients because of their nutraceutical properties. However, legumes are also considered relevant in the development of food allergies through ingestion. Peanuts and soybeans are important food allergens in Western countries, while lentil and chickpea allergy are more relevant in the Mediterranean area. Information about the effects of thermal-processing procedures at various temperatures and conditions is scarce; therefore, the effect of these procedures on legume allergenic properties is not defined so far. The SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting patterns of chickpeas and lentils were analyzed before and after boiling (up to 60 min) and autoclaving (1.2 and 2.6 atm, up to 30 min). The results indicated that some of these treatments reduce IgE binding to lentil and chickpea, the most important being harsh autoclaving. However, several extremely resistant immunoreactive proteins still remained in these legumes even after this extreme treatment.

  14. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  15. HPLC法同时测定红油豆瓣酱中的7种非食用色素%Simultaneous Determination of Seven Non-edible Dyes in Broad Bean Paste with Chili Oil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟少枢

    2011-01-01

    建立了红油豆瓣酱中碱性嫩黄O、碱性橙Ⅱ、罗丹明B和苏丹红Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ同时测定的高效液相色谱法.样品用乙腈/水(7:3,V/V)超声提取后冷冻离心去油,以甲醇和乙酸铵缓冲溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,检测波长为435 nm、510nm和547 nm.上述7种色素组分在其质量浓度为0.1~10 μg/mL时有良好的线性关系,方法的检测限为0.005~0.025 μg/mL,平均加标回收率为88.5%~97.2%,相对标准偏差为1.3%~4.4%.该方法灵敏可靠,适合于红油豆瓣酱中多种非食用色素的同时检测.%A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of auramine O, basic orange Ⅱ, rhodamine B and sudan dye Ⅰ,Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile/water(7:3, V/V) and remove grease by freeze centrifuge, gradient eluted with methanol and ammonium acetate as the mobile phase and detected at 435 run, 510 nm and 547 nm. All of the seven compounds demonstrated good linear relationship in the range of 0.1-10 μg/mL. The limits of detection were 0.005 μg/mL~0.025 μg/mL; the average recovery for seven dyes ranged from 88.5% to 97.2%; and the relative standard deviations were from 1.3% to 4.4%. The method was sensitive, reliable and is suitable for the simultaneous determination of multiple non-edible dyes in broad bean paste with chili oil.

  16. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  17. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T; Chan, Agnes P; Williams, Amber L; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M J; Khouri, Hoda M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  18. Castor bean organelle genome sequencing and worldwide genetic diversity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Rivarola

    Full Text Available Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and forensic tools, we carried out an extensive chloroplast sequence diversity analysis. Taking advantage of the recently published genome sequence of castor bean, we assembled the chloroplast and mitochondrion genomes extracting selected reads from the available whole genome shotgun reads. Using the chloroplast reference genome we used the methylation filtration technique to readily obtain draft genome sequences of 7 geographically and genetically diverse castor bean accessions. These sequence data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phylogenetic analysis resulted in the identification of two major clades that were not apparent in previous population genetic studies using genetic markers derived from nuclear DNA. Two distinct sub-clades could be defined within each major clade and large-scale genotyping of castor bean populations worldwide confirmed previously observed low levels of genetic diversity and showed a broad geographic distribution of each sub-clade.

  19. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  20. Susceptibility of pea, horse bean and bean to viruses in dependence on the age of the inoculated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Błaszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three cultivars of pea did not differ in their susceptibility to Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV notwithstanding the age of the inoculated plants. But their susceptibility to infection with Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus (BYMV differed. Horse bean cultivars 'Nadwiślański' and 'Major' proved to be less susceptible to Broad Bean True Mosaic Virus (BBTMV when older plants were-inoculated. Two bean cultivars 'Złota Saxa' and 'Earle' appeared to be susceptible to BBTMV only in the phase of developing primary leaves and the age-dependent resistance to infection increased faster in plants of the cv. 'Złota Saxa'. Both cultivars of bean showed also age-dependent resistance to infection by BYMV. All these viruses restricted growth and yield of plants. The decreases were greater when younger plants were inoculated. These dependences appeared most distinctly in pea cv. 'Sześciotygodniowy' infected with CMV and in two cultivars of bean infected with BYMV.

  1. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Migliozzi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems.

  2. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (pCatatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism. PMID:27504309

  3. Inhibition of lipoxygenase activity in lentil protoplasts by monoclonal antibodies introduced into the cells via electroporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The isolation of lentil protoplasts and the transfer of anti-lipoxygenase monoclonal antibodies into plant protoplasts by electroporation is reported. The dependence of the efficiency of monoclonal antibody incorporation on the field strength is shown as well. The transferred immunoglobulins retaine

  4. Novel Flavonol Glycosides from the Aerial Parts of Lentil (Lens culinaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Żuchowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While the phytochemical composition of lentil (Lens culinaris seeds is well described in scientific literature, there is very little available data about secondary metabolites from lentil leaves and stems. Our research reveals that the aerial parts of lentil are a rich source of flavonoids. Six kaempferol and twelve quercetin glycosides were isolated, their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. This group includes 16 compounds which have not been previously described in the scientific literature: quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (1, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2-β-D-galacto-pyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (3, their derivatives 4–10,12–15,17,18 acylated with caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, or 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid and kaempferol 3-O-{[(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6}-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11. Their DPPH scavenging activity was also evaluated. This is probably the first detailed description of flavonoids from the aerial parts of lentil.

  5. Charges on the surface of a lentil cavity in a two-dimensional homogeneous conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkin, V. I.

    2010-09-01

    The linear charge density on arc segments of a lentil cavity in a two-dimensional homogeneous conductor in a uniform external electric field is determined analytically. A singularity of the current density on the edges of the segments makes the resultant relations a helpful test for numerical computational algorithms.

  6. Ozone stress modulates amine oxidase and lipoxygenase expression in lentil (Lens culinaris) seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.; Finazzi Agrò, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of ozone stress on polyamine metabolism and membrane lipid peroxidation in lentil seedlings through the amine oxidase and lipoxygenase activity and expression has been investigated. Ozone is shown to control the expression of these enzymes at the transcriptional level, down-regulating the

  7. Lentil and Kale: Complementary Nutrient-Rich Whole Food Sources to Combat Micronutrient and Calorie Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliozzi, Megan; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Smith, Powell

    2015-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is a nutritious food and a staple for millions of people. Not only are lentils a good source of energy, they also contain a range of micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. Kale (Brassica oleracea v. acephala) has been considered as a health food, but its full range of benefits and composition has not been extensively studied. Recent studies suggest that foods are enrich in prebiotic carbohydrates and dietary fiber that can potentially reduce risks of non-communicable diseases, including obesity, cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Lentil and kale added to a cereal-based diet would enhance intakes of essential minerals and vitamins to combat micronutrient malnutrition. This review provides an overview of lentil and kale as a complementary nutrient-rich whole food source to combat global malnutrition and calorie issues. In addition, prebiotic carbohydrate profiles and the genetic potential of these crops for further micronutrient enrichment are briefly discussed with respect to developing sustainable and nutritious food systems. PMID:26569296

  8. Lentil root protoplasts: a transient expression system suitable for coelectroporation of monoclonal antibodies and plasmid molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Veldink, G.A.; Finazzi Agrò, A.

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from lentil (Lens culinaris) roots and their suitability as a transient expression system was investigated. After transfecting the protoplasts with the -glucuronidase (GUS) gene by either electroporation or polyethylene glycol (PEG), the specific activity of the reporter en

  9. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tosh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  10. Host preference of the bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira; Angel Roberto Barchuk; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    2008-01-01

    It is largely known that the range of an insect diet is mostly determined by oviposition behavior, mainly in species with endophytic larvae such as Zabrotes subfasciatus.However, the proximate factors determining host choice and the subsequent steps leading to the expansion or reduction of the host number and occasional host shifts are largelyun known. We analyzed various factors determining host preference of Z. subfasciatus through the evaluation of: (i) oviposition preference of a wild population of Z. subfasciatus on the usual host (bean) and unusual hosts (lentil, chickpea and soy), and the performance of the offspring; (ii) artificial selection for increasing preference for hosts initially less frequently chosen; (iii) comparison of oviposition behavior between two different popula-tions (reared for~30 generations in beans or chickpeas, respectively); (iv) oviposition timing on usual and unusual hosts; and (v) identification of preference hierarchies. We found that when using unusual hosts, there is no correlation between performance and preference and that the preference hierarchy changes only slightly when the population passes through several generations on the less frequently accepted host. We also found a positive response to artificial selection for increasing oviposition on the less preferred host; however, when the host-choice experiment involved two varieties of the usual host, the response was faster than when the choice involved usual and unusual hosts. Finally, beetles reared on an unusual host (chickpea) for 26 generations showed similar good fitness on both usual and unusual hosts,indicating that the use of a new host does not necessarily result in the loss of performance on the original host. Nevertheless, this population showed lower fitness on the usual host than that of the original population, suggesting an underlying partial trade-off phenomenon which may contribute to a broadening of diet of this insect species.

  11. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed Fouad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C, then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Results. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05 increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid significantly (P ≤ 0.05 decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Conclusions. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  12. Discrimination of geographical origin of lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Cortese, M; Perini, M; Camin, F; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the geographic origin of lentils by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in combination with chemometrics. Lentil samples from two origins, i.e. Italy and Canada, were analysed obtaining the stable isotope ratios of δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and δ(34)S. A comparison between median values (U-test) highlighted statistically significant differences (pprotein and starch fractions and the relevant results are reported.

  13. Detection and comparison of fungicide resistance in Botrytis fabae and B.cinerea causing broad-bean chocolate spot disease%两种蚕豆赤斑病菌对常用杀菌剂的抗药性检测及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚慧; 戴德江; 沈鑫; 张传清

    2013-01-01

    Disease samples of broad-bean chocolate spot(BBCS)from Zhejiang,Hubei and Anhui provinces were collected to isolate and identify the pathogens.Resistance of Botrytis fabae and B.cinerea which cause BBCS to fungicides was detected through the mycelial growth rate method.And the fungicide resistance risk of B.fabae and B.cinerea was assessed in vitro.Results showed that a total of 153 isolates were collected and 122 of them were B.fabae with the frequency of 79.7%.The rest 31 isolates were B.cinerea with the frequency of 20.3 %.Thirty-seven high-level carbendazim resistance isolates(9 of them were B.fabae)and 42 low-level iprodione resistance isolates(17 of them were B.fabae)were detected.The EC50 values of pyrimethanil ranged from 0.01 to 5.13μg/mL with a mean value of 0.72±0.15μg/mL.These results indicated that BBCS developed resistance to common fungicides and more serious resistance was developed in B.cinerea than in B.fabae.Moreover,results suggested that the resistance risk of B.cinerea was significantly higher than that of B.fabae in vitro.%对采自浙江、湖北和安徽3省的蚕豆赤斑病样品进行了病原菌的分离和鉴定,采用菌丝生长速率法检测了引起赤斑病的2种病原菌——蚕豆葡萄孢Botrytis fabae和灰葡萄孢B.cinerea的抗药性发生情况,并在离体条件下通过抗药性诱导试验比较了二者的抗药性风险.结果共分离得到153个菌株,其中蚕豆葡萄孢122株(占79.7%),灰葡萄孢31株(占20.3%).共检测到37株多菌灵高水平抗药性菌株(其中蚕豆葡萄孢9株)和42株异菌脲低水平抗药性菌株(其中蚕豆葡萄孢17株);嘧霉胺对153个菌株的EC50值在0.01~5.13μg/mL之间,平均EC50值为0.72±0.15μg/mL;表明蚕豆赤斑病菌对常见杀菌剂已表现出一定的抗药性,且灰葡萄孢的抗药性问题比蚕豆葡萄孢要严重得多.抗药性诱导试验进一步证实,灰葡萄孢的抗药性风险明显高于蚕豆葡萄孢.

  14. Agronomic Evaluation and Genetic Characterization of Different Accessions in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bacchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentil is an important winter-sown legume for semi-arid and temperate areas, food consumption of seed is considerable in several countries of Mediterranean Basin. In Central and Southern Italy different lentil landraces are cultivated within specific marginal areas and commercialized with a recognizable geographical indication of origin. Considering the extensive germplasm and the economic importance of lentil in several rural areas, detailed knowledge of existing genetic variation from different regions is the first important step both for conservation and exploitation of genetic resources, allowing to develop breeding programs. In field experiments over three cropping seasons (2002-2005, 25 lentil accessions from Plant Genetic Institute of National Research Council (Bari, representing part of a large germplasm collection from different areas, were carried out at the University of Reggio Calabria in order to characterize the agronomic performances in a semi-arid environment and to study genetic variability. For this purpose, 10 AFLP primer combinations and 6 SSR markers were used. The agronomic results highlighted the influence of different climatic conditions on phenological, biometrical and yielding traits. A considerable production level of lentil (2,55 t ha-1 and a low yield variability in the three years was observed, showing the high adaptability of the germplasm tested to semi-arid environment. The earliness and the plant height appeared as the most important traits negatively correlated to grain yield; in particular the earliness was confirmed as suitable mechanism of escape from abiotic stress. Genetic characterization showed that a few number of microsatellites and primer combinations are able to provide significant insights on genetic diversity combining the 25 accessions in 3 large clusters that mainly mirror their geographic origin. Principal Component Analysis that consider genetic as well as morphological and agronomic data

  15. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  16. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDA BABAYEVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant associations with seed yield per plant. Cluster analyses based on drought tolerance index (DTI grouped accessions into five subgroups with different numbers of accessions in each group. Three groups out of five were characterized by high DTI values and high yields were observed in both, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This collective group of genotypes demonstrated valuable germplasm traits under stress and may therefore serve as source of useful genes in breeding lentils for drought tolerance.

  17. An unusual cause of small bowel obstruction in children: lentil soup bezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plataras, Christos; Sardianos, Nektarios; Vlatakis, Stephanos; Nikas, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Bezoars are an unusual cause of acute intestinal obstruction in children. Most cases are trichobezoars in adolescent girls who swallow their hair. Lactobezoars are another unusual but occasionally reported cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. Phytobezoars and food bolus bezoars are the least common types of intestinal obstruction that have been reported in children. Of the few paediatric cases that have been described, the majority involve persimmons. Moreover, all of these cases involve the ingestion of raw fibres or fruit that have not been cooked. We report a case of a girl who presented with acute ileal obstruction because of lentil soup bezoar. Given the wide use of this otherwise nutritional foodstuff, we highlight the danger from its inappropriate preparation to the health of children. This is the first reported case of intestinal obstruction caused by lentils in children and we hope to raise concern among paediatricians regarding this matter.

  18. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    OpenAIRE

    SEVDA BABAYEVA; ZEYNAL AKPAROV; ADI DAMANIA

    2014-01-01

    The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC) region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant asso...

  19. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compositions of lentil (Lens culinaris var. Morton) extract and its fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Yanping; Chang, Sam K.C.; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from Morton lentils using acidified aqueous acetone. The crude Morton extract (CME) was applied onto a macroresin column and desorbed by aqueous methanol to obtain a semi-purified Morton extract (SPME). The SPME was further fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 column into five main fractions (Fr I – Fr V). The phytochemical contents such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) of the CME, SPME, and its fr...

  20. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakoula Anastasia; Ilias I.F.; Dragišić-Maksimović Jelena J.; Maksimović V.M.; Živanović Branka D.

    2012-01-01

    Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl) did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC) was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrom...

  1. Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Lentil Yield and Growth in Semi-Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah KAHRAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil is one of the most promising legume crops providing nutritional and food assurance to human beings. Due to extensive production of lentil crop in rain-fed agriculture system, its growth and yield are mainly determined by the levels of precipitation. Consequently, it usually faces drought stress during the generative stage resulting in low yield. In such scenario, controlled supplemental irrigation (SI can improve and stabilize the productivity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental irrigation on the growth and yield of lentil crop under semi-arid climate conditions of Turkey. An experiment was performed during two consecutive crop seasons at Sanliurfa, Turkey with annual mean rainfall of 196 and 275 mm in the first and second experimental year, respectively. Six supplementary irrigation treatments were given using drip irrigation system [no supplement irrigation (I0, 25% (I25, 50% (I50, 75% (I75, 100% (I100, full irrigation and 125% (I125 supplement irrigation depending on the available soil water content]. Results obtained in the study indicated that in both study years, highest biomass, harvest index and grain yield values were obtained from fully irrigated treatments (I100, while non-supplementary irrigated treatments have provided lowest values. It should be clearly noticed that growth parameters including yield were lower under over-irrigation treatment (I125. Hence, it is recommended that farmers need to optimize the supplemental irrigation technique to obtain desired yields. This study will support the successful usage of the supplemental irrigation technology to improve lentil productivity, particularly under semi-arid environment.

  2. Graphic analysis of yield stability in new improved lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. genotypes using nonparametric statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser SABAGHNIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield stability is an interesting feature of today’s lentil breeding programs, due to the high annual variation in mean yield, particularly in the arid and semi-arid areas. The genetic effects including genetic main and genotype × environment (GE interaction effects for grain yield of eighteen lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. genotypes were studied with fourteen nonparametric stability statistics. Results of five distinct nonparametric tests of GE interaction and combined ANOVA showed there were both additive and crossover interaction types and genotypes varied significantly for grain yield. According to most of the nonparametric stability statistics, genotypes G5, G6, G8 and G18 were the most stable genotypes. Considering mean yield versus stability values via their plotting, indicates that genotypes G2, G11 and G14 following to G5, G16 and G18 were the most favorable genotypes. None of the nonparametric stability statistics were correlated with mean yield and so had static concept of stability. Our results confirmed that rankings of genotypes within environments and using mean yield information permit ease of interpretation of nonparametric results. Finally genotypes G2 (FLIP 92-12L, G11 (Gachsaran and G14 (ILL 6206 were found to be the most stable and high mean yielding genotype and thus recommended for commercial release. Such an outcome could be used to delineate predictive, more rigorous recommendation strategies as well as to help define stability concepts for lentil and other crops.

  3. A farmer friendly and economic IPM strategy to combat root-knot nematodes infesting lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Rhizobium sp., waste tea leaves, eggshell powder, and composted cow dung manure on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on lentil in Botany department AMU, Aligarh, India. When used alone, composted cow dung was better in reducing galling and nematode multiplication and improving lentil growth followed by eggshell powder, Rhizobium sp., and waste tea leaves. Significant result in the integrated management of M. incognita was obtained when Rhizobium sp. was used in combination with cow dung and eggshell powder (with or without waste tea leaves. Combined application of root nodule bacterium and organic wastes like waste tea leaves, eggshell, and cow dung may be suggested to the farmers/growers or related persons who are having great enthusiasm to establish a lentil production business. Application of these organic materials along with the root nodule bacteria may be helpful to foster soil ecosystem which has been a hot topic in the present scenario.

  4. Morphological characterization and genetic diversity in lentil (Lens culinaris medikus ssp. Culinaris germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.U. Ahamed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence of 110 lentil germplasm with checks was assessed based on morphological traits using multivariate analysis. Mahalanobis generalized distance (D2 analysis was used to group the lentil genotypes. Significant variations among lentil genotypes were observed in respect of days to 1st flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, and number of pods per peduncle, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight and yield per plant. Considering the mean values, the germplasm were grouped into ten clusters. The highest number of genotypes (17 was in cluster X and lowest (5 both in cluster II and IV. Cluster IV had the highest cluster mean for number of pods per plant (297.08, number of seeds per plant (594.16, 100 seed weight (1.44 g and yield per plant (8.53 g. Among them, the highest inter-cluster distance was obtained between the cluster IV and I (24.61 followed by IV and III (22.33, while the lowest was between IX and II (1.63. The maximum value of inter-cluster distance indicated that genotypes belonging to cluster IV were far diverged from those of cluster I. The first female flower initiation was earlier in BD-3812 (49 days in cluster I and cluster IV had highest grain yield per plant (8.53. BD-3807 produced significant maximum number of pods per plant (298.40 in cluster IV.

  5. Indirect Estimations of Lentil Leaf and Plant N by SPAD Chlorophyll Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zakeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter can be used to screen for leaf nitrogen (N concentration in breeding programs. Lentil (Lens culinaris L. cultivars were grown under varied N regimes, SPAD chlorophyll meter readings (SCMR were recorded from the cultivars leaves, and leaf N concentration was measured by combustion. Linear regression and the nonlinear Radial Basis Functions (RBF neural networks models were employed to estimate leaf N concentration (LNC based on the SCMR values. The closest estimates of LNC were obtained from the multivariate models in which the combination of plant age, leaf thickness, and SCMR was employed as the independent variable. In comparison, SCMR as the single independent variable in both models estimated less than 50% of LNC variations. The results showed significant effects of soil moisture and plant age on the association of LNC –SCMR as well as the relationship of LNC with plant N, grain yield, and days to maturity. However, the effect of cultivar on the measured variables was negligible. Although lentil N can be diagnosed by comparing SCMR values of the crop with those from a well-fertilized (N fixing plot, the results did not support using SPAD chlorophyll meter for screening lentil LNC.

  6. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  7. GENETIC RELATEDNESS OF LENTIL (Lens culinaris L. GERMPLASM BY USING SSR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. K. S. Kushwaha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ninety six lentil accessions from different origins were collected from National Grain Legume Research Program, Rampur; Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj and National Agriculture Genetic Resource Center, Khumaltar, Lalitpur. Among them; four lines were Nepal Local, forty two lines were Nepal Cross; forty seven lines were ICARDA Line and finally three lines were Indian Line. All ninety six accessions were analysed by DNA fingerprinting using thirty three selected polymorphic SSR markers. The characterization was performed in Biotechnology Unit, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Khumaltar, Lalitpur by using standard protocols. Molecular variance analysis showed that 14 % genetic variation was found between population and 86 % genetic variation was found within population with estimated variance 0.23 between population and 1.35 within population. Highest genetic distance (9 was found between landrace ILL-7979 and RL-20. In the same way, highest Nei genetic distance (0.03 between population was shown by population 1 and population 4; and lowest genetic distance were observed within the same population accessions. The heterozygosity was probably due to the introgression of genes or duplication of microsatellite motif during the breeding and or the course of lentil line evolution. All the accessions included in this study displayed significant amount of genetic variability and genetic relatedness due to different center of origin and different genetic constitutions. The diversity detected in this study may constitute the new materials for future systematic lentil breeding programs.

  8. Starch, functional properties, and microstructural characteristics in chickpea and lentil as affected by thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Esteban, Rosa M; Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2009-11-25

    Changes in starch, functional, and microstructural characteristics that occurred in chickpea and lentil under soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration processing were evaluated. Available starch in raw legumes represented 57-64%, and resistant starch (RS) is a significant component. As a result of cooking, available starch contents of soaked chickpea and lentil were significantly increased (21 and 12%, respectively) and RS decreased (65 and 49%, respectively) compared to raw flours. A similar trend was exhibited by dehydration, being more relevant in lentil (73% of RS decrease). The minimum nitrogen solubility of raw flours was at pH 3, and a high degree of protein insolubilization (80%) was observed in dehydrated flours. The raw legume flours exhibited low oil-holding capacities, 0.95-1.10 mL/g, and did not show any change by thermal processing, whereas water-holding capacities rose to 4.80-4.90 mL/g of sample. Emulsifying activity and foam capacity exhibited reductions as a result of cooking and industrial dehydration processing. The microstructural observations were consistent with the chemical results. Thus, the obtained cooked and dehydrated legume flours could be considered as functional ingredients for food formulation.

  9. Symbiotic Efficiency of Native and Exotic Rhizobium Strains Nodulating Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Soils of Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Tena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lentil plays a major role in the food and nutritional security of low income Ethiopian families because of the high protein content of their seed; however, their productivity typically is low largely due to soil fertility limitations. Field and pot experiments were conducted during the 2011 cropping season to determine the effectiveness of Rhizobium strains on two cultivars of lentil in Southern Ethiopia. Six rhizobial inoculant treatments (four indigenous and two commercial inoculants, a nitrogen (N fertilizer treatment (50 kg·urea·ha−1 and an absolute control (non-inoculated non-fertilized were used. Inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodule number, nodule dry weight, grain yield and yield components than non-inoculated non-fertilized plants. Inoculation of field grown lentil with rhizobia strain Lt29 and Lt5 enhanced seed yield by 59% and 44%, respectively. Whereas urea fertilization enhanced yields by 40%. Similarly, grain yields were increased during the pot experiment by 92% and 67% over the control treatments by inoculation with Lt29 and Lt5, respectively. The highest levels of N fixation were achieved in plants inoculated with Lt29 (65.7% Ndfa. Both field and pot investigations indicate that inoculation of lentil with native rhizobial strains replace the need for inorganic N fertilization to optimize lentil yields.

  10. Stability of expression of reference genes among different lentil (Lens culinaris) genotypes subjected to cold stress, white mold disease, and Aphanomyces root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentils have served as an important plant source of dietary protein for over 8000 years. The development of improved lentil varieties is accelerated by a better understanding of the genetic basis of desirable traits, which can be gained by examining patterns of gene expression among phenotypically d...

  11. Purification and characterization of a lentil seedling lipoxygenase expressed in E. coli: Implications for the mechanism of oxodiene formation by lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Hilbers, M.P.; Finazzi Agrò, A.; Veldink, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Lentil seedlings contain at least six lipoxygenase isoenzymes, which are difficult to separate by classical enzyme purification techniques. The aim of this work was to study one particular lentil seedling lipoxygenase, as previous work indicated possible interesting characteristics of this enzyme wi

  12. Effects of Hydro and Osmo-Priming on Seed Germination and Field Emergence of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests and two field experiments were conducted in RCB design in 2006 and 2007 at the Research Farm of the University of Tabriz, Iran, to evaluate the effects of hydro and osmo - priming (PEG: Polyethylene glycol 6000 at -0.8MPa on seed germination and field emergence of lentil. Analysis of variance for laboratory data showed that hydropriming significantly improved germination rate and root weights, compared to other seed treatments. However germination percentage for seeds primed with water and PEG were statistically similar, but higher than those for unprimed seeds. Over all, hydropriming treatment was comparatively superior in laboratory tests. Invigoration of lentil seeds by hydropriming resulted in higher seedling emergence in the field, compared to control and seed priming with PEG. Seedling emergence rate was also enhanced by priming seed with water. Thus, hydropriming could be used as a simple method for improving seed germination and seedling emergence of lentil in the field.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Cultivated Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and Its Relation to the World's Agro-ecological Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Hamid; Caron, Carolyn T; Fedoruk, Michael; Diapari, Marwan; Vandenberg, Albert; Coyne, Clarice J; McGee, Rebecca; Bett, Kirstin E

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of germplasm collections plays a critical role in supporting conservation and crop genetic enhancement strategies. We used a cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) collection consisting of 352 accessions originating from 54 diverse countries to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure using 1194 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers which span the lentil genome. Using principal coordinate analysis, population structure analysis and UPGMA cluster analysis, the accessions were categorized into three major groups that prominently reflected geographical origin (world's agro-ecological zones). The three clusters complemented the origins, pedigrees, and breeding histories of the germplasm. The three groups were (a) South Asia (sub-tropical savannah), (b) Mediterranean, and (c) northern temperate. Based on the results from this study, it is also clear that breeding programs still have considerable genetic diversity to mine within the cultivated lentil, as surveyed South Asian and Canadian germplasm revealed narrow genetic diversity. PMID:27507980

  14. Urticaria and anaphilaxis in a child after inhalation of lentils vapours: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vitaliti Giovanna; Morselli Ignazio; Di Stefano Valeria; Lanzafame Angela; La Rosa Mario; Leonardi Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age. Case report A 22 -month-old child was admitted to our Pediatric Department for anaphylaxis and urticaria. At the age of 9 months she presented a first episode of angioedema and laryngeal obstruction, due to a second assumption of lentils in her diet. At admission we performed rou...

  15. Construction of intersubspecific molecular genetic map of lentil based on ISSR, RAPD and SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, Bhawna; Kumar, Naresh; Chahota, Rakesh K; Rathour, Rajeev; Sharma, Shyam K; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Sharma, Tilak R

    2012-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris), is a self-pollinating diploid (2n = 2x = 14), cool-season legume crop and is consumed worldwide as a rich source of protein (~24.0%), largely in vegetarian diets. Here we report development of a genetic linkage map of Lens using 114 F(2) plants derived from the intersubspecific cross between L 830 and ILWL 77. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers revealed more polymorphism than ISSR (intersimple sequence repeat) and SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. The highest proportion (30.72%) of segregation distortion was observed in RAPD markers. Of the 235 markers (34 SSR, 9 ISSR and 192 RAPD) used in the mapping study, 199 (28 SSRs, 9 ISSRs and 162 RAPDs) were mapped into 11 linkage groups (LGs), varying between 17.3 and 433.8 cM and covering 3843.4 cM, with an average marker spacing of 19.3 cM. Linkage analysis revealed nine major groups with 15 or more markers each and two small LGs with two markers each, and 36 unlinked markers. The study reported assigning of 11 new SSRs on the linkage map. Of the 66 markers with aberrant segregation, 14 were unlinked and the remaining 52 were mapped. ISSR and RAPD markers were found to be useful in map construction and saturation. The current map represents maximum coverage of lentil genome and could be used for identification of QTL regions linked to agronomic traits, and for marker-assisted selection in lentil. PMID:23271013

  16. Construction of intersubspecific molecular genetic map of lentil based on ISSR, RAPD and SSR markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mamta Gupta; Bhawna Verma; Naresh Kumar; Rakesh K. Chahota; Rajeev Rathour; Shyam K. Sharma; Sabhyata Bhatia; Tilak R. Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris), is a self-pollinating diploid ($2n = 2x = 14$), cool-season legume crop and is consumed worldwide as a rich source of protein (∼24.0%), largely in vegetarian diets. Here we report development of a genetic linkage map of Lens using 114 F2 plants derived from the intersubspecific cross between L 830 and ILWL 77. RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) primers revealed more polymorphism than ISSR (intersimple sequence repeat) and SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers. The highest proportion (30.72%) of segregation distortion was observed in RAPD markers. Of the 235 markers (34 SSR, 9 ISSR and 192 RAPD) used in the mapping study, 199 (28 SSRs, 9 ISSRs and 162 RAPDs) were mapped into 11 linkage groups (LGs), varying between 17.3 and 433.8 cM and covering 3843.4 cM, with an average marker spacing of 19.3 cM. Linkage analysis revealed nine major groups with 15 or more markers each and two small LGs with two markers each, and 36 unlinked markers. The study reported assigning of 11 new SSRs on the linkage map. Of the 66 markers with aberrant segregation, 14 were unlinked and the remaining 52 were mapped. ISSR and RAPD markers were found to be useful in map construction and saturation. The current map represents maximum coverage of lentil genome and could be used for identification of QTL regions linked to agronomic traits, and for marker-assisted selection in lentil.

  17. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  18. Field evaluation of cutter and feeder mechanism of chickpea harvester for lentil harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kamgar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main producers of lentil are Canada, India, Nepal and China, respectively and Iran is the ninth producer in the world. The hand pulling is the usual method of lentil harvesting. Use of conventional combine because of short leg varieties, wide combine head in dry land and grain losses by cutter bar vibrations is impossible. So a mechanism should be designed to harvest the lentil plants with minimum damage. This mechanism should be evaluated under different tests of crop and machines such as forward speed (FS, grain moisture content (GMC, different varieties and other parameters. Some researchers studied the effects of GMC (Andrews and et al., 1993; Huitink, 2005; Adisa, 2009; Abdi and Jalali, 2013 and FS on grain losses (Geng et al., 1984; Swapan et al., 2001; Mostafavand and Kamgar, 2014; Hunt, 1995. Field tests were conducted at three levels of FS 1.5, 3 and 4.5 km.h-1; three levels of cutting height (CH 4, 8 and 13 cm and two levels of GMC, 8 and 14% on two varieties of lentils including Flip and Shiraz with three replications. Materials and Methods The feeder and cutter mechanism for chickpea harvesting that was the base design of device which is notched wheel and counter shear, was used. The other components of device were dividers, slat and chain feeders, belt and pulleys, chassis, elevator conveyor and storage. Two split plot design based on a randomized complete design was used to determine the effects of above treatments on lentil losses. Results and Discussion The ANOVA results indicated that the all studied factors; FS of feeder and cutter mechanism, CH and GMC had significant effect on losses of Shiraz variety (P0.05. The ranges of losses of Flip variety at 8% GMC were 8.6 to 10% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 9.1 to 10.4% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 10.4 to 11.4% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. These ranges at 14% GMC were 7.9 to 8.9% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 8.4 to 9.2% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 8.5 to 10% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. The ranges of

  19. Determination of Soil Water Content After Fallow, Winter and Spring Sown Lentil in Dry Farming Areas

    OpenAIRE

    ADAK, M. Sait

    2001-01-01

    This research was carried out from 1993 through 1995 for a two-year period in dry farming areas of Haymana/Ankara. The aim of the research was to determine the available water content of the 0-60 and 0-90 cm soil depth layers for wheat after fallow periods and after winter and spring crops of lentils under two different soil tillage treatments. According to the experimental results, the highest available water content was measured in fallow plots (28.6% (rototiller 0-60 cm) and 94.6% plough 0...

  20. Competition Among Rhizobium leguminosarum Strains for Nodulation of Lentils (Lens esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    May, Sheila N.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-one cultures of Rhizobium leguminosarum were screened for effectiveness (C2H2 reduction) on lentils (Lens esculenta). Fluorescent antibodies prepared against three of the most effective strains (Hawaii 5-0, Nitragin 92A3, and Nitragin 128A12) exhibited a high degree of strain specificity; the antibodies reacted strongly with their homologous rhizobia in culture and with bacteroids in nodules. They did not cross-react with one another, and only weakly with 5 of the 47 other R. leguminos...

  1. Structural and Functional Characterization of Recombinant Isoforms of the Lentil Lipid Transfer Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, I. V.; Finkina, E. I.; Balandin, S. V.; Melnikova, D. N.; Stukacheva, E. A.; Ovchinnikova, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant isoforms Lc-LTP1 and Lc-LTP3 of the lentil lipid transfer protein were overexpressed in E. coli cells. It was confirmed that both proteins are stabilized by four disulfide bonds and characterized by a high proportion of the α-helical structure. It was found that Lc-LTP1 and Lc-LTP3 possess antimicrobial activity and can bind fatty acids. Both isoforms have the ability to bind specific IgE from sera of patients with food allergies, which recognize similar epitopes of the major ...

  2. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RECOMBINANT ISOFORMS OF THE LENTIL LIPID TRANSFER PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, I. V.; Finkina, E. I.; Balandin, S. V.; Melnikova, D. N.; Stukacheva, E. A.; Ovchinnikova, T. V.

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant isoforms Lc-LTP1 and Lc-LTP3 of the lentil lipid transfer protein were overexpressed in E. coli cells. It was confirmed that both proteins are stabilized by four disulfide bonds and characterized by a high proportion of the α-helical structure. It was found that Lc-LTP1 and Lc-LTP3 possess antimicrobial activity and can bind fatty acids. Both isoforms have the ability to bind specific IgE from sera of patients with food allergies, which recognize similar epitopes of the major ...

  3. Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtu Assefa,

    1994-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting the traditional bean production practices. Surveys identified five major

  4. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  5. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  6. On Applying the Micronucleus Technology of the Root Point of Broad Beans to Monitor the Water Quality in Duyun Rivers%蚕豆根尖微核技术监测剑江都匀市区河段水质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马媛; 龙俊; 吴莉莉

    2012-01-01

    本文利用蚕豆根尖微核技术监测剑江都匀市区河段水质的污染状况,测定6个断面水样的蚕豆根尖细胞微核千分率(MCN‰)及污染指数(PI),并进行F检测,结果表明,各断面水样均能引起微核率升高,桃溪园、枣园、水厂、彩虹桥、百子桥和文峰园断面的微核千分率分别为6.92%0、6.00‰、9.53%0、11.36‰、6.63%o、5.57%0,P1分别为2.06、1.79、2.83、3.38、1.97、1.66。按照污染指数划分标准,枣园、百子桥和文峰园断面的水质为轻度污染,桃溪园、水厂、彩虹桥断面水质为中度污染。%In this paper, the micronucleus of the root point of brand beans is applied to monitor the pollution situation of water quality in Duyun rivers. On the basis of a mensuration of the MCN%0 and PI of the cell in the root point of brand beans in six water sections and detection of F, the results show that water sample in each water section can cause the rise of MCN%0. The MCN%0 of the water section in Taoxiyuan, Zaoyuan, Water Factory, Rainbow Bridge, Baizi Bridge and Wenfengyuan section are as follows: 6.92 %0, 6.00 %0, 9.53 %0, 11.36 %0, 6.63 %0, 5.57 %0; PI are as follows: 2.06, 1.79, 2.83, 3.38, 1.97, 1.66. According to the PI standards, the water in Zaoyuan, Baizi Bridge and Wen- fengyuan sections is slightly polluted; that in Taoxiyuan, Water Factory and Rainbow Bridge sections is polluted moderately.

  7. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients. PMID:26635049

  8. Studies on Variability of Lentil Genotypes in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tuba BICER

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four lentil genotypes from ICARDA were evaluated at Diyarbakir, Turkey in 2003/2004 season. Eleven characters were studied. Days to maturity ranged from 188 to 196 days, and some genotypes were earlier than the local check, or same. Total 42 genotypes, suitable for mechanical harvest, were taller than 25 cm plant height. Seed yield per plant varied from 0.5 g to 2.366 g. The genotypes for cold tolerance were determined, and the genotypes of 1-3 scale were selected future lentil-breeding programme. Grain yield ranged from 776.8 kg/ha for FLIP 96-47L to 3242.3 kg/ha for FLIP 2004-49L. Grain yield was positively correlated with days to maturity, biological yield per plant, and plant height, number of seeds and pods per plant and seed yield per plant, negatively correlated with days to flowering and number of branches per plant.

  9. Variations in Four Genotypes of Lentil under NaCl-Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sidari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lentil cultivars, Eston (E, Rossa of Castelluccio (RC, Pantelleria (P and Ustica (U differing in salt sensitivity, were examined for osmolyte contents and activities of α-amylase, β-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes involved in seed germination, in absence as well as in presence of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM NaCl. The inhibitory effects of NaCl differed, depending on the genotypes tested. In Castelluccio and Eston, cultivars with reduced germination percentage and lower relative water content, the increase in NaCl concentration resulted in the decrease in endogenous levels of proline, total soluble sugars and activities of the main enzymes involved in the germination process. In contrast, Pantelleria and Ustica seeds in response to salt stress accumulated higher proline and total soluble sugar concentrations which improved their water status and the enzyme activities involved in the germination process. Differential response of the different genotypes of lentil to salt stress may be governed by the accumulation of osmolytes in seeds.

  10. Statistical Approaches to Analyse Gene Bank Data Using a Lentil Germplasm Collection as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Sonnante

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Normally in a plant gene bank a large number of accessions per each crop and/ or taxon is stored. During their characterization and preliminary evaluation, several quantitative and qualitative data are recorded and, usually, a wide intra accession variation is observed. Th e management of all this information becomes very difficult without effective statistical methods combining these different types of data. At the Institute of Plant Genetics, CNR, in Bari (Italy this problem has been tackled by testing many statistical approaches. The present contribution describes one of these approaches, which to date has proven to be highly adequate; a case study describing a lentil germplasm collection has been used for demonstration. A valuable application of this method is the determination of core subsets important to increase the utilization and accessibility of plant genetic resources. In the presented case study a subset of the lentil germplasm collection was chosen to perform molecular analysis based on ISSR markers. The samples were selected on the basis of both morpho-agronomic evaluation and geographical origin. These markers proved to be useful for distinguishing among closely related genotypes and for possibly substantiating the genetic peculiarity of some interesting material.

  11. Effect Of Chitosan Application On The Performance Of Lentil Genotypes Under Rainfed Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmohammadi Mohsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, influences of chitosan solutions on morphological characteristics, growth and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Med. under rainfed conditions have been investigated. A field experiment was conducted in the Northwest of Iran using a split-plot experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The response of twelve genotypes with different origins to chitosan application at the sowing (seed soaking, vegetative and reproductive stage (spraying chitosan onto leaves was evaluated. Results revealed that chitosan application could significantly improve the number of pods per plant, 100-seed weight, grain yield per plant and harvest index in comparison to control plants. The comparison of yield components between chitosan treatments showed that spraying chitosan during the reproductive stage was more efficient than in other stages. However, the responses of the number of pods per plants and grain yield per plants to chitosan treatments were significantly different among the genotypes. Although the highest grain yield was recorded in the 78S 26013 genotype (from Jordan, its response to chitosan treatments was different from the other genotypes and showed the best performance in plants obtained from seed soaked in chitosan solutions. We suggest that the application of chitosan as an agronomic management strategy be further investigated for an efficient technique to induce resistance in lentil plants against biotic and drought stress in semi-arid regions.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ADDITION OF OAT AND LENTIL ON THE CONTENT OF THE DETECTED COMPONENTS IN BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Frančáková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results obtained by bread products analysis made with the addition of oats and lentils, which increased its nutrition value are presented. Breads were prepared with addition of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 % and 50 % which were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd content. Prepared products were evaluated also from viewpoint of their technological and nutritional value. Use of oat in bread increased with the addition of a quantity of 50 % content of nutritionally significant elements such as Fe (3.2 times, Mn (3.13 times, Zn (2.23 times, Cu (2.01 times and Cr (1.2 times. The addition of lentils increased particularly Cu content (3.55 times, Zn (2.96 times and Mn (1.29 times. None of the samples showed exceeded maximum limit (1.0 mg.kg-1 for lead. Based on the analysis results it was confirmed, that the most problematic element in our soils and subsequently in the foodstuffs is cadmium. Exceeded values (-1 were detected in 8 samples from 11, in finished products the values were within the limits ranging from 0.090 mg.kg-1 Cd to 0.180 mg.kg-1 Cd.doi:10.5219/42

  13. Global wild annual Lens collection: a potential resource for lentil genetic base broadening and yield enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohar Singh

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives (CWRs are invaluable gene sources for various traits of interest, yet these potential resources are themselves increasingly threatened by the impact of climate change as well as other anthropogenic and socio-economic factors. The prime goal of our research was to cover all aspects of wild Lens genetic resource management like species characterization, agro-morphological evaluation, diversity assessment, and development of representative sets for its enhanced utilization in lentil base broadening and yield improvement initiatives. We characterized and evaluated extensively, the global wild annual Lens taxa, originating from twenty seven counties under two agro-climatic conditions of India consecutively for three cropping seasons. Results on various qualitative and quantitative characters including two foliar diseases showed wide variations for almost all yield attributing traits including multiple disease resistance in the wild species, L. nigricans and L. ervoides accessions. The core set developed from the entire Lens taxa had maximum representation from Turkey and Syria, indicating rich diversity in accessions originating from these regions. Diversity analysis also indicated wide geographical variations across genepool as was reflected in the core set. Potential use of core set, as an initial starting material, for genetic base broadening of cultivated lentil was also suggested.

  14. Early activation of lipoxygenase in lentil (Lens culinaris) root protoplasts by oxidative stress induces programmed cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Maccarrone, M.; Zadelhoff, G. van; Veldink, G.A.; Finazzi Agrò, A.

    2000-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) triggers the hypersensitive response of plants to pathogens. Here, short pulses of H2O2 are shown to cause death of lentil (Lens culinaris) root protoplasts. Dead cells showed DNA fragmentation and ladder formation, typical hallmarks of apoptosis (

  15. In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index, and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Warkentin, Tom D; Vandenberg, Bert

    2008-11-15

    In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index (eGI), and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea grown in Canada under identical environmental conditions were investigated. The protein content and gelatinization transition temperatures of lentil flour were higher than those of pea and chickpea flours. Chickpea flour showed a lower amylose content (10.8-13.5%) but higher free lipid content (6.5-7.1%) and amylose-lipid complex melting enthalpy (0.7-0.8J/g). Significant differences among cultivars within the same species were observed with respect to swelling power, gelatinization properties, pasting properties and in vitro starch digestibility, especially chickpea flour from desi (Myles) and kabuli type (FLIP 97-101C and 97-Indian2-11). Lentil flour was hydrolyzed more slowly and to a lesser extent than pea and chickpea flours. The amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in chickpea flour was the highest among the pulse flours, but the resistant starch (RS) content was the lowest. The eGI of lentil flour was the lowest among the pulse flours.

  16. A simple and reliable method to detect gamma irradiated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) seeds by germination efficiency and seedling growth test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germination efficiency and root/shoot length of germinated seedling is proposed to identify irradiated lentil seeds. Germination percentage was reduced above 0.2 kGy and lentil seeds were unable to germinate above 1.0 kGy dose. The critical dose that prevented the root elongation varied from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy. The sensitivity of lentil seeds to gamma irradiation was inversely proportional to moisture content of the seeds. Radiation effects could be detected in seeds even 12 months storage after gamma irradiation

  17. Tagging and mapping of SSR marker for rust resistance gene in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, H K; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, D; Aski, M; Jain, Neelu; Hegde, V S; Basandrai, A K; Basandrai, D; Sharma, T R

    2016-06-01

    Lentil, as an economical source of protein, minerals and vitamins, plays important role in nutritional security of the common man. Grown mainly in West Asia, North Africa (WANA) region and South Asia, it suffers from several biotic stresses such as wilt, rust, blight and broomrape. Lentil rust caused by autoecious fungus Uromyces viciae fabae (Pers.) Schroet is a serious lentil disease in Algeria, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India, Italy, Morocco, Pakistan and Nepal. The disease symptoms are observed during flowering and early podding stages. Rust causes severe yield losses in lentil. It can only be effectively controlled by identifying the resistant source, understanding its inheritance and breeding for host resistance. The obligate parasitic nature of pathogen makes it difficult to maintain the pathogen in culture and to apply it to screen segregating progenies under controlled growth conditions. Hence, the use of molecular markers will compliment in identification of resistant types in different breeding programs. Here, we studied the inheritance of resistance to rust in lentil using F₁, F₂ and F₂:₃ from cross PL 8 (susceptible) x L 4149 (resistant) varieties. The phenotyping of lentil population was carried out at Sirmour, India. The result of genetic analysis revealed that a single dominant gene controls rust resistance in lentil genotype L 4149. The F2 population from this cross was used to tag and map the rust resistance gene using SSR and SRAP markers. Markers such as 270 SRAP and 162 SSR were studied for polymorphism and 101 SRAP and 33 SSRs were found to be polymorphic between the parents. Two SRAP and two SSR markers differentiated the resistant and susceptible bulks. SSR marker Gllc 527 was estimated to be linked to rust resistant locus at a distance of 5.9 cM. The Gllc 527 marker can be used for marker assisted selection for rust resistance; however, additional markers closer to rust resistant locus are required. The markers linked to the rust

  18. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  19. Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L. and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Menga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, hydrolyzed (HTC and condensed tannin (CTC, antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L. and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L. cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%, HTC (73%, TFC (85% and CTC (41%, passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively. In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively. Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001 and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea.

  20. Identification and analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. transcriptomes by massively parallel pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimmapuram Jyothi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris is the most important food legume in the world. Although this crop is very important to both the developed and developing world as a means of dietary protein supply, resources available in common bean are limited. Global transcriptome analysis is important to better understand gene expression, genetic variation, and gene structure annotation in addition to other important features. However, the number and description of common bean sequences are very limited, which greatly inhibits genome and transcriptome research. Here we used 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a substantial transcriptome dataset for common bean. Results We obtained 1,692,972 reads with an average read length of 207 nucleotides (nt. These reads were assembled into 59,295 unigenes including 39,572 contigs and 19,723 singletons, in addition to 35,328 singletons less than 100 bp. Comparing the unigenes to common bean ESTs deposited in GenBank, we found that 53.40% or 31,664 of these unigenes had no matches to this dataset and can be considered as new common bean transcripts. Functional annotation of the unigenes carried out by Gene Ontology assignments from hits to Arabidopsis and soybean indicated coverage of a broad range of GO categories. The common bean unigenes were also compared to the bean bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC end sequences, and a total of 21% of the unigenes (12,724 including 9,199 contigs and 3,256 singletons match to the 8,823 BAC-end sequences. In addition, a large number of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and transcription factors were also identified in this study. Conclusions This work provides the first large scale identification of the common bean transcriptome derived by 454 pyrosequencing. This research has resulted in a 150% increase in the number of Phaseolus vulgaris ESTs. The dataset obtained through this analysis will provide a platform for functional genomics in common bean and related legumes and

  1. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  2. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  3. Utilization of DNA comet assay and half embryo test to identify irradiated lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Legumes make an important contribution to human nutrition on a worldwide basis. Insect infestation cause extensive damage to stored grains. Over the last few decades some countries adopted food irradiation as a safe food process. Radiation's processing on foods improves hygienic quality and extends their shelf life. The use of radiation treatment to reduce the microbial population and thereby extend the shelf life in legumes has been reported in many papers. Irradiation has been shown to be an effective pest control method for these commodities and a good alternative to prohibited methyl bromide. Radiation disinfestation can facilitate trade in foods that often harbor insect pests of quarantine importance. Although the wholesomeness of irradiated food is no longer a question there is a need for irradiation control in the international trade of foods, in order to enhance the consumer confidence in the regulation. As a screening methods to identify irradiated lentils, processed by e-beam as a food treatment to disinfestation, the DNA Comet Assay and Half Embryo tests were performed. The methodologies used in this work are based upon biological changes that occur in Brazilian lentils. The samples were irradiated in an electron beam accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA). The irradiation doses were 0,7; 1,4 and 3,0 kGy at dry conditions. The thickness of samples was less than 0,5 cm. A sensitive technique to detect DNA fragmentation is the microgel electrophoresis of single cells or nuclei, also called 'comet assay'. Since the large molecule of DNA is an easy target for ionizing radiation, changes in DNA offer potential as a detection method. It is restricted to foods that have not been subjected to heat or other treatments, which also cause DNA fragmentation. Lentil samples were crushed with a mortar and pestle and was transferred to 3ml ice-cold PBS. This suspension was stirred for 5 minutes and filtered. 100μl cell

  4. Effect of Extrusion Variables on the Hardness of Lentil Semolina Extrudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Todorka; Ruskova, Milena; Tzonev, Panayot; Zsivanovits, Gabor; Penov, Nikolay

    2010-01-01

    Lentil semolina was extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany) with screw diameter 19 mm and die diameter 5 mm. Effects of moisture content, barrel temperature, metering zone temperature, screw speed, and screw compression ratio on hardness of the extruded products were studied. Response surface methodology with combinations of moisture content (18, 22, 25, 28, 32%), metering zone temperature (136, 150, 160, 170, 184° C), barrel temperature (136, 150, 160, 170, 184° C), screw speed (132, 160, 180, 200, 228 rpm), and screw compression ratio (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1) was applied. Feed screw speed was fixed at 70 rpm. Feed zone temperature was kept constant at 150° C. The hardness of the extrudates was measured with a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems. The textural profiles of the extrudates showed that feed moisture had the highest effect on the hardness.

  5. Structural and Functional Characterization of Recombinant Isoforms of the Lentil Lipid Transfer Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, I V; Finkina, E I; Balandin, S V; Melnikova, D N; Stukacheva, E A; Ovchinnikova, T V

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant isoforms Lc-LTP1 and Lc-LTP3 of the lentil lipid transfer protein were overexpressed in E. coli cells. It was confirmed that both proteins are stabilized by four disulfide bonds and characterized by a high proportion of the α-helical structure. It was found that Lc-LTP1 and Lc-LTP3 possess antimicrobial activity and can bind fatty acids. Both isoforms have the ability to bind specific IgE from sera of patients with food allergies, which recognize similar epitopes of the major peach allergen Pru p 3. Both isoforms were shown to have immunological properties similar to those of other plant allergenic LTPs, but Lc-LTP3 displayed a less pronounced immunoreactivity. PMID:26483961

  6. Assessment of genetic response and character association for yield and yield components in Lentil (Lens culinaris L. population developed through chemical mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is imperative to any plant improvement program. Therefore, this study was primarily based on this aspect of inducing desirable genetic variation for enhancement of the available lentil genetic diversity. The lentil seeds were treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS alone and in combination with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for inducing polygenic variation as well as determining the impact of DMSO on mutagenecity of MMS. Comparative observations were recorded for bio-physiological damages, morphological variation, and quantitative traits to assess the genetic response of the lentil cultivar L 4076 toward the different concentrations of chemicals. Significant statistics suggested that the DMSO interfere with the extent of mutagenecity of MMS in lentil which could be attributed to either synergistic action of both or variation in MMS uptake. The outcome of mutagenesis on the character association study revealed that mutagenic treatments can modify significantly the manner of association between any two traits in lentil. The moderate doses of MMS in combination with 2% DMSO showed notable diminution in the biological damages while accelerating the rate of desirable high-yielding mutants had proved to be economical. The segregate of the selected mutants in future generations will definitely contribute to the improvement of Lentil genotype.

  7. Heterologous expression and solution structure of defensin from lentil Lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Lentil defensin Lc-def and its 15N-labeled analog were overexpressed in E. coli. • Lc-def is active against fungi, but does not inhibit growth of G+ and G− bacteria. • Lc-def spatial structure involves triple-stranded β-sheet and α-helix (CSαβ motif). • Lc-def is able to bind to anionic lipid vesicles under low-salt conditions. • NMR data revealed significant μs–ms mobility in the loops 1 and 3 of Lc-def. - Abstract: A new defensin Lc-def, isolated from germinated seeds of the lentil Lens culinaris, has molecular mass 5440.4 Da and consists of 47 amino acid residues. Lc-def and its 15N-labeled analog were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant protein was examined, and its spatial structure, dynamics, and interaction with lipid vesicles were studied by NMR spectroscopy. It was shown that Lc-def is active against fungi, but does not inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide is monomeric in aqueous solution and contains one α-helix and triple-stranded β-sheet, which form cysteine-stabilized αβ motif (CSαβ) previously found in other plant defensins. The sterically neighboring loop1 and loop3 protrude from the defensin core and demonstrate significant mobility on the μs–ms timescale. Lc-def does not bind to the zwitterionic lipid (POPC) vesicles but interacts with the partially anionic (POPC/DOPG, 7:3) membranes under low-salt conditions. The Lc-def antifungal activity might be mediated through electrostatic interaction with anionic lipid components of fungal membranes

  8. Heterologous expression and solution structure of defensin from lentil Lens culinaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gizatullina, Albina K. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I.; Alekseeva, Ekaterina A.; Balandin, Sergey V.; Mineev, Konstantin S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • Lentil defensin Lc-def and its {sup 15}N-labeled analog were overexpressed in E. coli. • Lc-def is active against fungi, but does not inhibit growth of G+ and G− bacteria. • Lc-def spatial structure involves triple-stranded β-sheet and α-helix (CSαβ motif). • Lc-def is able to bind to anionic lipid vesicles under low-salt conditions. • NMR data revealed significant μs–ms mobility in the loops 1 and 3 of Lc-def. - Abstract: A new defensin Lc-def, isolated from germinated seeds of the lentil Lens culinaris, has molecular mass 5440.4 Da and consists of 47 amino acid residues. Lc-def and its {sup 15}N-labeled analog were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant protein was examined, and its spatial structure, dynamics, and interaction with lipid vesicles were studied by NMR spectroscopy. It was shown that Lc-def is active against fungi, but does not inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide is monomeric in aqueous solution and contains one α-helix and triple-stranded β-sheet, which form cysteine-stabilized αβ motif (CSαβ) previously found in other plant defensins. The sterically neighboring loop1 and loop3 protrude from the defensin core and demonstrate significant mobility on the μs–ms timescale. Lc-def does not bind to the zwitterionic lipid (POPC) vesicles but interacts with the partially anionic (POPC/DOPG, 7:3) membranes under low-salt conditions. The Lc-def antifungal activity might be mediated through electrostatic interaction with anionic lipid components of fungal membranes.

  9. Recombinant production and solution structure of lipid transfer protein from lentil Lens culinaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizatullina, Albina K. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; Melnikova, Daria N.; Bogdanov, Ivan V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Telezhinskaya, Irina N.; Balandin, Sergey V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shenkarev, Zakhar O. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Lipid transfer protein from lentil seeds (Lc-LTP2) was overexpressed in E. coli. •Antimicrobial activity and spatial structure of the recombinant Lc-LTP2 were examined. •Internal tunnel-like lipid-binding cavity occupies ∼7% of the total Lc-LTP2 volume. •Binding of DMPG lipid induces moderate rearrangements in the Lc-LTP2 structure. •Lc-LTP2/DMPG complex has limited lifetime and dissociates within tens of hours. -- Abstract: Lipid transfer protein, designated as Lc-LTP2, was isolated from seeds of the lentil Lens culinaris. The protein has molecular mass 9282.7 Da, consists of 93 amino acid residues including 8 cysteines forming 4 disulfide bonds. Lc-LTP2 and its stable isotope labeled analogues were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant protein was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. The polypeptide chain of Lc-LTP2 forms four α-helices (Cys4-Leu18, Pro26-Ala37, Thr42-Ala56, Thr64-Lys73) and a long C-terminal tail without regular secondary structure. Side chains of the hydrophobic residues form a relatively large internal tunnel-like lipid-binding cavity (van der Waals volume comes up to ∼600 Å{sup 3}). The side-chains of Arg45, Pro79, and Tyr80 are located near an assumed mouth of the cavity. Titration with dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) revealed formation of the Lc-LTP2/lipid non-covalent complex accompanied by rearrangements in the protein spatial structure and expansion of the internal cavity. The resultant Lc-LTP2/DMPG complex demonstrates limited lifetime and dissociates within tens of hours.

  10. Effect of variety and level of phosphorus on the yield and yield components of lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Datta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to study the effect of variety and level of phosphorus fertilizer on the yield and yield components of lentil at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during October 2009 to March 2010. Three lentil varieties viz. BINA masur 2, BINA masur 3 and BARI masur 4 and four levels of phosphorus viz. 0 kg P ha-1 (P0, 15 kg P ha-1 (P15, 30 kg P ha-1 (P30 and 45 kg P ha-1 (P45 were used in this experiment. Varieties showed significant influence on the all characters except plant height. The highest seed yield (1165 kg ha-1 was observed in BARI masur 4, and the lowest seed yield (1028 kg ha-1 was found in BINA masur 3. Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant effect on all the plant characters studied except 1000 seed weight. The highest seed yield (1222kg ha-1 was observed in P45 (45 kg P ha-1 treatment and the lowest seed yield (893 kg ha-1 was found in P0 treatment. In case of interaction, effect of cultivar and phosphorus fertilizer doses had a significant effect on all the plant characters studied except seeds pod -1 and 1000-seed weight. The highest seed yield (1317 kg ha-1 was obtained in V3 X P45 treatment, and the lowest seed yield (830 kg ha-1 was observed in V2 X P0 treatment combination. Among the varieties BINA masur 2 and BARI masur 4 were superior to BINA masur 3 in respect of yield performance with 30 kg P ha-1. BARI masur 4 fertilized with 30 kg P ha-1 produced the highest seed yield.

  11. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards.

  12. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  13. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  14. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  15. Root-Length Densities of Lentil and Wheat and Measuring Infiltration in the Soil in Different Soil Tillage, Lentil-Wheat versa Fallow-Wheat Rotation Systems under Central Anatolian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    ESER, Didar; ADAK, M. Sait

    1998-01-01

    The research was carried out for four years in the two locations Haymana-Ankara and Gözlü-Konya under different climate characteristics of the Central Anatolian Region. The aim of the reseach was to improve soil fertility in dry farming areas and to increase the benefit from fallow areas. Different soil tillage treatments and lentil-wheat versa fallow- wheat rotations systems resp. were examined in these experiments. According to experimental results highest root-length densities (RLD s )...

  16. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Best Choices of Dried Beans, Legumes, Peas and Lentils Try to include dried beans into several meals ... Dried beans such as black, lima, and pinto Lentils Dried peas such as black-eyed and split ...

  17. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics.

  18. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L. Seeds and Their Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.

  19. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  20. Discrimination of geographical origin of lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Cortese, M; Perini, M; Camin, F; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the geographic origin of lentils by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in combination with chemometrics. Lentil samples from two origins, i.e. Italy and Canada, were analysed obtaining the stable isotope ratios of δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and δ(34)S. A comparison between median values (U-test) highlighted statistically significant differences (plentils produced in these two different geographic areas, except for δ(15)N. Applying principal component analysis, grouping of samples was observed on the basis of origin but with overlapping zones; consequently, two supervised discriminant techniques, i.e. partial least squares discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbours algorithm were used. Both models showed good performances with external prediction abilities of about 93% demonstrating the suitability of the methods developed. Subsequently, isotopic determinations were also performed on the protein and starch fractions and the relevant results are reported. PMID:26041202

  1. Motivational differences in food orientation and the choice of snacks made from lentils, locusts, seaweed or "hybrid" meat

    OpenAIRE

    Boer; Schösler, H.; Boersema, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The recently developed Food Choice Motives (FCMs) questionnaire was used in a survey among a sample from the general population in the Netherlands (n = 1083) to examine the relationship between motivational differences in food orientation and the choice of snacks made from environmentally-friendly proteins (i.e. lentils, locusts, seaweed or "hybrid" meat). The results show that there is room for a change to a diet with more environmentally friendly proteins, with the exception of insects. As ...

  2. Savinase, the most suitable enzyme for releasing peptides from lentil (Lens culinaris var. Castellana) protein concentrates with multifunctional properties

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Mora, Patricia; Peñas Pozo, Elena; Martínez Villaluenga, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce multifunctional hydrolysates from lentil protein concentrates. Four different proteases (Alcalase, Savinase, Protamex, and Corolase 7089) and different hydrolysis times were evaluated for their degree and pattern of proteolysis and their angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Alcalase and Savinase showed the highest proteolytic effectiveness (P ¿ 0.05), which resulted in higher yield of peptides. The hydrolysate produc...

  3. Phenological, Nutritional and Molecular Diversity Assessment among 35 Introduced Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. Genotypes Grown in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, nutritional and molecular analyses were carried out to assess genetic diversity among 35 introduced lentil genotypes (Lens culinaris Medik.. The genotypes exhibited significant differences for their field parameters and some of them showed noticeable superiority. The nutritional and proximate analysis showed that some genotypes were excellent sources of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, anti-oxidants, total phenolic contents (TPC and total flavonoid contents (TFC and hence, highlights lentil nutritional and medicinal potential. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to estimate the genetic variability at the molecular level. The existence of a considerable amount of genetic diversity among the tested lentil genotypes was also proven at the molecular level. A total of 2894 polymorphic SRAP and 1625 AFLP loci were successfully amplified using six SRAP and four AFLP primer pair combinations. Polymorphism information content (PIC values for SRAP and AFLP markers were higher than 0.8, indicating the power and higher resolution of those marker systems in detecting molecular diversity. UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average cluster analysis based on molecular data revealed large number of sub clusters among genotypes, indicating high diversity levels. The data presented here showed that FLIP2009-64L and FLIP2009-69L could be used as a significant source of yield, total protein, essential amino acids, and antioxidant properties. The results suggest potential lentil cultivation in the central region of Saudi Arabia for its nutritional and medicinal properties, as well as sustainable soil fertility crop.

  4. Effects of seed size and aging on field performance of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. under different irrigation treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A sub-sample of lentil (Lens culinaris ‘Kimia’ seeds was kept as bulk (S1 and another sample was separated to large (S2 and small (S3 seeds. A sub-sample of each size was kept as control or high vigor seed lot (A1 and the two other sub-samples were artificially aged for 2 and 4 days (A2 and A3, respectively. Field performance of these seeds was evaluated during 2011 and 2012. Yield components and grain yield of lentil decreased with decreasing water availability. The highest yield components (except 1000 grain weight and grain yield per unit area were obtained by plants from large seeds. The superiority of plants from large seeds in grain yield was more evident under limited irrigations than under well watering. Seed aging resulted in poor stand establishment and consequently low grain yield per unit area. Plants from aged large seeds showed the lowest reduction in grain yield per unit area, compared with those from aged small and bulk seeds. It seems that cultivation of large seeds somehow can reduce the deleterious effects of drought stress and seed aging on grain yield per unit area of lentil.

  5. Control of wilt disease of lentil through bio control agents and organic amendments in Tarai region of Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkoti, Ankita; Kumar, Vijay; Tripathi, H S

    2014-11-01

    The present work aimed at evaluating the efficacy of bioagents and organic amendments against lentil wilt pathogen. Field trials were carried out consecutively during Rabi 2010-11 and 2011-12 crop seasons in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications, using 'Pant L-639' a popular cultivar. The plot size was 3.0 x 1.5 m2 with row spacing of 30 cm. Effect of selected bioagents and organic amendments on disease incidence, 1000 grain weight and yield kg ha' of lentil was recorded. It was observed that seed treatment with Trichoderma harizanum + Pseudomonas fluorescens significant by reduced 1.73% (2010-11) and 1.93% (2011-12) in Fusarium wilt disease incidence and increase in grain yield 507.6 kg ha(-1) and 496.0 kg ha(-1) respectively during both crop seasons. Among organic amendments, minimum wilt disease incidence of 1.69% (2010-11) and 1.81% (2011-12) and maximum grain yield 496.3 kg ha(-1) (2010-11) and 484.0 kg ha(-1) (2011-12) were observed in farm yard manure + spent compost treated plots. This indicates that these treatments have important roles in biologically based management strategies for controling Fusarium wilt disease under organic mode of lentil cultivation in Uttarakhand State. PMID:25522507

  6. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  7. Common beans, diseases: ecology and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is one of the most important edible legume crops worldwide, nutritionally and economically. Diseases caused by pathogens that affect beans can have catastrophic effects, destroying entire crops in some instances. There are more than 200 pathogens (bacterial, fungal,...

  8. Performance of the Bean-protein Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩光亭; 杜宁; 孙亚宁

    2003-01-01

    The methods in testing the bean-protein fiber and the standards used were simply introduced. The fiber's mechanical and chemical performances were further analyzed. And the correlative performance of the bean-protein fibers and other natural fibers have been compared, then full knowledge of the fiber's performance was concluded.

  9. Nutritional and health benefits of dried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Dried beans (often referred to as grain legumes) may contribute to some of the health benefits associated with plant-based diets. Beans are rich in a number of important micronutrients, including potassium, magnesium, folate, iron, and zinc, and are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. In particular, they are among the only plant foods that provide significant amounts of the indispensable amino acid lysine. Commonly consumed dried beans are also rich in total and soluble fiber as well as in resistant starch, all of which contribute to the low glycemic index of these foods. They also provide ample amounts of polyphenols, many of which are potent antioxidants. Intervention and prospective research suggests that diets that include beans reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, favorably affect risk factors for metabolic syndrome, and reduce risk of ischemic heart disease and diabetes. The relatively low bean intakes of North Americans and northern Europeans can be attributed to a negative culinary image as well as to intestinal discomfort attributable to the oligosaccharide content of beans. Cooking practices such as sprouting beans, soaking and discarding soaking water before cooking, and cooking in water with a more alkaline pH can reduce oligosaccharide content. Promotional efforts are needed to increase bean intake. PMID:24871476

  10. Graviperception of lentil seedling roots grown in space (Spacelab D1 Mission).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, G; Driss-Ecole, D; Rutin, J; Salle, G

    1987-01-01

    The growth and graviresponsiveness of roots were investigated in lentil seedlings (Lens culinaris L. cv. Verte du Puy) grown (1) in microgravity, (2) on a 1 g centrifuge in space, (3) in microgravity and then placed on the 1 g centrifuge for 3 h, (4) on the ground. Dry seeds were hydrated in space (except for the ground control) and incubated for 25 h at 22 degrees C in darkness. At the end of the experiment, the seedlings were photographed and fixed in glutaraldehyde in a Biorack glove box. Root length was similar for seedlings grown in space and for the ground and the 1 g centrifuge controls. The direction of root growth in the microgravity sample deviated strongly from the initial orientation of the roots of the dry seeds. This deviation could be due to spontaneous curvatures similar to those observed on clinostats. When lentil seedlings were first grown in microgravity for 25 h and then placed on the 1 g centrifuge for 3 h, their roots bent strongly under the effect of the centrifugal acceleration. The amplitude of root curvature on the centrifuge was not significantly different from that observed on ground controls growing in the vertical position and placed in the horizontal position for 3 h. The gravisensitivity of statocytes differentiated in microgravity was similar to that of statocytes differentiated on earth. There were no qualitative differences in the ultrastructural features of the gravisensing cells in microgravity and in the 1 g centrifuge and ground controls. However, the distribution of statoliths in the gravisensing cells was different in microgravity: most of them were observed in the proximal part of these cells. Thus, these organelles were not distributed at random, which is in contradiction with results obtained with clinostats. The distal complex of endoplasmic reticulum in the statocytes was not in contact with the amyloplasts. Contact and pressure of amyloplasts on the tubules were not prerequisites for gravisensing. The results obtained

  11. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  12. Short Communication Synergistic effect of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the growth and nodulation of lentil seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. Results showed that most of the combinations improved the lentil growth as compared to the un-inoculated control. Maximum increase in shoot length (1.87 fold, root length (1.97 fold and total biomass (1.98 fold over the un-inoculated control was observed in the treatment where the lentil seedlings were inoculated with the combination Z24P10. Co-inoculation also improved the nodulation in lentil and the maximum number of nodules plant-1 (24 nodules were observed in the combination Z22P10. However, there was no nodulation in few combinations. It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials

  13. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  14. Crude Oil-polluted Soil Induces Ultrastructural and Enzyme Activity Changes in the Shoot of Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Minai-Tehrani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always under threat due to various biotic and abiotic stresses. They respond to such threats by an efficient antioxidative enzyme system such as catalase. The presence of petroleum in soil is a stressful environmental factor for plants. In this study, cellular and biochemical changes were investigated in the shoot of lentil grown in the crude oil-polluted soil. Transmission electron microscope micrographs showed various injuries in the level of subcellular content including nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria. In the treated samples, catalase activity and its kinetics factors (Vmax and Km were different from the control. In the treated, Km of the enzyme was lower than that of the control. Temperature and pH profiles of the enzyme were different in the control and treated samples. Catalase purification in both treated and control samples showed that two catalase isoforms were expressed in the treated sample in comparison to the control, in which only one type of catalase was detected.

  15. Adaptability of exotic genotypes of lentil (Lens Culinaris [medik] for rainfed farming condition of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Saxena, A.N. Tikle, S.Paliya, R.P.Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred accessions from different lentil growing countries namely Egypt (17, Ethiopia, Iran (16, Iraq (3, Jordan (19, Lebanon (9, Morocco (15, Syria (20 and Turkey (20 were evaluated in the year 2012-13 for assessment of yield and yield characters viz., plant height, 50% flowering, days to maturity, primary branches, secondary branches, total pods per plant, filled pods per plant, unfilled pods per plant, seeds per plant, 100 seed weight and yield per plant. The genotypes had wide range of yield per plant. The genetic variability was highest in the accessions of Morocco for seeds per plant and 100 seed weight. The Lebanon accessions have 56.2 percent variation for seed yield plant-1. The exotic accessions have high variability for seed yield plant-1 (40.03%, number of filled pods (39.58%, total pods plant-1 (36.04% and number of filled pods (39.58%. Germplasm has been grouped into 13 and 21 clusters as per group average and complete linkage basis. The clusters having single genotypes have higher inter cluster genetic distance than clusters having more than two genotypes. The genetic distance in the present germplasm is independent of geographical origin.

  16. Ethyl methane sulphonate induced genetic variability and heritability in macrosperma and microsperma lentils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aman; Solanki, I S

    2015-09-01

    Dry and healthy seeds of two lentil cultivars, LH90-54 (macrosperma) and LH89-48 (microsperma) were treated with three doses of ethyl methane sulphonate (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 %). In both the cultivars, all the M, plants with sufficient seed from each treatment and control were taken to raise independent M2 plant progenies. Wider range of means in both positive and negative directions along with overall positive shift in mean for all the polygenic traits, except pod-initiation height and 100-seed weight, were observed in different treatments in M2 generation. In both the cultivars, medium dose induced highest amount of variation. The estimates of variance, GCV and PCV for different polygenic traits increased significantly over control values in all the treatments of both the cultivars. Higher estimates of heritability and genetic advance in M2 population indicated tremendous scope for the improvement of seed yield and its component traits through selection in the mutagenized material. PMID:26521554

  17. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... / Thursday, November 3, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From... importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a...

  18. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  19. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability. PMID:26990186

  20. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.

  1. Copper-resistant bacteria reduces oxidative stress and uptake of copper in lentil plants: potential for bacterial bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ali, Qasim; Mubin, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    For effective microbe-assisted bioremediation, metal-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) must facilitate plant growth by restricting excess metal uptake in plants, leading to prevent its bio-amplification in the ecosystem. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize copper (Cu)-resistant PGPB from waste water receiving contaminated soil. In addition, we investigated the phytotoxic effect of copper on the lentil plants inoculated with copper-resistant bacteria Providencia vermicola, grown in copper-contaminated soil. Copper-resistant P. vermicola showed multiple plant growth promoting characteristics, when used as a seed inoculant. It protected the lentil plants from copper toxicity with a considerable increase in root and shoot length, plant dry weight and leaf area. A notable increase in different gas exchange characteristics such as A, E, C i , g s , and A/E, as well as increase in N and P accumulation were also recorded in inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated copper stressed plants. In addition, leaf chlorophyll content, root nodulation, number of pods, 1,000 seed weight were also higher in inoculated plants as compared with non-inoculated ones. Anti-oxidative defense mechanism improved significantly via elevated expression of reactive oxygen species -scavenging enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase with alternate decrease in malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents, reduced electrolyte leakage, proline, and total phenolic contents suggesting that inoculation of P. vermicola triggered heavy metals stress-related defense pathways under copper stress. Overall, the results demonstrated that the P. vermicola seed inoculation confer heavy metal stress tolerance in lentil plant which can be used as a potent biotechnological tool to cope with the problems of copper pollution in crop plants for better yield. PMID:26387695

  2. Copper-resistant bacteria reduces oxidative stress and uptake of copper in lentil plants: potential for bacterial bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ali, Qasim; Mubin, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Hussain, Sabir; Riaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Farhat

    2016-01-01

    For effective microbe-assisted bioremediation, metal-resistant plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) must facilitate plant growth by restricting excess metal uptake in plants, leading to prevent its bio-amplification in the ecosystem. The aims of our study were to isolate and characterize copper (Cu)-resistant PGPB from waste water receiving contaminated soil. In addition, we investigated the phytotoxic effect of copper on the lentil plants inoculated with copper-resistant bacteria Providencia vermicola, grown in copper-contaminated soil. Copper-resistant P. vermicola showed multiple plant growth promoting characteristics, when used as a seed inoculant. It protected the lentil plants from copper toxicity with a considerable increase in root and shoot length, plant dry weight and leaf area. A notable increase in different gas exchange characteristics such as A, E, C i , g s , and A/E, as well as increase in N and P accumulation were also recorded in inoculated plants as compared to un-inoculated copper stressed plants. In addition, leaf chlorophyll content, root nodulation, number of pods, 1,000 seed weight were also higher in inoculated plants as compared with non-inoculated ones. Anti-oxidative defense mechanism improved significantly via elevated expression of reactive oxygen species -scavenging enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase with alternate decrease in malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents, reduced electrolyte leakage, proline, and total phenolic contents suggesting that inoculation of P. vermicola triggered heavy metals stress-related defense pathways under copper stress. Overall, the results demonstrated that the P. vermicola seed inoculation confer heavy metal stress tolerance in lentil plant which can be used as a potent biotechnological tool to cope with the problems of copper pollution in crop plants for better yield.

  3. Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Yield and Yield Components of Green and Red Lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞAN, Abdulkadir; KARAGÜL, Vural; GÜRBÜZ, Aysegül

    2008-01-01

    The research was carried out to determine on grain yield and yield component of green and red lentils in different sowing dates. In Haymana, experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design in years of 2003, 2004 and 2005. In each experiment, 12 genotypes were used and yield (kg/da), winter damage, 50% the number of days to flowering, number of days to maturity, 100-grain weight (g) and plant height were observed. The highest and the lowest average yield in the experiments were 176.2 kg/da...

  4. Allelopathic potential of Euphorbia helioscopia L. against wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.)

    OpenAIRE

    TANVEER, Asif; REHMAN, Aqeel; JAVAID, Muhammad Mansoor; ABBAS, Rana Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating the allelopathic effect of root, stem, leaf, and fruit water extracts and infested soil of Euphorbia helioscopia L. on the seed germination and seedling growth of wheat, chickpea, and lentil were conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. Water extracts of root, stem, leaf, and fruit were prepared by soaking dried plant parts of E. helioscopia in water (1:20 w/v) for a period of 24 h. Seedling emergence, seedling vigor index, and total dry weight of...

  5. Effects of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Physical Properties and Yield of Lentil in Northern Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Miwak, Hisham; Singh, Raphy

    2014-05-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) aims to achieve sustainable and profitable agriculture and subsequently improve livelihoods of farmers based on three main components, i.e. minimum or no tillage, retention of crop residues and use of crop rotation. However, to promote CA in semi-arid areas where precipitation is erratic, low, and falls over short periods in winter, its effects on soil and crop yield have to be investigated. The present study was conducted at the main research station of the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Syria, during the agricultural season of 2010-2011, in the frame of a long term trial (2003-2011), where two treatments; i.e. conservation versus conventional agriculture (replicated twice), and six varieties of lentil (early, medium and late maturity genotypes; 2 each), selected from 100 varieties, were used. Soil samples were taken (before planting and after harvesting), to determine soil bulk density, particle density and total porosity. Aggregate stability was also determined using dry and wet sieving methods for the 0-15 cm soil depth, and the effective diameter of the aggregate was calculated for both treatments of conservation agriculture (CA) and conventional tillage (CT). Soil moisture was monitored in the top soil layer (0-15 cm) using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) on a weekly or two weekly-intervals. Soil moisture release curve was done for disturbed, 2 mm dry sieved soil at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm depth using pressure plate chamber. Dry plant production (oven dry at 70°C) was estimated at the harvesting stage, and then threshed to estimate grain yield. CA showed higher (p = 0.001) soil moisture values than CT. The difference in volumetric soil moisture content between CA and CT during the studied period ranged from 20 to 30 %. Volumetric water content was higher for, CA compared with CT, at a given soil water potential especially at the lower pressure; this observation was consistent

  6. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa; Valdinei Sofiatti; Cleber Daniel de Góes Maciel; Juliana Parisotto Poletine; João Igor de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide s...

  7. Phenotypic and metabolic responses to drought and salinity of four contrasting lentil accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolo, A; Junker, A; Klukas, C; Weigelt-Fischer, K; Riewe, D; Altmann, T

    2015-09-01

    Drought and salinity are among the major abiotic stresses which, often inter-relatedly, adversely affect plant growth and productivity. Plant stress responses depend on the type of stress, on its intensity, on the species, and also on the genotype. Different accessions of a species may have evolved different mechanisms to cope with stress and to complete their life cycles. This study is focused on lentil, an important Mediterranean legume with high quality protein for the human diet. The effects of salinity and drought on germination and early growth of Castelluccio di Norcia (CAST), Pantelleria (PAN), Ustica (UST), and Eston (EST) accessions were evaluated to identify metabolic and phenotypic traits related to drought and/or salinity stress tolerance. The results showed a relationship between imposed stresses and performance of the cultivars. According to germination frequencies, the accession ranking was as follows: NaCl resistant > susceptible, PAN > UST > CAST > EST; polyethylene glycol (PEG) resistant > susceptible, CAST > UST > EST > PAN. Seedling tolerance rankings were: NaCl resistant > susceptible, CAST ≈ UST > PAN ≈ EST; PEG resistant > susceptible, CAST > EST ≈ UST > PAN. Changes in the metabolite profiles, mainly quantitative rather than qualitative, were observed in the same cultivar in respect to the treatments, and among the cultivars under the same treatment. Metabolic differences in the stress tolerance of the different genotypes were related to a reduction in the levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. The relevant differences, between the most NaCl-tolerant genotype (PAN) and the most sensitive one (EST) were related to the decrease in the threonic acid level. Stress-specific metabolite indicators were also identified: ornithine and asparagine as markers of drought stress and alanine and homoserine as markers of salinity stress. PMID:25969553

  8. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  9. A SNP-based consensus genetic map for synteny-based trait targeting in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Anne; Cottage, Amanda; Wood, Thomas; Khamassi, Khalil; Hobbs, Douglas; Gostkiewicz, Krystyna; White, Mark; Khazaei, Hamid; Ali, Mohamed; Street, Daniel; Duc, Gérard; Stoddard, Fred L; Maalouf, Fouad; Ogbonnaya, Francis C; Link, Wolfgang; Thomas, Jane; O'Sullivan, Donal M

    2016-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a globally important nitrogen-fixing legume, which is widely grown in a diverse range of environments. In this work, we mine and validate a set of 845 SNPs from the aligned transcriptomes of two contrasting inbred lines. Each V. faba SNP is assigned by BLAST analysis to a single Medicago orthologue. This set of syntenically anchored polymorphisms were then validated as individual KASP assays, classified according to their informativeness and performance on a panel of 37 inbred lines, and the best performing 757 markers used to genotype six mapping populations. The six resulting linkage maps were merged into a single consensus map on which 687 SNPs were placed on six linkage groups, each presumed to correspond to one of the six V. faba chromosomes. This sequence-based consensus map was used to explore synteny with the most closely related crop species, lentil and the most closely related fully sequenced genome, Medicago. Large tracts of uninterrupted colinearity were found between faba bean and Medicago, making it relatively straightforward to predict gene content and order in mapped genetic interval. As a demonstration of this, we mapped a flower colour gene to a 2-cM interval of Vf chromosome 2 which was highly colinear with Mt3. The obvious candidate gene from 78 gene models in the collinear Medicago chromosome segment was the previously characterized MtWD40-1 gene controlling anthocyanin production in Medicago and resequencing of the Vf orthologue showed a putative causative deletion of the entire 5' end of the gene. PMID:25865502

  10. Study on physicochemical properties of six kinds of beans starch%六种杂豆淀粉的理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪丽萍; 刘艳香; 田晓红; 刘明; 吴娜娜; 谭斌

    2014-01-01

    以绿豆、奶花芸豆、红小豆、豌豆、英国红芸豆、小扁豆为材料,采用湿磨法提取淀粉,以大米、小麦淀粉为对照,对杂豆淀粉的理化特性进行分析研究。结果表明:6种杂豆淀粉颗粒形貌相似,颗粒普遍较大,呈圆形或椭圆形,均匀度较好。在相同制备条件下,杂豆淀粉间的水分、灰分和蛋白质差异较明显。杂豆淀粉间的直链淀粉和回生淀粉含量差距不大,均达40%以上。淀粉的溶解度和膨润力均随温度的升高而增加。杂豆淀粉间的透光率差异显著,普遍较小麦、大米淀粉的透光率要好。杂豆淀粉间的糊化特性差异显著,热特性差异不显著,淀粉分子结晶度相近,糊化难易程度比较接近。杂豆淀粉与小麦、大米淀粉理化性质差异显著。%Starches were extracted from mung beans,phaseolus vulgaris,red bean,pea,british red kid-ney beans and lentils by wet -grinding method.Their physicochemical properties were analyzed by com-pared with wheat and rice starches as the control groups.The results showed that starch's particles of the beans were similar with bigger granularity,and circular or elliptic shape,and good uniformity.There was significant difference of moisture,ash and protein between each of the beans prepared under the same conditions.The contents of amylose and retrograded starch among the beans starch had little difference,each above 40%.The starch swelling power and solubility increased along with the rise of temperature.There was significant difference in light transmittance among the beans starch which was better than that of wheat starch and rice starch.There was significant difference in gelatinization charac-teristics among the beans starch.Among the beans starch,there were no significant differences in ther-mal characteristics,and their crystallinity of the starch molecule were close,so did the gelatinization. There were significant difference in

  11. Sensitivity to gravistimulus of lentil seedling roots grown in space during the IML 1 Mission of Spacelab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, G; Driss-Ecole, D

    1994-02-01

    The gravitropic curvature of seedlings of lentil (Lens culunaris L. cv. Verte du Puy) grown in microgravity and stimulated on the 1 g centrifuge for 5 to 60 min was followed by time lapse photography in near weightlessness in the frame of the IML 1 Mission of Spacelab. In microgravity, the root tip could overshoot the direction of the 1 g acceleration after bending whereas roots stimulated on the ground did not reach the direction of the gravity vector. On earth, there is, therefore, a regulation (inhibition of root curvature), which is gravity dependent. In space, the initial rate of curvature as well as the amplitude of curvature varied as a function of the quantity of stimulation (Q, in gmin). For a given quantity of stimulation, the rate of curvature remained constant for 80 min. The bending has thus a certain inertia, which is linked to the mechanism of differential growth. The presentation time (Tp) of the lentil root was calculated by extrapolation to zero curvature of the regression line representing either the initial rate of curvature or the amplitude of curvature at 2 h after the end of the stimulation. Tp was estimated to 27 and 26 s, respectively. These results confirm the values of Tp obtained by clinostats, and they also lead to a reconsideration of the causes of the kinetics of root curvature. PMID:11541140

  12. Novel fiber-rich lentil flours as snack-type functional foods: an extrusion cooking effect on bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P; Berrios, J De J; Varela, A; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Muzquiz, M; Pedrosa, M M

    2015-09-01

    Novel snack-type functional foods based on extruded lentil flours could convey the related health benefit of their bioactive compounds, provide a gluten-free alternative to consumers, and potentially increase the consumption of pulses. Extrusion treatment promoted an increase in galactopinitol, ciceritol, raffinose, stachyose and total α-galactoside content, in most lentil flours. As α-galactosides may act as prebiotics, they could convey beneficial effects to human and monogastric animals. Conversely, extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the inositol hexaphosphate content to less phosphorylated phytates (inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate), which provide health effects. The gluten-free formulation (control formulation #3) presented the highest significant (p < 0.05) drop in the inositol hexaphosphate of 14.7-fold decrease, but had a large increase in inositol pentaphosphate, due to extrusion processing. These two results are desirable in the finished product. Extrusion also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the trypsin content and completely inactivated lectin, in all processed samples. PMID:26221783

  13. First Report of Pratylenchus neglectus, Pratylenchus thornei and Paratylenchus hametus nematodes causing yield reduction to dry land peas and lentils in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2006, stunted, chlorotic, plants in large patches were observed in two 100-acre fields of dry land peas (Pisum sativum) in Latah County Idaho which resulted in 90% and 75% crop loss. In the same region a 300 acre field of dry land lentils (Lens culinaris) also had plants showing poor growth,...

  14. A global survey of effects of genotype and environment on selenium concentration in lentils (Lens culinaris L.): Implications for nutritional fortification strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) are an important protein and carbohydrate food, rich in essential dietary components and trace elements. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. For adults, 55 µg of daily Se intake is recommended for better health and cancer prevention. Millions of ...

  15. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  16. A review of the Hispanic paradox: time to spill the beans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Young

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Past epidemiological observations and recent molecular studies suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are closely related diseases, resulting from overlapping genetic susceptibility and exposure to aero pollutants, primarily cigarette smoke. Statistics from the American Lung Association and American Cancer Society reveal that mortality from COPD and lung cancer are lowest in Hispanic subjects and generally highest in African American subjects, with mortality in non-Hispanic white subjects and Asian subjects in between. This observation, described as the ‘‘Hispanic paradox’’, persists after adjusting for confounding variables, notably smoking exposure and sociodemographic factors. While differences in genetic predisposition might underlie this observation, differences in diet remain a possible explanation. Such a hypothesis is supported by the observation that a diet high in fruit and vegetables has been shown to confer a protective effect on both COPD and lung cancer. In this article, we hypothesise that a diet rich in legumes may explain, in part, the Hispanic paradox, given the traditionally high consumption of legumes (beans and lentils by Hispanic subjects. Legumes are very high in fibre and have recently been shown to attenuate systemic inflammation significantly, which has previously been linked to susceptibility to COPD and lung cancer in large prospective studies. A similar protective effect could be attributed to the consumption of soy products (from soybeans in Asian subjects, for whom a lower incidence of COPD and lung cancer has also been reported. This hypothesis requires confirmation in cohort studies and randomised control trials, where the effects of diet on outcomes can be carefully examined in a prospective study design.

  17. A review of the Hispanic paradox: time to spill the beans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert P; Hopkins, Raewyn J

    2014-12-01

    Past epidemiological observations and recent molecular studies suggest that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are closely related diseases, resulting from overlapping genetic susceptibility and exposure to aero-pollutants, primarily cigarette smoke. Statistics from the American Lung Association and American Cancer Society reveal that mortality from COPD and lung cancer are lowest in Hispanic subjects and generally highest in African American subjects, with mortality in non-Hispanic white subjects and Asian subjects in between. This observation, described as the “Hispanic paradox”, persists after adjusting for confounding variables, notably smoking exposure and sociodemographic factors. While differences in genetic predisposition might underlie this observation, differences in diet remain a possible explanation. Such a hypothesis is supported by the observation that a diet high in fruit and vegetables has been shown to confer a protective effect on both COPD and lung cancer. In this article, we hypothesise that a diet rich in legumes may explain, in part, the Hispanic paradox, given the traditionally high consumption of legumes (beans and lentils) by Hispanic subjects. Legumes are very high in fibre and have recently been shown to attenuate systemic inflammation significantly, which has previously been linked to susceptibility to COPD and lung cancer in large prospective studies. A similar protective effect could be attributed to the consumption of soy products (from soybeans) in Asian subjects, for whom a lower incidence of COPD and lung cancer has also been reported. This hypothesis requires confirmation in cohort studies and randomised control trials, where the effects of diet on outcomes can be carefully examined in a prospective study design. PMID:25445942

  18. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen tree, with lesser quantities of seed coat and germ. (b)...

  20. Genetic Enhancement of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) for Drought Tolerance through Induced Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to isolate a number of drought-tolerant mutants from four lentil cultivars, two small seeded (PL-639 and PL-406) and two bold seeded (K-75 and L-4076) groups by treating the seeds with physical (10, 20 and 30 kR of γ-rays) and chemical mutagens (0.04M of ethyl methane sulfonate and 0.05M of sodium azide) separately and in various combinations. The experiment was initiated during the winter season of 1999-2000 and carried over to advanced generations. The selection of environment (water stress or non-stress) for the development of drought-resistant varieties still remains controversial, however, the findings from present study suggest that materials ought to be tested in both stress and non-stress conditions so that the favourable alleles under drought can be maintained as well as selection response under favourable condition can be maximized. Yield under drought (Yd), yield potential (Yp), drought susceptibility index (S) and geometric mean (GM) were considered as the potential indicators for drought resistance of a family. Correlation coefficients between these parameters were calculated for selecting the parameter(s) which are more effective than others for screening the drought-resistant mutant line(s). It was observed that GM was positively and significantly correlated with both Yd and Yp, whereas it was negatively, but insignificantly correlated with S. There was significant, but negative correlation between S and Yd, while no significant correlation between S and Yp was observed. From the correlation studies it may be concluded that for the enhancement of yield potential under both the conditions, selection should be based on GM rather than on S. Because S is a better measure of drought tolerance than a measure of performance under stress, genotypes may be first selected on the basis of high GM and then on the basis of high yield under drought (Yd). Twenty mutants lines selected on the basis of higher GM than their respective control

  1. Genetic enhancement of lentil (Lens culinaris medikus) for drought tolerance through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to isolate a number of drought tolerant mutants from four lentil cultivars, two each from small seeded (PL-639 and PL-406) and bold seeded (K-75 and L-4076) groups by treating the seeds with physical (10, 20 and 30 kR of γ-rays) and chemical mutagens (0.04M of etyl methane sulfonate and 0.05M of sodium azide) separately and in various combinations. The experiment was initiated during the winter season of 1999-2000 and carried over to advanced generations. The selection of environment (water stress or non-stress) for the development of drought resistant varieties still remains controversial, however, the findings from present study suggested that materials ought to be tested in both stress and non-stress conditions so that the favourable alleles under drought can be maintained as well as selection response under favourable condition can be maximized. Yield under drought (Yd), yield potential (Yp), drought susceptibility index (S) and geometric mean (GM) were considered as the potential indicators for drought resistance of a family. Correlation coefficients between these parameter were calculated for selecting the parameter(s) which are more effective than others for screening the drought resistant mutant line(s). It was observed that GM was positively and significantly correlated with both Yd and Yp, whereas it was negatively but insignificantly correlated with S. There was significant but negative correlation between S and Yd, while no significant correlation between S and Yp was observed. From the correlation studies it may be concluded that for the enhancement of yield potential under both the conditions selection should be based on GM rather than on S. Because S is a better measure of drought tolerance than a measure of performance under stress, hence genotypes may be first selected on the basis of high GM and then on the basis of high yield under drought (Yd ). Twenty mutants lines selected on the basis of higher GM than their

  2. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  3. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    OpenAIRE

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubil...

  4. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    OpenAIRE

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree growth, bean production and bean quality in relation to different degrees of exposure to radiation and nitrogen supply. Growth of leaves and branches and properties of leaves such as specific leaf are...

  5. Blanching of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaack, K

    1994-12-01

    Experiments with one and two steps blanching of green beans have been carried out. Inactivation of the peroxydase requires more heating than inactivation of the enzymes which gives rise to off flavour from aldehydes. When blanching for about one minute to inactivate lipoxygenase, aldehyde formation of flavour ceases. The content of vitamin C decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction. Since considerable loss of vitamin C occurs during blanching, the treatment time should be reduced to a minimum. During preblanching at 65-75 degrees C and final blanching, chlorophyll is degraded to pheophytin and the surface colour expressed by the Hunter-values (-a/b) increases with time which means that the colour of the beans changes from green to yellow. The firmness of beans, which was measured by use of a tenderometer, decreases during blanching according to a first order reaction with 40 kcal/mole activation energy. Preblanching at 65-75 degrees C increases the firmness of the beans linearly with treatment time. This increase in firmness is stable after final blanching at 95 degrees C and even after thawing of frozen beans.

  6. Análise físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial de brotos de lentilha da variedade PRECOZ = Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analysis of lentil sprouts, Precoz variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neoraldo Thadeu Pacheco Loures

    2009-10-01

    percentage. Eight days after sowing, weights were put on sprouts to create a physiological stress as well as to increase ethylene synthesis and improve the quality of produced sprouts. They were also submitted to microbiological tests, whose values were superior to 1.1 x 104 NMP g-1 for fecal coliforms, with acidity of 2.64% and a pH of 5.48, with low acidity. There was no growth of Salmonella or Escherichia coli, once the levels were lower than 10 UFC g-1. The physiochemical analyses, in 100 grams of sprouts, presented 54.34 g of carbohydrates; 6.24 g of crude fiber and 25.56 g of protein. Non-trained taster persons were submitted to sensory tests in order to compare, according to palatability, which was more acceptable – sprouts of alfalfa or beans. The acceptability of lentils was 73.3%, with only 13.3% of rejection and 13.3% of indifference; these results were inferior to beans, which had 96.7% of acceptability and 3.3% ofrejection, as well as alfalfa, which had 83.3% of acceptability and 10.00% of rejection. According to the low rejection and indifference, it is possible to suggest that the studied variety of lentil canbe used in the production of sprouts, as a nutritional nourishing complement.

  7. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  8. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  9. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  10. Phosphorus: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meat, poultry, fish l Dairy foods l Beans, lentils, nuts l Bran cereals and oatmeal l Colas ... yogurt, or one slice of cheese. – Beans and lentils: Portions should be about ½ cup of cooked ...

  11. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  12. Vitamins and Other Nutrients during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Leafy green vegetables, like spinach and broccoli Lentils and beans Orange juice What is iron? Iron ... include: Leafy green vegetables, like spinach and broccoli Lentils and beans Orange juice What is iron? Iron ...

  13. 7 CFR 868.90 - Fees for certain Federal inspection services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (ii) Falling Number 12.50 (iii) Aflatoxin Test Kit 7.50 Graded Commodities (Beans, Peas, Lentils, Hops, and Pulses): (1) Additional Tests—Unit Rates (Beans, Peas, Lentils): (i) Field run (per lot or...

  14. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describ

  15. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall...

  16. New bean seeds and the struggle for their dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Aguilar, E.; Herrera, R.

    2007-01-01

    The northern region of Nicaragua has always been an important bean and maize producing area. But a widespread presence of the Golden Mosaic Virus made it impossible to grow beans in the last years. A Participatory Plant Breeding programme started in 1999, aiming to develop new bean varieties that wo

  17. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C activity in unroasted [14C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH3Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH3Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH3Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  18. Effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth,Nodulation and Nutrient Accumulation of Lentil Under Controlled Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ZAFAR; M.K.ABBASI; M.A.KHAN; A.KHALIQ; T.SULTAN; M.ASLAM

    2012-01-01

    Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been shown to increase legume growth and development under field and controlled environmental conditions.The present study was conducted to isolate plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the root nodules of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) grown in arid/semi-arid region of Punjab,Pakistan and examined their plant growth-promoting abilities.Five bacterial isolates were isolated,screened in vitro for plant growth-promoting (PGP)characteristics and their effects on the growth of lentil were assessed under in vitro,hydroponic and greenhouse (pot experiment)conditions.All the isolates were Gram negative,rod-shaped and circular in form and exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of phosphate solubilization and auxin (indole acetic acid,IAA) production.The IAA production capacity ranged in 0.5-11.0 μgmL-1and P solubilization ranged in 3 16 mg L-1.When tested for their effects on plant growth,the isolated strains had a stimulatory effect on growth,nodulation and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake in plants on nutrient-deficient soil.In the greenhouse pot experiment,application of PGPR significantly increased shoot length,fresh weight and dry weight by 65%,43% and 63% and the increases in root length,fresh weight and dry weight were 74%,54% and 92%,respectively,as compared with the uninoculated control.The relative increases in growth characteristics under in vitro and hydroponic conditions were even higher.PGPR also increased the number of pods per plant,1000-grain weight,dry matter yield and grain yield by 50%,13%,28% and 29%,respectively,over the control.The number of nodules and nodule dry mass increased by 170% and 136%,respectively.After inoculation with effective bacterial strains,the shoot,root and seed N and P contents increased,thereby increasing both N and P uptake in plants. The root elongation showed a positive correlation (R2 =0.67) with the IAA

  19. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and... regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into...

  20. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed. PMID:10092944

  1. The geometry and lithology of the Cima Sandstone Lentil: a paleoseep-bearing interbed in the Moreno Formation, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, P. V.; Schwartz, H.

    2007-12-01

    The Cima Sandstone Lentil outcrops over a relatively small area on the western side of the San Joaquin Valley in central California. Here this unit can be found in the Panoche Hills in the northern portion of the field area and the Tumey Hills in the southern portion of the field area. The Cima Sandstone resides within the 800m Moreno Formation that spans the Maastrichtian to the Danian. The Moreno Formation comprises four members, which are the Dosados Member, the Tierra Loma Member, the Marca Shale Member, and the Dos Palos Shale Member (of which the Cima Sandstone is an interbed). The Cima Sandstone contains numerous large carbonate mounds, concretions, and pavements, indicating paleoseep activity. The Cima Sandstone has never been studied in detail, but recent interest in sandstone injectites as well as interest in paleoseeps has prompted us to examine this interbed more carefully. The Cima is an immature sandstone composed primarily of quartz along with small amounts of micas and feldspars as well as varying amounts of glauconite. These minerals are generally cemented by carbonate but, occasionally, iron oxide cement is present locally. Much variation exists within the Cima Sandstone Lentil and we seek to characterize and understand this variation. One of the most obvious sources of variability is the thickness of the unit itself. The thickness ranges from near 60m in the northern Panoche Hills to only 9m in the Tumey Hills. Induration also varies noticeably, from well cemented in the north, to unconsolidated in the south. Similarly, the sandstone is grain-supported and houses some depositional structures in the northern outcrops but becomes largely matrix-supported and lacking bedding in the southern outcrops. Preliminary data suggests that proximity to carbonate concretions, fluid conduits, and underlying injectites may have some influence over grain size and sorting.

  2. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosano Edmilson José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (15N released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground parts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean, and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experiment al period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox.

  3. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose [Estacao Experimental de Agronomia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Centro de Acao Regional; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Cantarella, Heitor [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Solos e Recursos Agroambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social e Bioestatistica

    2003-03-01

    Nitrogen ({sup 15}N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha{sup -1} of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha{sup -1} of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with {sup 15}N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  4. Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sunnhemp, velvet bean and common bean residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (15N) released from sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea), velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) and from Phaseolus bean residues was evaluated after incubation of the plant material in an Eutrudox and a Paleudalf, in a greenhouse experiment with pots containing 6 kg of air dried soil. Dry matter equivalent to 13 Mg ha-1 of Phaseolus bean residues and the same amount of above ground arts of the leguminous species, associated to 2.7 and 2.2 Mg ha-1 of roots of sunnhemp and velvet bean respectively, were incorporated into the soil. A completely randomized experimental design was adopted, with treatments arranged in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial, replicated three times. The treatments were the following: two soils (Eutrudox and Paleudalf) and three plant materials: two green-manures (sunnhemp or velvet bean), and Phaseolus bean residues, besides one control without plant incorporation into the soil. For the green-manure treatments there were two sub-treatments for each legume species, with 15N labeling of either shoots or roots. Soil moisture was maintained relatively constant during the experimental period and the treatments were sampled weekly during 49 days. Total mineral nitrogen in the soil, as well as that derived from the legume plants were determined by isotope dilution. Nitrogen from the velvet bean accounted for a greater proportion of the soil inorganic N; shoots were responsible for most of N accumulated. Dry bean residues caused immobilization of inorganic N. The leguminous species added were intensively and promptly mineralized preserving the soil native nitrogen. Mineralization of the legume plant N was greater in the Paleudalf soil than in the Eutrudox. (author)

  5. Virus diseases of peas, beans, and faba bean in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled; Pappu, Hanu; Kumari, Safaa G

    2012-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, pea, bean, and faba bean production is affected by around 17 major viruses. These viruses do not have the same ecology and consequently require a variety of different preventive measures to control them. Some of these viruses have a narrow host range, such as Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV), and others, such as Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a very wide host range. Such features are important when identifying sources of virus inoculum in a region, and the vectors can transmit viruses from natural reservoirs to the crop plants. Some of these viruses are seed borne and, consequently, can be disseminated long distances through infected seeds. Crop losses caused by these viruses are variable, depending on the sensitivity and susceptibility of the crop to infection. Host resistance genes have been identified for some of these viruses, but in others, such as FBNYV, no resistance genes in faba bean have been identified yet. Significant progress was made in developing precise methods for the identification of these viruses, and new virus problems are being identified every year. This chapter is not intended to be a review for pea, bean, and faba bean viruses, but rather focuses on the major viruses which affect these crops in the Mediterranean basin with focus on the progress made over the past two decades. PMID:22682174

  6. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  7. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  8. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  9. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  10. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  11. Genome-wide survey and expression profiles of the AP2/ERF family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wei; Li, Fei; Ling, Lizhen; Liu, Aizhong

    2013-01-01

    Background The AP2/ERF transcription factor, one of the largest gene families in plants, plays a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae) is one of most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. The available genome provides a great chance to identify and characterize the global information on AP2/ERF transcription fa...

  12. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  13. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots and control without zinc supplementation (four plots. Plants were subjected to two treatments: zinc supplementation and control. Yield, number of defective beans, beans attacked by berry borers, bean size, cup quality, beans zinc concentration, potassium leaching, electrical conductivity, color index, total tritable acidity, pH, chlorogenic acids contents and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity of beans were evaluated. Zinc positively affected quality of coffee beans, which presented lower percentage of medium and small beans, lower berry borer incidence, lower potassium leaching and electrical conductivity, higher contents of zinc and chlorogenic acids and higher antioxidant activity in comparison with control beans.

  14. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Root and Shoot Traits Associated with Drought Tolerance in a Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) Recombinant Inbred Line Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrissi, Omar; Udupa, Sripada M; De Keyser, Ellen; McGee, Rebecca J; Coyne, Clarice J; Saha, Gopesh C; Muehlbauer, Fred J; Van Damme, Patrick; De Riek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL (QRSratioIX-2.30) related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 and 28.9% for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL (QLRNIII-98.64) related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL (QSRLIV-61.63) associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labor-intensive conventional breeding methods. PMID:27602034

  15. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  16. Solid-state NMR spin-echo investigation of the metalloproteins parvalbumin, concanavalin A, and pea and lentil lectins, substituted with cadmium-113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Paul S.; Bhattacharyya, Lokesh; Ellis, Paul D.; Brewer, C. Fred

    Solid-state 113Cd NMR spectroscopy of static powder samples of 113Cd-substituted metalloproteins, parvalbumin, concanavalin A, and pea and lentil lectins, was carried out. Cross polarization followed by application of a train of uniformly spaced π pulses was employed to investigate the origin of residual cadmium NMR linewidths observed previously in these proteins. Fourier transformation of the resulting spin-echo train yielded spectra consisting of uniformly spaced lines having linewidths of the order of 1-2 ppm. The observed linewidths were not influenced by temperature as low as -50°C or by extent of protein hydration. Since the echo-train pulse sequence is able to eliminate inhomogeneous but not homogeneous contributions to the linewidths, there is a predominant inhomogeneous contribution to cadmium linewidths in the protein CP/MAS spectra. However, significant changes in spectral intensities were observed with change in temperature and extent of protein hydration. These intensity changes are attributed for parvalbumin and concanavalin A to changes in cross-polarization efficiency with temperature and hydration. For pea and lentil lectins, this effect is attributed to the elimination of static disorder at the pea and lentil S2 metal-ion sites due to sugar binding.

  17. Impact of pH on molecular structure and surface properties of lentil legumin-like protein and its application as foam stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa-Parra, M; Bamdad, F; Tian, Z; Zeng, Hongbo; Temelli, Feral; Chen, L

    2015-08-01

    The capacity of a protein to form and stabilize foams and emulsions depends on its structural characteristics and its physicochemical properties. The structural properties of lentil legumin-like protein including molecular weight, hydrodynamic size, surface charge and hydrophobicity, and conformation were studied in relation to its air-water interfacial behaviors. Kinetics study suggested that the foaming stability was closely related to the surface conformation of the protein that strongly affected adsorption and re-organization of the protein layer at the air-water interface. Foams prepared at neutral pH showed dense and strong networks at the interface, where combination of the α-helix secondary structure, medium hydrodynamic molecular size, and balance between solubility/hydrophobicity all contributed to the formation of such strong protein network at the interface. At pH 5.0, the protein formed a dense and thick network composed of randomly aggregated protein particles at the air-water interface. Whereas at pH 3.0, the unordered structure increased intra-protein flexibility producing a less compact and relaxed interface that reduces elasticity modulus with time and reduced foam resistance against collapse. This research revealed that lentil legumin-like protein could form long-life foams at mild acidic and neutral pH. The potential for use of lentil protein as a novel foaming plant-based stabilizer is demonstrated in food and non-food applications where stable, long-life foams are required. PMID:26005930

  18. Growth response of maize plants (Zea mays L.) to wheat and lentil pre-cropping and to indigenous mycorrhizal in field soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaca, A.; Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi may have significant effects on the growth and on the root morphology of plants, under arid and semi arid soil conditions. Lentil and wheat are the traditional crops grown in Southeastern Turkey. In this study soil samples from the Harran plain were collected from the 0-15 cm surface layer under wheat or lentil crop residues and used in a pot experiment carried out under greenhouse conditions with four levels of P fertilization: 0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg{sup -}1 soil as Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Half of the soil batches were submitted to a heating treatment (80 degree centigrade, 2 h). The maize variety PX-9540 was grown in the pots for 57 days. At harvest, plant dry weight, root length, P and Zn concentrations in plant tissues were measured and the extent of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was determined. Results showed that maize plants grown in soils where lentil had been previously cultivated grew better than those grown after wheat cultivation. In both cases, P concentration in plant tissues increased with increased P fertilization. There were no significant differences in root AMF colonization between soils with different crop sequences, nor with soils submitted to high temperature. Previous crops had a significant influence on the growth of plants that could be related to differences in the indigenous mycorrhizas inoculum potential and efficacy that can promote P uptake and benefit plant growth. (Author) 29 refs.

  19. Development of a fast extraction method and optimization of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of phenolic compounds in lentil seed coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirali, Mahla; Ambrose, Stephen J; Wood, Stephen A; Vandenberg, Albert; Purves, Randy W

    2014-10-15

    A systematic set of optimization experiments was conducted to design an efficient extraction and analysis protocol for screening six different sub-classes of phenolic compounds in the seed coat of various lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) genotypes. Different compounds from anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavanones, flavones, and flavonols sub-classes were first optimized for use as standards for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with UV detection. The effect of maceration duration, reconstitution solvent, and extraction solvent were investigated using lentil genotype CDC Maxim. Chromatographic conditions were optimized by examining column separation efficiencies, organic composition, and solvent gradient. The results showed that a 1h maceration step was sufficient and that non-acidified solvents were more appropriate; a 70:30 acetone: water (v/v) solvent was ultimately selected. Using a Kinetex PFP column, the organic concentration, gradient, and flow rate were optimized to maximize the resolution of phenolic compounds in a short 30-min analysis time. The optimized method was applied to three lentil genotypes with different phenolic compound profiles to provide information of value to breeding programs.

  20. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  1. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  2. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  3. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods. PMID:25029555

  4. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  5. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. protein hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared, when the beans protein was subjected to hydrolysis with pepsin. The bean protein hydrolysate obtained by hydrolysis with alcalase enzyme, showed higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical ABTS●+. However, the hydrolysates obtained by hydrolysis with pepsin had higher antioxidant activity for inhibition of the radical DPPH. The use of pepsin and alcalase enzymes, under the same reaction time, produced black bean protein hydrolysates with different molecular weight profiles and superior antioxidant activity than the native bean protein.

  6. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  7. The Response of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties for Salt Stress during Germination and Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris varieties were tested during germination and seedling growth at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m salinity levels. Data analysis was carried out using jmp5 statistical software (version 5.0. Final Germination Percentage (FGP, Seedling Shoot Length (SSL, Seedling Root Length (SRL and seedling shoot-to-root ratio (SRR were measured. The data analysis showed insignificant variation among most parameters recorded for varieties (p>0.05. The ANOVA displayed statistical significance for treatments for all parameters at p0.05. Seedling root length was more salt affected than seedling shoot length. Variety Awash Melka was found salt tolerant during germination and seedling growth. Variety Mexican 142 was salt sensitive during germination but later became salt tolerant during seedling growth. On the other hand, variety Dimtu was salt sensitive during germination and seedling growth. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt tolerance. Irrespective of salinity being a growing problem in Ethiopia in general and the Awash Valley in particular, only little has been done on crops salt tolerance. Therefore, to alleviate the salinity problem, there should be similar and profound studies on haricot beans and other crops.

  8. Genomic surveys and expression analysis of bZIP gene family in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhengwei; Xu, Wei; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-02-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise a family of transcriptional regulators present extensively in plants, involved in regulating diverse biological processes such as flower and vascular development, seed maturation, stress signaling and pathogen defense. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important non-edible oilseed crops and its seed oil is broadly used for industrial applications. We performed a comprehensive genome-wide identification and analysis of the bZIP transcription factors that exist in the castor bean genome in this study. In total, 49 RcbZIP transcription factors were identified, characterized and categorized into 11 groups (I-XI) based on their gene structure, DNA-binding sites, conserved motifs, and phylogenetic relationships. The dimerization properties of 49 RcbZIP proteins were predicted on the basis of the characteristic features in the leucine zipper. Global expression profiles of 49 RcbZIP genes among different tissues were examined using high-throughput sequencing of digital gene expression profiles, and resulted in diverse expression patterns that may provide basic information to further reveal the function of the 49 RcbZIP genes in castor bean. The results obtained from this study would provide valuable information in understanding the molecular basis of the RcbZIP transcription factor family and their potential function in regulating the growth and development, particularly in seed filling of castor bean.

  9. GRAVI-2 space experiment: investigating statoliths displacement and location effects on early stages of gravity perception pathways in lentil roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, François; Eche, Brigitte; Pereda Loth, Veronica; Badel, Eric; Legue, Valerie; Brunel, Nicole; Label, Philippe; Gérard, Joëlle

    2016-07-01

    The plants ability to orient their growth with respect to external stimuli such as gravity is a key factor for survival and acclimation to their environment. Belowground, plant roots modulate their growth towards gravity, allowing soil exploration and uptake of water and nutrients. In roots, gravity sensing cells called statocytes are located in the center of the root cap. Statocytes contain starch-filled plastids denser than the cytoplasm, which sedimentation along the direction of gravity is widely accepted as being involved into early stages of gravity perception (the starch-statolith hypothesis; Sack, 1991). Root gravitropism following statoliths displacement is based on auxin redistribution in the root apex, inducing differential growth between the root upward and downward sides. However at the cell scale, the chain of transduction starting from statoliths displacement and leading to auxin redistribution remains poorly documented. Signaling molecules such as calcium, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are serious candidates previously shown to be involved within minutes before modification of the expression of auxin-related genes (Morita, 2010; Sato et al., 2015). Here, we observe and quantify statoliths displacements and locations at various levels of gravity to investigate two hypothesis: (i) Are contacts between statoliths and the endoplasmic reticulum necessary to induce gravitropism? (ii) Are very low displacements of statoliths sufficient to initiate transduction pathways such as the calcium's one? These questionings have led to an experiment called GRAVI-2 which took place aboard the ISS in 2014. During the experiment, lentil roots were grown in the European modular cultivation system for several hours in microgravity and were then submitted to short high gravity stimulus (5 and 15 minutes at 2 g) before the return to Earth for analyses. Ongoing cytological measurements will reveal the effects of statoliths

  10. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini R.; Carnovale E.; Campion B.

    1999-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show t...

  11. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, C A; S.C.S. Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of ...

  12. Castor Bean Organelle Genome Sequencing and Worldwide Genetic Diversity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rivarola, Maximo; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Chan, Agnes P.; Williams, Amber L.; Rice, Danny W; Liu, Xinyue; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Huot Creasy, Heather; Puiu, Daniela; Rosovitz, M. J.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M.; Allan, Gerard J; Keim, Paul; Ravel, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Castor bean is an important oil-producing plant in the Euphorbiaceae family. Its high-quality oil contains up to 90% of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleate, which has many industrial and medical applications. Castor bean seeds also contain ricin, a highly toxic Type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has gained relevance in recent years due to biosafety concerns. In order to gain knowledge on global genetic diversity in castor bean and to ultimately help the development of breeding and for...

  13. Effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia are major public health problems in many developing countries. Common beans are a staple food in various Eastern African countries. Beans contain high amounts of iron, but the iron is poorly absorbed due to the presence of the iron absorption inhibitors polyphenols and phytic acid. With the overall aim of increasing the intake of bioavailable iron from beans by plant breeding strategies, this study evaluates the importance bean polyphenols on iron absorption. In common beans the polyphenols are concentrated in the bean hulls. Therefore bean hulls were used as a source of natural bean polyphenols and added in three different amounts to a non-inhibitory test meal (phytic acid free bread rolls). Iron absorption from the test meals was measured in three groups of 16 apparently healthy female volunteers using stable iron isotope techniques. Each volunteer consumed a test meal with and a test meal without bean polyphenols extrinsically labeled with 57Fe and 58Fe respectively. Iron absorption was determined based on the incorporation of iron stable isotopes into red blood cells 14 days after administration. Isotopic analysis was performed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The results of the absorption studies showed a dose dependent negative effect of bean polyphenols on iron absorption in humans. At the lowest polyphenol content tested (20 mg per test meal) no impact on iron absorption was found (p 0.92). A polyphenol content of 50 mg reduced the mean iron absorption significantly from 20.3% to 17.3% (p 0.044). The highest polyphenol content of 200 mg significantly reduced the mean iron absorption from 14.3% to 7.9% (p 0.0001). Further studies are planned to evaluate the relative effect of polyphenols and phytic acid on iron absorption from beans to provide guidance for breeding beans with improved iron bioavailability. (author)

  14. Nutritional characteristics of biofortified common beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Brigide

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc deficiency can cause anemia and alterations in the immune response and impair work capacity. To minimize this problem, biofortification has been developed to improve and/or maintain the nutritional status of the population. Beans are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, and minerals. The objective of this study is to characterize biofortified beans, quantify the minerals in different cultivars, and determine mineral dialysis. Grains of raw and cooked beans were analyzed for moisture, protein, lipids, fiber, minerals, and in vitro availability using four treatments and one control. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, and the Tukey test (p<0.05. The chemical composition of the raw and cooked treatments showed a moisture content ranging from 13.4 to 81.4%, protein from 22.24 to 31.59%, lipids from 1.66 to 2.22%, fiber from 16.81 to 40.63%, carbohydrates from 27.80 to 34.78%, and ash from 4.1 to 4.82%. Different varieties of beans showed statistically significant differences in iron and zinc content compared to the control cultivar (Pérola. The iron content differed significantly from that of the Pérola cultivar in the raw treatment, while in the cooked treatment, the control cultivar did not differ from the Piratã. The same behavior was observed for the zinc content in both treatments. There was no significant difference between the cultivars in the treatments in terms of the content of the dialysis of Calcium (Ca, Iron (Fe, Magnesium (Mg, and Zinc (Zn.

  15. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  16. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  17. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  18. The Moche Lima beans recording system, revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi S. Melka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One matter that has raised sufficient uncertainties among scholarsin the study of the Old Moche culture is a system that comprises patterned Lima beans. The marked beans, plus various associated effigies, appear painted by and large with a mixture of realism and symbolism on the surface of ceramic bottles and jugs, with many of them showing an unparalleled artistry in the great area of the South American subcontinent. A range of accounts has been offered as to what the real meaning of these items is: starting from a recreationaland/or a gambling game, to a divination scheme, to amulets, to an application for determining the length and order of funerary rites, to a device close to an accountancy and data storage medium, ending up with an ‘ideographic’, or even a ‘pre-alphabetic’ system.The investigation brings together structural, iconographic and cultural aspects, and indicates that we might be dealing with an original form of mnemotechnology, contrived to solve the problems of medium and long-distance communication among the once thriving Moche principalities. Likewise, by reviewing the literature, by searching for new material, and exploring the structure and combinatory properties of the marked Lima beans, as well as by placing emphasis on joint scholarly efforts, may enhance the studies.

  19. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (plectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types. PMID:9527344

  20. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Drajat; Adang Agustian; Ade Supriatna

    2007-01-01

    The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments r...

  1. Impact of Long Dry Season on Bean Characteristics of Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucu Sumirat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean characteristics in Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora should be taken into considerations in coffee breeding. Beside genetic factor, environment has been known as an important factor in the formation and change of composition of bean characteristics. This research aimed to find out the effect of long dry season on changes of bean characteristics. The population observed consisted of 277 genotypes originated from reciprocal crossings of three parental namely BP 409, BP 961 and Q 121. Observation was conducted in Kaliwining Experimental Garden of ICCRI in Jember, East Java during two years with different drought intensity i.e. 2005—2006 and 2006—2007 production years. The result showed that long dry season decreased the range value of population of normal beans, pea beans and triage beans, and followed by decreasing in the mean value except for normal beans. Long dry season also influence the change of value range of empty bean to higher proportion, and followed by increasing in the mean value. Distribution pattern of normal beans tend in to remain at high proportion, in contrast to those of pea and triage beans. In other side, long dry season tended to change distribution pattern of empty beans to at high proportion. Correlation analysis among beans characteristics showed that normal beans had negative correlations with pea beans and empty beans. Pea beans had a positive correlation with empty beans. Long dry season decreased proportion of pea bean and triage bean, in contrast to those of empty beans. Increasing proportion of empty bean was caused by failure of growth to normal bean under stress condition. Key words : Coffee canephora, bean characteristics, long dry season, variation, correlation, composition.

  2. Pretreatment of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa): effect of soaking and blanching on the quality of African yam bean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminigo, Ebiokpo R; Metzger, Lloyd E

    2005-12-01

    The effect of pretreatment (soaking in sodium salts and blanching) on hydration coefficient (HC), chemical composition, texture, and color of African yam bean (AYB) was investigated. Soaking in water and in salt solutions increased the HC and about 90% of final HC values were attained at 12 and 4 hr of soaking for whole and dehulled beans, respectively. Protein content was slightly increased by soaking and blanching while ash and fat contents were reduced. Generally, a combination of dehulling and wet-processing reduced firmness of the beans more than soaking or blanching of the whole beans. Antioxidant activity was lowest (3260 TE(3)100 g) in cream-colored beans and highest (16,600 TE/100 g) in brown-colored beans. The tannin contents of unprocessed cream-colored beans and dehulled wet-processed marble variety were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The levels of tannins in the marble variety were reduced by blanching for 40 min (19.2%), soaking for 12 hr (16.0%), dehulling (72.0%), dehulling and blanching (88.8%). The whiteness of bean flours was increased significantly by dehulling, slightly by wet-processing of marble variety, and reduced significantly by wet-processing of cream-colored beans.

  3. GGE Biplot Analysis of Yield Stability in Multi-environment Trials of Lentil Genotypes under Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah KARIMIZADEH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was done to study GE interaction over twelve environments for seed yield in 18 genetically diverse genotypes. Grain yield performances were evaluated for three years at four locations in Iran using a randomized complete block design. The first two principal components (IPC1 and IPC2 were used to create a two-dimensional GGE biplot that accounted percentages of 49% and 20% respectively of sums of squares of the GE interaction. The combined analysis of variance indicated that year and location were the most important sources affecting yield variation and these factors accounted for percentages of 50.0% and 33.3% respectively of total G+E+GE variation. The GGE biplot suggested the existence of three lentil mega-environments with wining genotypes G1, G11 and G14. According to the ideal-genotype biplot, genotype G1 was the better genotype demonstrating high mean yield and high stability of performance across test locations. The average tester coordinate view indicated that genotype G1 had the highest average yield, and genotypes G1 and G12 recorded the best stability. The study revealed that a GGE biplot graphically displays interrelationships between test locations as well as genotypes and facilitates visual comparisons.

  4. Production of ready-to-eat lentil sprouts with improved antioxidant capacity: optimization of elicitation conditions with hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the optimal conditions for elicitation with H2O2 for improving the antioxidant capacity of lentil sprouts. Generally, except for 3-day-old sprouts, elicitation increased phenolic content (in respect to the control). The highest phenolic content was determined for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 15 mM H2O2 (0.71 mg/gf.m.). All the studied modifications increased the antioxidant potential of sprouts. The highest elevation (3.2-fold) was found for 5-day-old sprouts (single 15 mM H2O2 treatment). A significant increase was also found on the 2nd and 4th days (2.13- and 2.14-fold, respectively). Elicitation induced tyrosine and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases activities. H2O2 treatments induced the activity of catalase - especially for 2-day-old sprouts treated with 150 mM H2O2 (597 U/gf.m.). Elicitation with H2O2 is a useful tool for designing some features of sprouts. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are strongly affected by concentration of the elicitor, and time and intervals of its application. PMID:25766821

  5. Microcapsule production employing chickpea or lentil protein isolates and maltodextrin: physicochemical properties and oxidative protection of encapsulated flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Asli Can; Nickerson, Michael; Low, Nicholas H

    2013-08-15

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated, employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin, followed by freeze-drying. Effects of oil concentration (5.3-21.0%), protein source (CPI vs. LPI) and maltodextrin type (DE 9 and 18) and concentration (25.0-40.7%), on both the physicochemical characteristics and microstructure of the microcapsules, were investigated. It was found that an increase in emulsion oil concentration resulted in a concomitant increase in oil droplet diameter and microcapsule surface oil content, and a decrease in oil encapsulation efficiency. Optimum flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiency (∼83.5%), minimum surface oil content (∼2.8%) and acceptable mean droplet diameter (3.0 μm) were afforded with 35.5% maltodextrin-DE 9 and 10.5% oil. Microcapsules, formed by employing these experimental conditions, showed a protective effect against oxidation versus free oil over a storage period of 25 d at room temperature.

  6. Identification of elite pure-lines from local lentil germplasm using diversity index based on quantitative traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three hundred and seventeen accessions of lentil collected from all over the country were evaluated for six quantitative traits to investigate inter and intra-accession diversity in association with geographic pattern. Variation indicated that areas with high geographic diversity that is supposed to present high biological diversity are yet to be explored. Classification of germplasm gave rise to some elite lines for specific characters and the accessions for days to flowering (45), days to maturity (7), plant height (12), pods per cluster (17) and seed weight (27) have been selected and suggested for exploitation in breeding programme. Twelve clusters were observed with varying degrees of intercluster dissimilarity that suggested the selection of diverse superior parents for hybridization. Some of the characters associated with origin as high seed weight of germplasm collected from Baluchistan is needed to exploit for specific trait/s. Germplasm distribution revealed that Punjab and Sindh represented a high collections along with high diversity, whereas other areas are yet to be explored. Similarly zone 3a, 6, 7, 9 and 10 along with high mountains lack complete representation that indicated the importance for future collection mission to these areas. (author)

  7. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  8. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Castor Bean for Biodiesel Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., 2n=20) is a cross-pollinated diploid species belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae instead of the Leguminosae. It is a native of Africa but may have originated in India. Castor bean plants grow as annual or perennial, depending on geographical locations, climate a...

  9. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  10. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column c

  11. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  12. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed coffee tree gro

  13. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  14. IRON, ZINC, AND FERRITIN ACCUMULATION IN COMMON BEANS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanski, Dorian Fabian; Sørensen, Kirsten; Jurkiewicz, Anna Malgorzata;

      that the distribution of iron is dependant on the genotype. Using immunolocalization, we visualized the localization of  ferritin in mature common bean seeds.   This knowledge can contribute to the discovery of factors that affect the bioavailability of micronutrients and  can contribute to breeding common beans....... A common nutritional base for poor populations is a staple such as maize, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, or beans, but many of these have low iron and zinc content as well as potent inhibitors of iron uptake. Nutritional supplements are often unavailable to such populations due to lacking infrastructure...... in common beans. We used micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) and proton backscattering analysis to localize and quantify zinc and iron in mature bean seeds. In addition the iron distribution in different P. vulgaris genotypes was studied using Perl's Prussian blue staining. We show...

  15. SNP discovery in common bean by restriction-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing for genetic diversity and population structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdisser, Paula Arielle M R; Pappas, Georgios J; de Menezes, Ivandilson P P; Müller, Bárbara S F; Pereira, Wendell J; Narciso, Marcelo G; Brondani, Claudio; Souza, Thiago L P O; Borba, Tereza C O; Vianello, Rosana P

    2016-06-01

    Researchers have made great advances into the development and application of genomic approaches for common beans, creating opportunities to driving more real and applicable strategies for sustainable management of the genetic resource towards plant breeding. This work provides useful polymorphic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for high-throughput common bean genotyping developed by RAD (restriction site-associated DNA) sequencing. The RAD tags were generated from DNA pooled from 12 common bean genotypes, including breeding lines of different gene pools and market classes. The aligned sequences identified 23,748 putative RAD-SNPs, of which 3357 were adequate for genotyping; 1032 RAD-SNPs with the highest ADT (assay design tool) score are presented in this article. The RAD-SNPs were structurally annotated in different coding (47.00 %) and non-coding (53.00 %) sequence components of genes. A subset of 384 RAD-SNPs with broad genome distribution was used to genotype a diverse panel of 95 common bean germplasms and revealed a successful amplification rate of 96.6 %, showing 73 % of polymorphic SNPs within the Andean group and 83 % in the Mesoamerican group. A slightly increased He (0.161, n = 21) value was estimated for the Andean gene pool, compared to the Mesoamerican group (0.156, n = 74). For the linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis, from a group of 580 SNPs (289 RAD-SNPs and 291 BARC-SNPs) genotyped for the same set of genotypes, 70.2 % were in LD, decreasing to 0.10 %in the Andean group and 0.77 % in the Mesoamerican group. Haplotype patterns spanning 310 Mb of the genome (60 %) were characterized in samples from different origins. However, the haplotype frameworks were under-represented for the Andean (7.85 %) and Mesoamerican (5.55 %) gene pools separately. In conclusion, RAD sequencing allowed the discovery of hundreds of useful SNPs for broad genetic analysis of common bean germplasm. From now, this approach provides an excellent panel

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  17. Immunochromatographic purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, J J; Wiatroszak, I

    1981-01-01

    The method of immunoadsorptional purification of Bean Yellow Mosaic Virus has been worked out. Immunosorbents were obtained by coupling the antibody (IgG) fraction isolated from anti-BYMV and anti-pea leaf protein antisera with CNBr-activated 1% agarose beads. Conditions for preparation of immunosorbents, for BYMV adsorption and elution as well as the method of plant protein separation from BYMV were pointed out. The purity of BYMV was checked by double immunodiffusion as well as by SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Also biological activity was determined. TMV was used as the model virus for further BYMV studies. PMID:7025790

  18. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  19. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively whic

  20. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  1. Restoration of contaminated sites in the project PIMIC dismantling. The case of lentil; Restauracion de terrenos contaminados en el Proyecto PIMIC desmantelamiento. El caso de la lenteja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medinilla, G.; Naranjo, V.; Vidaechea, S.

    2011-07-01

    The contaminated ground area called Lenteja (lentil), located in Ciemat and caused by a liquid leakage in 1970, is being decontaminated within PIMIC decommissioning project. Most remarkable aspects of this task are: -Initial radiological characterization (25 boreholes, 277 sample analyses). -Management of more than 2000 m{sup 3} of materials. Pile walls for excavation, and ventilated tent confinement. -Excavation of more than 6 m depth in an area of approx. 120 m{sup 2}. -Development of Sr-90 in field measuring techniques for soil pre classification. (Author)

  2. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  3. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  4. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  5. A new methodology for the discrimination of plant species and their varieties using hyperspectral data: application on vetch and lentil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykas, Dimitris; Karathanassi, Vassilia; Fountas, Spyros

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the discrimination of plant species and their varieties using hyperspectral data. The concept lies on the combination of spectral pre-processing algorithms (SPPA) that enhance spectral discrimination between species and their varieties. SPPA use as input a single spectral signature and transform it according to the SPPA function. A k-step combination of SPPA uses k pre-processing algorithms serially. Initially each spectral signature is used as input to the first SPPA. The result of this SPPA is used as input to the second SPPA, and so on until the desired pre-processed signatures are reached. These signatures are then discriminated by applying spectral matching algorithms. The performance of the combination is evaluated based on the number of correctly matched signatures. In this work a k-step combination of SPPA has been set up, with k ranging from 1 to 3. The following SPPA have been investigated: vector normalization, Fourier transformation, Logarithm transformation, Kubelka-Munck transformation, derivatives, continuum removal, band depth, value normalization, n order square root transformation, and smoothing. There is a very large number of possible combinations of the aforementioned SPPAs, thus a Simple Genetic Algorithm has been used for finding optimum combinations. The input hyperspectral data were the spectral signatures of 9 varieties of vetches and 9 varieties of lentils, measured by the GER1500 spectroradiometer. For all the samples, the spectral signatures were measured at two slightly different times in the growing season. The results showed that several combinations exist which can successfully discriminate and label the spectral signatures in terms of variety, and they are independent from the time of the spectral signature measurement.

  6. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L.; Thompson, Sharon V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women...

  7. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  8. Removal of antinutritional factors from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollini R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytohemagglutinin and the lectin-related proteins present in bean seeds are toxic to monogastric animals and lower the nutritional value of beans. Since these antimetabolites are present in substantial amounts, a breeding program aimed to the removal ofphytohemagglutinin was developed. The character ""absence of phytohemagglutinin"" was transferred into a bean cultivar by backcrossing. The lines obtained maintained the agronomic performance of the recurrent parent. Preliminary results show that removal of phytohemagglutinin results in a higher true protein digestibility. Further modification in the composition of the lectin-related protein family is now under way.

  9. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics is used to determine when and where the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. developed significance for prehistoric groups of Native America. Dates and locations of proto-languages for which common bean terms reconstruct generally accord with crop-origin and dispersal information from plant genetics and archaeobotany. Paleobiolinguistic and other lines of evidence indicate that human interest in the common bean became significant primarily with the widespread development of a village‐farming way of life in the New World rather than earlier when squash and maize and a few other crops became important.

  10. Remote sensing monitoring of bean crop cultivated in the Boi Branco watershed (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares da Silva, Natália; Sánchez-Román, Rodrigo; Marchamalo Sacristán, Miguel; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the concern of the effect of climate change on water availability on a global scale is getting bigger and bigger. In average, about 65 % of the world water consumption is devoted to irrigated agriculture. In countries such as Brazil, water scarcity has been a main issue in populated areas (i.e. São Paulo) in the last two years. This has affected not only water availability for the population but also irrigation water to maintain crop yield and Brazilian economy. Remote sensing is a tool broadly used in multiple fields of science such as water management in irrigated agriculture. Actually, there are several satellites moving around the earth, and they take images of every place in a weekly or biweekly basis. The images can be downloaded from the internet site at no cost by the users. Then, they are used to determine the vegetation index NDVI which is based in the energy reflected in red and infrared spectrum and it depends on the vegetation photosynthetic activity. Within the above context, this study focus on remote sensing monitoring of a bean crop located in the basin of Boi Branco, São Paulo - Brazil, which is irrigated by pivot center. The images from the Landsat and Modis satellites were downloaded throughout the bean growing period and then, they were processed and analyzed with the Qgis software. In addition, soil moisture was measured by several TDR probe sensors deployed in the irrigated area, and the leaf area index was measured as well in the field. Both variables were used to estimate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for each bean phenology state.

  11. Effect of fertilizers on faba bean (V. faba) growth and soil pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, C.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to see the effect of fertilizers on faba bean (V. faba) growth and soil pH. This experiment is important because of the agriculture here in California and the damage fertilizers are doing to the soil. Three Broad Fava Windsor beans (Vicia faba) were planted per pot, with at least three pots per treatment. There were four treatments: soil with phosphorus (P) fertilizer, soil with nitrogen (N) fertilizer, soil with both N and P fertilizer, and soil without any fertilizers (control). The soil pH was 7.7, and it had 26.6mg/kg Olsen-P, 2.2mg/kg ammonium-N and no nitrate-N (Data from UCD Horwath Lab). All pots were put in a greenhouse with a stable temperature of 80 degrees. I watered them 2-3 times a week. After two months I measured the soil pH using a calibrated pHep HI 98107 pocket-sized pH meter. After letting the plants dry I weighed the shoots and roots separately for dry biomass. From testing pH of the soil of the faba bean plants with and without fertilizer I found that only the nitrogen fertilizer made the soil more acidic than the other ones. The other ones became more basic. Also the N-fertilized plants weighed more than the other ones. This shows how the nitrogen fertilizer had a greater impact on the plants. I think the reason why the nitrogen and the phosphorus fertilizers didn't work as well is because there was an interaction between the fertilizers and the nitrogen one made the soil more acidic because of the way nitrogen is made.

  12. Advances in Faba Bean Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Donal M; Angra, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centers of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six) of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favored plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea. However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fueled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990's and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are discussed. The

  13. Heat-Induced Structural Changes in Faba Bean Starch Paste: The Effect of Steaming Faba Bean Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczynska, B.; Autio, K.; J. Fornal

    1993-01-01

    Heat-induced structural changes of faba bean starch dispersions were examined at a concentration range of 8-10% as a function of heat treatment. Faba bean starch was isolated from raw (RF-starch) and steamed (SF-starch) faba bean seeds. Hydrothermal treatment resulted in an increase in the amount of non-starch components in the isolated starch. Microstructure of low-sheared 8% starch suspensions heated at 75, 90 and 98°C (for 10 minutes) was studied by light microscopy. Heating induced huge s...

  14. Detection and characterization of p-coumaric acid hydroxylase in mung bean, Vigna mungo, seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, M; Takeuchi, W

    1989-02-01

    A new p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid) hydroxylase was detected in mung bean seedlings treated with tentoxin, a fungal toxin, in which polyphenol oxidase that hydroxylates a wide variety of monophenols in vitro was completely eliminated. The enzyme required molecular oxygen and showed a pH optimum of 5.0. The enzyme acted only on p-coumaric acid (Km, 3.0 X 10(-5) M), while its specificity for the electron donor was rather broad. The Km value for NADPH (1.5 X 10(-4) M) was much lower than that for L-ascorbic acid (1.0 X 10(-2) M), although the Vmax value was almost the same with both electron donors. The enzyme was potently inhibited by beta-mercaptoethanol (Ki, 3.5 X 10(-6) M) and diethyldithiocarbamate (Ki, 2.3 X 10(-4) M), but was insensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoate. The enzyme was localized in the cell organelles which sedimented between mitochondria and endplasmic reticulum on sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The enzyme activity in the seedling was changed in response to induction by light in a manner suggesting its involvement in biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in mung bean seedlings.

  15. THE ROLE OF BACTERIAL SYMBIONTS IN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAN APHIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MingGan; De-ChengDing; Xue-xiaMiao

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the role of bacterial symbionts ( Buchnera spp. ) in the black bean aphids ( Aphis craccivora Koch), the aphids were treated with the antibiotic, rifampicin, to eliminate their intracellular symbiotic bacteria. Analysis of protein and amino acid concentration in 7-day-old of aposymbiotic aphids showed that the total protein content per mg fresh weight was significantly reduced by 29 %, but free amino acid titers were increased by 17% . The ratio of the essential amino acids was in general only around 20% essential amino acids in phloem sap of broad bean, whereas it was 44% and 37% in symbiotic and aposymbiotic aphids, respectively,suggesting that the composition of the free amino acids was unbalanced. For example, the essential amino acid,threonine represented 21. 6% of essential amino acids in symbiotic aphids, but it was only 16.7% in aposymbiotic aphids. Likewise, two nonessential amino acids, tyrosine and serine, represented 8.9% and 5.6% of total amino acids in symbiontic aphids, respectively, but they enhanced to 21.1% and 13.6% in aposymbiotic aphids. It seems likely that the elevated free amino acid concentration in aposymbiotic aphids was caused by the limited protein anabolism as the result of the unbalanced amino acid composition.

  16. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  17. The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Barzilai, Omry; Khalaily, Hamudi; Milevski, Ianir; Paz, Yitzhak; Vardi, Jacob; Regev, Lior; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2015-10-01

    Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11th millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ13C analysis.

  18. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  19. Intermittent drying of beans in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Carioca beans are a highly nutritious grain, in terms of the amount of protein, iron and potassium as well as carbohydrates and fiber and as a source of vitamins. The moisture content of recently picked beans is too high for good preservation and storage, resulting in the need for drying before packaging. In this work, the drying of Carioca beans in a laboratory scale spouted bed under intermittent conditions of the drying air was experimentally analyzed. Experiments carried out consisted of two types of intermittent regime: intermittence in the spout regime, referred to as spouted/fixed bed and intermittence of the air supply to the bed, called spouted bed/rest. The results were compared to those for bean drying in a spouted bed dryer without intermittence.

  20. Caffeine content of Ethiopian Coffea arabica beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadete Silvarolla

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The coffee germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas has many Coffea arabica accessions from Ethiopia, which is considered the primary center of genetic diversity in coffee plants. An evaluation of the caffeine content of beans from 99 progenies revealed intra- and inter-progeny variability. In 68 progenies from the Kaffa region we found caffeine values in the range 0.46-2.82% (mean 1.18%, and in 22 progenies from Illubabor region these values ranged from 0.42 to 2.90% (mean 1.10%. This variability could be exploited in a breeding program aimed at producing beans with low-caffeine content.O banco de germoplasma de café do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas contém grande número de introduções de Coffea arabica provenientes da Etiópia, considerada centro de diversidade genética desta espécie. A avaliação dos teores de cafeína nas sementes de 99 progênies revelou a presença de variabilidade entre e dentro das progênies, de acordo com a região de origem das introduções. Entre as 68 progênies da região de Kaffa encontraram-se valores de cafeína entre 0.46 e 2.82% (média 1.18% e entre as 22 progênies de Illubabor obtiveram-se plantas cujos teores de cafeína variaram de 0.42 a 2.90% (média 1.10%. A variabilidade aqui relatada poderá ser explorada na produção de uma variedade de café com baixos teores de cafeína nas sementes.

  1. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  2. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  3. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. PMID:27283664

  4. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarine Amaral do EVANGELHO; Jose de J. BERRIOS; Vânia Zanella PINTO; Mariana Dias ANTUNES; Nathan Levien VANIER; Elessandra da Rosa ZAVAREZE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by electrophoresis and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the capturing methods of free radicals ABTS●+ and DPPH. Electrophoretic results showed that the bands above 50 kDa disappeared,...

  5. Zinc supplementation, production and quality of coffee beans

    OpenAIRE

    Herminia Emilia Prieto Martinez; Yonara Poltronieri; Adriana Farah; Daniel Perrone

    2013-01-01

    Besides its importance in the coffee tree nutrition, there is almost no information relating zinc nutrition and bean quality. This work evaluated the effect of zinc on the coffee yield and bean quality. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L. in "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Twelve plots were established at random with 4 competitive plants each. Treatments included plants supplemented with zinc (eight plots) and control without zinc supplementation (four plots). Pla...

  6. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compar...

  7. Water transport in parchment and endosperm of coffee bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Salgado-Cervantes, M.A.; Rodriguez-Jimenes, G.C.; Garcia-Alvarado, M.A.; Cherblanc, Fabien; Benet, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    International audience This paper aims at contributing to identify the eventual regions where fungus Aspergillus ochraceus could grow and produce ochratoxin A (OTA) during drying of coffee beans. Internal structure of coffee bean was analyzed by optical microscopy for endosperm and parchment. From the expression of the dissipation in the grain due to the water transport, we show that a relationship formally analogous to an equation of diffusion governs the water transport. Three structures...

  8. Internal structure and water transport in the coffee bean

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez-Martinez, Alejandra; Benet, Jean-Claude; Cherblanc, Fabien; Garcia-Alvarado, M.A.; Rodriguez-Jimenes, G.

    2010-01-01

    Microscope observations gave evidence of the coffee bean structure heterogeneity, whereas, coffee bean isotherms of different parts of grain show not significant difference excluding the parchment. Diffusion tests allowed determining the relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the water content. Therefore we propose an original method to determine the water transfer resistance in different parts of grain including the parchment. The set of results will permit to simulate a coffee g...

  9. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  10. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  11. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  12. Nutritional response of growing rats to faba beans (Vicia faba L., minor) and faba bean fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, L A; Grant, G; Bardocz, S; Dewey, P; Pusztai, A

    1991-11-01

    The effects of raw faba bean (Vicia faba L., minor) meal (VFM) and its fractions on the growth and nitrogen utilization of rats have been determined in two experiments. Two commercial varieties of VFM were tested, local VFM (409-439 g/kg diet) and Troy VFM (439 g/kg diet). The bean fractions tested were V. faba lectin-depleted protein (VFDP), V. faba lectin (VFL) and V. faba cotyledon residue (VFCR). All diets were supplemented with amino acids to target requirements. Body-weight, body N and lipid contents of rats fed on VFM were reduced significantly in comparison with control rats fed on lactalbumin. This was due, in part, to the lower digestibility of the protein, lipid and dry matter (DM) of VFM diets. As a result, net protein utilization (NPU) and biological value (BV) of faba bean proteins were less than expected. Urine and urea-N outputs of the VFM-fed rats were also elevated in both experiments. Increasing the energy content of local VFM diets led to significantly higher dry body-weight, body N and lipid contents, with the result that the NPU and BV values of the protein also increased. However, the NPU values for VFM-fed rats were still significantly lower than those for the controls in both experiments. In contrast, true N, lipid and DM digestibilities in rats given local VFM were not significantly affected by the difference in the energy content of the diets. The replacement of two-thirds of the lactalbumin in the diet with VFDP (65 g/kg) reduced dry body-weight, N and lipid contents, NPU and BV compared with the control rats, even though N, lipid and DM digestibilities were not significantly different. The nutritional performance of rats fed on lactalbumin-based diets containing 7 g VFL/kg was similar to that of the controls. Similarly, the inclusion of the cotyledon residue (237 g VFCR/kg diet) had no appreciable effect on any of the variables studied. As VFL and VFCR had no antinutritional effects in these rats, it appears that the low nutritional

  13. Resistance of stored bean varieties to Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edson L.L. Baldin; Fernando M. Lara

    2008-01-01

    During bean seed storage, yield can be lost due to infestations of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, the bean weevil. The use of resistant varieties has shown promising results in fighting these insects, reducing infestation levels and eliminating chemical residues from the beans. The expression of resistance to A. obtectus in bean varieties is frequently attributed to the presence of phytohemagglutinins, protease inhibitors and alpha-amylase, and espe-cially to variants of the protein arcelin, which reduce the larval viability of these insects. Toevaluate the effect of bean seed storage time on the resistance expression of bean varietiesto A. obtectus, tests with seeds of three ages (freshly-harvested, 4-month-old, and 8-month-old) were conducted in the laboratory, using four commercial varieties: Carioca Pitoco, Ipa 6, PorriUo 70, 0nix; four improved varieties containing arcelin protein: Arc. 1, Arc.2, Arc.3, Arc.4; and three wild varieties also containing arcelin protein: Arc.lS, Arc.3S, and Arc.5S. The Arc.5S, Arc. 1S, and Arc.2 varieties expressed high antibiosis levels against the weevil; Arc. 1 and Arc3S expressed the same mechanism, but at lower levels. The occurrence of oviposition non-preference was also observed in Arc.5S and Arc. IS. The Arc.3 and Arc.4 varieties expressed low feeding non-preference levels against A. obtectus. The expression of resistance in arcelin-bearing, wild or improved varieties was affected during the storage of seeds, and was high under some parameters but low in others. The results showed that addition of chemical resistance factors such as protein arcelin via genetic breeding may be beneficial in improving the performance of bean crops.

  14. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors bean calibration the r(2) values were between 0.85 and 0.93 with standard errors of cross validation of 0.8-1.6 mg/g depending upon calibration. The results showed it was possible to develop NIRS calibrations to estimate the caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products. PMID:24070227

  15. Results of preliminary investigations at radio sensitivity of bean (Vicia faba L.) on fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of bean (Vicia faba L.) were irradiated with fast neutrons. The radiation doses applied ranged from 40 to 600 rads. Then irradiated seeds were sowed. During bean vegetation radiation effects were observed. (A.S.)

  16. Melhoramento do feijoeiro Breeding of dry beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim O. Abrahão

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os ensaios de variedades e linhagens de feijão, realizados no período de 1948 a 1957 pelo Seção de Genética e resumidamente aqui apresentados, vieram indicar que as variedades e linhagens do grupo Mulatinho e Chumbinho eram as mais produtivas. A partir dêste ano agrícola, novos ensaios comparativos de produção foram realizados, a fim de verificar o comportamento das variedades e linhagens existentes com as variedades recém-introduzidas e as novas linhagens selecionadas. As variedades comerciais e suas linhagens, estudadas neste trabalho, foram classificadas em oito grupos, com base nas observações realizadas principalmente sôbre o tipo de planta e característicos dos sementes, o saber: Mulatinho, Chumbinho, Rosinha, Roxinho, Manteiga, Prêto, Bico-de-Ouro e diversos. Dos oito ensaios analisados em detalhes e realizados em Campinas, chegou-se à conclusão de que as variedades dos grupos Prêta e Rosinha são as de maior capacidade produtiva, devendo ser intensificado o aproveitamento dêsses grupos no plano de melhoramento em execução. As do grupo Roxinho apresentam-se menos produtivas. A comparação das análises dos ensaios como látice e blocos ao acaso revelou uma eficiência média de ordem de 30% para o tipo látice nos oito ensaios analisados. A fim de observar se o pêso total de plantas por ocasião da colheita mostra correlação com a produção de grãos, determinou-se, para cada grupo, o índice entre essas duas variáveis. Observou-se que êstes índices são proporcionais à produção, servindo, assim, para melhor caracterizar os diversos grupos de variedades e linhagens de feijão.In spite of the fact that dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris are one of the main sources of protein in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, they are considered a secondary crop and grown only in small patches or intercropped with coffee, sugar cane, or corn. The development of high yielding strains resistant to the most prevailing diseases, has

  17. Irradiation disinfestation of stored cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between effective dosages to induce mortality and sterility in several important storage beetles was investigated. To induce 100% mortality, doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 kGy require 4-7 weeks, 0.2-1.0 kGy need 1.5-3 weeks and 2.0 kGy require 1 week for Tribolium castaneum, Oryzaephilus surinamensis and Lasioderma serricorne, respectively. Only at 5.0 kGy did instant mortality occur in the insects tested. Total prevention of F1 progeny was achieved at the lowest dosage (0.05 kGy) for T. castaneum and O. surinamensis; for L. serricorne, the sterility level achieved was 92-99% for doses ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 kGy. Semi-pilot scale tests (12 months) were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of gamma irradiation to control insects (artificially infested L. serricorne and T. castaneum) and moulds in cocoa beans packed in either jute or laminated polypropylene or unlaminated polypropylene bags. Good control against insect infestations was achieved for the whole duration of storage. Laminated polypropylene afforded the best protection against insect reinfestation. Other than a change in moisture content, no changes in the physicochemical properties were observed in the flavour or in the total protein, soluble protein, amino acid and free fatty acid contents. 15 refs, 10 tabs

  18. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel; Ambachew; Firew; Mekbib; Asrat; Asfaw; Stephen; E.Beebe; Matthew; W.Blair

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot(BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly; iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress.In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  19. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ambachew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM. The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii unprotected against bean fly; iii irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  20. Trait associations in common bean genotypes grown under drought stress and field infestation by BSM bean fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ambachew; Firew Mekbib; Asrat Asfaw; Stephen E. Beebe; Matthew W. Blaird

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional relations among plant traits and their modulation by growing conditions is imperative in designing selection strategies for breeding programs. This study assessed trait relationships among 196 common bean genotypes exposed to stresses for drought and field infestation of bean fly or bean stem maggot (BSM). The study was carried out at two locations and data was analyzed with linear correlation, path coefficient and genotype × trait biplot analyses. Multiple trait data related to mechanisms of drought and bean fly tolerance were collected on 196 genotypes grown under i) water deficit at mid-pod fill, or ii) unprotected against bean fly;iii) irrigated, well watered conditions, or iv) bean fly protection with chemicals. Seed yield exhibited positive and significant correlations with leaf chlorophyll content, vertical root pulling resistance, pod harvest index, pods per plant and seeds per pod at both phenotypic and genotypic levels under stress and non-stress conditions. Genotypic correlations of traits with seed yield were greater than their respective phenotypic correlations across environments indicating the greater contribution of genotypic factors to the trait correlation. Pods per plant and seeds per pod had high positive direct effects on seed yield both under stress and non-stress whereas pods per plant had the highest indirect effect on seed yield through pod harvest index under stress. In general, our results suggest that vertical root pulling resistance and pod harvest index are important selection objectives for improving seed yield in common beans under non-stress and stress conditions, and particularly useful for drought and BSM tolerance evaluation.

  1. 压热法制备白扁豆抗性淀粉的研究%Preparation of White Lentil Resistant Starch by Pressure-heating Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑琳; 张元元; 齐明

    2011-01-01

    Using white lentil starch as raw material, RS3 resistant starch was prepared by pressure-heating treatment method. The optimum processing parameters for preparation of resistant starch though single factors test and orthogonal test using the yield of the white lentil resistant starch as the evaluation index were determined as: starch concentration 15%, pH 8, temperature 125 ℃, pressure-heating time 1.5 h and aging treatment time 36 h at 4 ℃.Under these conditions, the yield of RS3 resistant starch could be up to 17.39%.%研究压热法制备白扁豆抗性淀粉的工艺参数.以白扁豆淀粉为原料,采用压热法制备RS3型抗性淀粉,并通过单因素试验和正交试验,以抗性淀粉的产率作为评价指标确定抗性淀粉制备的最佳工艺参数.实验结果表明抗性淀粉制备的最佳工艺参数为淀粉糊浓度15%,pH为8,温度为125℃,时间为1.5 h,老化处理时间为36h,在此工艺条件下制备抗性淀粉的产率为17.39%.压热法制备白扁豆抗性淀粉产率较高,具有一定的实际应用价值.

  2. 宁夏灌区扁豆农艺及产量性状分析%Analysis on Agronomic and Yield Traits of Lentils in Irrigation of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article is analysis lentils agronomic and yield traits in irrigation of Ningxia ,The results showed that lentils needs from planting to maturity about 80 d in irrigation.The correlation analysis showed growth peri⁃od and the number of pods per plant with plant height was significantly negatively correlated,But stem branches and 1000-grains weight with yileld was a significant positive correlation.The principal component analysis showed three main components,were yield,1000-grains weight and the number of grain per pod. The pods per plant,the number of grain per pod were no significant differences,but 1000- grains weight was significant difference in va⁃rieties.the change of yield was mainly due to the changes caused by the grain weight.%  对宁夏灌区引种扁豆的农艺及产量性状进行分析,结果表明,宁夏灌区引种的扁豆从播种到成熟需要80d左右;株高与生育期、单株荚数呈显著负相关;小区产量与主茎分枝、千粒重均呈显著正相关;主成分分析表现为3个主成分,分别是产量主成分、千粒重主成分和荚粒数主成分;产量及其构成因素分析表明单株荚数、单荚粒数品种间均无显著差异,而千粒重差异显著,产量的变化主要是由千粒重的变化引起的。

  3. Ameliorative effects of Ca2+ on deleterious effects of salinity on nutrients uptake and some morphological traits of two genotypes of lentil (Lens culinaris M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ganjeali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted with two genotypes of lentil (MLC321 and MLC323, two levels of calcium (0 and 5 mM Ca2+ as CaSO4 and five salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 dS/m as a factorial experiment, based on completely randomized design with three replications. Seeds were sown in plastic pots and sampling of seedlings was done after 6 weeks. Results showed that in both genotypes, plant height decreased at all salinity levels (P≤ 0.05. At higher salinity levels (more than 4 dS/m, total root area and root length were decreased in both genotypes. In both genotypes, significant reduction in leaf dry weight was observed at 12 and 16 dS/m salinity levels, and root dry weight at all salinity levels (except 4 dS/m in MLC323 genotype. Salt stress increased the concentration of sodium in leaves and roots of both genotypes. Potassium and calcium concentrations of leaves increased at some salinity levels; while the concentration of these elements decreased in the roots. In MLC321 genotype, calcium treatment significantly (P≤ 0.05 increased plant height and leaf area and dry weight at 4 dS/m salinity level. In MLC323 genotype, calcium treatment significantly (P≤ 0.05 reduced sodium concentration of roots at 8 dS/m and leaf potassium at 4 dS/m salinity level. In both genotypes, calcium treatment at high levels of salinity (12 and 16 dS/m was unable to offset the negative effects of salinity. It seems that using calcium sulfate, due to its role in osmoregulation, can limit the damages caused by low salinity (4 dS/m in lentil.

  4. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality, with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Savelkoul, F.H.M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectins respectively which negatively effect the protein digestibility by nonruminants e.g. pigs. Also the storage protein is not easily digested by nonruminants. The main aim of the present study was to find a reasonable ...

  5. Draft genome sequence of the ricin-producing oilseed castor bean

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes P.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Zhao, Qi; Lorenzi, Hernan; Orvis, Joshua; Puiu, Daniela; Melake-Berhan, Admasu; Kristine M Jones; Redman, Julia; Chen, Grace; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Gedil, Melaku; Stanke, Mario; Haas, Brian J.; Wortman, Jennifer R

    2010-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oil crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family. Its seeds are the source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants due to its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. Castor bean seeds also produce ricin, a highly toxic ribosome inactivating protein, making castor bean relevant for biosafety. We report here the 4.6X draft genome sequence of castor bean, representing the first reported Euphorbiaceae geno...

  6. Reduction of Microbe Contamination through Steaming Process to Cocoa Beans Using Steaming Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Hendy Firmanto

    2014-01-01

    Dry cocoa bean quality is also determined by its microbe contamination level. Steaming process for dried cocoa beans as a pretreatment process was selected because of less effect on organic compound inside the dried cocoa bean. This experiment aim was to study microbial contamination level of cocoa beans using steaming process, determining its microbial population and evaluate its chemical changes. Experiment was carried out in Postharvest Laboratory of Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research In...

  7. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  8. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  9. Extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Harmsen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Polysaccharides were sequentially extracted from green and roasted Coffea arabica beans with water (90 °C), EDTA, 0.05, 1, and 4 M NaOH and characterized chemically. Additionally, the beans were subjected to a single extraction with water at 170 °C. Green arabica coffee beans contained large proport

  10. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya be

  11. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems.

  12. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  13. Comparative study of the chemical composition of wild and cultivated beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, A; Sousa, H; Sánchez, M

    1995-02-01

    Five wild Phaseolus vulgaris beans were compared with five cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris beans in proximate composition, total (true) protein, amino acid composition, and toxic and antinutritional factors. The wild beans contained more protein (25.5% vs. 21.7%), ash (5.15 vs. 4.15%), crude fiber (7.08% vs. 5.04%) compared to cultivated beans while the former contained less fat (0.56 vs. 0.89%) and carbohydrates (61.64 vs. 68.05%). Sulfur amino acids were found to be limiting in both groups of bean as expected; however, the cultivated beans had a higher content of the limiting amino acids. Therefore, the cultivated beans showed a better amino acid profile than the wild beans. Toxic factors were not found in either type of bean; the determinations included saponins, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides. The antinutritional factors investigated were hemagglutinins (lectins) and trypsin inhibitors. The wild beans presented a higher content of trypsin inhibitors (28 TUI per mg) and lectins (9.6) than the cultivated beans did (21 TUI per mg and 7 respectively). From the chemical point of view, domestication seems to be positive; however, the better protein nutritive quality of the cultivated beans should be further confirmed by biological assays. PMID:7792267

  14. Thoughts on the Sustainable Development of the Fava Bean Industry in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhang DU; Yanghua LI; Jijun ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    The research analyzed the theoretical basis of the sustainable development of the Chongqing fava bean in terms of the current market economy situation. In re-gard to practice, several strategies wil be suggested for the Chongqing fava bean in-dustry to guide the development of Chongqing’s efficient fava bean agriculture.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of green coffee: comparison of graded and defective beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalakshmi, K; Kubra, I R; Rao, L J M

    2007-06-01

    Defective (triage) coffee beans are beans rejected after separating the graded ones according to the size and color. These coffee beans represent about 15% to 20% of coffee production in India but are not utilized for beverages since these affect the quality of coffee brew. In the present study, physical characteristics such as bean density, brightness, titratable acidity, pH, moisture, and total soluble solids and also chemical composition, namely, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, lipids, sucrose, total polyphenols, and proteins, were evaluated in defective as well as in graded green coffee beans. The physical parameters such as weight, density, and brightness of defective coffee beans were low compared to the graded beans, which is due to the presence of immature, broken, bleached, and black beans. Caffeine content was low in triage beans compared to graded beans. Chlorogenic acids, one of the composition in coffee responsible for antioxidant activity, was found to be intact (marginally high in some cases) in defective coffee beans. Hence, triage coffee beans can be evaluated as a source of antioxidant or radical scavenging conserve for food systems. PMID:17995751

  16. Building of capacity to control Broomrape’s outbreaks in Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco

    2010-01-01

    Broomrape is a common name for more than 200 species from the family Orobanchaceae,. They all are chlorophyll-lacking obligate root holoparasites that subsist on broad-leaf plants, thereby depleting them of nutrients, minerals and water. Several broomrape species parasitize important crops (tomato, potato, tobacco, eggplant, faba bean, vetch, lentil, peanut, Brassica spp., sunflower, carrot, celery and parsley). At present, over 73 million hectares of farmland under cultivation in the Middle ...

  17. Hyperspectral imaging for differentiation of foreign materials from pinto beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Zemlan, Michael; Henry, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Food safety and quality in packaged products are paramount in the food processing industry. To ensure that packaged products are free of foreign materials, such as debris and pests, unwanted materials mixed with the targeted products must be detected before packaging. A portable hyperspectral imaging system in the visible-to-NIR range has been used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from pinto beans that have been mixed with foreign matter. Bands and band ratios have been identified as effective features to develop a classification scheme for detection of foreign materials in pinto beans. A support vector machine has been implemented with a quadratic kernel to separate pinto beans and background (Class 1) from all other materials (Class 2) in each scene. After creating a binary classification map for the scene, further analysis of these binary images allows separation of false positives from true positives for proper removal action during packaging.

  18. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27484307

  19. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  20. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L-1 P as KH2PO4. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h-1 plant-1) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h-1 cm-1) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h-1 plant-1 and 0.05 nmol h-1 cm-1, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  1. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  2. Medical image of the week: coffee bean and whirlpool signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolome B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease presented with altered mental status, poor oral intake, and multiple episodes of nausea and vomiting. An abdominal x-ray demonstrated dilated loops of bowel and the coffee bean sign concerning for sigmoid volvulus (Figure 1. The coffee bean sign occurs when a thick “inner wall” represents the double wall thickness of opposed loops of bowel while the thinner outer walls due single thickness. A contrast CT abdomen showed dilated sigmoid loop and whirlpool sign confirming sigmoid volvulus (Figure 2. She underwent a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and full recovery.

  3. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, Marita; Grenha, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua). This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  4. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0...... sensory characteristics. Increasing the proportion of maize silage at the expense of grass-clover silage did not affect milk production, but decreased the milk content of long-chain fatty acids, as well as the content of carotenes...

  5. Mapping Fusarium solani and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot resistance and root architecture quantitative trait loci in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot diseases of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a constraint to dry and snap bean production. We developed the RR138 RIL mapping population from the cross of OSU5446, a susceptible line that meets current snap bean processing industry standards, and RR6950, a root rot resistant dry bean in th...

  6. BROAD PHONEME CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNAL BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deekshitha G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is the most efficient and popular means of human communication Speech is produced as a sequence of phonemes. Phoneme recognition is the first step performed by automatic speech recognition system. The state-of-the-art recognizers use mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC features derived through short time analysis, for which the recognition accuracy is limited. Instead of this, here broad phoneme classification is achieved using features derived directly from the speech at the signal level itself. Broad phoneme classes include vowels, nasals, fricatives, stops, approximants and silence. The features identified useful for broad phoneme classification are voiced/unvoiced decision, zero crossing rate (ZCR, short time energy, most dominant frequency, energy in most dominant frequency, spectral flatness measure and first three formants. Features derived from short time frames of training speech are used to train a multilayer feedforward neural network based classifier with manually marked class label as output and classification accuracy is then tested. Later this broad phoneme classifier is used for broad syllable structure prediction which is useful for applications such as automatic speech recognition and automatic language identification.

  7. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  8. Rate of digestion of foods and postprandial glycaemia in normal and diabetic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Ghafari, H; Jenkins, A. L.; Barker, H; Jenkins, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    Carbohydrate portions (2 g) of lentils, soya beans, and wholemeal bread were incubated for three hours with human digestive juices and the effect of digestibility on blood glucose examined. Lentils and soya beans released only 39% and 8% respectively of the sugars and oligosaccharides liberated from bread. In healthy volunteers 50 g carbohydrate portions of cooked lentils and soya beans raised blood glucose concentrations by only 42% (p < 0.001) and 14% (p < 0.001) of the bread value. There w...

  9. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  10. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  11. Silicon micromachined broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric (Inventor); Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael (Inventor); Hansler, Richard (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A micro electromechanical system (MEMS) broad band incandescent light source includes three layers: a top transmission window layer; a middle filament mount layer; and a bottom reflector layer. A tungsten filament with a spiral geometry is positioned over a hole in the middle layer. A portion of the broad band light from the heated filament is reflective off the bottom layer. Light from the filament and the reflected light of the filament are transmitted through the transmission window. The light source may operate at temperatures of 2500 K or above. The light source may be incorporated into an on board calibrator (OBC) for a spectrometer.

  12. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  13. Studies on interference between newly defined bean-infecting potyviruses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and blackeye cowpea mosaic virus (BICMV) belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the plant virus family Potyviridae (Barnett, 1991, 1992) are of great economic importance. A large number of strains of BCMV and BlCMV are found to occur in nature, either in single or in mix

  14. Germination test for identification of gamma-irradiated bean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of germination test for the practical detection of irradiated beans has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if the relationship between the root growth rate and radiation dose could be used to produce a rapid analytical method for identification of irradiated beans. Such detection method could be potentially used for both (a) identification of irradiated food, and (b) for quarantine inspection (to certify that the agricultural product has been irradiated, and the pests present in it do not pose a quarantine risk). Results presented in this paper indicate that the germination test is not always capable of discriminating satisfactorily between irradiated and unirradiated samples of bean seeds, because the sensitivity of the test is often higher than the low doses which are suggested for disinfestation purposes. However, using the germination test, an unexperienced person can easily discriminate untreated bean seeds from those irradiated with 0.3-1.5 kGy doses of gamma radiation. (orig./vhe)

  15. Weed Interference Affects Dry Bean Yield and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dry bean is one of the most important pulse crops in Iran. Field study was conducted in 2011 to evaluate effects of weed competition from a natural flora on growth and yield of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The treatments consisted of weed infestation and weed removal periods (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. Control plots kept weed-infested and weed-free throughout growing season. To assess the weed competition effect on crop characteristics, Richards, Gompertz and logistic equations were fitted to the data. The most abundant weed species were Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Increase in duration of weed interference decreased the stem height of dry bean. At the end of the growing season, dry bean was 20 cm taller in season-long weed-free treatment compared to the season-long weed-infested treatment. As the number of days of weed interference increased, a declining trend of LAI and number of pods was observed. The minimum number of pods was obtained in season-long weed-infested treatment (5.01 pods/plant. Weed interference during the whole growing season, caused a 60% reduction in yield. Considering 5% and 10% acceptable yield lost, the critical period of weed competition was determined from 20 to 68 and 23 to 55 days after planting (DAE, respectively.

  16. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  17. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60 min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2 V/cm for 2-2.5 min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans

  18. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  20. Characterization of white mold disease avoidance in common bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    White mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating fungal disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. Physiological resistance and disease avoidance conferred by plant architecture-related traits contribute to white mold field resistance. Our objective was to further exam...

  1. Microbiological safety of kinema: a fermented soya bean food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Bakshi, D.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of Northeastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (mark

  2. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. PMID:27507478

  3. Cooking Up a Learning Community with Corn, Beans, and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nancy M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes using cooking as a vehicle for creating community among three culturally diverse classrooms of prekindergartners and third graders. Notes how the choice of corn, beans, and rice in the cooking exercise planted the roots of understanding, tolerance, and compassion, and an appreciation of diversity. (SD)

  4. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mancini-Filho, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  5. What Can Students Learn about Lab Safety from Mr. Bean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeremy M.; Carr, June M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical laboratory safety education is often synonymous with boring, dry, drawn-out lectures. In an effort to challenge this norm and stimulate vivid learning opportunities about laboratory safety, college chemistry classes analyzed a short, humorous video clip of a character, named Mr. Bean, who visits a chemistry laboratory and commits several…

  6. Allelopathic potential of a noxious weed on mung bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthapratim Maiti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eupatorium odoratum have invaded the waste lands of South West Bengal, India. A field study indicated a gradual and also significant increase in Eupatorium odoratum accompanied with significant decrease in other coexisting species. Considering the above in mind, a study was undertaken to evaluate the existence of inhibitory effect of leaf extracts and leaf leachates noxious weed Eupatorium odoratum using fully viable seeds of mung bean (Vigna radiata as the bioassay material. The study showed the reduced the percentage germination and TTC stainability along with extended T50 values of mung bean seeds. The levels of protein, DNA and RNA, activities of dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes were significantly retarded in pretreated seed samples. Amino acid and sugar levels were increased in the leachates of seeds pretreated with leaf extracts and leaf leachates. Thus, from the overall results it can be concluded that various inhibitors present in E. odoratum can impart strong inhibitory effect on mung bean. The study suggests that the leaves of E. odoratum possess phytotoxic or allelopathic chemicals which potentially rendered the inhibitory action on mung bean seeds.

  7. A Nomadic Subtelomeric Disease Resistance Gene Cluster in Common Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The B4 resistance (R)-gene cluster, located in subtelomeric region of chromosome 4, is one of the largest clusters known in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Pv). We sequenced 650 kb spanning this locus and annotated 97 genes, 26 of which correspond to Coiled-coil-Nucleotide-Binding-Site-Leucine-Rich...

  8. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  9. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  10. Increasing phosphorus supply is not the mechanism by which arbuscular mycorrhiza increase attractiveness of bean (Vicia faba) to aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikova, Zdenka; Gilbert, Lucy; Randall, Kate C.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Pickett, John A.; Johnson, David

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, important plant mutualists, provide plants with nutrients such as phosphorus (P) in return for carbon. AM fungi also enhance the attractiveness of plants to aphids via effects on emissions of plant volatiles used in aphid host location. We tested whether increased P uptake by plants is the mechanism through which AM fungi alter the volatile profile of plants and aphid behavioural responses by manipulating the availability of P and AM fungi to broad beans (Vicia faba L.) in a multi-factorial design. If AM fungi affect plant volatiles only via increased P acquisition, we predicted that the emission of volatiles and the attractiveness of mycorrhizal beans to aphids would be similar to those of non-mycorrhizal beans supplied with additional P. AM fungi and P addition increased leaf P concentrations by 40 and 24%, respectively. The production of naphthalene was less in mycorrhizal plants, regardless of P addition. By contrast, production of (S)-linalool, (E)-caryophyllene and (R)-germacrene D was less in plants colonized by AM fungi but only in the absence of P additions. The attractiveness of plants to pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was positively affected by AM fungi and correlated with the extent of root colonization; however, attractiveness was neither affected by P treatment nor correlated with leaf P concentration. These findings suggest that increased P uptake is not the main mechanism by which mycorrhiza increase the attractiveness of plants to aphids. Instead, the mechanism is likely to operate via AM fungi-induced plant systemic signalling. PMID:25200735

  11. WATER NEEDS FOR WINTER BEAN CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Klar

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of water use by bean winter crop (Phaseolus vulgaris, L., cv. Carioca was carried out in a Red Yellow Latosol, clay texture. A furrow irrigation system maintained soil water potentials higher than -40 KPa. Two broadcast nitrogen treatments (0 and 30 kg N/ha were applied 25 days after planting. The major objectives were to study the nitrogen and evapotranspiration interaction and measure the crop coefficients (Kc. The maximum average evapotranspiration (ETm was 1.71 mm/day, or 157.16 mm over 92 days of observations; the ETm values for the vegetative (1, flowering (2 and pod formation (3 phases were 1.48, 2.35, and 1.50 mm/day, respectively, for the 30 kg/ha nitrogen treatment, and 1.48, 1.88 and 1.45 mm/day for the no nitrogen treatment. The crop coefficients (Kc = ETm / ETo were 0.62 and 0.78 for the phase 1, 0.80 and 1.10 for the phase 2, 0.45 and 0.55 for the phase 3 and 0.61 and 0.80 for the entire cycle, based on the FAO-Penman and Class A Pan reference methods (ETo, respectively. The latter one was the best approach to estimate maximum water use by winter bean crop. Nitrogen treatments did not affect evapotranspiration significantly. However, the measured evapotranspiration obtained from the water balance method was 59.78 and 27.12% higher in the flowering than in the vegetative phase, respectively, under 30 and 0 kg N/ha.Um estudo sobre o uso de água do feijoeiro de inverno (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca foi realizado num solo Latossol Vermelho Amarelo de textura argilosa. Um sistema de sulcos de infiltração foi usado para proceder a irrigação com o intuito de manter o solo em potenciais de água superiores a -40,0 KPa. Duas doses de aplicação de N em cobertura (0 a 30 Kg N/ha foram colocados 25 dias após o plantio. Os principais objetivos do estudo foram: avaliar a interação entre as duas doses de N com a evapotranspiração e medir os coeficientes de cultura (Kc. A evapotranspiração média máxima (ETm foi 1,71 mm

  12. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  13. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES, MORPHOLOGIC, PROTEINIC AND CULINARY DESCRIPTION OF THE GRAIN OF BEAN CULTIVARS SOWED IN THE REGION OF TLATZALA, GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Solano Cervantes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research had for object describe the productive process of the of bean culture in the community of Tlatzala, Guerrero and the species diversity by means of the morphologic characteristics of the grain, protein content and the culinary quality. 30 questionnaires were applied to bean producers and 20 varieties of bean were collected from which the morphologic characters of the grain, protein content and the culinary characters were obtained. The production cycle of bean initiates in May and finishes in October. The technology used is traditional, characterized by the use of the yoke in the labors of the culture that demands workforce to realize the activities of manual form. The biological cycle of the varieties begins in June, the variation at time is determinated for the cultivated genotype. The determinate or indeterminate bush beans are predominant (65 %. The sowing systems are intercalated (50 % and associated with maize (30 % and monoculture (20 %. The varieties Rojito and Blanco have special uses, the first one has the attribute of being consumed as green-bean all the year around and the second one is used to prepare the dish called Chile-ajo. The Black beans were the most frequent (45 % followed by the Red beans (35 % and the least frequent were the Striped one (5 % and Muddy-like (5 %. The kidney shape of grain was the most abundant (85 % and the oval one was the least frequent (5 %. The grain weight changed from 14.4 up to 38.5 g. The sizes of grains founded were medium (50 % and small (50 %. The protein content registered was: White beans 24.68 %, Red bean 24.64 %, Black beans 23.5 % and Striped beans of guide 22.27 %. The Rojito Enano had the major protein content (27.6 %. The cooking times were: Red beans 73 minutes, Striped of guide bean 65.5, Blacks bean 64.6 and Whites bean 59. The Black bean Enano-1 used less time (54 minutes. The Striped of guide bean registered the major amount of solid (0.32 %, followed by the Black beans

  14. Image segmentation of diseased lentil leaves for disease speckle%扁豆病害叶片的病斑剥离分割

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学俊; 赵礼良

    2014-01-01

    Traditional segmentation methods can obtain better result for these images which have distinct difference between the goal and background area. However these methods are difficult to obtain ideal disease speckle for diseased lentil leave images which have minor difference among normal leaves and disease speckles. So in this paper, it proposes a method that is suitable for diseased lentil leave images. This method has two stages including initial segmentation and secondary segmentation. Color gradient graph of these images is computed, then the Otsu algorithm is applied to eliminate lower gra-dient. Watershed algorithm is used to pre-segment the images, then a rough target zone based on zone area features is gained. FCM algorithm is applied to rough target zone. By analyzing difference between green alley of disease speckle and normal leaves, disease speckle is acquired. Experimental results show good effect of segmenting disease speckle with this method.%传统的分割方法针对目标和背景灰度值差距大的图像能得到较好的分割效果,但在对正常叶片和病斑灰度值相似度高的扁豆病害叶片图像分割时,难以得到理想的目标病斑。针对该问题,提出了一种适合正常叶片和病斑相似度高的图像剥离分割方法。该方法包括初始分割和二次分割两个步骤。初始分割是基于样本图片的彩色梯度图,采用最大类间标准方差与分水岭相结合的算法获得病斑粗略区域。二次分割是对粗略目标区域进行模糊C聚类分割得到目标病斑。实验结果表明,该剥离分割算法能提高病斑分割精确度,较好地分割出病斑目标。

  15. Nutritional composition and cooking characteristics of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray) in comparison with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepary bean is a highly abiotic stress tolerant orphan crop, however, there has been limited research on its nutritional value and cooking characteristics, key aspects when considering the potential for broader adoption globally. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large set of seed composition...

  16. Export and Competitiveness of Indonesian Coffee Bean in International Market: Strategic Implication for the Development of Organic Coffee Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Drajat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Indonesian coffee bean export from 1995 to 2004was not satisfactory. This implied that there were problems of the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. This study was expected to come up withsome views related with the problem. This study was aimed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export in international markets. Somepolicy implication would be derived following the conclusions. In addition,this study was aimed to deliver some arguments referring to organic coffee development as an alternative export development. Data used in this study wastime series data ranging from 1995 to 2004 supported with some primary data.The export data were analyzed descriptively and the Revealed ComparativeAdvantage (RCA Index employed to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian coffee bean export. The results of the analysis gave some conclusions, asfollows : (1 The export of Indonesian coffee bean was product oriented notmarket oriented. (2 The Indonesian coffee bean export was characterized withlow quality with no premium price, different from that of Vietnam coffee export. (3 Besides quality, the uncompetitive Indonesian coffee export was related to market hegemony by buyers, emerging issue of Ochratoxin A. contamination and high cost economy in export. (4 The competitiveness of Indonesian coffee export was lower than those other countries, such as Columbia,Honduras, Peru, Brazil, and Vietnam. (5 Indonesia still held opportunity todevelop organic coffee for export. Some policy implications emerged from thediscussion were as follows : (1 The Government should facilitate market development through the provisions of market information and export incentives.(2 The Government should develop and applied national standard of coffeebean referring to that of international, as well as, improve processing technology equipments in the farm level for both wet and dry process. (3 Besides improving quality, the improvement

  17. Épocas de plantio da lentilha precoce em quatro regiões de Minas Gerais Sowing dates for early lentil cultivars in four regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Faria Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos cinco ensaios, todos irrigados, em quatro regiões de Minas Gerais: Viçosa, Leopoldina (Zona da Mata, Patos de Minas (Alto Paranaíba, Uberaba (Triângulo e Janaúba (Norte, com o objetivo de determinar a melhor época de plantio da lentilha precoce. Em Viçosa, foram estudadas seis datas de plantio, de 15/3 a 30/5; em Leopoldina, quatro, de 7/4 a 10/6; em Uberaba e Patos de Minas, seis, de 17/2 a 2/6; e em Janaúba, cinco, de 16/5 a 3/8. O intervalo entre datas de plantio foi de, aproximadamente, 20 dias. No ensaio de Viçosa, foi utilizada a cultivar Precoz, plantada no espaçamento entre fileiras de 40 cm, com 30 sementes/m; nos outros ensaios, a Silvina, no espaçamento entre fileiras de 30 cm, com 50 sementes/m. Em geral, os maiores rendimentos foram alcançados quando o plantio foi feito em maio, principalmente na segunda quinzena. Em Viçosa, a lentilha também teve bom desempenho quando plantada na segunda quinzena de março. Em Leopoldina e Janaúba, os dois locais de temperaturas mais altas, o plantio no início de junho não prejudicou o rendimento, se comparado com o da segunda quinzena de maio. Nas épocas de plantio em que foram obtidos os maiores rendimentos, a lentilha precoce, após a emergência, levou entre 28 e 60 dias para iniciar o florescimento; e da emergência até a colheita, entre 92 e 112 dias. O maior rendimento médio foi alcançado em Leopoldina, quando o plantio foi realizado em 27/5: 1.644 kg/ha. O peso de 100 sementes da 'Silvina'variou de 5,5 a 6,3 gramas, quando o plantio foi feito em maio.Trials were conducted in five municipalities of four regions of Minas Gerais State: Viçosa, Leopoldina (Zona da Mata, Patos de Minas (Alto Paranaíba, Uberaba (Triângulo and Janaúba (Norte, in order to determine the best sowing date for early lentil. In Viçosa, six sowing dates were studied from 15th March to 30th May; in Leopoldina, four, from 7th April to 10th June; in Uberaba and Patos de Minas, six

  18. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maher M. Al-Dabbas; Khalid Al-Ismail; Ruba A. Taleb; Salam Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC) values of 5% (dry matter) aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine) and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem) were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97), intermed...

  19. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  20. Linkage mapping of the Phg-1 and Co-1 4 genes for resistance to angular leaf spot and anthracnose in the common bean cultivar AND 277

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Anelise S.; Garcia, Alexandre; Kami, J.; Pedro S. Vidigal Filho; Sousa, Lorenna L.; McClean, P.; Gepts, P.; Pastor-Corrales, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Andean common bean AND 277 has the Co-1 4 and the Phg-1 alleles that confer resistance to 21 and eight races, respectively, of the anthracnose (ANT) and angular leaf spot (ALS) pathogens. Because of its broad resistance spectrum, Co-1 4 is one of the main genes used in ANT resistance breeding. Additionally, Phg-1 is used for resistance to ALS. In this study, we elucidate the inheritance of the resistance of AND 277 to both pathogens using F2 populations from the AND 277 × Rudá and AND 277...

  1. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  2. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  3. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  4. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  5. A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends a broad concept of macroeconomic stability, whereby “sound macroeconomic frameworks” include not only price stability and sound fiscal policies, but also a well-functioning real economy, sustainable debt ratios and healthy public and private sector balance sheets. These multiple dimensions imply using multiple policy instruments. The paper elaborates a framework for developing countries that involves active use of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, m...

  6. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Setoyama

    Full Text Available The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  7. Changes of sour taste and the composition of carboxylic acids induced in brewed coffee by γ-irradiation on green beans and storage of roast beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil santos green coffee beans were irradiated with 60Co-γ rays at doses of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 1.5 Mrad respectively and changes of the composition of carboxylic acids in roast beans were analyzed by means of GLC together with those of the organoleptic properties of roast beans during storage by use of the cup testing. The total acid content immediately after roasting was about 6,000 mg/100 g (roast beans) and the composition of carboxylic acids was as follows. Chlorogenic acid: hydroxy-carboxylic acids: mono-carboxylic acid: others = 73 : 18 : 7 : 2. Fresh coffee flavour was influenced markedly especially in acid taste by both irradiation of γ-rays on green beans and storage of roast beans, because of the change of above acids composition. On γ-ray irradiation, the change of the acid composition were more clear than that of stored roast beans. Therefore, the quality of γ-irradiated coffee beans seems to be closely associated with the ratio of hydroxy-carboxylic acids mg/ monocarboxylic acids mg, but little with total acid content. (author)

  8. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans. PMID:23936381

  9. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  10. Two Newly Described Begomoviruses of Macroptilium lathyroides and Common Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, A M; Hiebert, E; Bird, J; Brown, J K

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Macroptilium lathyroides, a perennial weed in the Caribbean region and Central America, is a host of Macroptilium yellow mosaic Florida virus (MaYMFV) and Macroptilium mosaic Puerto Rico virus (MaMPRV). The genomes of MaYMFV and MaMPRV were cloned from M. lathyroides and/or field-infected bean and the DNA sequences were determined. Cloned A and B components for both viruses were infectious when inoculated to M. lathyroides and common bean. Comparison of the DNA sequences for cloned A and B components with well-studied begomovirus indicated that MaMPRV (bean and M. lathyroides) and MaYMFV (M. lathyroides) are unique, previously undescribed begomo-viruses from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis of viral A components indicated that the closest relative of MaYMFV are members of the Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) group, at 76 to 78% nucleotide identity, whereas the closest relative for the A component of MaMPRV was Rhynchosia golden mosaic virus at 78% nucleotide identity. In contrast, BGYMV is the closest relative for the B component of both MaYMFV and MaMPRV, with which they share approximately 68.0 and approximately 72% identity, respectively. The incongruent taxonomic placement for the bipartite components for MaMPRV indicates that they did not evolve entirely along a common path. MaYMFV and MaMPRV caused distinctive symptoms in bean and M. lathyroides and were transmissible by the whitefly vector and by grafting; however, only MaYMFV was mechanically transmissible. The experimental host range for the two viruses was similar and included species within the families Fabaceae and Malvaceae, but only MaYMFV infected Malva parviflora and soybean. These results collectively indicate that MaMPRV and MaYMFV are new, previously undescribed species of the BGYMV group, a clade previously known to contain only strains and isolates of BGYMV from the Caribbean region that infect Phaseolus spp. Both MaYMFV and MaMPRV may pose an economic threat to

  11. Lactose intolerance in persistent diarrhoea during childhood: the role of a traditional rice-lentil (Khitchri) and yogurt diet in nutritional management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Z A; Nizami, S Q; Isani, Z

    1997-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is frequently encountered in children with persistent diarrhoea (PD). Selection of an appropriate milk-based formulation is a major management problem in the developing world. In a consecutive series of studies, we evaluated the role of feeding a traditional rice-lentil (khitchri) diet alone (KY) or in combination with either soy formula (KY-Soy) a dilute buffalo milk (KY-B), in children (age 6 months-3 years) with PD. Serial observations of stool output, caloric intake and weight gain of these children over a 14 day period indicated satisfactory tolerance of the KY diet with adequate weight gain. The weight gain and stool output was however higher in lactose intolerant children, with the worst results seen with K-Y and buffalo milk combination. While lactose intolerant children with PD do have higher. rates of therapeutic failure, our data indicates that a traditional diet and yogurt combination can be used satisfactorily for nutritional rehabilitation in over 80% of such children.

  12. To Broad-Match or Not to Broad-Match : An Auctioneer's Dilemma ?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of an interesting aspect of sponsored search advertising, namely the consequences of broad match-a feature where an ad of an advertiser can be mapped to a broader range of relevant queries, and not necessarily to the particular keyword(s) that ad is associated with. Starting with a very natural setting for strategies available to the advertisers, and via a careful look through algorithmic and complexity theoretic glasses, we first propose a solution concept called broad match equilibrium(BME) for the game originating from the strategic behavior of advertisers as they try to optimize their budget allocation across various keywords. Next, we consider two broad match scenarios based on factors such as information asymmetry between advertisers and the auctioneer, and the extent of auctioneer's control on the budget splitting. In the first scenario, the advertisers have the full information about broad match and relevant parameters, and can reapportion their own budgets to utilize the extra i...

  13. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes.

  14. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes. PMID:27283632

  15. Phytochemical characteristics of coffee bean treated by coating of ginseng extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-11-01

    THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ASSESS THE INSTRUMENTAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF GINSENG COFFEE WITH DIFFERENT RATIOS OF THE INGREDIENTS: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089

  16. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  17. Study on Drying Edible Soya-bean Oil Using Solar Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shengyong; LIU Peng; SHEN Xiaozhen; XU Guizhuan; SU Chaojie; CAI Xianjie

    2010-01-01

    Soya-bean oil(bean dregs)was dried in a solar energy drying system.Characteristics of the process were measured and the corresponding curves were done.The practicability of this process has been discussed.The results showed that the solar drying system could completely meet technological requirements of drying soy-bean oil,and it was feasible in technology to use the solar drying system to dry the vegetable oil.

  18. Italian Common Bean Landraces: History, Genetic Diversity and Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Piergiovanni

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The long tradition of common bean cultivation in Italy has allowed the evolution of many landraces adapted to restricted areas. Nowadays, in response to market demands, old landraces are gradually being replaced by improved cultivars. However, landraces still survive in marginal areas of several Italian regions. Most of them appear severely endangered with risk of extinction due to the advanced age of the farmers and the socio-cultural context where they are cultivated. The present contribution is an overview of the state of the art about the knowledge of Italian common bean germplasm, describing the most important and recent progresses made in its characterization, including genetic diversity and nutritional aspects.

  19. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. BEANS - a software package for distributed Big Data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hypki, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    BEANS software is a web based, easy to install and maintain, new tool to store and analyse data in a distributed way for a massive amount of data. It provides a clear interface for querying, filtering, aggregating, and plotting data from an arbitrary number of datasets. Its main purpose is to simplify the process of storing, examining and finding new relations in the so-called Big Data. Creation of BEANS software is an answer to the growing needs of the astronomical community to have a versatile tool to store, analyse and compare the complex astrophysical numerical simulations with observations (e.g. simulations of the Galaxy or star clusters with the Gaia archive). However, this software was built in a general form and it is ready to use in any other research field or open source software.

  1. Locust bean gum: Exploring its potential for biopharmaceutical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Locust bean gum is a polysaccharide belonging to the group of galactomannans, being extracted from the seeds of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua. This polymer displays a number of appealing characteristics for biopharmaceutical applications, among which its high gelling capacity should be highlighted. In this review, we describe critical aspects of locust bean gum, contributing for its role in biopharmaceutical applications. Physicochemical properties, as well as strong and effective synergies with other biomaterials are described. The potential for in vivo biodegradation is explored and the specific biopharmaceutical applications are discussed.

  2. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  3. 力争第二的Coffee Bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正蓁

    2003-01-01

    一个小雨的午后,在新加坡繁华的Orchard大街上的连锁咖啡店“Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf”里,维克多·沙宣从他的座位上一跃而起,脱口而出:“下雨了,我得把屋顶打开。”短短几秒钟之内,在天井上方。

  4. Microstructural Differences Among Adzuki Bean (Vigna Angularis) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Engquist, Anup; Swanson, Barry G.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study microstructural differences among five adzuki bean cultivars: Erimo, Express, Hatsune, Takara and VBSC. Seed coat surfaces showed different patterns of cracks, pits and deposits . Cross-sections of the seed coats revealed well organized layers of elongated palisade cells followed by many layers of amorphous parenchyma cells. Typical sub-epidermal layers of organized columnar, hour-glass cells were characteristica11y absent in the five culti...

  5. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  6. A better bean. Reports from the field -- Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D

    1997-01-01

    Researchers from the Colegio de Postgraduados, in partnership with the University of Guelph in Canada, have used horizontal resistance breeding, without the aid of pesticides, to more than triple the yield of locally grown black beans. J.E. Vanderplank, a South African plant pathologist, coined the terms "vertical" and "horizontal" for the types of crop plant resistance in 1963. The former involves a single gene and breaks down when new pathogens appear; the latter involves several genes and is a more durable form of resistance to disease or to insects. Enhancing vertical resistance, which is based on classical Mendelian breeding techniques, requires crossing a wild plant that possesses the desired gene with a cultivar to create a hybrid; the hybrid offspring are then backcrossed with the cultivar parent for several generations until a hybrid is created that is identical to the cultivar, except for the wild parent's resistance gene. In horizontal resistance breeding, the best individuals from each generation are selected and bred with each other. According to Raoul Robinson, a Canadian crop scientist and member of the plant breeding team supported by IDRC, breeding to enhance vertical resistance, or under the protection of insecticides and fungicides, has caused the level of horizontal resistance to decline and plant susceptibility to parasites to increase. Dr. Robinson and Dr. Roberto Garcia Espinosa (the Mexican project manager) began their work using horizontal resistance breeding in black beans in 1991. Yields of 1500 kg/hectare were achieved in two breeding cycles (two years) without the use of pesticides. The average bean yield in the Mixteca region of Mexico is 400 kg/hectare with the use of pesticides. The 200,000 small farmers in the area cultivate over 300,000 hectares, 40,000 of which are beans. The breeding techniques used in this project can be applied to other crops and in other countries.

  7. Radiation disinfestation of dry leaf tobacco and coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary tests conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation in Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer indicated little differences in the mortality of insects exposed to 0.10-0.40 kGy. Other insects in the 2 kg bean lots were minimally affected by a dose of 0.05 kGy, but doses of 0.10-0.40 kGy resulted in nearly complete mortality. In 60 kg jute bags of export coffee exposed to 0.665-0.958 kGy, all the insects were dead when examined 1 month after irradiation. At 6 months, most of the untreated beans were damaged. In 15 kg tin cans, all the insects in both the irradiated and untreated cans were dead within 1 month; the insects in the untreated cans probably died from lack of oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide. Irradiation had no detectable effect on the caffeine, fat and moisture contents, or on the pH. No moisture was gained by the coffee beans in cans, while the moisture in beans in jute bags increased from 9.6% to about 13.7% within 1 month. Export bales of leaf tobacco (about 100 kg, 100 cm x 75 cm x 40 cm) were artificially infested with Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and irradiated with 0.30-0.60 kGy at a rate of 0.5-1.0 kGy per hour. The bales were repositioned 12 times to provide thorough exposure to the gamma rays. There was no increase in the number of insects during the 6 months of storage; however, live insects were found at 2 months. Live insects found at the initial examination in phosphine fumigated bales indicated inadequate fumigation. A dose of 5 kGy had no effect on the nicotine content, the volatile oil content or composition, or the pH. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  8. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  9. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos; Elói Panachuki; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho; Paulo Tarso Sanches de Oliveira; Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in thre...

  10. Impact of Molecular Technologies on Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Breeding Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is a major food and feed legume because of the high nutritional value of its seeds. The main objectives of faba bean breeding are to improve yield, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, seed quality and other agronomic traits. The partial cross-pollinated nature of faba bean introduces both challenges and opportunities for population development and breeding. Breeding methods that are applicable to self-pollinated crops or open-pollinated crops are not highly suitable for faba bean. However, traditional breeding methods such as recurrent mass selection have been established in faba bean and used successfully in breeding for resistance to diseases. Molecular breeding strategies that integrate the latest innovations in genetics and genomics with traditional breeding strategies have many potential applications for future faba bean cultivar development. Hence, considerable efforts have been undertaken in identifying molecular markers, enriching genetic and genomic resources using high-throughput sequencing technologies and improving genetic transformation techniques in faba bean. However, the impact of research on practical faba bean breeding and cultivar release to farmers has been limited due to disconnects between research and breeding objectives and the high costs of research and implementation. The situation with faba bean is similar to other small crops and highlights the need for coordinated, collaborative research programs that interact closely with commercially focused breeding programs to ensure that technologies are implemented effectively.

  11. Tannins, trypsin inhibitors and lectin cytotoxicity in tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez; Del Carmen Valadez-Vega, Maria; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; Loarca-Pina, Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    This study compared the levels of antinutritional components and cytotoxic effect of extracts, from tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans. Antinutritional factors were evaluated by determining their effect on the viability of epithelial cells isolated from rat small intestine. The protein and carbohydrates content were similar in all the genotypes studied (20 and 60%, respectively). Common beans presented higher content of trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins than tepary beans. There was not a significant correlation between tannins and cooking time. However, water absorption and cooking time correlated significantly (p lectin activity (1302-18161 Ul/mg) of extracts from different beans. Tannins, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and fat content differed between bean varieties whereas protein content was similar. The percent cellularity on rat epithelial cells was significantly different among protein extracts from different bean cultivars and ranged between 53.5% and 87.4% (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the incorporation of tepary beans in the diet would not alter the current nutritional contribution of common beans or introduce adverse toxic effects. The agronomic characteristics of tepary beans make them attractive for cultivation. However, the harder to cook phenomenon may be a limiting factor that needs further consideration. PMID:16187017

  12. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  13. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. PMID:25922214

  14. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Emily M.; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C.; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect.

  15. Specific pretreatments reduce curing period of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, R V; Roohie, K; Venkatachalam, L; Narayan, M S; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2007-04-18

    With the aiming of reducing the curing period, effects of pretreatments on flavor formation in vanilla beans during accelerated curing at 38 degrees C for 40 days were studied. Moisture loss, change in texture, levels of flavoring compounds, and activities of relevant enzymes were compared among various pretreatments as well as the commercial sample. Use of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 5 mg/L) or Ethrel (1%) with blanching pretreatment resulted in 3-fold higher vanillin on the 10th day. Other flavoring compounds-vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-fluctuated greatly, showing no correlation with the pretreatments. Scarification of beans resulted in nearly 4- and 3.6-fold higher vanillin formations on the 10th day in NAA- and Ethrel-treated beans, respectively, as compared to control with a significant change in texture. When activities of major relevant enzymes were followed, addition of NAA or Ethrel helped to retain higher levels of cellulase throughout the curing period and higher levels of beta-glucosidase on the 20th day that correlated with higher vanillin content during curing and subsequent periods. Peroxidase, being highest throughout, did not correlate with the change in levels of major flavoring compounds. The pretreatment methods of the present study may find importance for realizing higher flavor formation in a shorter period because the major quality parameters were found to be comparable to those of a commercial sample.

  16. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  17. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İBRAHİM DOYMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  18. Changes in flavour and taste of irradiated coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% +-2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  19. Changes in Flavour and Taste of Irradiated Coffee Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of changes in the smell and taste of coffee from beans submitted to irradiation for preservation is a significant gap in the programme devoted to increasing the product life time with such a process. Therefore, the main objective of the paper was to evaluate changes in aroma and flavour that can be noticed by the consumer. Coffee beans were given disinfestation doses of 50 krad, producing an insect mortality rate of 98.33% ± 2.89 in Araecerus fasciculatus (adult stage). The samples, provided by IBC, were from the same crop and free from pesticides. Some of the material was kept by that Institute for organoleptic tests. The remainder was sent to the National Institute of Technology for gas-chromatographic analysis. Should any significant changes be noticed, it could be assumed that the gamma-irradiation process would be rejected by the consumer. However, no significant change was observed in the most important characteristics, flavour and aroma, that might induce the consumer to reject irradiated coffee beans. (author)

  20. The water budget of rainfed maize and bean intercrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S.; Ogindo, H. O.

    Food production in the South African Development Community (SADC) region is predominantly under rainfed conditions and therefore experiences annual fluctuations due to the rainfall variability. Although the staple food of maize ( Zea mays) is commonly grown in the same field as dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) little work has been done to characterize the soil water budget of this intercropping system. The evapotranspiration can theoretically be divided into transpiration from the leaves and evaporation from the soil surface. However, it is difficult to separate the components in field studies. In this paper the Ritchie model is used to estimate the soil surface evaporation using the fractional radiation interception which depends on the crop leaf area. The intercropping system has higher leaf area than the sole crops of both maize and beans in all seasons. Therefore, the soil surface is shaded and the canopy is more dense resulting in a lower soil surface evaporation. The water budget thus gives a higher value of transpiration for the intercrop during each of the four growing seasons. This appears to be due to the complimentary use of the water resources by the maize and bean plants in the intercropping system. This illustrates the ability of the intercrop to use the available soil water in a semi-arid environment more productively. Thus the experience of the small-holder farmers in the SADC region is based on sound physical principles of water use by the two crops.