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Sample records for broad absorption line

  1. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  2. Evidence for Photoionization Driven Broad Absorption Line Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Ferland, Gary

    2015-01-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the variability of quasar broad absorption lines using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic dataset of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We confirm that variations of absorption lines are highly coordinated among different components of the same ion or the same absorption component of different ions for C IV, Si IV and N V. Furthermore, we show that the equivalent widths of the lines decrease or increase statistically when the continuum brightens or dims. This is further supported by the synchronized variations of emission and absorption line equivalent width, when the well established intrinsic Baldwin effect for emission lines is taken into account. We find that the emergence of an absorption component is usually accompanying with dimming of the continuum while the disappearance of an absorption line component with brightening of the continuum. This suggests that the emergence or disappearance of a C IV absorption component is only the extreme case, when the i...

  3. Seven broad absorption line quasars with excess broad band absorption near 2250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W N; York, Donald G; Noterdaeme, P; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess broad band absorption near 2250 A (EBBA) in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the > 4{\\sigma} level, with five above > 5{\\sigma}. The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 A bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 A bump under different conditions in the early Universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization broad absorption lines (LoBALs), such as Mg II and Al III, in addition to the high-ionization broad absorption lines (HiBALs) of C IV and Si IV. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ~70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ~10%. Although the origin of...

  4. PG 1411 + 442 - The nearest broad absorption line quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew A.; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John B.

    1987-01-01

    IUE observations reveal strong, moderately broad absorption troughs in the blue wings of the C IV and N V emission lines of the quasar PG 1411 + 442. No absorption from weakly ionized gas is detected. The emission-line strengths and overall shape of the ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared/far-infrared continuum of the new broad absorption line quasar are within the range normally measured in quasars. Its redshift is low enough to allow the morphology of the host galaxy to be studied in deep broad-band and intermediate-band CCD images. The galaxy appears to be a large spiral with a very long arm or tail. The inclination angle is 57 deg, which rules out the possibility that the line of sight to the nucleus intersects a large path length in a galactic disk.

  5. EVIDENCE FOR PHOTOIONIZATION-DRIVEN BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ferland, Gary, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the variability of quasar broad absorption lines using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We confirm that variations of absorption lines are highly coordinated among different components of the same ion or the same absorption component of different ions for C iv, Si iv, and N v. Furthermore, we show that the equivalent widths (EWs) of the lines decrease or increase statistically when the continuum brightens or dims. This is further supported by the synchronized variations of emission and absorption-line EWs when the well-established intrinsic Baldwin effect for emission lines is taken into account. We find that the emergence of an absorption component is usually accompanied by the dimming of the continuum while the disappearance of an absorption-line component is accompanied by the brightening of the continuum. This suggests that the emergence or disappearance of a C iv absorption component is only the extreme case, when the ionic column density is very sensitive to continuum variations or the continuum variability the amplitude is larger. These results support the idea that absorption-line variability is driven mainly by changes in the gas ionization in response to continuum variations, that the line-absorbing gas is highly ionized, and in some extreme cases, too highly ionized to be detected in UV absorption lines. Due to uncertainties in the spectroscopic flux calibration, we cannot quantify the fraction of quasars with asynchronized continuum and absorption-line variations.

  6. Variability in Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Vivek, M; Petitjean, P; Mohan, V; Mahabal, A; Samui, S

    2014-01-01

    We present results of our time variability studies of Mg II and Al III absorption lines in a sample of 22 Low Ionization Broad Absorption Line QSOs (LoBAL QSOs) at 0.2 = 1 year) absorption line variability is seen in 8 cases (36% systems) while only 4 of them (i.e 18% systems) show variability over short time-scales (i.e < 1 year). We notice a tendency of highly variable LoBAL QSOs to have high ejection velocity, low equivalent width and low redshift. The detection rate of variability in LoBAL QSOs showing Fe fine-structure lines (FeLoBAL QSOs) is less than that seen in non-Fe LoBAL QSOs. Absorption line variability is more frequently detected in QSOs having continuum dominated by Fe emission lines compared to rest of the QSOs. Confirming these trends with a bigger sample will give vital clues for understanding the physical distinction between different BAL QSO sub-classes. We correlate the absorption line variability with various parameters derived from continuum light curves and find no clear correlation...

  7. 30 GHz monitoring of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Ceglowski, Maciej; Pazderska, Bogna; Gawronski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars have been studied for over thirty years. Yet it is still unclear why and when we observe broad absorption lines in quasars. Is this phenomenon caused by geometry or is it connected with the evolution process? Variability of the BAL quasars, if present, can give us information about their orientation, namely it can indicate whether they are oriented more pole-on. Using the Torun 32-metre dish equipped with the One Centimetre Receiver Array (OCRA) we have started a monitoring campaign of a sample of compact radio-loud BAL quasars. This 30 GHz variability monitoring program supplements the high-resolution interferometric observations of these objects we have carried out with the EVN and VLBA.

  8. A Simple Disk Wind Model for Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, N; Long, K S; Sim, S A; Matthews, J H

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20% of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disk winds. These winds may represent the "quasar" mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disk wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, an...

  9. A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, N.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Matthews, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the `quasar' mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, Ṁwind. In the context of our adopted geometry, Ṁwind ˜ Ṁacc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

  10. The Nature of Partial Covering in Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen

    2012-10-01

    Ejected gas is seen as broad absorption lines in 20% of quasars. It has been known for 15 years that prominent lines such as CIV are usually saturated but not black because the absorbing gas only partially covers the continuum emission region. Therefore, column densities estimated from these lines are only lower limits. Accurate column densities can be obtained from rare ions that have two or more transitions from the same lower level, so that the optical depth and covering fraction can be solved for simultanously. Suitable lines are hard to find, so such measurements are rare. We have found that metastable helium is particularly useful for these measurements. Yet despite these advances, partial covering remains a just a parameter and its physical nature is not understood.We propose a unique experiment to constrain the physical nature of partial covering. We will compare the covering fraction measured from PV {a doublet in the far UV} with that measured from metastable HeI {optical and IR}. The ions creating these lines are relatively rare, and they present similar opacity over a wide range of gas parameters. But due to their wide wavelength separation, these lines probe dramatically different regions of the continuum source, the temperature-dependent accretion disk. So we expect different covering fraction behavior for different partial covering scenarios. This experiment is relevant for understanding the geometry and clumpiness of the outflow, and the results may impact our understanding of the global covering fraction, a parameter critical for determining the outflow kinetic luminosity, and thereby estimating feedback efficiency for broad absorption line outflows.

  11. VLBA imaging of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Montenegro-Montes, F M; Benn, C R; Carballo, R; Dallacasa, D; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2009-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) have been found to be associated with extremely compact radio sources. These reduced dimensions can be either due to projection effects or these objects might actually be intrinsically small. Exploring these two hypotheses is important to understand the nature and origin of the BAL phenomenon because orientation effects are an important discriminant between the different models proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this work we present VLBA observations of 5 BAL QSOs and discuss their pc-scale morphology.

  12. Radiation pressure confinement - IV. Application to broad absorption line outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Alexei; Stern, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of quasars present broad absorption lines, produced by outflowing gas with typical velocities of 3000 - 10,000 km/s. If the outflowing gas fills a significant fraction of the volume where it resides, then it will be highly ionized by the quasar due to its low density, and will not produce the observed UV absorption. The suggestion that the outflow is shielded from the ionizing radiation was excluded by recent observations. The remaining solution is a dense outflow with a filling factor $f<10^{-3}$. What produces such a small $f$? Here we point out that radiation pressure confinement (RPC) inevitably leads to gas compression and the formation of dense thin gas sheets/filaments, with a large gradient in density and ionization along the line of sight. The total column of ionized dustless gas is a few times $10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, consistent with the observed X-ray absorption and detectable P V absorption. The predicted maximal columns of various ions show a small dependence on the system parameters, a...

  13. Transient C IV Broad Absorption Lines in radio detected QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Vivek, M; Gupta, N

    2015-01-01

    We study the transient (i.e. emerging or disappearing) C IV broad absorption line (BAL) components in 50 radio detected QSOs using multi-epoch spectra available in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10. We report the detectionof 6 BALQSOs having at least one distinct transient C IV absorption component. Based on the structure function analysis of optical light curves, we suggest that the transient absorption is unlikely to be triggered by continuum variations. Transient absorption components usually have low C IV equivalent widths ( 10000 \\kms) and typically occur over rest-frame timescales > 800 days. The detection rate of transient C IV absorption seen in our sample is higher than that reported in the literature. Using a control sample of QSOs, we show that this difference is most likely due to the longer monitoring time-scale of sources in our sample while the effect of small number statistics cannot be ignored. Thus, in order to establish the role played by radio jets in driving the BAL outflows, we need a larger...

  14. Peculiar Broad Absorption Line Quasars found in DPOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, R J; Djorgovski, S G; Gal, R R; Mahabal, A A; Lopes, P A A; De Carvalho, R R; Odewahn, S C; Castro, S; Thompson, D; Chaffee, F; Darling, J; Desai, V; Brunner, Robert J.; Hall, Patrick B.

    2003-01-01

    With the recent release of large (i.e., > hundred million objects), well-calibrated photometric surveys, such as DPOSS, 2MASS, and SDSS, spectroscopic identification of important targets is no longer a simple issue. In order to enhance the returns from a spectroscopic survey, candidate sources are often preferentially selected to be of interest, such as brown dwarfs or high redshift quasars. This approach, while useful for targeted projects, risks missing new or unusual species. We have, as a result, taken the alternative path of spectroscopically identifying interesting sources with the sole criterion being that they are in low density areas of the g - r and r - i color-space defined by the DPOSS survey. In this paper, we present three peculiar broad absorption line quasars that were discovered during this spectroscopic survey, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. PSS J0052+2405 is an Iron LoBAL quasar at a redshift z = 2.4512 with very broad absorption from many species. PSS J0141+3334 is a reddened...

  15. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Zhang, Kai; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z=1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature, and refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with hot dust indicator (beta_NIR) and other quasar physical parameters, such as Eddington ratio, luminosity and UV continuum slope, are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here beta_NIR is the near-infrared continuum slope, a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depends on Eddington ratio, UV slope and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with beta_NIR in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasa...

  16. A Variable PV Broad Absorption Line and Quasar Outflow Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capellupo, Daniel M; Barlow, Tom A

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift $z_e = 2.56$), aided by the first detection of PV $\\lambda\\lambda$1118,1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, PV absorption at velocities where the CIV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the CIV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size 22.3 (cm^-2). Variability in the PV and saturated CIV BALs strongly disfavors changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high-column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of ...

  17. Broad Absorption Line Variability in Radio-Loud Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Welling, C A; Brandt, W N; Capellupo, D M; Gibson, R R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability within a sample of 46 radio-loud quasars (RLQs), selected from SDSS/FIRST data to include both core-dominated (39) and lobe-dominated (7) objects. The sample consists primarily of high-ionization BAL quasars, and a substantial fraction have large BAL velocities or equivalent widths; their radio luminosities and radio-loudness values span ~2.5 orders of magnitude. We have obtained 34 new Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) spectra of 28 BAL RLQs to compare to earlier SDSS data, and we also incorporate archival coverage (primarily dual-epoch SDSS) for a total set of 78 pairs of equivalent width measurements for 46 BAL RLQs, probing rest-frame timescales of ~80-6000 d (median 500 d). In general, only modest changes in the depths of segments of absorption troughs are observed, akin to those seen in prior studies of BAL RQQs. Also similar to previous findings for RQQs, the RLQs studied here are more likely to display BAL variability on longer rest-frame timescal...

  18. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  19. Microlensing Constraints on Broad Absorption and Emission Line Flows in the Quasar H1413+117

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dowd, Matthew J; Webster, Rachel L; Labrie, Kathleen; Rogers, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    We present new integral field spectroscopy of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line (BAL) quasar H1413+117, covering the ultraviolet to visible rest-frame spectral range. We observe strong microlensing signatures in lensed image D, and we use this microlensing to simultaneously constrain both the broad emission and broad absorption line gas. By modeling the lens system over the range of probable lensing galaxy redshifts and using on a new argument based on the wavelength-independence of the broad line lensing magnifications, we determine that there is no significant broad line emission from smaller than ~20 light days. We also perform spectral decomposition to derive the intrinsic broad emission line (BEL) and continuum spectrum, subject to BAL absorption. We also reconstruct the intrinsic BAL absorption profile, whose features allow us to constrain outflow kinematics in the context of a disk-wind model. We find a very sharp, blueshifted onset of absorption of 1,500 km/s in both C IV and N V that m...

  20. On the origins of C IV absorption profile diversity in broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Alexei; Hamann, Fred

    2015-01-01

    There is a large diversity in the C IV broad absorption line (BAL) profile among BAL quasars (BALQs). We quantify this diversity by exploring the distribution of the C IV BAL properties, FWHM, maximum depth of absorption and its velocity shift ($v_{\\rm md}$), using the SDSS DR7 quasar catalogue. We find the following: (i) Although the median C IV BAL profile in the quasar rest-frame becomes broader and shallower as the UV continuum slope ($\\alpha_{\\rm UV}$ at 1700-3000 A) gets bluer, the median individual profile in the absorber rest-frame remains identical, and is narrow (FWHM = 3500 km/s) and deep. Only 4 per cent of BALs have FWHM > 10,000 km/s. (ii) As the He II emission equivalent-width (EW) decreases, the distributions of FWHM and $v_{\\rm md}$ extend to larger values, and the median maximum depth increases. These trends are consistent with theoretical models in which softer ionizing continua reduce overionization, and allow radiative acceleration of faster BAL outflows. (iii) As $\\alpha_{\\rm UV}$ become...

  1. Evidence for AGN Feedback in the Broad Absorption Lines and Reddening of Mrk 231

    CERN Document Server

    Leighly, Karen M; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large \\ion{He}{1}*$\\lambda 10830$ broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known \\ion{Na}{1} broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by \\citet{veilleux13} is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in SNe Ia. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially-resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the \\ion{He}{1}* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized \\ion{H}{2} region) compared with the \\ion{Na}{1} and \\ion{Ca}{2} lines (produced in the corresponding partially-ionized zone). {\\it Cloudy} simulations show that a density increase is required between the \\ion{H}{2} and partially-ionized zones to ...

  2. Is there a connection between Broad Absorption Line Quasars and Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Grupe, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We consider whether Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) and Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are similar, as suggested by Brandt & Gallagher (2000) and Boroson (2002). For this purpose we constructed a sample of 11 BAL QSOs from existing Chandra and Swift observations. We found that BAL QSOs and NLS1s both operate at high Eddington ratios L/Ledd, although BAL QSOs have slightly lower L/Ledd. BAL QSOs and NLS1s in general have high FeII/H$\\beta$ and low [OIII]/H$\\beta$ ratios following the classic 'Boroson \\& Green' eigenvector 1 relation. We also found that the mass accretion rates $\\dot{M}$ of BAL QSOs and NLS1s are more similar than previously thought, although some BAL QSOs exhibit extreme mass accretion rates of more than 10 \\msun/year. These extreme mass accretion rates may suggest that the black holes in BAL QSOs are relativistically spinning. Black hole masses in BAL QSOs are a factor of 100 larger than NLS1s. From their location on a M-$\\sigma$ plot, we find that BAL QSOs contain fu...

  3. Discovery of Extremely Broad Balmer Absorption Lines in SDSS J152350.42+391405.2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Liu, Wenjuan; Ji, Tuo; Jiang, Peng; Sun, Luming; Zhou, Junyan; Pan, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of Balmer line absorption from H$\\alpha$ to H$\\gamma$ in an iron low-ionization broad absorption line (FeLoBAL) quasar SDSS J152350.42+391405.2 (hereafter J1523), by the quasi-simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. The Balmer line absorption is at $z_{absor}$ = 0.6039 +/-0.0021 and blueshifted by v=10,353 km/s with respect to the Balmer emission lines. All Balmer BALs have uniform absorption profile with the widths of $\\Delta$ v ~12,000 km/s. We also found the absorption trough in He 1* $\\lambda$10830 with the same velocity and width in the H-band TripleSpec spectrum of J1523. This object is only the tenth active galactic nucleus known to exhibit non-stellar Balmer absorption, and also the case with the highest velocity and broadest Balmer absorption lines which have ever been found. A CLOUDY analysis shows that the absorbers require an gas density of $log_{10} n_ e (cm^{-3})=9$ and an ionization parameter of $log_{10} U=-1.0$. They locate at a distance of ~0.2 pc from t...

  4. Discovery of Broad Soft X-ray Absorption Lines from the Quasar Wind in PDS 456

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele; Behar, Ehud; O'Brien, Paul; Tombesi, Francesco; Turner, Tracey Jane; Costa, Michele

    2016-01-01

    High resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of the prototype accretion disk wind quasar, PDS 456, is presented. Here, the XMM-Newton RGS spectra are analyzed from the large 2013-2014 XMM-Newton campaign, consisting of 5 observations of approximately 100 ks in length. During the last observation (hereafter OBS. E), the quasar is at a minimum flux level and broad absorption line profiles are revealed in the soft X-ray band, with typical velocity widths of $\\sigma_{\\rm v}\\sim 10,000$ km s$^{-1}$. During a period of higher flux in the 3rd and 4th observations (OBS. C and D, respectively), a very broad absorption trough is also present above 1 keV. From fitting the absorption lines with models of photoionized absorption spectra, the inferred outflow velocities lie in the range $\\sim 0.1-0.2c$. The absorption lines likely originate from He and H-like neon and L-shell iron at these energies. Comparison with earlier archival data of PDS 456 also reveals similar absorption structure near 1 keV in a 40 ks observation in 20...

  5. Evidence for two spatially separated UV continuum emitting regions in the Cloverleaf broad absorption line quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Sluse, D; Anguita, T; Braibant, L; Riaud, P

    2015-01-01

    Testing the standard Shakura-Sunyaev model of accretion is a challenging task because the central region of quasars where accretion takes place is unresolved with telescopes. The analysis of microlensing in gravitationally lensed quasars is one of the few techniques which can test this model, yielding to the measurement of the size and of the temperature profile of the accretion disc. We present spectroscopic observations of the gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, which reveal partial microlensing of the continuum emission that appears to originate from two separated regions, a microlensed region corresponding the compact accretion disc, and a non-microlensed region, more extended and contributing to at least 30\\% of the total UV-continuum flux. Because this extended continuum is occulted by the broad absorption line clouds, it is not associated to the host galaxy, but rather to light scattered in the neighbourhood of the central engine. We measure the amplitude of microlensing of t...

  6. Intranight optical variability of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an optical photometric monitoring program of 10 extremely radio loud broad absorption line quasars (RL-BALQSOs) with radio-loudness parameter, R, greater than 100 and magnitude g_i < 19. Over an observing run of about 3.5-6.5 hour we found a clear detection of variability for one of our 10 radio-loud BALQSOs with the INOV duty cycle of 5.1 per cent, while on including the probable variable cases, a higher duty cycle of 35.1 per cent is found; which are very similar to the duty cycle of radio quiet broad absorption line quasars (RQ-BALQSOs). This low duty cycle of clear variability per cent in radio-loud sub-class of BALQSOs can be understood under the premise where BALs outflow may arise from large variety of viewing angles from the jet axis or perhaps being closer to the disc plane.

  7. Broad Absorption Line Quasars with Redshifted Troughs: High-Velocity Infall or Rotationally Dominated Outflows?

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Patrick B; Petitjean, P; Paris, I; Ak, N Filiz; Shen, Yue; Gibson, R R; Aubourg, E; Anderson, S F; Schneider, D P; Bizyaev, D; Brinkmann, J; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Myers, A D; Oravetz, D J; Ross, N P; Shelden, A; Simmons, A E; Streblyanska, A; Weaver, B A; York, D G

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of seventeen broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with high-ionization troughs that include absorption redshifted relative to the quasar rest frame. The redshifted troughs extend to velocities up to v=12,000 km/s and the trough widths exceed 3000 km/s in all but one case. Approximately 1 in 1000 BAL quasars with blueshifted C IV absorption also has redshifted C IV absorption; objects with C IV absorption present only at redshifted velocities are roughly four times rarer. In more than half of our objects, redshifted absorption is seen in C II or Al III as well as C IV, making low-ionization absorption at least ten times more common among BAL quasars with redshifted troughs than among standard BAL quasars. However, the C IV absorption equivalent widths in our objects are on average smaller than those of standard BAL quasars with low-ionization absorption. We consider several possible ways of generatin...

  8. A Catalog of Broad Absorption Line Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, J R; Brinkman, J; Fan, X; Hall, P B; Kleinman, S J; Knapp, G R; Nitta, A; Reichard, T A; Richards, G T; Schneider, D P; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Anderson, Scott F.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Nitta, Atsuko; Reichard, Timothy A.; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Trump, Jonathan R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a total of 4784 unique broad absorption line quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release. An automated algorithm was used to match a continuum to each quasar and to identify regions of flux at least 10% below the continuum over a velocity range of at least 1000 km/s in the CIV and MgII absorption regions. The model continuum was selected as the best-fit match from a set of template quasar spectra binned in luminosity, emission line width, and redshift, with the power-law spectral index and amount of dust reddening as additional free parameters. We characterize our sample through the traditional ``balnicity'' index and a revised absorption index, as well as through parameters such as the width, outflow velocity, fractional depth and number of troughs. From a sample of 16883 quasars at 1.7 \\le z \\le 4.38, we identify 4386 (26.0%) quasars with broad CIV absorption, of which 1756 (10.4%) satisfy traditional selection criteria. From a sample of 34973 quasars at 0.5 \\le z \\le 2.15, we id...

  9. Disentangling the circumnuclear environs of Centaurus A: II. On the nature of the broad absorption line

    CERN Document Server

    Espada, D; Matsushita, S; Sakamoto, K; Henkel, C; Iono, D; Israel, F P; Muller, S; Petitpas, G; Pihlstroem, Y; Taylor, G B; Trung, D V

    2010-01-01

    We report on atomic gas (HI) and molecular gas (as traced by CO(2-1)) redshifted absorption features toward the nuclear regions of the closest powerful radio galaxy, Centaurus A (NGC 5128). Our HI observations using the Very Long Baseline Array allow us to discern with unprecedented sub-parsec resolution HI absorption profiles toward different positions along the 21 cm continuum jet emission in the inner 0."3 (or 5.4 pc). In addition, our CO(2-1) data obtained with the Submillimeter Array probe the bulk of the absorbing molecular gas with little contamination by emission, not possible with previous CO single-dish observations. We shed light with these data on the physical properties of the gas in the line of sight, emphasizing the still open debate about the nature of the gas that produces the broad absorption line (~55 km/s). First, the broad H I line is more prominent toward the central and brightest 21 cm continuum component than toward a region along the jet at a distance ~ 20 mas (or 0.4 pc) further from...

  10. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  11. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  12. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Rapid CIV Broad Absorption Line Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, C J; Brandt, W N; Trump, J R; Shen, Yue; Vivek, M; Ak, N Filiz; Chen, Yuguang; Dawson, K; Denney, K D; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, C S; McGreer, Ian D; Pâris, I; Peterson, B M; Schneider, D P; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W M; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ge, Jian; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity CIV broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4sigma) variability in the equivalent width of the broad (~4000 km/s wide) CIV trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (~29 hours), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The equivalent width varied by ~10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability...

  13. Chandra Detects Relativistic Broad Absorption Lines from APM 08279+5255

    CERN Document Server

    Chartas, G; Garmire, G P; Gallagher, S C

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray broad absorption lines (BALs) from the BALQSO APM 08279+5255 originating from material moving at relativistic velocities with respect to the central source. The large flux magnification by a factor of ~ 100 provided by the gravitational lens effect combined with the large redshift (z = 3.91) of the quasar have facilitated the acquisition of the first high signal-to-noise X-ray spectrum of a quasar containing X-ray BALs. Our analysis of the X-ray spectrum of APM 08279+5255 places the rest-frame energies of the two observed absorption lines at 8.1 and 9.8 keV. The detection of each of these lines is significant at the > 99.9% confidence level based on the F-test. Assuming that the absorption lines are from Fe xxv Kalpha, the implied bulk velocities of the X-ray BALs are ~ 0.2c and ~ 0.4c, respectively. The observed high bulk velocities of the X-ray BALs combined with the relatively short recombination time-scales of the X-ray absorbing gas imply that the absorbers responsible fo...

  14. Restarting radio activity and dust emission in radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Brienza, M; González-Serrano, J I

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) are objects showing absorption from relativistic outflows, with velocities up to 0.2c. These manifest, in about 15% of quasars, as absorption troughs on the blue side of UV emission lines, such as C iv and Mg ii. In this work, we complement the information collected in the cm band for our previously presented sample of radio loud BAL QSOs with new observations at m and mm bands. Our aim is to verify the presence of old, extended radio components in the MHz range, and probe the emission of dust (linked to star formation) in the mm domain. We observed 5 sources from our sample, already presenting hints of low-frequency emission, with the GMRT at 235 and 610 MHz. Other 17 sources (more than half the sample) were observed with bolometer cameras at IRAM-30m and APEX. All sources observed with the GMRT present extended emission at a scale of tens of kpc. In some cases these measurements allow us to identify a second component in the SED, at frequencies below 1.4 GHz, beyond ...

  15. Discovery of Balmer broad absorption lines in the quasar LBQS 1206+1052

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuo Ji; Ting-Gui Wang; Hong-Yan Zhou; Hui-Yuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of Balmer broad absorption lines (BALs) in the quasar LBQS 1206+1052 and present a detailed analysis of the peculiar absorption line spectrum.Besides the Mg Ⅱ λλ2796,2803 doublet,BALs are also detected in the He Ⅰ* multiplet at λλ2946,3189,3889(A) arising from the metastable helium 23S level,and in Hα and Hβ from the excited hydrogen H Ⅰ* n =2 level,which are rarely seen in quasar spectra.We identify two components in the BAL troughs of △v ~2000 km s-1 width:One component shows an identical profile in H Ⅰ*,He Ⅰ* and Mg Ⅱ with its centroid blueshifted by —vc ≈ 726 km s-1.The other component is detected in He Ⅰ* and Mg Ⅱ with —vc ≈ 1412 km s-1.We estimate the column densities of H Ⅰ*,He Ⅰ*,and Mg Ⅱ,and compare them with possible level population mechanisms.Our results favor the scenario that the Balrner BALs originate in a partially ionized region with a column density of NH ~ 1021 - 1022 cm-2 for an electron density of ne ~ 106 - 108 cm-3 via Lyα resonant scattering pumping.The harsh conditions needed may help to explain the rarity of Balmer absorption line systems in quasar spectra.With ani-band PSF magnitude of 16.50,LBQS 1206+1052 is the brightest Balmer-BAL quasar ever reported.Its high brightness and unique spectral properties make LBQS 1206+1052 a promising candidate for followup high-resolution spectroscopy,multi-band observations,and long-term monitoring.

  16. A VLBI survey of compact Broad Absorption Lines (BAL) quasars with BALnicity Index BI=0

    CERN Document Server

    Ceglowski, M; Roskowinski, C

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7-GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4-GHz to image radio structures of 14 compact sources classified as broad absorption line (BAL) quasars based on the absorption index (AI). All source but one were resolved, with the majority showing core-jet morphology typical for radio-loud quasars. We discuss in details the most interesting cases. The high radio luminosities and small linear sizes of the observed objects indicate they are strong young AGNs. Nevertheless, the distribution of the radio-loudness parameter, log(Ri), of a larger sample of AI quasars shows that the objects observed by us constitute the most luminous, small subgroup of AI population. Additionally we report that for the radio-loudness parameter, the distribution of AI quasars and those selected by using the traditional balnicity index (BI), BI quasars differ significantly. Strong absorption is connected with the lower log(Ri), and thus ...

  17. Evidence for active galactic nucleus feedback in the broad absorption lines and reddening of MRK 231 {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* λ10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ∼100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

  18. Fast outflows in broad absorption line quasars and their connection with CSS/GPS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Brienza, M; González-Serrano, J I

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption line quasars are among the objects presenting the fastest outflows. The launching mechanism itself is not completely understood. Models in which they could be launched from the accretion disk, and then curved and accelerated by the effect of the radiation pressure, have been presented. We conducted an extensive observational campaign, from radio to optical band, to collect information about their nature and test the models present in the literature, the main dichotomy being between a young scenario and an orientation one. We found a variety of possible orientations, morphologies, and radio ages, not converging to a particular explanation for the BAL phenomenon. From our latest observations in the m- and mm-band, we obtained an indication of a lower dust abundance with respect to normal quasars, thus suggesting a possible feedback process on the host galaxy. Also, in the low-frequency regime we confirmed the presence of CSS components, sometime in conjunction with a GPS one already detected at...

  19. Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars as a class of low luminosity AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Roskowinski, C; Gawronski, M

    2015-01-01

    Broad absorption lines seen in some quasars prove the existence of ionized plasma outflows from the accretion disk. Outflows together with powerful jets are important feedback processes. Understanding physics behind BAL outflows might be a key to comprehend Galaxy Evolution as a whole. First radio-loud BAL quasar was discovered in 1997 and this discovery has opened new possibilities for studies of the BAL phenomena, this time on the basis of radio emission. However, information about the radio structures, orientation and age of BAL quasars is still very limited due to weak radio emission and small sizes of these objects. Our high-resolution radio survey of a sample of BAL quasars aims to increase our knowledge about these objects. In this article, we present some conclusions arising from our research.

  20. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the X-ray Detected Broad Absorption Line QSO CSO 755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from XMM-Newton observations of the highly optically polarized broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) CSO 755. By analyzing its X-ray spectrum with a total of approximately 3000 photons we find that this source has an X-ray continuum of "typical" radio-quiet quasars, with a photon index of Gamma=1.83, and a rather flat (X-ray bright) intrinsic optical-to-X-ray spectral slope of alpha_ox=- 1.51. The source shows evidence for intrinsic absorption, and fitting the spectrum with a neutral-absorption model gives a column density of N_H approximately 1.2x10^22 cm^{-2}; this is among the lowest X-ray columns measured for BALQSOs. We do not detect, with high significance, any other absorption features in the X-ray spectrum. Upper limits we place on the rest-frame equivalent width of a neutral (ionized) Fe K-alpha line, less than =180 eV (less than =120 eV), and on the Compton-reflection component parameter, R less than =0.2, suggest that most of the X-rays from the source are directly observed rather than being scattered or reflected; this is also supported by the relatively flat intrinsic alpha ox we measure. The possibility that most of the X-ray flux is scattered due to the high level of UV-optical polarization is ruled out. Considering data for 46 BALQSOs from the literature, including CSO 755, we have found that the UV-optical continuum polarization level of BALQSOs is not correlated with any of their X-ray properties. A lack of significant short-term and long-term X-ray flux variations in the source may be attributed to a large black-hole mass in CSO 755. We note that another luminous BALQSO, PG 2112+059, has both similar shallow C IV BALs and moderate X-ray absorption.

  1. Gamma-Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The expected level of gamma-gamma absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of gamma-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs)is evaluated as a function of the location of the gamma-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the gamma-gamma opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the gamma-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the cen...

  2. Broad Absorption Line Variability on Multi-Year Timescales in a Large Quasar Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Ak, N Filiz; Hall, P B; Schneider, D P; Anderson, S F; Hamann, F; Lundgren, B F; Myers, Adam D; Paris, I; Petitjean, P; Ross, Nicholas P; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening vs. weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-l...

  3. Strong Variability of Overlapping Iron Broad Absorption Lines in five Radio-selected Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Xiheng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wenjuan; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Shufen

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a variability study of broad absorption lines (BALs) in a uniformly radio-selected sample of 28 BAL quasars using the archival data from the first bright quasar survey (FBQS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), as well as those obtained by ourselves, covering time scales $\\sim 1-10$ years in the quasar's rest-frame. The variable absorption troughs are detected in 12 BAL quasars. Among them, five cases showed strong spectral variations and are all belong to a special subclass of overlapping iron low ionization BALs (OFeLoBALs). The absorbers of \\ion{Fe}{2} are estimated to be formed by a relative dense (\\mbox{$n\\rm _{e} > 10^6~cm^{-3}$}) gas at a distance from the subparsec scale to the dozens of parsec-scale from the continuum source. They differ from those of invariable non-overlapping FeLoBALs (non-OFeLoBALs), which are the low-density gas and locate at the distance of hundreds to thousands parsecs. OFeLoBALs and non-OFeLoBALs, i.e., FeLoBALs with/without strong BAL variations...

  4. Quasar broad absorption line variability measurements using reconstructions of un-absorbed spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Wildy, Conor; Allen, James T

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-epoch SDSS and Gemini/GMOS+WHT/ISIS variability study of 50 broad absorption line quasars of redshift range 1.9 < z < 4.2, containing 38 Si IV and 59 C IV BALs and spanning rest-frame time intervals of approximately 10 months to 3.7 years. We find that 35/50 quasars exhibit one or more variable BALs, with 58% of Si IV and 46% of C IV BALs showing variability across the entire sample. On average, Si IV BALs show larger fractional change in BAL pseudo equivalent width than C IV BALs, as referenced to an unabsorbed continuum+emission-line spectrum constructed using non-negative matrix factorisation. No correlation is found between BAL variability and quasar luminosity, suggesting that ionizing continuum changes do not play a significant role in BAL variability (assuming the gas is in photoionization equilibrium with the ionizing continuum). A subset of 14 quasars have one variable BAL from each of Si IV and C IV with significant overlap in velocity space and for which variations are in the...

  5. Discovery of Radio-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars Using Ultraviolet Excess and Deep Radio Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Brotherton, M S; Smith, R J; Boyle, B J; Shanks, T; Croom, S M; Miller, L; Becker, R H; Breugel, Wil van; Miller, Lance; Becker, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    We report the discovery of five broad-absorption-line (BAL) QSOs in a complete sample of 111 ultraviolet excess (UVX) QSO candidates also detected in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. All five BAL QSOs, which include two high-ionization BAL QSOs and three low-ionization BAL QSOs, are formally radio-loud. Of QSOs with z > 0.4, 3+/-2% show low-ionization BALs, and of QSOs with z > 1.5, all radio-loud, 9+/-5% show BALs; these frequencies are consistent with those of optical surveys. While the first reported radio-loud BAL QSO, FIRST J155633.8+351758, is likely to be heavily dust reddened and thus less radio-loud than indicated by its observed radio-to-optical luminosity, these QSOs are UVX selected and probably free of significant dust along the line of sight. We point out unusual features in two of the BAL QSOs and discuss the significance finding these heretofore rare objects.

  6. CIV Broad Absorption Line Acceleration in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, C J; Hall, P B; Trump, J R; Ak, N Filiz; Anderson, S F; Green, Paul J; Schneider, D P; Sun, M; Vivek, M; Beatty, T G; Brownstein, Joel R; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the largest systematic investigation of broad absorption line (BAL) acceleration to date. We use spectra of 140 quasars from three Sloan Digital Sky Survey programs to search for global velocity offsets in BALs over timescales of ~2.5-5.5 years in the quasar rest frame. We carefully select acceleration candidates by requiring monolithic velocity shifts over the entire BAL trough, avoiding BALs with velocity shifts that might be caused by profile variability. The CIV BALs of two quasars show velocity shifts consistent with the expected signatures of BAL acceleration, and the BAL of one quasar shows a velocity-shift signature of deceleration. In our two acceleration candidates, we see evidence that the magnitude of the acceleration is not constant over time; the magnitudes of the change in acceleration for both acceleration candidates are difficult to produce with a standard disk-wind model or via geometric projection effects. We measure upper limits to acceleration and deceleration for ...

  7. VLBI Detections of Parsec-Scale Nonthermal Jets in Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Akihiro; Kono, Yusuke; Oyama, Tomoaki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Takaba, Hiroshi; Sudou, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Yamauchi, Aya; Murata, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Nanako; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakai, Naomasa; Sorai, Kazuo; Kawai, Eiji; Sekido, Mamoru; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Asano, Shoichiro; Uose, Hisao

    2009-01-01

    We conducted radio detection observations at 8.4 GHz for 22 radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Third Data Release, by a very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique. The VLBI instrument we used was developed by the Optically ConnecTed Array for VLBI Exploration project (OCTAVE), which is operated as a subarray of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN). We aimed at selecting BAL quasars with nonthermal jets suitable for measuring their orientation angles and ages by subsequent detailed VLBI imaging studies to evaluate two controversial issues of whether BAL quasars are viewed nearly edge-on, and of whether BAL quasars are in a short-lived evolutionary phase of quasar population. We detected 20 out of 22 sources using the OCTAVE baselines, implying brightness temperatures greater than 10^5 K, which presumably come from nonthermal jets. Hence, BAL outflows and nonthermal jets can be generated simultaneously in these central engines. We also found four...

  8. Variation of Ionizing Continuum: The Main Driver of Broad Absorption Line Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhicheng; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Bian, Weihao; Liu, Guilin; Yang, Chenwei; Dou, Liming; Sun, Luming

    2017-04-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the variability of broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasars using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12). We divide the sample into two groups according to the pattern of the variation of C iv BAL with respect to that of a continuum: the equivalent widths (EW) of the BAL decreases (increases) when the continuum brightens (dims) as group T1; and the variation of the EW and the continuum in the opposite relation of group T2. We find that T2 has significantly ({P}{{T}}contribute less than 20%. Considering large uncertainty in the continuum flux calibration, the latter fraction may be much smaller. When the sample is binned into different time intervals between the two observations, we find significant difference in the distribution of R between T1 and T2 in all time-bins down to {{Δ }}T< 6 days, suggesting that the BAL outflow in a fraction of quasars has a recombination timescale of only a few days.

  9. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.;

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z <1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expec...

  10. VARIABLE REDDENING AND BROAD ABSORPTION LINES IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WPVS 007: AN ORIGIN IN THE TORUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Cooper, Erin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Grupe, Dirk [Department of Earth and Space Science, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronmie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-08-10

    We report the discovery of an occultation event in the low-luminosity narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 in 2015 February and March. In concert with longer timescale variability, these observations place strong constraints on the nature and location of the absorbing material. Swift monitoring has revealed a secular decrease since ∼2010 accompanied by flattening of the optical and UV photometry that suggests variable reddening. Analysis of four Hubble Space Telescope COS observations since 2010, including a Director’s Discretionary time observation during the occultation, shows that the broad-absorption-line velocity offset and the C iv emission-line width both decrease as the reddening increases. The occultation dynamical timescale, the BAL variability dynamical timescale, and the density of the BAL gas show that both the reddening material and the broad-absorption-line gas are consistent with an origin in the torus. These observations can be explained by a scenario in which the torus is clumpy with variable scale height, and the BAL gas is blown from the torus material like spray from the crest of a wave. As the obscuring material passes into our line of sight, we alternately see high-velocity broad absorption lines and a clear view to the central engine, or low-velocity broad absorption lines and strong reddening. WPVS 007 has a small black hole mass, and correspondingly short timescales, and so we may be observing behavior that is common in BALQSOs, but is not typically observable.

  11. Variability of broad absorption lines in a QSO SDSS J022844.09+000217.0 on multi-year timescales

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zhi-Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Yue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The variability of the broad absorption lines is investigated for a broad absorption line (BAL) QSO, SDSS J022844.09+000217.0 (z = 2.719), with 18 SDSS/BOSS spectra covering 4128 days in the observed frame. With the ratio of the rms spectrum to the mean spectrum, the relative flux change of the BAL-trough is larger than that of the emission lines and the continuum. Fitting the power-law continuum and the emission line profiles of \\civ $\\lambda$1549 and \\siiv$\\lambda$1399, we calculate the equivalent width (EW) for different epochs, as well as the continuum luminosity and the spectral index. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the spectral index, and a weak negative correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the continuum luminosity. The strong correlation between the BAL-trough EW and the spectral index for this one QSO suggests that dust is intrinsic to outflows. The weak correlation between the BAL variability and the continuum luminosity for this one QSO implies that...

  12. Variable Reddening and Broad Absorption Lines in the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy WPVS 007: an Origin in the Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Leighly, Karen M; Grupe, Dirk; Terndrup, Donald M; Komossa, S

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an occultation event in the low-luminosity narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 in 2015 February and March. In concert with longer timescale variability, these observations place strong constraints on the nature and location of the absorbing material. Swift monitoring has revealed a secular decrease since ~2010 accompanied by flattening of the optical and UV photometry that suggests variable reddening. Analysis of four Hubble Space Telescope COS observations since 2010, including a Director's Discretionary time observation during the occultation, shows that the broad-absorption-line velocity offset and the CIV emission-line width both decrease as the reddening increases. The occultation dynamical timescale, the BAL variability dynamical timescale, and the density of the BAL gas show that both the reddening material and the broad-absorption-line gas are consistent with an origin in the torus. These observations can be explained by a scenario in which the torus is clumpy with variabl...

  13. Broad, weak 21 cm absorption in an early type galaxy: spectral-line finding and parameterisation for future surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, J R; Sadler, E M; Reeves, S N

    2012-01-01

    We report conclusive verification of the detection of associated HI 21cm absorption in the early-type host of the compact radio source PMN J2054-4242. We estimate an equivalent spectral-line width of 415 +/- 20 km/s, and observed peak optical depth of 2.5 +/- 0.2 per cent, making this one of the broadest and weakest 21cm absorption-lines yet discovered. For Tspin/f > 100K the column density is NHI > 2 x 10^{21} cm^{-2}. The observed spectral-line profile is redshifted by v = 179 +/- 46 km/s, with respect to the spectroscopic optical measurement, perhaps indicating that the HI gas is infalling toward the central active galactic nucleus. The broad width of the line suggests that the cold gas is either rotating at very high velocity, or that the infall is accelerating (perhaps as a blended series of line-of-sight gas clouds). Our initial tentative detection would likely have been dismissed by visual inspection, and hence its verification here is an excellent test of our spectral-line detection technique, current...

  14. Broad Balmer Absorption Line Variability: Evidence of Gas Transverse Motion in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Zhang, Shaohua; Ji, Tuo; Pan, Xiang; Sun, Luming; Zhao, Wen; Hao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of broad Balmer absorption lines variability in the QSO SDSS J125942.80+121312.6, based on the optical and near-infrared spectra taken from the SDSS-I, SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), and TripleSpec observations over a timescale of 5.8 years in the QSO's rest-frame. The blueshifted absorption profile of H$\\beta$ shows a variation of more than 5$\\sigma$ at a high velocity portion ($>3000\\ \\mathrm{km\\ s}^{-1}$) of the trough. We perform a detailed analysis for the physical conditions of the absorber using Balmer lines as well as metastable He I and optical Fe II absorptions ($\\lambda 4233$ from b$^4$P$_{5/2}$ level and $\\lambda 5169$ from a$^6$S$_{5/2}$) at the same velocity. These Fe II lines are identified in the QSO spectra for the first time. According to the photoionization simulations, we estimate a gas density of $n(\\mathrm{H})\\approx 10^{9.1}\\ \\mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ and a column density of $N_{\\mathrm{col}}(\\mathrm{H})\\approx 10^{23}\\ \\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ for ...

  15. Radio spectra and polarisation properties of a bright sample of Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Salerno, E; Montenegro-Montes, F M; Carballo, R; Benn, C R; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2012-01-01

    The origin of broad-absorption-line quasars (BAL QSOs) is still an open issue. Accounting for ~20% of the QSO population, these objects present broad absorption lines in their optical spectra generated from outflows with velocities up to 0.2c. In this work we present the results of a multi-frequency study of a well-defined radio-loud BAL QSO sample, and a comparison sample of radio-loud non-BAL QSOs, both selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We aim to test which of the currently-popular models for the BAL phenomenon - `orientation' or 'evolutionary' - best accounts for the radio properties of BAL quasars. Observations from 1.4 to 43 GHz have been obtained with the VLA and Effelsberg telescopes, and data from 74 to 408 MHz have been compiled from the literature. The fractions of candidate GHz-peaked sources are similar in the two samples (36\\pm12% vs 23\\pm8%), suggesting that BAL QSOs are not generally younger than non-BAL QSOs. BAL and non-BAL QSOs show a large range of spectral indices, consist...

  16. A VLBI survey of compact broad absorption line quasars with balnicity index BI>0

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Katarzynski, K; Roskowinski, C

    2015-01-01

    We performed high resolution radio observations of a new sample of ten BAL quasars using both the VLBA and EVN at 5 GHz. All the selected sources have balnicity indices (BI) more than 0 and radio flux densities less than 80 mJy at 1.4 GHz. They are very compact with linear sizes of the order of a few tens of parsecs and radio luminosities at 1.4 GHz above the FRI-FRII luminosity threshold. Most of the observed objects have been resolved at 5 GHz showing one-sided, probably core-jet structures, typical for quasars. We discuss in detail their age and orientation based on the radio observations. We then used the largest available sample of BAL quasars to study the relationships between the radio and optical properties in these objects. We found that (1) the strongest absorption (high values of the balnicity index BI) is connected with the lower values of the radio-loudness parameter, logR_I<1.5, and thus probably with large viewing angles; (2) the large span of the BI values in each bin of the radio-loudness ...

  17. Search for broad absorption lines in spectra of stars in the field of supernova remnant RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Jr.)

    CERN Document Server

    Iyudin, A F; Chugai, N N; Greiner, J; Axelsson, M; Larsson, S; Ryabchikova, T A

    2010-01-01

    Supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 is one of the youngest and is most likely the closest among known galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). It was detected in X-rays, the 44Ti gamma-line, and radio. We obtain and analyze medium-resolution spectra of 14 stars in the direction towards the SNR RX J0852.0-4622 in an attempt to detect broad absorption lines of unshocked ejecta against background stars. Spectral synthesis is performed for all the stars in the wavelength range of 3740-4020AA to extract the broad absorption lines of Ca II related to the SNR RX J0852.0-4622. We do not detect any broad absorption line and place a 3-sigma upper limit on the relative depths of <0.04 for the broad Ca II absorption produced by the SNR. We detect narrow low and high velocity absorption components of Ca II. High velocity |V(LSR)|=100-140 km/s components are attributed to radiative shocks in clouds engulfed by the old Vela SNR. The upper limit to the absorption line strength combined with the width and flux of the 44Ti g...

  18. A Comprehensive Study of Broad Absorption Line Quasars: I. Prevalence of HeI* Absorption Line Multiplets in Low-Ionization Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Ji, Tuo; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Ting-Gui; Jian, Ge; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming; Yang, Chenwei; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Neutral Helium multiplets, HeI*3189,3889,10830 are very useful diagnostics to the geometry and physical conditions of the absorbing gas in quasars. So far only a handful of HeI* detections have been reported. Using a newly developed method, we detected HeI*3889 absorption line in 101 sources of a well-defined sample of 285 MgII BAL quasars selected from the SDSS DR5. This has increased the number of HeI* BAL quasars by more than one order of magnitude. We further detected HeI*3189 in 50% (52/101) quasars in the sample. The detection fraction of HeI* BALs in MgII BAL quasars is about 35% as a whole, and increases dramatically with increasing spectral signal-to-noise ratios, from 18% at S/N = 35. This suggests that HeI* BALs could be detected in most MgII LoBAL quasars, provided spectra S/N is high enough. Such a surprisingly high HeI* BAL fraction is actually predicted from photo-ionization calculations based on a simple BAL model. The result indicates that HeI* absorption lines can be used to search for BAL q...

  19. Unveiling the intrinsic X-ray properties of broad absorption line quasars with a relatively unbiased sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morabito, Leah K.; Dai, Xinyu; Leighly, Karen M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Sivakoff, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183 Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Shankar, Francesco [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence of a higher intrinsic fraction of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs) than that obtained in optical surveys, on which most previous X-ray studies of BALQSOs have focused. Here we present Chandra observations of 18 BALQSOs at z ∼ 2, selected from a near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) sample, where the BALQSO fraction is likely to be close to the intrinsic fraction. We measure photon indices using the stacked spectra of the optically faint (i – K{sub s} ≥ 2.3 mag) and optically bright (i – K{sub s} < 2.3 mag) samples to be Γ ≅ 1.5-2.1. We constrain their intrinsic column density by modeling the X-ray fractional hardness ratio, finding a mean column density of 3.5 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} assuming neutral absorption. We incorporate Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical measurements (rest frame UV) to study the broadband spectral index between the X-ray and UV bands, and compare this to a large sample of normal quasars. We estimate that the optically faint BALQSOs are X-ray weaker than the optically bright ones, and the entire sample of BALQSOs are intrinsically X-ray weak when compared to normal active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Correcting for magnification of X-ray emission via gravitational lensing by the central black hole viewed at large inclination angles makes these BALQSOs even more intrinsically X-ray weak. Finally, we estimate AGN kinetic feedback efficiencies of a few percent for an X-ray wind of 0.3c in high-ionization BALQSOs. Combined with energy carried by low-ionization BALQSOs and UV winds, the total kinetic energy in BALQSOs can be sufficient to provide AGN kinetic feedback required to explain the co-evolution between black holes and host galaxies.

  20. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-ray Weakness

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Stern, D; Teng, S H; Arévalo, P; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Koss, M; Ogle, P; Puccetti, S; Saez, C; Scott, A E; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z=0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  1. Discovery of a variable broad absorption line in the BL Lac object PKS B0138-097

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Hua Zhang; Hui-Yuan Wang; Hong-Yan Zhou; Ting-Gui Wang; Peng Jiang

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a broad absorption line (BAL) of ~104 km s-1in width in the previously known BL Lac object PKS 0138-097,which we tentatively identified as an Mg Ⅱ BAL.This is the first detection of a BAL,which is sometimes seen in powerful quasars with high accretion rates,in a BL Lac object.The BAL was clearly detected in its spectra spanning two epochs at a high luminosity state taken in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS),while it disappeared in three SDSS spectra taken at a low luminosity state.The BAL and its variability pattern were also found in its historical multi-epoch spectra in the literature,but have been overlooked previously.In its high resolution radio maps,PKS 0138-097 shows a core plus a onesided parsec-scale jet.The BAL variability can be interpreted as follows:The optical emission is dominated by the core in a high state and by the jet in a low state and the BAL material is located between the core and jet so that the BAL appears only when the core is shining.Our discovery suggests that outflows may also be produced in active galactic nuclei at a low accreting state.

  2. Nustar Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt. W. N.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Gandhi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Madsen, K. K.; Ptak, A. F.; Rigby, Jane Rebecca; Risaliti, G.; Saz, C.; Stern, D.; Veilleux, S.; Walton, D. J.; Wik, D. R.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5-30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin N(sub H) approx. 1.2(sup +0.3) sub-0.3) x 10(exp 23) / sq cm) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity L(sub 0.5-30 Kev) approx. 1.0 x 10(exp 43) erg /s) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2-10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is approx. 0.03% compared to the typical values of 2-15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope alpha(sub 0X) approx. -1.7. It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorption line (LoBAL) quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may be a result of the super-Eddington accretion occurring in the nucleus of this ULIRG, and may also be naturally related to the powerful wind event seen in Mrk 231, a merger remnant escaping from its dusty cocoon.

  3. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Teng, S. H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Koss, M. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Puccetti, S. [ASDC—ASI, Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Saez, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ{sub eff} ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  4. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014 Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  5. The Dependence of C IV Broad Absorption Line Properties on Accompanying Si IV and Al III Absorption: Relating Quasar-Wind Ionization Levels, Kinematics, and Column Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Ak, N Filiz; Hall, P B; Schneider, D P; Trump, J R; Anderson, S F; Hamann, F; Myers, Adam D; Paris, I; Petitjean, P; Ross, Nicholas P; Shen, Yue; York, Don

    2014-01-01

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line-of-sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines-of-sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C ...

  6. Weak Hard X-ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-ray Weakness?

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Harrison, F A; Stern, D; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Farrah, D; Fiore, F; Fuerst, F; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R; Madsen, K K; Matt, G; Ogle, P; Risaliti, G; Saez, C; Teng, S H; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ~400-600 hard X-ray (>10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (NH<1E24 cm^{-2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be NH~7E24 cm^{-2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We d...

  7. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  8. UNSHIFTED METASTABLE He I* MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE SYSTEM IN THE NARROW-LINE TYPE 1 QUASAR SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Chenwei [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China); Ge, Jian; Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Komossa, S.; Yuan, Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Zuther, Jens [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Lu, Honglin [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, The University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Zuo, Wenwen, E-mail: jituo@pric.gov.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1} centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n {sub H} ∼ (1.0-2.5) × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and a column density of N {sub H} ∼ (1.0-3.2) × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} and is located at R ∼100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  9. Discovery of an ionized Fe-K edge in the z=3.91 Broad Absorption Line Quasar APM 08279+5255 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Hasinger, G; Komossa, S

    2002-01-01

    Recent XMM-Newton observations of the high-redshift, lensed, broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar object APM 08279+5255, one of the most luminous objects in the universe, allowed the detection of a high column density absorber ($N_H \\approx 10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$) in the form of a K-shell absorption edge of significantly ionized iron (Fe XV - XVIII) and corresponding ionized lower-energy absorption. Our findings confirm a basic prediction of phenomenological geometry models for the BAL outflow and can constrain the size of the absorbing region. The Fe/O abundance of the absorbing material is significantly higher than solar (Fe/O = 2-5), giving interesting constraints on the gas enrichment history in the early Universe.

  10. Theoretical investigation of the broad one-photon absorption line-shape of a flexible symmetric carbazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Cerezo, Javier; Santoro, Fabrizio; Rizzo, Antonio; Lin, Na; Zhao, Xian

    2016-08-17

    The one-photon absorption spectrum of a carbazole derivative has been studied by employing density functional response theory combined with a mixed quantum/classical (QC) approach to simulate the spectral shape. In a first step of our analysis we employed the vertical gradient (VG) vibronic model to investigate the role of Franck-Condon (FC) profiles of the first ten electronic excited states of the system, underlying most of the range of the experimental spectrum. We then focussed on the first six excited states covering the low-energy region of the spectrum, and investigated the effect of inter-state electronic couplings on the spectral shapes within Herzberg-Teller (HT) theory. Furthermore, in order to introduce the broadening effects due to the two inter-ring torsions, we employed a QC approach, adopting VG vibronic models for high-frequency modes and computing the contribution of the torsions to the spectrum from the distribution of the excitation energies along a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy. Finally, we estimated the solvent inhomogeneous broadening by computing the solvent reorganization energy using a polarizable continuum model. Our calculations allow us to obtain a non-phenomenological description of the low-energy part of the spectrum in semi-quantitative agreement with experiment and to dissect the relative importance of solvent, torsional flexibility, FC vibronic progressions, and inter-state couplings in determining its broad spectral shapes and the modulation of its intensity. Our analysis also clearly highlights that the investigated carbazole represents a big challenge for available methodologies due to the existence of many close-lying excited electronic states coupled by internal low-frequency and high-frequency motions and by solvent fluctuations. The study of their impact on the spectra at the HT level is only approximate and more refined treatments would require a fully quantum-dynamical calculation on the manifold of the coupled

  11. Unveiling the X-ray/UV properties of disk winds in active galactic nuclei using broad and mini-broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Giustini, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the uniform analysis of 46 XMM-Newton observations of six BAL and seven mini-BAL QSOs belonging to the Palomar-Green Quasar catalogue. Moderate-quality X-ray spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn, and allowed to characterise the general source spectral shape to be complex, significantly deviating from a power law emission. A simple power law analysis in different energy bands strongly suggests absorption to be more significant than reflection in shaping the spectra. If allowing for the absorbing gas to be either partially covering the continuum emission source or to be ionised, large column densities of the order of $10^{22-24}$ cm$^{-2}$ are inferred. When the statistics was high enough, virtually every source was found to vary in spectral shape on various time scales, from years to hours. All in all these observational results are compatible with radiation driven accretion disk winds shaping the spectra of these intriguing cosmic sources.

  12. Ultraviolet/X-ray variability and the extended X-ray emission of the radio-loud broad absorption line quasar PG 1004+130

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, A E; Miller, B P; Luo, B; Gallagher, S C

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of recent Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio-loud (RL), broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1004+130. We compare our new observations to archival X-ray and UV data, creating the most comprehensive, high signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, spectral monitoring campaign of a RL BAL quasar to date. We probe for variability of the X-ray absorption, the UV BAL, and the X-ray jet, on month-year timescales. The X-ray absorber has a low column density of $N_{H}=8\\times10^{20}-4\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ when it is assumed to be fully covering the X-ray emitting region, and its properties do not vary significantly between the 4 observations. This suggests the observed absorption is not related to the typical "shielding gas" commonly invoked in BAL quasar models, but is likely due to material further from the central black hole. In contrast, the CIV BAL shows strong variability. The equivalent width (EW) in 2014 is EW=11.24$\\pm$0.56 \\AA, showing a fractional increa...

  13. An HST/COS observation of broad Lyα emission and associated absorption lines of the BL Lacertae object H 2356-309

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Taotao [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Buote, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Canizares, Claude R. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio, E-mail: fangt@xmu.edu.cn [IASF-Milano, INAF, via Bassini 15, Milan I-20133 (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Lyα emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Lyα emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called high-energy peaked BL Lacs, after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor (Γ) of the relativistic jet to be ≥8.1 with a maximum viewing angle of 3.°6. The derived Γ is somewhat larger than previous measurements of Γ ≈ 3-5, implying a covering factor of ∼3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. We also detected two H I and one O VI absorption lines that are within |Δv| < 150 km s{sup –1} of the BL Lac object. The O VI and one of the H I absorbers likely coexist due to their nearly identical velocities. We discuss several ionization models and find a photoionization model where the ionizing photon source is the BL Lac object that can fit the observed ion column densities with reasonable physical parameters. This absorber can either be located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or in the BLR.

  14. Attenuation from the optical to the extreme ultraviolet by dust associated with broad absorption line quasars: the driving force for outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskell, C Martin; Singh, Japneet

    2016-01-01

    We use mid-IR to UV observations to derive a mean attenuation curve out to the rest-frame extreme ultraviolet (EUV) for "BAL dust" -- the dust causing the additional extinction of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with broad absorption lines (BALQSOs). In contrast to the normal, relatively flat, mean AGN attenuation curve, BAL dust is well fit by a steeply rising, SMC-like curve. We confirm the shape of the theoretical Weingartner & Draine SMC curve out to 700 \\AA, but the drop in attenuation at still shorter wavelengths is less than predicted. The identical attenuation curve for low-ionization BALQSOs (LoBALs) does not support them being a "break out" phase in the life of AGNs. Although attenuation in the optical due to BAL dust is low ($E(B-V) \\sim 0.03 - 0.05$), the attenuation rises to one magnitude in the EUV because of the steep extinction curve. Here the dust optical depth is at the optimum value for radiative acceleration of dusty gas. Because the spectral energy distribution of AGNs peaks in the EUV ...

  15. Absorption-Line Studies of Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, J. Michael

    We propose to undertake a "reverberation analysis" of the variable absorption lines ill two Seyfert Galaxies (NGC 4051 and Mrk 279) to help understand the origin of intrinsic absorption lines in AGNs. Stich an analysis is a powerful tool for elucidating the radial distribution of absorbing gas in the broad-line region (BLR) and narrow-line region (NLR). Only two Seyferts have previously been studied with this technique: NGC 4151 (Bromage el al. 1985; Clavel et al. 1987) and NGC 3516 (Voit, Shull, and Begelman 1987). The absorption features have been interpreted as an outflow of ionized clouds from the nuclear region or from an accretion disk affected by UV/X-ray heating. Neither the source of the absorbing gas in these Seyferts nor the "gene" which distingishes them from other Seyferts is known. Until the 1984 onset of absorption in Mrk 279, broad self-absorbed. lines had been observed only in Seyferts of low intrinsic luminosity, such as NGC 4051. Mrk 279 is intrinsically much brighter, and therefore more quasar-like, than the other three absorptionline Seyfert I's in the CfA sample. Thus, it may show how the absorption phenomenon changes at higher luminosity and could bridge the gap between the low luminosity absorption-line Seyferts and the well-studied broad absorption-line (BAL) QSO's. In addition, Mrk 279's significant redshift will allow us to study, for the first time, the Ly-alpha line in an absorption-line Seyfert. With 3 US-1 shifts for each of these two underobserved Seyferts, we can double the number of objects in which absorption-line variability has been studied and investigate why the absorption-line strengths correlate or anti-correlate with the UV continuum.

  16. An HST/COS Observation of Broad Ly$\\alpha$ Emission and Associated Absorption Lines of the BL Lacertae Object H 2356-309

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Taotao; Buote, David A; Stocke, John T; Shull, J Michael; Canizares, Claude R; Gastaldello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Ly$\\alpha$ emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Ly$\\alpha$ emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called "high energy peaked BL Lacs", after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor ($\\Gamma$) of the relativistic jet to be $\\geq 8.1$ with a maximum viewing angle of 3.6$^\\circ$. The derived $\\Gamma$ is somewhat larger than previous measurements of $\\Gamma \\approx 3 - 5$, implying a covering factor of $\\sim$ 3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be $\\sim 10^{-5}\\rm\\ M_{\\odot}$. ...

  17. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  18. Inclination of Broad Line Region in Narrow Line and Broad Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sizes of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of some Seyfert 1 galax-ies and nearby quasars can be determined by the reverberation mapping method.Combining with the observed FWHM of Hβ emission line and assuming that themotion of BLR clouds is virialized, the black hole masses of these objects have beenestimated. However, this method strongly depends on the poorly-understood geom-etry and inclination of the BLR. On the other hand, a tight correlation between theblack hole mass and the bulge velocity dispersion was recently found for both activeand nearby inactive galaxies. This may provide another method, independent of theBLR geometry, for estimating the black hole mass. Using this method for estimatingthe black hole mass and combining with the measured BLR size and FWHM of Hβemission line, we derived the BLR inclination angles for 20 Seyfert I galaxies underthe assumption that the BLR is disk-like. The derived inclination angles agree wellwith those derived previously by fitting the UV continuum and Hβ emission lineprofiles. Adopting a relation between the FWHMs of [OⅢ]λ5007 forbidden line andthe stellar velocity dispersion, we also estimated the BLR inclinations for 50 nar-row line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSls). We found that the inclinations of broad LineSeyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s) are systematically greater than those of NLS1s, whichseldom exceed 30. This may be an important factor that leads to the differencesbetween NLS1s and BLS1s if the BLR of NLS1s is really disk-like.

  19. XMM-Newton and Broad Iron Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C

    2007-01-01

    Iron line emission is common in the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes. When the line emission is broad or variable then it is likely to originate from close to the black hole. X-ray irradiation of the accretion flow by the power-law X-ray continuum produces the X-ray 'reflection' spectrum which includes the iron line. The shape and variability of the iron lines and reflection can be used as a diagnostic of the radius, velocity and nature of the flow. The inner radius of the dense flow corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit and thus can be used to determine the spin of the black hole. Studies of broad iron lines and reflection spectra offer much promise for understanding how the inner parts of accretion flows (and outflows) around black holes operate. There remains great potential for XMM-Newton to continue to make significant progress in this work. The need for high quality spectra and thus for long exposure times is paramount.

  20. {\\it NuSTAR} Reveals an Intrinsically X-ray Weak Broad Absorption Line Quasar in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy Markarian 231

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Stacy H; Harrison, F A; Luo, B; Alexander, D M; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Farrah, D; Fiore, F; Gandhi, P; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Hickox, R C; Madsen, K K; Ptak, A F; Rigby, J R; Risaliti, G; Saez, C; Stern, D; Veilleux, S; Walton, D J; Wik, D R; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3--30 keV) {\\it NuSTAR} observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5--8 keV) data from {\\it Chandra}. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously reported, likely due to contamination in the large apertures of previous non-focusing hard X-ray telescopes. The full band (0.5--30 keV) X-ray spectrum suggests the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 231 is absorbed by a patchy and Compton-thin (N$_{\\rm H} \\sim1.2^{+0.3}_{-0.3}\\times10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$) column. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity (L$_{\\rm 0.5-30 keV}\\sim1.0\\times10^{43}$ erg s$^{1}$) is extremely weak relative to the bolometric luminosity where the 2--10 keV to bolometric luminosity ratio is $\\sim$0.03% compared to the typical values of 2--15%. Additionally, Mrk 231 has a low X-ray-to-optical power law slope ($\\alpha_{\\rm OX}\\sim-1.7$). It is a local example of a low-ionization broad absorpti...

  1. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  2. Quasistellar Objects Intervening Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Charlton, Jane C.; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2000-01-01

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  3. Clustering of absorption line systems

    CERN Document Server

    Petitjean, P

    1996-01-01

    Absorption line systems are luminosity unbiased tracers of the spatial distribution of baryons over most of the history of the Universe. I review the importance of studying the clustering properties of the absorbers and the impact of VLT in this subject. The primary aim of the project is to track the evolution of the structures of the Universe back in time.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  5. Broad Iron Lines in AGN and X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C

    2004-01-01

    Several AGN and black hole X-ray binaries show a clear very broad iron line which is strong evidence that the black holes are rapidly spinning. Detailed analysis of these objects shows that the emission line is not significantly affected by absorption and that the source variability is principally due to variation in amplitude of a power-law. Underlying this is a much less variable, relativistically-smeared, reflection-dominated, component which carries the imprint of strong gravity at a few gravitational radii. The strong gravitational light bending in these regions then explains the power-law variability as due to changes in height of the primary X-ray source above the disc. The reflection component, in particular its variability and the profile of the iron line, enables us to study the innermost regions around an accreting, spinning, black hole.

  6. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  7. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  8. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  9. Ultraviolet Broad Absorption Features and the Spectral Energy Distribution of the QSO PG 1351+64

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, W; Wang, J X; Brotherton, M S; Oegerle, W R; Blair, W P; Davidsen, A F; Green, R F; Hutchings, J B; Kaiser, M E

    2001-01-01

    We present a moderate-resolution (~20 km/s) spectrum of the mini broad-absorption-line QSO PG1351+64 between 915-1180 A, obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Additional spectra at longer wavelengths were also obtained with the HST and ground-based telescopes. Broad absorption is present on the blue wings of CIII 977, Ly-beta, OVI 1032,1038, Ly-alpha, NV 1238,1242, SiIV 1393,1402, and CIV 1548,1450. The absorption profile can be fitted with five components at velocities of ~ -780, -1049, -1629, -1833, and -3054 km/s with respect to the emission-line redshift of z = 0.088. All the absorption components cover a large fraction of the continuum source as well as the broad-line region. The OVI emission feature is very weak, and the OVI/Lyalpha flux ratio is 0.08, one of the lowest among low-redshift active galaxies and QSOs. The UV continuum shows a significant change in slope near 1050 A in the restframe. The steeper continuum shortward of the Lyman limit extrapolates well to the observ...

  10. High sensitivity ultra-broad-band absorption spectroscopy of inductively coupled chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Daniil; Foucher, Mickaël; Campbell, Ewen; Brouard, Mark; Chabert, Pascal; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2016-06-01

    We propose a method to measure the densities of vibrationally excited Cl2(v) molecules in levels up to v  =  3 in pure chlorine inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs). The absorption continuum of Cl2 in the 250-450 nm spectral range is deconvoluted into the individual components originating from the different vibrational levels of the ground state, using a set of ab initio absorption cross sections. It is shown that gas heating at constant pressure is the major depletion mechanism of the Cl2 feedstock in the plasma. In these line-integrated absorption measurements, the absorption by the hot (and therefore rarefied) Cl2 gas in the reactor centre is masked by the cooler (and therefore denser) Cl2 near the walls. These radial gradients in temperature and density make it difficult to assess the degree of vibrational excitation in the centre of the reactor. The observed line-averaged vibrational distributions, when analyzed taking into account the radial temperature gradient, suggest that vibrational and translational degrees of freedom in the plasma are close to local equilibrium. This can be explained by efficient vibrational-translational (VT) relaxation between Cl2 and Cl atoms. Besides the Cl2(v) absorption band, a weak continuum absorption is observed at shorter wavelengths, and is attributed to photodetachment of Cl- negative ions. Thus, line-integrated densities of negative ions in chlorine plasmas can be directly measured using broad-band absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Multi-Epoch Observations of Extremely High-Velocity Emergent Broad Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Rogerson, Jesse A; Hidalgo, Paola Rodríguez; Pirkola, Patrik; Brandt, William N; Ak, Nur Filiz

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of the highest velocity CIV broad absorption line to date in the z=2.47 quasar SDSS J023011.28+005913.6, hereafter J0230. In comparing the public DR7 and DR9 spectra of J0230, we discovered an emerging broad absorption trough outflowing at~60,000 km/s. In pursuing follow up observations we discovered a second emergent broad absorption trough outflowing at ~40,000 km/s. We collected seven spectral epochs of J0230 that demonstrate emergent and rapidly (~10 days in the rest-frame) varying broad absorption. We investigate two possible scenarios that could cause these rapid changes: bulk motion and ionization variability. Given our multi-epoch data, a transverse motion scenario would likely be a flow-tube feature travelling across the emitting region at 8,000 =1540 cm^-3 and is at r_{eq} >= 1.37 kpc, or is at r < 1.37 kpc with no constraint on the density.

  12. X-ray spectroscopy of the broad line radio galaxy 3C111

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Crawford, C S; Fabian, A C

    1998-01-01

    We present an ASCA observation of the broad line radio galaxy 3C111. The X-ray spectrum is well described by a model consisting of a photoelectrically-absorbed power-law form. The inferred absorbing column density is significantly greater than expected on the basis of 21-cm measurements of Galactic HI. Whilst this may be due intrinsic absorption from a circumnuclear torus or highly warped accretion disk, inhomogeneities and molecular gas within the foreground giant molecular cloud may also be responsible for some of this excess absorption. We also claim a marginal detection of a broad iron Ka line which is well explained as being a fluorescent line originating from the central regions of a radiatively-efficient accretion disk. This line appears weak in comparison to those found in (radio-quiet) Seyfert nuclei. We briefly discuss the implications of this fact.

  13. Molecular absorption in transition region spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Schmit, Donald; Ayres, Thomas; Peter, Hardi; Curdt, Werner; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of absorption features from a multitude of cool atomic and molecular lines within the profiles of Si IV transition region lines. Many of these spectral lines have not previously been detected in solar spectra. Methods: We examined spectra taken from deep exposures of plage on 12 October 2013. We observed unique absorption spectra over a magnetic element which is bright in transition region line emission and the ultraviolet continuum. We compared the absorption spectra with emission spectra that is likely related to fluorescence. Results: The absorption features require a population of sub-5000 K plasma to exist above the transition region. This peculiar stratification is an extreme deviation from the canonical structure of the chromosphere-corona boundary . The cool material is not associated with a filament or discernible coronal rain. This suggests that molecules may form in the upper solar atmosphere on small spatial scales...

  14. Predicted profiles of ultraviolet interstellar absorption lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, D.E.; Hobbs, L.M.; York, D.G. (Chicago, University, IL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    In this paper, values of the column density, line width parameter, and velocity are determined for as many components derived from optical interstellar absorption-line profiles of Na I and K I as needed to reproduce the observed high-resolution optical profiles of the D lines of Na I toward eight lightly reddened stars and of the 7698 A line of K I toward six moderately reddened stars. The derived component structures are then used to predict UV absorption-line profiles due to C I, Mg I, S I, Si I, and Fe I along the same lines of sight. Comparison of the predicted profiles with existing lower resolution line profiles and equivalent width data suggests that this simple scaling procedure can in many cases fairly reliably predict the UV profiles from the observed optical ones. 64 refs.

  15. Variability of QSOs with variable regions in broad absorption troughs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zhi-Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; Ge, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The variability of broad absorption lines is investigated for a sample of 188 broad-absorption-line (BAL) quasars (QSOs) ($z > 1.7$) with at least two-epoch observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), covering a time-scale of about 0.001 -- 3 years in the rest frame. Considering only the longest time-scale between epochs for each QSO, 73 variable regions in the \\civ BAL troughs are detected for 43 BAL QSOs. The proportion of BAL QSOs showing variable regions increases with longer time-interval than about 1 year in the rest frame. The velocity width of variable regions is narrow compared to the BAL-trough outflow velocity. For 43 BAL QSOs with variable regions, it is found that there is a medium strong correlation between the variation of the continuum luminosity at 1500 \\AA\\ and the variation of the spectral index. With respect to the total 188 QSOs, larger proportion of BAL QSOs with variable regions appears bluer during their brighter phases, which implies that the origin of BA...

  16. Evolution of Broad-line Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Elitzur, Moshe; Trump, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Apart from viewing-dependent obscuration, intrinsic broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) follows an evolutionary sequence: Type $1 \\to 1.2/1.5 \\to 1.8/1.9 \\to 2$ as the accretion rate onto the central black hole is decreasing. This spectral evolution is controlled, at least in part, by the parameter $L_{\\rm bol}/M^{2/3}$, where $L_{\\rm bol}$ is the AGN bolometric luminosity and $M$ is the black hole mass. Both this dependence and the double-peaked profiles that emerge along the sequence arise naturally in the disk-wind scenario for the AGN broad-line region.

  17. Diverse Broad Line Region Kinematic Signatures From Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the data from a high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign, undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world, reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the broad line regions (BLRs) of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. While the primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity AGNs (presented in a separate work), we were also able to unambiguously reconstruct velocity-resolved reverberation signals from a subset of our targets. Through high cadence spectroscopic monitoring of the optical continuum and broad Hbeta emission line variations observed in the nuclear regions of NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, we clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions, respectively.

  18. Constraining FeLoBAL outflows from absorption line variability

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, S M; Hamann, F W; Capellupo, D M; Gallagher, S C; Brandt, W N

    2015-01-01

    FeLoBALs are a rare class of quasar outflows with low-ionization broad absorption lines (BALs), large column densities, and potentially large kinetic energies that might be important for `feedback' to galaxy evolution. In order to probe the physical properties of these outflows, we conducted a multiple-epoch, absorption line variability study of 12 FeLoBAL quasars spanning a redshift range between 0.7 and 1.9 over rest frame time-scales of approximately 10 d to 7.6 yr. We detect absorption line variability with greater than 8 sigma confidence in 3 out of the 12 sources in our sample over time-scales of 0.6 to 7.6 yr. Variable wavelength intervals are associated with ground and excited state Fe II multiplets, the Mg II 2796, 2803 doublet, Mg I 2852, and excited state Ni II multiplets. The observed variability along with evidence of saturation in the absorption lines favors transverse motions of gas across the line of sight (LOS) as the preferred scenario, and allows us to constrain the outflow distance from th...

  19. Virilization of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei - connection between shifts and widths of broad emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Jonic, Sanja; Ilic, Dragana; Popovic, Luka C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the virilization of the emission lines Hbeta and Mg II in the sample of 287 Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore the connections between the intrinsic line shifts and full widths at different levels of maximal intensity. We found that: (i) Hbeta seems to be a good virial estimator of black hole masses, and an intrinsic redshift of Hbeta is dominantly caused by the gravitational effect, (ii) there is an anti-correlation between the redshift and width of the wings of the Mg II line, (iii) the broad Mg II line can be used as virial estimator only at 50% of the maximal intensity, while the widths and intrinsic shifts of the line wings can not be used for this purpose.

  20. Quasar absorption lines and the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Jannuzi, B T

    1996-01-01

    The importance of HST for the study of quasar absorption lines and of the nature of the intergalactic medium is illustrated by reviewing selected results from past HST observations. Topics reviewed include the study of Ly-alpha absorbers at low redshift and the search for a diffuse IGM at high redshifts.

  1. The UV-Optical Albedo of Broad Emission Line Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K T; Korista, Kirk; Ferland, Gary

    1997-01-01

    We explore the effective UV-optical albedos of a variety of types of broad emission line clouds, as well as their possible effects on the observed spectra of AGN. An important albedo source in moderately ionized ionization-bounded clouds is that due to neutral hydrogen: Rayleigh scattering of continuum photons off the extreme damping wings of Lya. The photons resulting from this scattering mechanism may contribute significantly to the Lya emission line, especially in the very broad wings. In addition, line photons emitted near 1200 Angstroms (e.g., N V 1240) that stream toward the neutral portion of the cloud may be reflected off this Rayleigh scattering mirror, so that they preferentially escape from the illuminated face. Inclusion of this effect can alter predicted emission line strengths and profiles. In more highly-ionized ionization-bounded clouds, Thompson scattering dominates the UV-optical albedo, but this albedo is lessened by the hydrogen gas opacity. These clouds are most reflective on the long wav...

  2. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 years (1-3.5 years in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems nor in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable broad absorption lines. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density $\\sim$ 10$^3$-10$^5$ cm$^{-3}$ and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of order a few kpc. Motivate...

  3. The broad line region of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Pascual, P M; Santos-Lleó, M; Rodriguez-Pascual, Pedro M.; Santos-Lleo, Maria

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed new and archival IUE observations of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) in order to revise the ultraviolet (UV) properties of this sub-group of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We have found broad wings in the strongest UV emission lines, ruling out the hypothesis that there is no broad line emission region in this type of objects. Since the similarities in spectral energy distributions from the far-infrared (FIR) to the soft X rays in both narrow-line and broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies do not suggest that the nuclei of NLS1 are hidden from a direct view, we discuss the possibility that the line emitting material in NLS1 is optically thin.

  4. The case for inflow of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskell, C Martin

    2015-01-01

    The high-ionization lines of the broad-line region (BLR) of thermal active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show blueshifts of a few hundred km/s to several thousand km/sec with respect to the low-ionization lines. This has long been thought to be due to the high-ionization lines of the BLR arising in a wind of which the far side of the outflow is blocked from our view by the accretion disc. Evidence for and against the disc-wind model is discussed. The biggest problem for the model is that velocity-resolved reverberation mapping repeatedly fails to show the expected kinematic signature of outflow of the BLR. The disc-wind model also cannot readily reproduce the red side of the line profiles of high-ionization lines. The rapidly falling density in an outflow makes it difficult to obtain high equivalent widths. We point out a number of major problems with associating the BLR with the outflows producing broad absorption lines. An explanation which avoids all these problems and satisfies the constraints of both the line p...

  5. The absorptive line shape of hadronic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar

    1977-01-01

    The exact line shape for all energies is derived analytically in the limit of negligible nuclear dimensions. The shape deviates from the Breit-Wigner form. The high-energy tail of the line has a universal shape, independent of the absorptive strength. The tails are different for different initial states, however. The integrated line strength diverges logarithmically. Renormalization of the hadron wavefunction by strong interactions leads to the usual shape near resonance and restores convergence for very large energies. The results resolve a logical inconsistency in the normal analysis of hadronic atoms and are of practical importance. It is shown that bound hadronic states (e.g. Y/sub 0/*) give natural contributions in the high energy region. Numerical illustrations are given. (6 refs).

  6. The broad Fe K line profile in NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Wang, T; Wang, Junxian.; Zhou, Youyuan.; Wang, Tinggui.

    1999-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Fe K line profile of NGC 4151 by using long ASCA observation data obtained in May 1995. The unprecedented good data quality, which is much better in the energy band around 6.4 keV than that of the famous 4.2-day ASCA observation of MCG -6-30-15 in July 1994, offers a unique opportunity to study the details of Fe K line profile. Apart from those characteristics already noticed in earlier ASCA observations on this object (Yaqoob et al. 1995): a broad and skewed profile, with a strong peak at about 6.4 keV and a large red wing extending to $\\sim$4 - 5 keV, which is remarkably similar to that of MCG -6-30-15, we also find a weak blue wing extending to about 8 keV, thanks to the good quality of the data. When fitted by a relativistic accretion disk line plus a narrow core at 6.4 keV, the data constrain the accretion disk to be nearly face-on, contrary to the edge-on geometry inferred from optical and UV observations. However, the extended blue wing can not be well fitted even after we...

  7. The Broad Line Radio Galaxy J2114+820

    CERN Document Server

    Lara, L; Cotton, W D; Feretti, L; Giovannini, G; Marcaide, J M; Venturi, T

    1998-01-01

    In the frame of the study of a new sample of large angular size radio galaxies selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey, we have made radio observations of J2114+820, a low power radio galaxy with an angular size of 6'. Its radio structure basically consists of a prominent core, a jet directed in north-west direction and two extended S-shaped lobes. We have also observed the optical counterpart of J2114+820, a bright elliptical galaxy with a strong unresolved central component. The optical spectrum shows broad emission lines. This fact, together with its low radio power and FR-I type morphology, renders J2114+820 a non-trivial object from the point of view of the current unification schemes of radio loud active galactic nuclei.

  8. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  9. Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies: where are the broad line regions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A sample consisting of 211 narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) with high quality spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is selected to explore where broad line regions are in these objects. We find that the Hβ profile can be fitted well by three (narrow, intermediate and broad) Gaussian components, and the FWHM ratios of the broad to the intermediate components hold a constant of 3.0 roughly for the entire sample. If the broad components originate from the region scaled by the well-determined Hβ reverberation mapping relation, we find that the intermediate components originate from the inner edge of the torus, which is scaled by dust K-band reverberation. We find that the IC and the BC are strongly linked dynamically, but the relation of their covering factors is much more relaxed, implying that both regions are clumpy.

  10. Are Seyfert 2 Galaxies without Polarized Broad Emission Lines More Obscured?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wen Shu; Jun-Xian Wang; Peng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    New XMM-Newton data of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies with optical spectropolarimet- ric observations are presented. An analysis of the 0.5 - 10 keV spectra shows that four Seyfert 2 galaxies with polarized broad lines (PBLs) are absorbed by NH < 1024 cm-2, while two of three Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs show evidence of Compton-thick obscuration, support- ing the conclusion that Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs are more obscured than those with PBLs. Adding the measured obscuration indicators (NH, T ratio, and Fe Kα line EW) of six luminous AGNs to our previous sample improves the significance level of the difference in absorption from 92.3% to 96.3% for NH, 99.1% to 99.4% for T ratio, and 95.3% to 97.4% for Fe Kα line EW. The present results support and enhance the suggestions that the absence of PBLs in Seyfert 2 galaxies can be explained by larger viewing angles of the line of sight to the putative dusty torus, which leads to the obscuration of the broad-line scattering screen, as expected in the unification model.

  11. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B. [ITER-India, IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States); Ellis, R. F. [Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  12. Unveiling the broad band X-ray continuum and iron line complex in Mkr 841

    CERN Document Server

    Petrucci, P O; Matt, G; Longinotti, A L; Malzac, J; Mouchet, M; Boisson, C; Maraschi, L; Nandra, K; Ferrando, P

    2007-01-01

    Mkr 841 is a bright Seyfert 1 galaxy known to harbor a strong soft excess and a variable K$\\alpha$ iron line. It has been observed during 3 different periods by XMM for a total cumulated exposure time of $\\sim$108 ks. We present in this paper a broad band spectral analysis of the complete EPIC-pn data sets. We were able to test two different models for the soft excess, a relativistically blurred photoionized reflection (\\r model) and a relativistically smeared ionized absorption (\\a model). The continuum is modeled by a simple cut-off power law and we also add a neutral reflection. These observations reveal the extreme and puzzling spectral and temporal behaviors of the soft excess and iron line. The 0.5-3 keV soft X-ray flux decreases by a factor 3 between 2001 and 2005 and the line shape appears to be a mixture of broad and narrow components. We succeed in describing this complex broad-band 0.5-10 keV spectral variability using either \\r or \\a to fit the soft excess. Both models give statistically equivalen...

  13. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Krumpe, Mirko; Coil, Alison L

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN/galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews the large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss re...

  14. 26. 13-MHz absorption line toward Cassiopeia A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, A.A.; Sodin, L.G.

    1981-07-01

    New observations confirm that the 26.13-MHz absorption line previously detected in the direction toward the radio source Cas A represents a carbon recombination line, not a hyperfine-structure nitrogen line. Some relevant implications are discussed.

  15. Line shape variability in a sample of AGN with broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, D; Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kovacevica, A

    2015-01-01

    The spectral variability of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is one of their key features that enables us to study in more details the structure of AGN emitting regions. Especially, the broad line profiles, that vary both in flux and shape, give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. We give here a comparative review of the line shape variability in a sample of five type 1 AGN, those with broad emission lines in their spectra, of the data obtained from the international long-term optical monitoring campaign coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. The main aim of this campaign is to study the physics and kinematics of the BLR on a uniform data set, focusing on the problems of the photoionization heating of the BLR and its geometry, where in this paper we give for a first time a comparative analysis of the variabilty of five type 1 AGN, discussing their complex BLR physics and ...

  16. Probing Quasar Outflows with Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, T; Charlton, J C; Ganguly, R; Tytler, D; Kirkman, D; Suzuki, N; Lubin, D

    2006-01-01

    We present statistical and monitoring results of narrow absorption lines that are physically related to quasars (i.e., intrinsic NALs). We use Keck/HIRES spectra of 37 optically bright quasars at z=2-4, and identify 150 NAL systems that contain 124 C IV, 12 N V, and 50 Si IV doublets. Among them, 39 are classified as intrinsic systems based on partial coverage analysis. At least 50% of quasars host intrinsic NALs. We identify two families of intrinsic systems based on their ionization state. Some intrinsic systems have detectable low-ionization NALs at similar velocities as higher-ionization NALs, although such low-ionization lines are rare in broad absorption line (BAL) systems. We also have observed an optically bright quasar, HS1603+3820, eight times with Subaru/HDS and HET/MRS over an interval of 4.2 years (1.2 years in the quasar rest frame), for the purpose of monitoring a variable C IV mini-BAL system. We find that all the troughs of the system vary in concert. However, no other correlations are seen b...

  17. Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmasov, Pavel; Poutanen, Juri

    2016-09-01

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Lyα and He II Lyα. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher-order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of the gamma-ray source. We show that when the gamma-ray source moves further from the central source, all the absorption details move to higher energies and the overall level of absorption drops because of decreasing incidence angles between the gamma-rays and BLR photons. The observed positions of the spectral breaks can be used to measure the geometry and the location of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR. Strong dependence on geometry means that the soft photons dominating the pair-production opacity may be actually produced by a different population of BLR clouds than the bulk of the observed broad line emission.

  18. Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmasov, Pavel; Poutanen, Juri

    2017-01-01

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Ly α and He II Ly α. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of the gamma-ray source. We show that when the gamma-ray source moves further from the central source, all the absorption details move to higher energies and the overall level of absorption drops because of decreasing incidence angles between the gamma-rays and BLR photons. The observed positions of the spectral breaks can be used to measure the geometry and the location of the gamma-ray emitting region relative to the BLR. Strong dependence on geometry means that the soft photons dominating the pair-production opacity may be actually produced by a different population of BLR clouds than the bulk of the observed broad line emission.

  19. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katskov, Dmitri, E-mail: katskovda@tut.ac.za [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hlongwane, Miranda [Tshwane University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Heitmann, Uwe [German Aerospace Center, Rose-Luxemburg Str. 2, 10178 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS-Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New calculation algorithm for HR-CS ET AAS measurements was proposed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggested formulas include two parameters to be determined experimentally. Black

  20. Are cold flows detectable with metal absorption lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien; Pichon, Christophe

    2011-05-01

    Cosmological simulations have shown that dark matter haloes are connected to each other by large-scale filamentary structures. Cold gas flowing within this ‘cosmic web’ is believed to be an important source of fuel for star formation at high redshift. However, the presence of such filamentary gas has never been observationally confirmed despite the fact that its covering fraction within massive haloes at high redshift is predicted to be significant (˜25 per cent). In this Letter, we investigate in detail whether such cold gas is detectable using low-ionization metal absorption lines, such as C IIλ1334, as this technique has a proven observational record for detecting gaseous structures. Using a large statistical sample of galaxies from the MARENOSTRUM N-body+ adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulation, we find that the typical covering fraction of the dense, cold gas in 1012 M⊙ haloes at z˜ 2.5 is lower than expected (˜5 per cent). In addition, the absorption signal by the interstellar medium of the galaxy itself turns out to be so deep and so broad in velocity space that it completely drowns that of the filamentary gas. A detectable signal might be obtained from a cold filament exactly aligned with the line of sight, but this configuration is so unlikely that it would require surveying an overwhelmingly large number of candidate galaxies to tease it out. Finally, the predicted metallicity of the cold gas in filaments is extremely low (≤10-3 Z⊙). If this result persists when higher resolution runs are performed, it would significantly increase the difficulty of detecting filamentary gas inflows using metal lines. However, even if we assume that filaments are enriched to Z⊙, the absorption signal that we compute is still weak. We are therefore led to conclude that it is extremely difficult to observationally prove or disprove the presence of cold filaments as the favourite accretion mode of galaxies using low-ionization metal absorption

  1. Ultranarrow absorptive spectral line induced by microwave field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zheng-Feng; Ma Yi-Sheng; Deng Jian-Liao; He Hui-Juan; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the absorptive spectral lines of four-level atomic system driven by a coupling, probe and microwave fields. Due to the perturbation of the microwave field, the original electromagnetically induced transparency is changed to electromagnetically induced absorption and the absorptive spectral line can be very narrow. This ultranarrow spectral line has potential applications to the microwave atomic frequency standard and the measurement of very weak magnetic field.

  2. Are cold flows detectable with metal absorption lines?

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Pichon, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] Cold gas flowing within the "cosmic web" is believed to be an important source of fuel for star formation at high redshift. However, the presence of such filamentary gas has never been observationally confirmed. In this work, we investigate in detail whether such cold gas is detectable using low-ionisation metal absorption lines, such as CII \\lambda1334 as this technique has a proven observational record for detecting gaseous structures. Using a large statistical sample of galaxies from the Mare Nostrum N-body+AMR cosmological simulation, we find that the typical covering fraction of the dense, cold gas in 10^12 Msun haloes at z~2.5 is lower than expected (~5%). In addition, the absorption signal by the interstellar medium of the galaxy itself turns out to be so deep and so broad in velocity space that it completely drowns that of the filamentary gas. A detectable signal might be obtained from a cold filament exactly aligned with the line of sight, but this configuration is so unlikely that it woul...

  3. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ofengeim, Dmitrii; Ivanchik, Aleksandr; Kaminker, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in formation of an absorption-line system in the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the H$_2$ {absorption} systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of H$_2$ absorption system in the spectrum of Q~1232+082 (Ivanchik et al. 2010, Balashev et al. 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about $11\\%$. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed H$_2$ absorption systems can ...

  4. Interpreting broad emission-line variations I : Factors influencing the emission-line response

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the measured broad emission-line responsivity dlog f_line/dlog f_cont to continuum variations in the context of straw-man BLR geometries of varying size with fixed BLR boundaries, and for which the intrinsic emission-line responsivity is known a priori. We find for a generic emission-line that the measured responsivity, delay and maximum of the cross-correlation function are correlated for characteristic continuum variability timescales T_char less than the maximum delay for that line tau_max(line) for a particular choice of BLR geometry and observer orientation. The above correlations are manifestations of geometric dilution arising from reverberation effects within the spatially extended BLR. When present, geometric dilution reduces the measured responsivity, delay and maximum of the cross-correlation function. We also find that the measured responsivity and delay show a strong dependence on light-curve duration, with shorter campaigns resulting in smaller than expected val...

  5. Experimental demonstration of terahertz metamaterial absorbers with a broad and flat high absorption band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Ramani, Suchitra; Reiten, Matthew T; Luo, Sheng-Nian; Taylor, Antoinette J; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2012-01-15

    We present the design, numerical simulations and experimental measurements of terahertz metamaterial absorbers with a broad and flat absorption top over a wide incidence angle range for either transverse electric or transverse magnetic polarization depending on the incident direction. The metamaterial absorber unit cell consists of two sets of structures resonating at different but close frequencies. The overall absorption spectrum is the superposition of individual components and becomes flat at the top over a significant bandwidth. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  6. Correlation between radio and broad-line emissions in radio-loud quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, X; Cao, Xinwu

    1999-01-01

    Radio emission is a good indicator of the jet power of radio-loud quasars, while the emission in broad-line can well represent the accretion disc radiation in quasars. We compile a sample of all sources of which the broad-line fluxes are available from 1 Jy, S4 and S5 radio source catalogues. A correlation between radio and broad-line emission for this sample of radio-loud quasars is presented, which is in favour of a close link between the accretion processes and the relativistic jets. The BL Lac objects seem to follow the statistical behaviour of the quasars, but with fainter broad-line emission.

  7. An XMM-Newton survey of broad iron lines in AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Nandra, K; George, I M; Reeves, J N; Turner, T J

    2006-01-01

    We report on the iron K-alpha line properties of a sample of Seyfert galaxies observed with the XMM-Newton EPIC pn instrument. Using a systematic and uniform analysis, we find that complexity at iron-K is extremely common in the XMM spectra. Once appropriate soft X-ray absorption, narrow 6.4 keV emission and associated Compton reflection are accounted for, ~75 of the sample show an improvement when a further Gaussian component is introduced. The typical properties of the broad emission are both qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with previous results from ASCA. The complexity is in general very well described by relativistic accretion disk models. In most cases the characteristic emission radius is constrained to be within ~50 R_g, where strong gravitational effects become important. We find in about 1/3 of the sample the accretion disk interpretation is strongly favoured over competing models. In a few objects no broad line is apparent. We find evidence for emission within 6 R_g in only two cases, b...

  8. Dependence of the broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line on the physical parameters of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Zhu; Lu, Youjun; Carrera, Francisco J; Falocco, Serena; Dong, Xiao-Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dependence of the broad Fe K$\\alpha$ line on the physical parameters of AGN, such as the black hole mass $M_{BH}$, accretion rate (equivalently represented by Eddington ratio $\\lambda_{Edd}$), and optical classification, is investigated by applying the X-ray spectra stacking method to a large sample of AGN which have well measured optical parameters. A broad line feature is detected ($>3\\sigma$) in the stacked spectra of the high $\\lambda_{Edd}$ sub-sample ($\\log\\lambda_{Edd}>-0.9$). The profile of the broad line can be well fitted with relativistic broad line model, with the line energy consistent with highly ionized Fe K$\\alpha$ line (i.e. Fe xxvi). A model consisting of multiple narrow lines cannot be ruled out, however. We found hints that the Fe K line becomes broader as the $\\lambda_{Edd}$ increases. No broad line feature is shown in the sub-sample of broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies and in the full sample, while a broad line might be present, though at low significance, in the su...

  9. Emission and absorption lines of gamma-ray bursts affected by the relativistic motion of fireball ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Y P

    2003-01-01

    We display by numerical calculation how rest frame spectral lines appear in the observed spectrum of gamma-ray bursts due to the Doppler effect in the fireball framework. The analysis shows that: a) in the spectrum of a relativistically expanding fireball, all rest frame lines would shift to higher energy bands and would be significantly smoothed; b) rest frame weak narrow emission lines as well as narrow absorption lines and absorption line forests would be smoothed and would hardly be detectable; c) the features of rest frame broad emission lines as well as both strong and weak broad absorption lines would remain almost unchanged and therefore would be easier to detect; d) deep gaps caused by rest frame broad absorption lines would be significantly filled; e) a rest frame emission line forest would form a single broad line feature; f) the observed relative width of the rest frame very narrow line would approach $ 0.162$; g) when the Lorentz factor $\\Gamma $ is large enough, the observed line frequency $\

  10. Anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line in the magnetospheric device RT-1

    CERN Document Server

    Kawazura, Yohei; Yoshida, Zensho; Nishiura, Masaki; Nogami, Tomoaki; Kashyap, Ankur; Yano, Yoshihisa; Saitoh, Haruhiko; Yamasaki, Miyuri; Mushiake, Toshiki; Nakatsuka, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    Temperature anisotropy in broad component of H$\\alpha$ line was found in the ring trap 1 (RT-1) device by Doppler spectroscopy. Since hot hydrogen neutrals emitting a broad component are mainly produced by charge exchange between neutrals and protons, the anisotropy in the broad component is the evidence of proton temperature anisotropy generated by betatron acceleration.

  11. Broad emission lines variability: a window into the heart of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Dragana; Popovic, Luka C.; Shapovalova, Alla I.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A.; Kollatschny, W.; Kovacevic, A.

    2016-08-01

    The broad emission lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known to vary both in flux and shape, and are often showing very complex line profiles. They can give us invaluable information about the kinematics and geometry of the broad line region (BLR) where these lines are originating from. The BLR is close to the supermassive black hole in AGN and may hold basic information about the formation and fueling of AGN.Here we summarize the results of the line and continuum variability of a sample of broad line AGN, obtained with the long-term optical monitoring campaign performed with telescopes of SAO (Russia), OAGH and OAN-SPM (Mexico), and Calar Alto (Spain). We monitored different type of broad line AGN (double-peaked, radio loud and radio quiet, NLSy1 and a supermassive binary black hole candidate) which show different variability characteristics that can be explained by different physical properties in BLR.

  12. The XMM-Newton View of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 120

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R; Iwasawa, K

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a 127 ks XMM-Newton observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 120 performed simultaneously with RXTE. The time-averaged spectrum is Seyfert-like, with a reflection amplitude R ~ 0.5, and a neutral Fe K line with equivalent width ~53 eV. The line is slightly broadened with a FWHM$\\approx 10^4$ km s$^{-1}$. This is consistent with arising from an accretion disc radius of $\\ga 75$ $GM/c^2$ at an inclination angle of ~10 degrees, consistent with the limit of < 14 degree derived from the radio jets. At low energies the spectrum requires excess absorption above the Galactic value and a soft excess which is best fit with a bremsstrahlung model (kT=0.3-0.4 keV). The total luminosity in the bremsstrahlung component is just under half of the total hard X-ray luminosity. Weak O VII and O VIII edges are detected with high precision, suggesting the presence of a warm absorber component. A two-component ionized disc model, with a very highly ionized reflector presumably arising from very cl...

  13. Microlensing of the broad line region in 17 lensed quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sluse, D; Courbin, F; Meylan, G; Wambsganss, J

    2012-01-01

    When an image of a strongly lensed quasar is microlensed, the different components of its spectrum are expected to be differentially magnified owing to the different sizes of the corresponding emitting region. Chromatic changes are expected to be observed in the continuum while the emission lines should be deformed as a function of the size, geometry and kinematics of the regions from which they originate. Microlensing of the emission lines has been reported only in a handful of systems so far. In this paper we search for microlensing deformations of the optical spectra of pairs of images in 17 lensed quasars. This sample is composed of 13 pairs of previously unpublished spectra and four pairs of spectra from literature. Our analysis is based on a spectral decomposition technique which allows us to isolate the microlensed fraction of the flux independently of a detailed modeling of the quasar emission lines. Using this technique, we detect microlensing of the continuum in 85% of the systems. Among them, 80% s...

  14. Bloated stars as agn broad line clouds the emission line spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Tal Alexander; Hagai Netzer

    1994-01-01

    The `Bloated Stars Scenario' proposes that AGN broad line emission originates in the winds or envelopes of bloated stars (BS). Its main advantage over BLR cloud models is the gravitational confinement of the gas and its major difficulty the large estimated number of BSs and resulting high mass loss rate. We calculate the emission line spectrum by a detailed numerical photoionization code for a wide range of wind structures and a detailed QSO nucleus model with L(ion)=7E45 erg/s, M(bh)=8E7 Mo. The size and boundary density of the BS wind are determined by various processes: Comptonization by the central continuum source, calculated self consistently, tidal disruption by the black hole and the limit set by the wind's finite mass. We find that the emission spectrum is mainly determined by the conditions at the boundary of the line emitting fraction of the wind rather than by its internal structure. Comptonization results in very high ionization parameters at the boundary which produces an excess of unobserved br...

  15. The ASCA X-Ray Spectrum Of The Broad-Line Radio Galaxy Pictor A A Simple Power Law With No Fe K-$\\alpha$ Line

    CERN Document Server

    Eracleous, M; Eracleous, Michael; Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    We present the X-ray spectrum of the broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A as observed by ASCA in 1996. The main objective of the observation was to detect and study the profiles of the Fe~K$\\alpha$ lines. The motivation was the fact that the Balmer lines of this object show well-separated displaced peaks, suggesting an origin in an accretion disk. The 0.5-10 keV X-ray spectrum is described very well by a model consisting of a power law of photon index 1.77 modified by interstellar photoelectric absorption. We find evidence for neither a soft nor a hard (Compton reflection) excess. More importantly, we do not detect an Fe K-alpha line, in marked contrast with the spectra of typical Seyfert galaxies and other broad-line radio galaxies observed by ASCA. The 99%-confidence upper limit on the equivalent width of an unresolved line at a rest energy of 6.4 keV is 100 eV, while for a broad line (FWHM of approximately 60,000 km/s) the corresponding upper limit is 135 eV. We discuss several possible explanations for the we...

  16. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  17. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  18. A ghostly damped Ly α system revealed by metal absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathivavsari, H.; Petitjean, P.; Zou, S.; Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Krühler, T.; Srianand, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of the first 'ghostly' damped Ly α absorption system (DLA), which is identified by the presence of absorption from strong low-ion species at zabs = 1.704 65 along the line of sight to the quasar SDSS J113341.29-005740.0 with zem = 1.704 41. No Ly α absorption trough is seen associated with these absorptions because the DLA trough is filled with the leaked emission from the broad emission-line region of the quasar. By modelling the quasar spectrum and analysing the metal lines, we derive log N(H I)(cm-2) ∼21.0 ± 0.3. The DLA cloud is small (≤0.32 pc), thus not covering entirely the broad-line region and is located at ≥39 pc from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Although the DLA is slightly redshifted relative to the quasar, its metallicity ([S/H] = -0.41 ± 0.30) is intermediate between what is expected from infalling and outflowing gas. It could be possible that the DLA is part of some infalling material accreting on to the quasar host galaxy through filaments, and that its metallicity is raised by mixing with the enriched outflowing gas emanating from the central AGN. Current DLA surveys miss these 'ghostly' DLAs, and it would be important to quantify the statistics of this population by searching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base using metal absorption templates.

  19. Broad iron L-line and X-ray reverberation in 1H0707-495

    CERN Document Server

    Zoghbi, A; Uttley, P; Miniutti, G; Gallo, L; Reynolds, C; Miller, J; Ponti, G

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of a long XMM-Newton observation of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H0707-495 is presented, including spectral fitting, spectral variability and timing studies. The two main features in the spectrum are the drop at ~ 7 keV and a complex excess below 1 keV. These are well described by two broad, K and L, iron lines. Alternative models based on absorption, although they may fit the high energy drop, cannot account for the 1 keV complexity and the spectrum as a whole. Spectral variability shows that the spectrum is composed of at least two components, which are interpreted as a power-law dominating between 1-4 keV, and a reflection component outside this range. The high count rate at the iron L energies has enabled us to measure a significant soft lag of ~ 30 s between 0.3-1 and 1-4 keV, meaning that the direct hard emission leads the reflected emissions. We interpret the lag as a reverberation signal originating within a few gravitational radii of the black hole.

  20. Gamma-ray opacity of the anisotropic stratified broad-line regions in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The GeV-range spectra of blazars are shaped not only by non-thermal emission processes internal to the relativistic jet but also by external pair-production absorption on the thermal emission of the accretion disc and the broad-line region (BLR). For the first time, we compute here the pair-production opacities in the GeV range produced by a realistic BLR accounting for the radial stratification and radiation anisotropy. Using photoionization modelling with the CLOUDY code, we calculate a series of BLR models of different sizes, geometries, cloud densities, column densities and metallicities. The strongest emission features in the model BLR are Ly$\\alpha$ and HeII Ly$\\alpha$. Contribution of recombination continua is smaller, especially for hydrogen, because Ly continuum is efficiently trapped inside the large optical depth BLR clouds and converted to Lyman emission lines and higher-order recombination continua. The largest effects on the gamma-ray opacity are produced by the BLR geometry and localization of ...

  1. Properties of Broad Band Continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a statistical study of the properties of the broadband continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by collecting ratio,infrared, optical and X-ray continuum data from various databases and comparedthe results with control samples of Broad Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLSls). We findthat the fraction (~ 6%) of Radio Loud (RL) NLSls is significantly less than thatof BLS1s (~ 13%), which is caused by the lack of radio-very-loud sources in theformer. The rarity of RL NLS1s, especially radio-very-loud ones, is consistent withthe scenario of small black hole and high accretion rate for NLSls. Six new radio loudNLSls are found and five RL NLS1 candidates are presented. In comparison withthe BLS1s, the NLS1s tend to have stronger far infrared emission, cooler infraredcolors and redder B- K color, which suggests that NLS1s are hosted by dust-richernuclei. The NLS1s also show steeper soft X-ray spectrum and large soft X-rayto optical flux ratio, while a significant fraction show fiat soft X-ray spectra. Atleast two factors can account for this, absorption and spectral variability. We alsoperform a correlation analysis between various broad band data. It is found thatmost correlations identified for NLS1s are also valid for radio quiet BLS1s: (1) theoptical colors are anti-correlated with X-ray spectral index; (2) higher optical, X-ray and NIR luminosity objects show bluer optical colors and red H - K color; (3)higher luminosity objects show warmer IRAS color; (4) the radio loudness correlateswith B - K and X-ray to optical flux ratio. Radio loud objects behave somewhatdifferently in a few correlations.

  2. A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler utilizing composite right/left-handed transmission lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; HU Li; HE Sai-ling

    2005-01-01

    A tunable dual-broad-band branch-line coupler (BLC) utilizing composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission lines is presented. Two λ/4 segments consisting of CRLH transmission lines are added to each port to broaden the dual bands of the branch-line coupler. Numerical simulation and optimal design of the novel coupler are presented. The dual bands of the novel coupler are tunable and broad. The 1-dB bandwidth of each passband is more than 16% of the central frequency.

  3. Are broad optical balmer lines from central accretion disk in PG 1613+658?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report positive correlations between broad line width and broad line flux for the broad balmer lines of the long-term observed AGN PG 1613+658. Rather than the expected negative correlations under the widely accepted virialization assumption for AGN BLRs, the positive correlations indicate much different BLR structures of PG 1613+658 from the commonly considered BLR structures which are dominated by the equilibrium between radiation pressure and gas pressure. Therefore, accretion disk origin is preferred for the observed broad single-peaked optical balmer lines of PG 1613+658, because of the mainly gravity dominated disk-like BLRs with radial structures having few effects from radiation pressure.

  4. Quasar Absorption Lines and SDSS Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Scott, Jennifer E.; Oldak, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the sightlines of 45 low redshift quasars (0.06 COS that lie within the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use both the SDSS DR12 galaxy photometric data, including photometric redshifts, and the measured properties of the absorbers along with the known absorption characteristics of the intergalactic medium and the circumgalactic medium of galaxies to assign the most probable galaxy matches for each absorber in the sample, using estimated galaxy luminosities and virial radii as a discriminator. We show that the scheme can recover known galaxy-absorber matches found from spectroscopic data and thus provides a method for identifying likely pairs in photometric data sets as well as targets for spectroscopic follow up.

  5. Spectral optical monitoring of the double peaked emission line AGN Arp 102B: II. Variability of the broad line properties

    CERN Document Server

    Popovic, L C; Ilic, D; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Valdes, J R; Leon-Tavares, J; Bochkarev, N G; Patino-Alvarez, V; Torrealba, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a long-term (26 years, from 1987 to 2013) variability in the broad spectral line properties of the radio galaxy Arp 102B, an active galaxy with broad double-peaked emission lines. We use observations presented in Paper I (Shapovalova et al. 2013) in the period from 1987 to 2011, and a new set of observations performed in 2012--2013. To explore the BLR geometry, and clarify some contradictions about the nature of the BLR in Arp 102B we explore variations in the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line parameters during the monitored period. We fit the broad lines with three broad Gaussian functions finding the positions and intensities of the blue and red peaks in H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$. Additionally we fit averaged line profiles with the disc model. We find that the broad line profiles are double-peaked and have not been changed significantly in shapes, beside an additional small peak that, from time to time can be seen in the blue part of the H$\\alpha$ line. The positions of the blue and red peaks { have n...

  6. A ghostly damped Ly$\\alpha$ system revealed by metal absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fathivavsari, Hassan; Zou, Siwei; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Ledoux, Cédric; Krühler, Thomas; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first 'ghostly' damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorption system (DLA), which is identified by the presence of absorption from strong low-ion species at $z_{\\rm abs}=1.70465$ along the line of sight to the quasar SDSSJ113341.29$-$005740.0 with $z_{\\rm em}=1.70441$. No Ly$\\alpha$ absorption trough is seen associated with these absorptions because the DLA trough is filled with the leaked emission from the broad emission line region of the quasar. By modeling the quasar spectrum and analyzing the metal lines, we derive log$N$(HI)(cm$^{-2}$)$\\sim$21.0 $\\pm$ 0.3. The DLA cloud is small ($\\le$ 0.32 pc) thus not covering entirely the broad line region and is located at $\\ge$ 39 pc from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). Although the DLA is slightly redshifted relative to the quasar, its metallicity ([S/H]=$-$0.41$\\pm$0.30) is intermediate between what is expected from infalling and outflowing gas. It could be possible that the DLA is part of some infalling material accreting onto the quasar...

  7. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Pa alpha and Pa beta, and find that it scales with the ionising continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionisation theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution ...

  8. The soft X-ray absorption lines of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG--6-30-15

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, A K; Lee, J C; Vaughan, S

    2004-01-01

    The absorption lines in the soft X-ray spectrum of MCG--6-30-15 are studied using the Reflection Grating Spectrometer data from the 2001 XMM-Newton 320 ks observation. A line search of the full time-averaged spectrum reveals 51 absorption lines and one emission line. The equivalent widths of the lines are measured and the majority of the lines identified. We find lines produced by a broad range of charge states for several elements, including almost all the charge states oxygen and iron, suggesting a broad range of ionization parameters is present in the warm absorber. The equivalent widths of the lines are broadly consistent with the best fitting warm absorber models from Turner et al (2003). The equivalent widths of the absorption lines allow confidence limits on the column density of the species to be determined. For OVII a column density of 10^18.36-10^18.86 cm^-2 is found. This column density of OVII, when combined with the inferred FeI absorption, is sufficient to explain the drop in flux at 0.7 keV as ...

  9. The complex circumnuclear environment of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 revealed by Chandra HETG

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Kallman, T; Reynolds, C S; Mushotzky, R F; Braito, V; Behar, E; Leutenegger, M A; Cappi, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution X-ray observation of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 obtained with the high energy transmission grating (HETG) spectrometer on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The spectrum shows complex emission and absorption features in both the soft X-rays and Fe K band. We detect emission and absorption lines in the energy range between E = 700-1000 eV associated with ionized Fe L transitions (Fe XVII-XX). An emission line at the energy of E=6.4 keV consistent with the Fe K\\alpha is also observed. Our best-fit model requires at least three different components: (i) a hot emission component likely associated with the hot interstellar medium in this elliptical galaxy with temperature kT=0.5+/-0.1 keV; (ii) a warm absorber with ionization parameter log\\xi=2.3+/-0.5 erg s^{-1} cm, column density logN_H=20.7+/-0.1 cm^{-2}, and outflow velocity of v_{out}<150 km s^{-1}; (iii) a lowly ionized reflection component in the Fe K band likely associated with the optical broad ...

  10. Broad Line Region Physical Conditions along the Quasar Eigenvector 1 Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Negrete, C A; Dultzin, D; Zamfir, S; Bachev, R

    2010-01-01

    [Abridged] We compare broad emission line profiles and estimate line ratios for all major emission lines between Ly-alpha and H-beta in a sample of six quasars. The sources were chosen with two criteria in mind: the existence of high quality optical and UV spectra as well as the possibility to sample the spectroscopic diversity in the 4D Eigenvector 1 context . In the latter sense each source occupies a region (bin) in the FWHM(H-beta) vs. optical FeII strength plane that is significantly different from the others. High S/N H-beta emission line profiles are used as templates for modeling the other lines (Ly-alpha, CIV 1549, HeII 1640, Al III 1860, Si III] 1892, and Mg II 2800). We can adequately model all broad lines assuming the existence of three components distinguished by blueshifted, unshifted and redshifted centroids (indicated as blue, broad and very broad component respectively). The broad component (high electron density, low ionization parameter; high column density) is present in almost all type-1 ...

  11. The FRII Broad Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy: PKSJ 1037-2705

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian; Tingay, Steven; Gutierrez, Carlos M; Rasmussen, Jesper; Colbert, Ed

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that PKSJ 1037-2705 has a weak accretion flow luminosity, well below the Seyfert1/QSO dividing line, weak broad emission lines (BELs) and moderately powerful FRII extended radio emission. It is one of the few documented examples of a broad-line object in which the time averaged jet kinetic luminosity, $\\bar{Q}$, is larger than the total thermal luminosity (IR to X-ray) of the accretion flow, $L_{bol}$. The blazar nucleus dominates the optical and near ultraviolet emission and is a strong source of hard X-rays. The strong blazar emission indicates that the relativistic radio jet is presently active. The implication is that even weakly accreting AGN can create powerful jets. Kinetically dominated ($\\bar{Q}>L_{bol}$) broad-line objects provide important constraints on the relationship between the accretion flow and the jet production mechanism.

  12. Discovery of ultra-fast outflows in a sample of Broad Line Radio Galaxies observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Tombesi, F; Reeves, J N; Braito, V; Ballo, L; Gofford, J; Cappi, M; Mushotzky, R F

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright Broad-Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs) observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time at X-rays in radio-loud AGN, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely 3C 111, 3C 120 and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blue-shifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photo-ionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log_xi~4-5.6 and column densities of N_H~10^22-10^23 cm^-2. These characteristics are very similar to those of the Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGN. Their estimated location within ~0.01-0.3pc from the central super-mass...

  13. Hints of Correlations Between Broad-Line and Radio Variations for AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H T; Feng, H C; Li, S K

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the issue of correlation between broad-line and radio variations under a spherical broad-line region (BLR), and attempt to locate the position of radio (and gamma-ray) emitting region in jet of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Considering the radial profiles of the radius and number density of clouds in the spherical BLR, we have deduced new formulae connecting the radio emitting position $R_{\\rm{jet}}$ to the time lags $\\tau_{\\rm{ob}}$ between broad-line and radio variations, and the BLR inner and outer radii. The new formulae are applied to broad-line radio-loud Fermi-LAT AGNs, 3C 273 and 3C 120. For 3C 273, a common feature of negative time lags is found in the cross-correlation functions between light curves of radio emission and the Balmer lines, and as well Ly$\\alpha$ $\\lambda 1216$ and C IV $\\lambda 1549$ lines. $R_{\\rm{jet}}=$ 1.0--2.6 parsec (pc) are obtained from the time lags of the Balmer lines. For 3C 120, positive lags of about 0.3 yr are found between the 15 GHz...

  14. Diagnostics for the structure of AGNs’broad line regions with reverberation mapping data:confirmation of the two-component broad line region model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the ten Reverberation Mapping(RM) sources with public data based on the two-component model of the Broad Line Region(BLR).In fitting their broad Hβ Mlines,six of them only need one Gaussian component,one of them has a double-peak profile,one has an irregular profile,and only two of them need two components,i.e.,a Very Broad Gaussian Component(VBGC) and an Inter-Mediate Gaussian Component(IMGC).The Gaussian components are assumed to come from two distinct regions in the two-component model;they are the Very Broad Line Region(VBLR) and the Inter-Mediate Line region(IMLR).The two sources with a two-component profile are Mrk 509 and NGC 4051.The time lags of the two components of both sources satisfy tIMLR/tVBLR=V 2VBLR/V 2IMLR,where tIMLR and tVBLR are the lags of the two components while VIMLR and VVBLR represent the mean gas velocities of the two regions,supporting the two-component model of the BLR of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGNs).The fact that most of these ten sources only have the VBGC confirms the assumption that RM mainly measures the radius of the VBLR;consequently,the radius obtained from the R-L relationship mainly represents the radius of VBLR.Moreover,NGC 4051,with a lag of about 5 days in the one component model,is an outlier on the R-L relationship as shown in Kaspi et al.(2005);however this problem disappears in our two-component model with lags of about 2 and 6 days for the VBGC and IMGC,respectively.

  15. Interaction Between The Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, D; Crabtree, K N; Foster, J B; Soderberg, A M; Fesen, R A; Parrent, J T; Sanders, N E; Drout, M R; Kamble, A; Chakraborti, S; Pickering, T E; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Filippenko, A V; Kirshner, R P; Mazzali, P; Maeda, K; Marion, G H; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond with electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (~30 days) timescales. The 4428 and 6283 Angstrom DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 Angstrom feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of the DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained...

  16. Time variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Boissé, P; Prochaska, J X; Péroux, C; York, D G

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We have searched for temporal variations of narrow absorption lines in high resolution quasar spectra. A sample of 5 distant sources have been assembled, for which 2 spectra - VLT/UVES or Keck/HIRES - taken several years apart are available. Methods. We first investigate under which conditions variations in absorption line profiles can be detected reliably from high resolution spectra, and discuss the implications of changes in terms of small-scale structure within the intervening gas or intrinsic origin. The targets selected allow us to investigate the time behavior of a broad variety of absorption line systems, sampling diverse environments: the vicinity of active nuclei, galaxy halos, molecular-rich galaxy disks associated with damped Lya systems, as well as neutral gas within our own Galaxy. Results. Absorption lines from MgII, FeII or proxy species with lines of lower opacity tracing the same kind of gas appear to be remarkably stable (1 sigma upper limits as low as 10 % for some components on scal...

  17. The Fundamental Plane of the Broad-line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) mainly arise from gas photoionized by continuum radiation from an accretion disk around a central black hole. The shape of the broad-line profile, described by ${\\cal D}_{_{\\rm H\\beta}}={\\rm FWHM}/\\sigma_{_{\\rm H\\beta}}$, the ratio of full width at half maximum to the dispersion of broad H$\\beta$, reflects the dynamics of the broad-line region (BLR) and correlates with the dimensionless accretion rate ($\\dot{\\mathscr{M}}$) or Eddington ratio ($L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd}$). At the same time, $\\dot{\\mathscr{M}}$ and $L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd}$ correlate with ${\\cal R}_{\\rm Fe}$, the ratio of optical Fe II to H$\\beta$ line flux emission. Assembling all AGNs with reverberation mapping measurements of broad H$\\beta$, both from the literature and from new observations reported here, we find a strong bivariate correlation of the form $\\log(\\dot{\\mathscr{M}},L_{\\rm bol}/L_{\\rm Edd})=\\alpha+\\beta{\\cal D}_{_{\\rm H\\beta}}+\\gamma{\\cal R}_{\\rm Fe},$ where $\\alpha=(2.47,0.31...

  18. BROAD Hβ EMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA 93407 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lazarova, Mariana S. [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Park, Daeseong, E-mail: jrunco@calpoly.edu, E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broadline virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  19. Reverberation Mapping of the Broad-line Region in NGC 5548: Evidence for Radiation Pressure?

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Huang, Ying-Ke; Bi, Shao-Lan; Bai, Jin-Ming; Ho, Luis C; Wang, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    NGC 5548 is the best-observed reverberation-mapped active galactic nucleus with long-term, intensive monitoring. Here we report results from a new observational campaign between January and July, 2015. We measure the centroid time lag of the broad H$\\beta$ emission line with respect to the 5100 \\AA continuum and obtain $\\tau_{\\rm cent} = 7.20^{+1.33}_{-0.35}$ days in the rest frame. This yields a black hole mass of $M_{\\bullet}=8.71^{+3.21}_{-2.61} $x$ 10^{7}M_{\\odot}$ using a broad H$\\beta$ line dispersion of $3124\\pm302$ km s$^{-1}$ and a virial factor of $f_{_{\\rm BLR}}=6.3\\pm1.5$ for the broad-line region (BLR), consistent with the mass measurements from previous H$\\beta$ campaigns. The high-quality data allow us to construct a velocity-binned delay map for the broad H$\\beta$ line, which shows a symmetric response pattern around the line center, a plausible kinematic signature of virialized motion of the BLR. Combining all the available measurements of H$\\beta$ time lags and the associated mean 5100 {\\AA}...

  20. Radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by turnips and broad beans via leaf and root absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Paniagua, J.M.; Rufo, M. [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, E. Politecnica - Uex, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres, (Spain); Sterling, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Barandica, J. [Departamento Ecologia, F. De Biologia, UCM Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-03-01

    One of the immediate consequences of massive radioisotope release into the atmosphere is contamination of the biosphere. This contamination can affect plants either by direct deposition onto the leaves, or by contaminating the soil followed by absorption by the roots. Knowledge of the efficacy of the two routes of radionuclide incorporation into the food chain is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms by which radioactive contamination reaches man. The present work analyzes the incorporation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr via root and leaf uptake into the parts consumed by man, for two very different crops: turnip (Brassica napus) and broad bean (Vicia faba). The root uptake studies consider the available soil fraction for these two radionuclides, and indicate greater availability for {sup 85}Sr than for {sup 134}Cs which is fixed rapidly in the soil. For the study of leaf uptake, leaves were contaminated at three different stages of plant growth; the results indicate an inverse dependence of the transfer coefficients on the time elapsed from the moment of the contamination to harvesting of the edible parts.

  1. Broad Hbeta Emission-Line Variability in a Sample of 102 Local Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Runco, Jordan N; Bennert, Vardha N; Scott, Bryan; Komossa, S; Malkan, Matthew A; Lazarova, Mariana S; Auger, Matthew W; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 10^7 M_sun was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10-m telescope to study the scaling relations between MBH and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hbeta emission line within the ~3-9 year time-frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hbeta emission line is of particular interest, not only since it is used to estimate MBH, but also since its strength and width is used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (~66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ~38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hbeta line virtually disappears in 3/102 (~3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing-look AGNs. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case ...

  2. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F; Brandt, W N; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad H_beta line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H_beta-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L_Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Gamma=1.91^{+0.24}_{-0.22} which supports the virial L/L_Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region proper...

  3. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of the low-luminosity, broad-lined Ic supernova iPTF15dld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, E.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Baltay, C.; Branchesi, M.; Brocato, E.; Campana, S.; Copperwheat, C.; Covino, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Ellman, N.; Grado, A.; Melandri, A.; Palazzi, E.; Piascik, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Raimondo, G.; Smartt, S. J.; Steele, I. A.; Stritzinger, M.; Yang, S.; Ascenzi, S.; Della Valle, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Getman, F.; Greco, G.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Limatola, L.; Nicastro, L.; Pastorello, A.; Pulone, L.; Stamerra, A.; Stella, L.; Stratta, G.; Tartaglia, L.; Turatto, M.

    2017-04-01

    Core-collapse stripped-envelope supernova (SN) explosions reflect the diversity of physical parameters and evolutionary paths of their massive star progenitors. We have observed the Type Ic SN iPTF15dld (z = 0.047), reported by the Palomar Transient Factory. Spectra were taken starting 20 rest-frame days after maximum luminosity and are affected by a young stellar population background. Broad spectral absorption lines associated with the SN are detected over the continuum, similar to those measured for broad-lined, highly energetic SNe Ic. The light curve and maximum luminosity are instead more similar to those of low luminosity, narrow-lined Ic SNe. This suggests a behaviour whereby certain highly stripped-envelope SNe do not produce a large amount of 56Ni, but the explosion is sufficiently energetic that a large fraction of the ejecta is accelerated to higher than usual velocities. We estimate SN iPTF15dld had a main-sequence progenitor of 20-25 M⊙, produced a 56Ni mass of ∼0.1-0.2 M⊙, had an ejecta mass of [2-10] M⊙, and a kinetic energy of [1-18] × 1051 erg.

  4. Line profiles of the two-phase medium broad-line region in active galactic nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛随建; 林宣滨; 程福臻; John Kwan

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of BLR in AGNs, i.e. large number of small, cold and dense emission-line clouds immerging in an intercloud hot medium, a delicate radiation model for a typical emission cloud is established, in which the backside photoionization of the cloud against the central continuum source by the scattered diffuse continuum in the hot medium is considered. Under the assumption of the radial kinematics of the BLR clouds, the line profiles for the two important UV emission-lines, Lya and CIV/11549 are computed; and based on these calculations, various physical factors that affect the properties of the emission-line profiles are discussed. It is concluded that: (i) when the BLR clouds is inflow, there exists a confining hot medium with density around 2 x 105 cm-3. In this case, theoretical line profiles agree well with the observational; (ii) both symmetric Lya and nearly symmetric CIV line profiles show blue velocity shifts, the quantities of which are sensitive to the cutoff of the outer radius of t

  5. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Alternate Routes to a Broad-line Region Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Bentz, Misty C; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor; Malkan, Matthew A; Treu, Tommaso; Walsh, Jonelle L; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2010-01-01

    It is now possible to estimate black hole masses across cosmic time, using broad emission lines in active galaxies. This technique informs our views of how galaxies and their central black holes coevolve. Unfortunately, there are many outstanding uncertainties associated with these "virial" mass estimates. One of these comes from using the accretion luminosity to infer a size for the broad-line region. Incorporating the new sample of low-luminosity active galaxies from our recent monitoring campaign at Lick Observatory, we recalibrate the radius-luminosity relation with tracers of the accretion luminosity other than the optical continuum. We find that the radius of the broad-line region scales as the square root of the X-ray and Hbeta luminosities, in agreement with recent optical studies. On the other hand, the scaling appears to be marginally steeper with narrow-line luminosities. This is consistent with a previously observed decrease in the ratio of narrow-line to X-ray luminosity with increasing total lum...

  6. A z ~ 5.7 Ly{\\alpha} Emission Line with an Ultra Broad Red Wing

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E; Infante, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    Using Ly{\\alpha} emission line as a tracer of high redshift star forming galaxies, hundreds of Ly{\\alpha} emission line galaxies (LAEs) at z > 5 have been detected. These LAEs are considered to be low mass young galaxies, critical to the reionization of the universe and the metal enrichment of circumgalactic medium (CGM) and intergalactic medium (IGM). It is assumed that outflows in LAEs can help ionizing photons and Ly{\\alpha} photons escape out of galaxies. However we still know little about the outflows in high redshifts LAEs due to observational difficulties, especially at redshift > 5. Models of Ly{\\alpha} radiative transfer predict asymmetric Ly{\\alpha} line profiles with broad red wing in LAEs with outflows. Here we report a z ~ 5.7 Ly{\\alpha} emission line with a broad red wing extending to > 1000 km/s relative to the peak of Ly{\\alpha} line, which has been detected in only a couple of z > 5 LAEs till now. If the broad red wing is ascribed to gas outflow instead of AGN activity, the outflow velocity c...

  7. A search for non-hidden broad-line region Seyfert 2 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Georgi P

    2016-01-01

    According to the unified model of active galactic nuclei, Seyfert 2 galaxies are physically the same as Seyfert 1 objects and they possess a broad-line region (BLR), but it is hidden from the observer due to their orientation. In the past few years, various authors reported that not all Seyfert 2 galaxies harbor a BLR. We compiled a sample of 38 Seyfert 2 galaxies to find non-hidden broad-line region (non-HBLR) objects. Using the theory of Nicastro et al. which suggests the existence of a critical value of the Eddington ratio below which BLR can't be formed, we found 26 non-HBLR Seyfert 2 candidates. We found also that 5 of these 26 non-HBLR objects could be low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs).

  8. Terminal Velocity Infall in QSO Absorption Line Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Robert A.

    We explore the hypothesis that clouds detected in quasar absorption line systems are falling at a terminal velocity toward the center of high redshift gaseous galactic halos. Since both the ionization level and terminal velocity of halo clouds increase with increasing distance from the central galaxy, velocity resolved profiles of highly ionized gas are predicted to have a greater width than low ionization gas. A line of sight passing through the center of gaseous halo (an idealized damped Ly alpha system), yields low ionization absorption at the velocity of the galaxy, flanked by high ionization on either side. Reasonable halo parameters yield total velocity extents for C IV of Delta v_{C IV}=100-200 km s^{-1}, in agreement with many systems observed by Lu et al (1997). The remaining systems may better described by the rotating disk model of Prochaska & Wolfe (1998). Finally, observational tests are suggested for verifying or falsifying the terminal velocity hypothesis for these systems.

  9. Mapping of the Local Interstellar Medium using Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, Bryan Edward

    2017-01-01

    Using the Yale SMARTS 1.5-meter telescope at CTIO and the CHIRON spectrograph, we have developed a program for mapping the local interstellar medium using a sample of over 200 newly observed B stars previously unobserved using Na I absorption lines. This sample includes stars that extend out to map beyond the local bubble to 500 pc. The sample has been observed using high resolution absorption lines, and when combined with previously observed stars with Na I and Ca II data provides a more complete picture of the local ISM than previous surveys. The distances to the stars using the new GAIA database also allows for more accurate determination of distances to features in the lcoal ISM, and new maps of the structure of the ISM hav been prepared with the data.

  10. The location of the broad HI absorption in 3C 305 : clear evidence for a jet-accelerated neutral outflow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R; Oosterloo, TA; Tadhunter, CN; van Moorsel, G; Emonts, B

    2005-01-01

    We present high-spatial resolution 21-cm HI VLA observations of the radio galaxy 3C 305 ( z = 0.041). These new high-resolution data show that the similar to 1000 km s(-1) broad H. absorption, earlier detected in low-resolution WSRT observations, is occurring against the bright, eastern radio lobe,

  11. A Survey of Alkali Line Absorption in Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Adam G; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D; Koesterke, Lars; Barman, Travis S

    2011-01-01

    We obtained over 90 hours of spectroscopic observations of four exoplanetary systems with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). Observations were taken in transit and out of transit, and we analyzed the differenced spectra---i.e., the transmission spectra---to inspect it for absorption at the wavelengths of the neutral sodium (\\ion{Na}{1}) doublet at $\\lambda\\lambda5889, 5895$ and neutral potassium (\\ion{K}{1}) at $\\lambda7698$. We used the transmission spectrum at \\ion{Ca}{1} $\\lambda6122$---which shows strong stellar absorption but is not an alkali metal resonance line that we expect to show significant absorption in these atmospheres---as a control line to examine our measurements for systematic errors. We use an empirical Monte Carlo method to quantity these systematic errors. In a reanalysis of the same dataset using a reduction and analysis pipeline that was derived independently, we confirm the previously seen \\ion{Na}{1} absorption in HD 189733b at a level of $(-5.26\\pm1.69)\\times10^{-4}$ (the average val...

  12. Observations of Absorption Lines from Highly Ionized Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1984-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. fewX 0.001/cucm) existing at coronal temperatures, 5.3 or = log T or = 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity 9v or = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic uv radiation from very hot, dward stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  13. Absorption Line Signatures of Gas in Mini Dark Matter Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Kepner, J V; Abel, T; Spergel, D N; Kepner, Jeremy; Tripp, Todd; Abel, Tom; Spergel, David

    1999-01-01

    Recent observations and theoretical calculations suggest that some QSO absorption line systems may be due to gas in small dark matter halos with circular velocities on the order of 30 km/s. Additional observational evidence suggests that, in general, many absorption line systems may also be multi-phase in nature. Thus, computing the absorption lines of mini-halos, in addition to providing signatures of small halos, is a natural way to explore multi-phase behavior. The state of gas in mini-halos is strongly affected by the background UV radiation field. To address this issue a code was developed that includes many of the chemical and radiative processes found in CLOUDY and also incorporates spherically symmetric multi-wavelength radiative transfer of an isotropic field, non-equilibrium chemistry, heating, cooling and self-consistent quasi hydro-static equilibrium gas dynamics. With this code detailed simulations were conducted of gas in mini-halos using different types of background spectra. From these simulat...

  14. What sodium absorption lines tell us about type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the sodium responsible for the variable Na I D absorption lines in some type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) originate from dust residing at ~1pc from the supernovae. In this Na-from-dust absorption (NaDA) model the process by which the SN Ia peak luminosity releases sodium from dust at ~1pc from the SN is similar to the processes by which solar radiation releases sodium from comet dust when comets approach a distance of ~1AU from the Sun. The dust grains are not sublimated but rather stay intact, and release sodium by photon-stimulated desorption (PSD; or photo-sputtering). We apply the NaDA model to SN 2006X and SN 2007le, and find it to comply better with the observed time variability of the Na I D absorption lines than the Na recombination model. The mass in the dusty shell of the NaDA model is much too high to be accounted for in the single-degenerate scenario for SN Ia. Therefore, the presence of variable Na I D lines in some SN Ia further weakens the already very problematic single-degenerate sce...

  15. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  16. Absorption signatures of warm-hot gas at low redshift: Broad Lyman-Alpha Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Tepper-García, Thorsten; Schaye, Joop; Booth, Craig M; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Theuns, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the physical state of HI absorbing gas at low redshift (z=0.25) using a subset of cosmological, hydrodynamic simulations from the OWLS project, focusing in particular on broad (b_HI > 40 km/s) Lyman-Alpha absorbers (BLAs), which are believed to originate in shock-heated gas in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). Our fiducial model, which includes radiative cooling by heavy elements and feedback by supernovae and active galactic nuclei, predicts that by z=0.25 nearly 60 per cent of the gas mass ends up at densities and temperatures characteristic of the WHIM and we find that half of this fraction is due to outflows. The standard HI observables (distribution of HI column densities N_HI, distribution of Doppler parameters b_HI, b_HI - N_HI correlation) and the BLA line number density predicted by our simulations are in remarkably good agreement with observations. BLAs arise in gas that is hotter, more highly ionised and more enriched than the gas giving rise to typical Lyman-Alpha forest abs...

  17. Discovery of Ultra-fast Outflows in a Sample of Broad-line Radio Galaxies Observed with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.; Ballo, L.; Gofford, J.; Cappi, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of a uniform and systematic search for blueshifted Fe K absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of five bright broad-line radio galaxies observed with Suzaku. We detect, for the first time in radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at X-rays, several absorption lines at energies greater than 7 keV in three out of five sources, namely, 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3. The lines are detected with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Their likely interpretation as blueshifted Fe XXV and Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines implies an origin from highly ionized gas outflowing with mildly relativistic velocities, in the range v ~= 0.04-0.15c. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters in the range log ξ ~= 4-5.6 erg s-1 cm and column densities of N H ~= 1022-1023 cm-2. These characteristics are very similar to those of the ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet AGNs. Their estimated location within ~0.01-0.3 pc of the central super-massive black hole suggests a likely origin related with accretion disk winds/outflows. Depending on the absorber covering fraction, the mass outflow rate of these UFOs can be comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic power can correspond to a significant fraction of the bolometric luminosity and is comparable to their typical jet power. Therefore, these UFOs can play a significant role in the expected feedback from the AGN to the surrounding environment and can give us further clues on the relation between the accretion disk and the formation of winds/jets in both radio-quiet and radio-loud AGNs.

  18. The broad-line region and dust torus size of the Seyfert 1 galaxy PGC50427

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, F Pozo; Westhues, C; Haas, M; Chini, R; Steenbrugge, K; Domínguez, A Barr; Kaderhandt, L; Hackstein, M; Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Hodapp, Klaus W; Murphy, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a three years monitoring campaigns of the $z = 0.024$ type-1 active galactic nucleus (AGN) PGC50427. Through the use of Photometric Reverberation Mapping with broad and narrow band filters, we determine the size of the broad-line emitting region by measuring the time delay between the variability of the continuum and the H$\\alpha$ emission line. The H$\\alpha$ emission line responds to blue continuum variations with an average rest frame lag of $19.0 \\pm 1.23$ days. Using single epoch spectroscopy we determined a broad-line H$\\alpha$ velocity width of 1020 km s$^{-1}$ and in combination with the rest frame lag and adoption a geometric scaling factor $f = 5.5$, we calculate a black hole mass of $M_{BH} \\sim 17 \\times 10^{6} M_{\\odot}$. Using the flux variation gradient method, we separate the host galaxy contribution from that of the AGN to calculate the rest frame 5100\\AA~ luminosity at the time of our monitoring campaign. The rest frame lag and the host-subtracted luminosity permit u...

  19. Constraints on the Broad Line Region Properties and Extinction in Local Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Korista, K T; Burtscher, L; Rosario, D; Storchi-Bergmann, T; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Graciá-Carpio, J; Hicks, E K S; Janssen, A; Koss, M; Lin, M -Y; Lutz, D; Maciejewski, W; Müller-Sánchez, F; de Xivry, G Orban; Riffel, R; Riffel, R A; Schartmann, M; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L; Veilleux, S; Ulrich, O A

    2016-01-01

    We use high spectral resolution (R > 8000) data covering 3800-13000\\r{A} to study the physical conditions of the broad line region (BLR) of nine nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies. Up to six broad HI lines are present in each spectrum. A comparison - for the first time using simultaneous optical to near-infrared observations - to photoionisation calculations with our devised simple scheme yields the extinction to the BLR at the same time as determining the density and photon flux, and hence distance from the nucleus, of the emitting gas. This points to a typical density for the HI emitting gas of 10$^{11}$cm$^{-3}$ and shows that a significant amount of this gas lies at regions near the dust sublimation radius, consistent with theoretical predictions. We also confirm that in many objects the line ratios are far from case B, the best-fit intrinsic broad-line H$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ ratios being in the range 2.5-6.6 as derived with our photoionization modeling scheme. The extinction to the BLR, based on independent estimates...

  20. Evidence of the Link between Broad Emission Line Regions and Accretion Disks in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xu; Xin-Wu Cao

    2007-01-01

    There is observational evidence that broad-line regions (BLRs) exist in most active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but their origin is still unclear. One scenario is that the BLRs originate from winds accelerated from the hot coronae of the disks, and the winds are suppressed when the black hole is accreting at low rates. This model predicts a relation between (m) ((m) = (M)/(M)Edd) and the FWHM of broad emission lines. We estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of bright AGNs by using their broadline-widths and optical luminosities. The dimensionless accretion rates (m) = (M)/(M)Edd are derived from the optical continuum luminosities by using two different models: using an empirical relation between the bolometric luminosity Lbol and the optical luminosity ((m) = Lbol/LEdd, a fixed radiative efficiency is adopted); and calculating the optical spectra of accretion disks as a function of (m). We find a significant correlation between the derived (m) and the observed line width of Hβ,FWHM∝ (m)-0.37, which almost overlaps the disk-corona model calculations, if the viscosity α≈ 0.1 - 0.2 is adopted. Our results provide strong evidence for the physical link between the BLRs and accretion disks in AGNs.

  1. Locally Optimally Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-06-01

    In recent work Baldwin et al. proposed that in the geometrically extended broad-line regions (BLRs) of quasars and active galactic nuclei, a range in line-emitting gas properties (e.g., density, column density) might exist at each radius and showed that under these conditions the broad emission line spectra of these objects may be dominated by selection effects introduced by the atomic physics and general radiative transfer within the large pool of line-emitting entities. In this picture, the light we see originates in a vast amalgam of emitters but is dominated by those emitters best able to reprocess the incident continuum into a particular emission line. We test this ``locally optimally emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic database of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) monitoring campaign is reproduced via the optimization of three global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an ad hoc selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission-line light curves for the 1989 IUE and 1993 HST campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags-a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture, which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those presented here, using the constraints provided by a high-quality, temporally well-sampled spectroscopic data set.

  2. A complete view of the broad-line radio galaxy 4C+74.26 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a timing study and broadband spectral analysis of the broad-line radio galaxy 4C+74.26 based on a 35 ks XMM-Newton observation. As found in previous datasets, the source exhibits no evidence for rapid variability, and its 0.2-10 keV lightcurve is well fit by a constant. An excellent fit to the pn 0.3-12 keV spectrum was found using a continuum that combines an ionized and a neutral reflector, augmented by both cold and warm absorption. There is no evidence for a soft excess. The column of cold absorption was greater than the Galactic value with an intrinsic column of \\~1.9\\times 10^{21} cm^{-2}. Evidence for the warm absorber was found from O VII and O VIII absorption edges with maximum optical depths of \\tau_{O VII}=0.3 and \\tau_{O VIII}=0.03, respectively. A joint pn-MOS fit increased the O VIII optical depth to \\tau_{O VIII}=0.1. A simple, one-zone warm absorber model yielded a column of ~9\\times 10^{20} cm^{-2} and an ionization parameter of \\~60. Partial covering models provide signif...

  3. Broad-line region structure and kinematics in the radio galaxy 3C 120

    CERN Document Server

    Kollatschny, W; Zetzl, M; Kaspi, S; Haas, M

    2014-01-01

    Broad emission lines originate in the surroundings of supermassive black holes in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGN). One method to investigate the extent, structure, and kinematics of the BLR is to study the continuum and line profile variability in AGN. We selected the radio-loud Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 as a target for this study. We took spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio of 3C 120 with the 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope between Sept. 2008 and March 2009. In parallel, we photometrically monitored the continuum flux at the Wise observatory. We analyzed the continuum and line profile variations in detail (1D and 2D reverberation mapping) and modeled the geometry of the line-emitting regions based on the line profiles. We show that the BLR in 3C 120 is stratified with respect to the distance of the line-emitting regions from the center with respect to the line widths (FWHM) of the rms profiles and with respect to the variability amplitude of the emission lines. The emission line wings of H{\\alpha...

  4. The Relationship Between Luminosity and Broad-Line Region Size in Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspi, Shai; Maoz, Dan; Netzer, Hagai;

    2005-01-01

    We reinvestigate the relationship between the characteristic broad-line region size (R_blr) and the Balmer emission-line, X-ray, UV, and optical continuum luminosities. Our study makes use of the best available determinations of R_blr for a large number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from...... of analysis, our results are generally consistent. Assuming a power-law relation R_blr \\propto L^\\alpha, we find the mean best-fitting \\alpha is about 0.67+/-0.05 for the optical continuum and the broad H\\beta luminosity, about 0.56+/-0.05 for the UV continuum luminosity, and about 0.70+/-0.14 for the X...

  5. Two-dimensional nutation NQR broad-line spectra in oriented samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyavsky, N.; Korneva, I. [Baltic State Academy, Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Ostafin, M.; Nogaj, B. [Dept. of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland); Mackowiak, M. [Inst. of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland)

    2006-09-15

    The NQR nutation method to determine the electric field gradient asymmetry parameter {eta} in systems, where the resonance line is so broad that the radio frequency field can excite only a portion of the nuclear spins, is presented. In this situation, the recently developed spectroscopic methods are not applicable. Two-dimensional nutation NQR spectra of oriented powders are calculated and used to determine {eta} at particular frequencies along a broad NQR line. The proposed method is useful for single crystals, oriented powders, glasses, and disordered systems even for small values of the asymmetry parameter. Therefore it can be used to evaluate fluctuations in {eta} and the quadrupole coupling constant e{sup 2}qQ due to inhomogeneities. We demonstrate the application of this method to oriented chalcogenide semiconducting glasses. (orig.)

  6. Determination of magnetic fields in broad line region of active galactic nuclei from polarimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrovich, Mikhail; Silant'ev, Nikolai; Gnedin, Yuri; Natsvlishvili, Tinatin; Buliga, Stanislava

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in confining gas clouds in the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and in maintaining the stability of these clouds. Without magnetic fields the clouds would not be stable, and soon after their formation they would expand and disperse. We show that the strength of the magnetic field can be derived from the polarimetric observations. Estimates of magnetic fields for a number of AGNs are based on the observed polarization degrees of broadlines and nearby continuum. The difference between their values allows us to estimate the magnetic field strength in the BLR using the method developed by Silant'ev et al. (2013). Values of magnetic fields in BLR for a number of AGNs have been derived.

  7. The Structure of the Broad-Line Region in Well-Studied AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bradley M.; Ferland, Gary J.

    1997-01-01

    Large amounts of high quality UV and optical data have been obtained in massive multi-wavelength monitoring campaigns on a small number of active galactic nuclei, and these data are changing our understanding of the central engines in these sources in a fundamental way. Preliminary analyses have shown that more comprehensive approaches will be necessary to make full use of these data. We propose to undertake a complete set of photoionization equilibrium calculations with a state-of-the-art computer code in order to determine the radial structure of the broad-line region in a way that is consistent with the emission-line fluxes, profiles, and transfer functions.

  8. High-resolution Fourier-transform cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy in the near-infrared using an incoherent broad-band light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Johannes; Ruth, Albert A

    2008-11-10

    An incoherent broad-band cavity-enhanced absorption (IBB-CEA) set-up was used in combination with a Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer in order to explore the potential of this technique for high-resolution molecular spectroscopy in the near-infrared region. Absorption spectra of overtone bands of CO2, OCS, and HD18O were measured between 5800 and 7000 cm(-1) using a small sampling volume (1100 cm3, based on a 90 cm cavity length). The quality of the spectra in this study is comparable to that obtained with Fourier transform spectrometers employing standard multi-pass reflection cells, which require substantially larger sampling volumes. High-resolution methods such as FT-IBB-CEAS also provide an elegant way to determine effective mirror reflectivities (R(eff), i.e. a measure of the inherent overall cavity loss) by using a calibration gas with well-known line strengths. For narrow absorption features and non-congested spectra this approach does not even require a zero-absorption measurement with the empty cavity. Absolute cross-sections or line strengths of a target species can also be determined in one single measurement, if gas mixtures with known partial pressures are used. This feature of FT-IBB-CEAS reduces systematic errors significantly; it is illustrated based on CO2 as calibration gas.

  9. SN 2009bb: a Peculiar Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Pignata, Giuliano; Soderberg, Alicia; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, M M; Morrell, Nidia; Anderson, J P; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; González, Sergio; Hamuy, Mario; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Maza, José; Roth, Miguel; Levesque, Francisco Salgado Emily M; Rest, Armin; Crain, J Adam; Foster, Andrew C; Haislip, Joshua B; Ivarsen, Kevin M; LaCluyze, Aaron P; Nysewander, Melissa C; Reichart, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb are presented, following the flux evolution from -10 to +285 days past B-band maximum. Thanks to the very early discovery, it is possible to place tight constraints on the SN explosion epoch. The expansion velocities measured from near maximum spectra are found to be only slightly smaller than those measured from spectra of the prototype broad-lined SN 1998bw associated with GRB 980425. Fitting an analytical model to the pseudo-bolometric light curve of SN 2009bb suggests that 4.1+-1.9 Msun of material was ejected with 0.22 +-0.06 Msun of it being 56Ni. The resulting kinetic energy is 1.8+-0.7x10^52 erg. This, together with an absolute peak magnitude of MB=-18.36+-0.44, places SN 2009bb on the energetic and luminous end of the broad-lined Type Ic (SN Ic) sequence. Detection of helium in the early time optical spectra accompanied with strong radio emission, and high metallicity of its en...

  10. Reverberation Mapping of the Broad Line Region: application to a hydrodynamical line-driven disk wind solution

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Tim; Proga, Daniel; Eracleous, Michael; Barth, Aaron J; Greene, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The latest analysis efforts in reverberation mapping are beginning to allow reconstruction of echo images (or velocity-delay maps) that encode information about the structure and kinematics of the broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such maps can constrain sophisticated physical models for the BLR. The physical picture of the BLR is often theorized to be a photoionized wind launched from the AGN accretion disk. Previously we showed that the line-driven disk wind solution found in an earlier simulation by Proga and Kallman is virialized over a large distance from the disk. This finding implies that, according to this model, black hole masses can be reliably estimated through reverberation mapping techniques. However, predictions of echo images expected from line-driven disk winds are not available. Here, after presenting the necessary radiative transfer methodology, we carry out the first calculations of such predictions. We find that the echo images are quite similar to other virialized ...

  11. Far-UV Absorption Lines in the Remnant of SN 1006

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, C C; Hamilton, A J S; Fesen, R A; Leventhal, M; Sarazin, C L; Wu, Chi-Chao; Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; Fesen, Robert A.; Leventhal, Marvin; Sarazin, Craig

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained a far-ultraviolet spectrum (1150 - 1600 Ang.) of a hot subdwarf star behind the remnant of SN 1006 with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-quality spectrum is used to test previous identifications of the strong absorption features discovered with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. These features have FWHM = 4000 (+/- 300) km/sec and are not at the rest wavelengths of known interstellar lines, as opposed to the broader (8000 km/sec FWHM) Fe II lines from the remnant centered at zero km/sec in near-UV FOS spectra. We confirm that the broad absorption features are principally due to redshifted Si II, Si III, and Si IV lines, which are centered at a radial velocity of 5100 (+/- 200) km/sec. The Si II 1260.4 profile is asymmetric, with a nearly flat core and sharp red wing, unlike the Si II 1526.7 and Si IV 1393.8, 1402.8 profiles. One possible explanation is additional absorption from another species. Previous work has suggested that S II 1250.6, 1253...

  12. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Ensemble Spectroscopic Variability of Quasar Broad Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Mouyuan; Shen, Yue; Brandt, W N; Dawson, Kyle; Denney, Kelly D; Hall, Patrick B; Ho, Luis C; Horne, Keith; Jiang, Linhua; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    We explore the variability of quasars in the MgII and Hbeta broad emission lines and UV/optical continuum emission using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project (SDSS-RM). This is the largest spectroscopic study of quasar variability to date: our study includes 29 spectroscopic epochs from SDSS-RM over $6$ months, containing 357 quasars with MgII and 41 quasars with Hbeta . On longer timescales, the study is also supplemented with two-epoch data from SDSS-I/II. The SDSS-I/II data include an additional $2854$ quasars with MgII and 572 quasars with Hbeta. The MgII emission line is significantly variable ($\\Delta f/f$ 10% on 100-day timescales), indicating that it is feasible to use the broad MgII line for reverberation mapping studies. The data also confirm that continuum variability increases with timescale and decreases with luminosity, and the continuum light curves are consistent with a damped random-walk model on rest-frame timescales of $\\gtrsim 5$ days. We compare the emission-line and...

  13. Identification of Metal Absorption Lines on Quasar Spectra of SDSS DR9

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cai-Juan Pan; Cheng-Yu Su; Mu-Sheng Li; Wei-Rong Huang

    2014-09-01

    Absorption lines are an important tool for probing the gas in the Universe. Our group aim to identify the metal absorption lines imprinted on the quasar spectra of the BOSS. In this work, we show the metal absorption lines identified in the spectrum of SDSS J160032.95+323638.7.

  14. Models of Five Absorption Line Systems Along the Line of Sight Toward PG0117+213

    CERN Document Server

    Masiero, J R; Ding, J; Churchill, C W; Kacprzak, G G

    2005-01-01

    We present our investigation into the physical conditions of the gas in five intervening quasar absorption line systems along the line of sight toward the quasar PG 0117+213, with redshifts of z=0.57, z=0.72, z=1.04, z=1.32 and z=1.34. Photoionization modeling of HST, Keck I, and Palomar data, using the code Cloudy, is employed to derive densities and metallicities of the multiple phases of gas required to fit the absorption profile for each system. We discuss the implications of these models for galaxy evolution, including the interpretation of ``CIV deficiency'' and damped Lyman alpha absorbers (DLAs), and the relationships between galaxy morphology, galaxy luminosity, and absorption signature.

  15. Reverberation Mapping of the Broad Line Region: Application to a Hydrodynamical Line-driven Disk Wind Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Tim; Kashi, Amit; Proga, Daniel; Eracleous, Michael; Barth, Aaron J.; Greene, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    The latest analysis efforts in reverberation mapping are beginning to allow reconstruction of echo images (or velocity-delay maps) that encode information about the structure and kinematics of the broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such maps can constrain sophisticated physical models for the BLR. The physical picture of the BLR is often theorized to be a photoionized wind launched from the AGN accretion disk. Previously we showed that the line-driven disk wind solution found in an earlier simulation by Proga and Kallman is virialized over a large distance from the disk. This finding implies that, according to this model, black hole masses can be reliably estimated through reverberation mapping techniques. However, predictions of echo images expected from line-driven disk winds are not available. Here, after presenting the necessary radiative transfer methodology, we carry out the first calculations of such predictions. We find that the echo images are quite similar to other virialized BLR models such as randomly orbiting clouds and thin Keplerian disks. We conduct a parameter survey exploring how echo images, line profiles, and transfer functions depend on both the inclination angle and the line opacity. We find that the line profiles are almost always single peaked, while transfer functions tend to have tails extending to large time delays. The outflow, despite being primarily equatorially directed, causes an appreciable blueshifted excess on both the echo image and line profile when seen from lower inclinations (i≲ 45^\\circ ). This effect may be observable in low ionization lines such as {{H}}β .

  16. Measuring the Cold Dust Content of Broad and Narrow-Line Optically Luminous QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Andreea

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the overwhelming majority of spheroidal glaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that, wiht some important caveats, the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the sheroid and the bulge luminosities. An impressive body of research has been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms responsible for such a fundamental perhaps causal relation.An important component pertinent to those investigations is an accurate census of the basic properties of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in AGN hosts. The motivation for this is that the cold molecular gas is the basic fuel for star-formation and black hole growth.We present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z ≤ 0.5) QSOs chosen from the optically luminous broad-line PG QSOs sample and in a complementary sample of 85 narrow-line QSOs chosen to match the redshift and optical luminosity distribution of the broad-line targets.The FIR data are combined with near-infrared and mid-infrared measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess aggregate dust properties. We estimate dust temperatures that range between ~20 and 70 K with a median temperature of 45 K respectively, and dust masses between 9 × 10 4M⊙ and 5 × 10 8M⊙ with a median mass of 3 × 10 7M⊙. We investigate the relation between star-formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the IR luminosities and SFRs determined from measurements of the 11.3 micron PAH. We also compare indicators of AGN strength such as the [OIII] 5007 Angstroms and 5100 Angstroms luminosities

  17. Radiation pressure confinement - II. Application to the broad line region in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Alexei; Stern, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are characterized by broad emission lines. The lines show similar properties from the lowest luminosity (10^39 erg/s) to the highest luminosity (10^47 erg/s) AGN. What produces this similarity over such a vast range of 10^8 in luminosity? Photoionization is inevitably associated with momentum transfer to the photoionized gas. Yet, most of the photoionized gas in the Broad Line Region (BLR) follows Keplerian orbits, which suggests that the BLR originates from gas clouds with a large enough column for gravity to dominate. The photoionized surface layer of these clouds must develop a pressure gradient which balances the incident radiation force. We present solutions for the structure of such a hydrostatic photoionized gas layer in the BLR. The gas is stratified, with a low-density highly-ionized surface layer, set by the ambient pressure, a density rise inwards, and a uniform density cooler inner region, where the gas pressure, 2n_ekT, reaches the incident radiation pressure n_gamma,...

  18. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  19. The relationship of extended radio power and broad emission line luminosity in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between broad line luminosity LBLR and extended radio power PE is investigated.In the log PE-log LBLR diagram,FSRQs populate the region of higher luminosity relative to BL Lacs,and FR II BL Lacs are between FSRQs and FR I BL Lacs.For these blazars,there is a significant correlation between LBLR and PE.The regression line scales as PE ∝ L0B.L87R ± 0.15.The slope of this scaling relation is consistent with that derived from the simple theoretical formulae.Thus,the unification of BL Lacs and FRSQs into a single population finds a statistical basis,and a disk-jet symbiosis in blazars is confirmed.FR II BL Lacs are probably at an intermediate stage in the sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs with FR I BL Lacs at the end of this sequence.

  20. Test of the Formation mechanism of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, Bozena; Wang, Jian-Min; Karas, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the Broad Line Region (BLR) in active galaxies remains unknown. It seems to be related to the underlying accretion disk but an efficient mechanism is required to rise the material from the disk surface without giving too strong signatures of the outflow in the case of the low ionization lines. We discuss in detail two proposed mechanisms: (i) radiation pressure acting on dust in the disk atmosphere creating a failed wind (ii) the gravitational instability of the underlying disk. We compare the predicted location of the inner radius of the BLR in those two scenarios with the observed position obtained from the reverberation studies of several active galaxies. The failed dusty outflow model well represents the observational data while the predictions of the self-gravitational instability are not consistent with observations. The issue remains why actually we do not see any imprints of the underlying disk instability in the BLR properties.

  1. Outflow and metallicity in the broad-line region of low-redshift active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Jaejin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-01-01

    Outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are crucial to understand in investigating the co-evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies since outflows may play an important role as an AGN feedback mechanism. Based on the archival UV spectra obtained with HST and IUE, we investigate outflows in the broad-line region (BLR) in low-redshift AGNs (z < 0.4) through the detailed analysis of the velocity profile of the CIV emission line. We find a dependence of the outflow strength on the Eddington ratio and the BLR metallicity in our low-redshift AGN sample, which is consistent with the earlier results obtained for high-redshift quasars. These results suggest that the BLR outflows, gas accretion onto SMBH, and past star-formation activity in the host galaxies are physically related in low-redshift AGNs as in powerful high-redshift quasars.

  2. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  3. Does the inner broad-line region dim down when the power turns up?. [Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparke, Linda S.

    1993-01-01

    The temporal correlations of continuum and broad emission-line fluxes from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 as measured during the 1989 monitoring campaign show two related peculiarities: first, some of the crosscorrelations of line and continuum flux appear steeper on the negative time lag side than the continuum autocorrelation itself; then, the autocorrelation of the line flux is sometimes more sharply peaked than the continuum autocorrelation function. These are here interpreted as evidence that conditions in the inner part of the broad-line region are such that some emission lines decrease in intensity as the continuum strengthens.

  4. Broad Balmer line emission and cosmic ray acceleration efficiency in supernova remnant shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Bandiera, R; Amato, E

    2013-01-01

    Balmer emission may be a powerful diagnostic tool to test the paradigm of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in young supernova remnant (SNR) shocks. The width of the broad Balmer line is a direct indicator of the downstream plasma temperature. In case of efficient particle acceleration an appreciable fraction of the total kinetic energy of the plasma is channeled into CRs, therefore the downstream temperature decreases and so does the broad Balmer line width. This width also depends on the level of thermal equilibration between ions and neutral hydrogen atoms in the downstream. Since in general in young SNR shocks only a few charge exchange (CE) reactions occur before ionization, equilibration between ions and neutrals is not reached, and a kinetic description of the neutrals is required in order to properly compute Balmer emission. We provide a method for the calculation of Balmer emission using a self-consistent description of the shock structure in the presence of neutrals and CRs. We use a recently developed s...

  5. Interpreting broad emission-line variations II: Tensions between luminosity, characteristic size and responsivity

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the variability behaviour of the broad Hb emission-line to driving continuum variations in the best-studied AGN NGC 5548. For a particular choice of BLR geometry, Hb surface emissivity based on photoionization models, and using a scaled version of the 13 yr optical continuum light curve as a proxy for the driving ionizing continuum, we explore several key factors that determine the broad emission line luminosity L, characteristic size R(RW), and variability amplitude (i.e., responsivity) eta, as well as the interplay between them. For fixed boundary models which extend as far as the hot-dust the predicted delays for Hb are on average too long. However, the predicted variability amplitude of Hb provides a remarkably good match to observations except during low continuum states. We suggest that the continuum flux variations which drive the redistribution in Hb surface emissivity F(r) do not on their own lead to large enough changes in R(RW) or eta(eff). We thus investigate dust-bounded BLRs for w...

  6. SN2003bg: a broad-lined Type IIb Supernova with Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Hamuy, Mario; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Models for the spectra and the light curve, in the photospheric as well as in the late nebular phase, are used to infer the properties of the very radio-bright, broad-lined type IIb Supernova 2003bg. Consistent fits to the light curve and the spectral evolution are obtained with an explosion that ejected ~ 4 M_sun of material with a kinetic energy of ~ 5 10^51 erg. A thin layer of hydrogen, comprising ~ 0.05 M_sun, is inferred to be present in the ejecta at the highest velocities (v >~ 9000 km/s), while a thicker helium layer, comprising ~ 1.25 M_sun, was ejected at velocities between 6500 and 9000 km/s. At lower velocities, heavier elements are present, including ~ 0.2 M_sun of 56Ni that shape the light curve and the late-time nebular spectra. These values suggest that the progenitor star had a mass of ~ 20-25 M_sun (comparable to, but maybe somewhat smaller than that of the progenitor of the XRF/SN 2008D). The rather broad-lined early spectra are the result of the presence of a small amount of material (~ 0...

  7. Magnetically elevated accretion disks in active galactic nuclei: broad emission line regions and associated star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    We propose that the accretion disks fueling active galactic nuclei are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ -direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disk dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ˜ 0.1 R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disk model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disk models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disk models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disk of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ˜0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  8. Effect of the drag force on the orbital motion of the broad-line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Khajenabi, Fazeleh

    2016-01-01

    We investigate orbital motion of cold clouds in the broad line region of active galactic nuclei subject to the gravity of a black hole and a force due to a nonisotropic central source and a drag force proportional to the velocity square. The intercloud is described using the standard solutions for the advection-dominated accretion flows. Orbit of a cloud decays because of the drag force, but the typical time scale of falling of clouds onto the central black hole is shorter comparing to the linear drag case. This time scale is calculated when a cloud is moving through a static or rotating intercloud. We show that when the drag force is a quadratic function of the velocity, irrespective of the initial conditions and other input parameters, clouds will generally fall onto the central region much faster than the age of whole system and since cold clouds present in most of the broad line regions, we suggest that mechanisms for continuous creation of the clouds must operate in these systems.

  9. Reverberation Modeling of the Broad Emission Line Region in NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, M. C.; Korista, K. T.; Shlosman, I.; Blandford, R. D.

    Long-term observations of broad-line region (BLR) in the Seyfert~1 galaxy NGC~5548 are analyzed and a critical comparison with the predictions of a hydromagnetically-driven outflow model of Emmering, Blandford and Shlosman is provided. This model is used to generate a time series of C~IV line profiles that have responded to a time varying continuum. We include cloud emission anisotropy, cloud obscuration, a CLOUDY-generated emissivity function and a narrow-line component which is added to the BLR component to generate the total line profiles. The model is driven with continuum input based on the monitoring campaigns of NGC~5548 reported in Clavel et al. and Korista et al., and the line strengths, profiles and lags are compared with the observations. The model is able to reproduce the basic features of CIV line variability in this active galactic nucleus, i.e., time evolution of the profile shape and strength of the C~IV emission line without varying the model parameters. The best fit model provides the effective size, the dominant geometry, the emissivity distribution and the 3D velocity field of the C~IV BLR and constrains the mass of the central black hole to about $3\\times 10^7\\ M_{\\odot}$. The inner part of the wind in NGC~5548 appears to be responsible for the anisotropically emitted CIV line, while its outer part remains dusty and molecular, thus having similar spectral characteristics to a molecular torus, although its dynamics is fundamentally different. The model predicts a differential response across the C~IV line profile, producing a red-side-first response in the relative velocity interval of $3,000-6,000 {\\rm km\\ s^{-1}}$ followed by the blue mid-wing and finally by the line core. Given that no adequate method in computing the errors for data lags and centroids exists in the literature, the {\\it data} cross-correlation function provides results which appear inconclusive, making any direct comparison with the model premature. Overall analysis

  10. The HST view of the broad line region in low luminosity AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Balmaverde, B; di Torino, INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the properties of the broad line region (BLR) in low luminosity AGN by using HST/STIS spectra. We consider a sample of 24 nearby galaxies in which the presence of a BLR has been reported from their Palomar ground-based spectra. Following a widely used strategy, we used the [SII] doublet to subtract the contribution of the narrow emission lines to the H-alpha+[NII] complex and to isolate the BLR emission. Significant residuals that suggest a BLR, are present. However, the results change substantially when the [OI] doublet is used. Furthermore, the spectra are also reproduced well by just including a wing in the narrow H-alpha and [NII] lines, thus not requiring the presence of a BLR. We conclude that complex structure of the narrow line region (NLR) is not captured with this approach and that it does not lead to general robust constraints on the properties of the BLR in these low luminosity AGN. Nonetheless, the existence of a BLR is firmly established in 5 Seyferts, and 5 LINERs. However, the measu...

  11. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Hamann, F; Heidt, J; Jäger, K; Vestergaard, M; Wagner, S J

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chemical composition of the line emitting gas. Comparisons to photoionization calculations indicate gas metallicities in the broad emission line region in the range of solar to several times solar. The average of the mean metallicity of each high-z quasar in this sample is $Z/Z_\\odot = 4.3 \\pm 0.3$. Assuming a chemical evolution time scale of $\\tau_{evol} \\simeq 0.5 - 0.8$ Gyrs, we derive a redshift of $z_f \\simeq 6 {\\rm to} 8$ for the onset of the first major star formation episode (H$_o = 65$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$, $\\Omega_M = 0.3$, $\\Omega_\\Lambda = 0.7$), corresponding to an age of the universe of several $10^8$ yrs at this epoch. We note that this epoch is also supposed to be the era of re-ionization of the universe...

  12. Microlensing of the Broad Emission Line Region in the Quadruple Lens SDSS J1004+4112

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Hennawi, J F; Hall, P B; Turner, E L; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Ichikawa, S I; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; White, R L; Wyithe, J S B; Schneider, D P; Johnston, D E; Frieman, J A; Brinkmann, J; Richards, Gordon T.; Keeton, Charles R.; Pindor, Bartosz; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Hall, Patrick B.; Turner, Edwin L.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Schneider, Donald P.; Johnston, David E.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2004-01-01

    We present seven epochs of spectroscopy on the quadruply imaged quasar SDSS J1004+4112, spanning observed-frame time delays from 1 to 322 days. The spectra reveal differences in the emission lines between the lensed images. Specifically, component A showed a strong enhancement in the blue wings of several high-ionization lines relative to component B, which lasted at least 28 days (observed frame) then faded. Since the predicted time delay between A and B is <30 days, our time coverage suggests that the event was not intrinsic to the quasar. We attribute these variations to microlensing of part of the broad emission line region of the quasar, apparently resolving structure in the source plane on a scale of ~10^{16} cm at z=1.734. In addition, we observed smaller differences in the emission line profiles between components A and B that persisted throughout the time span, which may also be due to microlensing or millilensing. Further spectroscopic monitoring of this system holds considerable promise for reso...

  13. Absorption line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    CERN Document Server

    Fumagalli, Michele; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R

    2011-01-01

    Hydro cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (N_HI > 10^17 cm^2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z>3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is 30% of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the interga...

  14. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  15. Time-Variable Complex Metal Absorption Lines in the Quasar HS1603+3820

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, T; Charlton, J C; Tajitsu, A; Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Tajitsu, Akito

    2005-01-01

    We present a new spectrum of the quasar HS1603+3820 taken 1.28 years (0.36 years in the quasar rest frame) after a previous observation with Subaru+HDS. The new spectrum enables us to search for time variability as an identifier of intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs). This quasar shows a rich complex of C IV NALs within 60,000 km/s of the emission redshift. Based on covering factor analysis, Misawa et al. found that the C IV NAL system at z_abs= 2.42--2.45 (System A, at a shift velocity of v_sh = 8,300--10,600 km/s relative to the quasar) was intrinsic to the quasar. With our new spectrum, we perform time variability analysis as well as covering factor analysis to separate intrinsic NALs from intervening NALs for 8 C IV systems. Only System A, which was identified as an intrinsic system in the earlier paper by Misawa et al., shows a strong variation in line strength (W_obs ~ 10.4A -> 19.1A). We speculate that a broad absorption line (BAL) could be forming in this quasar. We illustrate the plausibility of...

  16. The intensity calculation of the gas absorption line by multi-line Voigt fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Meng-ran; LI Zhen-bi; ZHONG Ming-yu; HE Gang

    2008-01-01

    Adopted the distribution feedback type (DFB) laser to measure the coal mine gas methane, according to the methane located 1.6 lain nearby 2v3 with a R9 direct ab-sorption spectrum, attraction wire intensity of each line was calculated through the multi-line Voigt fitting. The experimental result indicates that in the obtained four attraction recover of wire, the maximum deviation is 2.7%, and the minimum deviation is 0.02%, other results are all in experimental error scope. This research method may apply in the spectrum survey methane gas density, it has characteristics including high precision, strong selectivity, fast response and so on.

  17. Absorption Line Analysis to Interprete and Constrain Cosmological Simulations of Galaxy Evolution with Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    The mammoth challenge for contemporary studies of galaxy formation and evolution are to establish detailed models in the cosmological context in which both the few parsec scale physics within galaxies are self-consistently unified and made consistent with the observed universe of galaxies. They key diagnostics reside with the gas physics, which dictate virtually every aspect of galaxy formation and evolution. The small scale physics includes stellar feedback, gas cooling, heating, and advection and the multiphase interstellar medium; the large scale physics includes intergalactic accretion, local merging, effects of supernovae driven winds, and the development of extended metal-enriched gas halos.Absorption line data have historically proven to be {and shall in the future} virtually the most powerful tool for understanding gas physics on all spatial scales over the majority of the age of the universe- the key to success. Simply stated, absorption lines are one of astronomy's most powerful observational windows on the universe {galaxy formation, galaxy winds, IGM metal enrichment, etc.}. The high quality and vast numbers of absorption line data {obtained with HST and FUSE} probe a broad range of gas structures {ISM, HVCs, halos, IGM} over the full cosmic span when galaxies are actively evolving.We propose to use LCDM hydrodynamic cosmological simulations employing a Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree {ART} code to develop and refine our understanding of stellar feedback physics and its role in governing the gas physics that regulates the evolution of galaxies and the IGM. We aim to substantially progress our understanding of all possible gas phases embedded within and extending far from galaxies. Our methodology is to apply a series of quantitative observational constraints from absorption line systems to better understand extended galaxy halos and the influence of the cosmological environment of the simulated galaxies: {1} galaxy halos

  18. Modelling Alkali Line Absorption and Molecular Bands in Cool DAZs

    CERN Document Server

    Homeier, D; Allard, F; Hauschildt, P H; Schweitzer, A; Stancil, P C; Weck, P F; Homeier, Derek; Allard, Nicole F.; Allard, France; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Schweitzer, Andreas; Stancil, Phillip C.; Weck, Philippe F.

    2005-01-01

    Two peculiar stars showing an apparent extremely broadened and strong NaI D absorption have been discovered in surveys for cool white dwarfs by Oppenheimer et al. (2001) and Harris et al. (SDSS, 2003). We discuss the nature of these objects using PHOENIX atmosphere models for metal-poor brown dwarfs/very low mass stars, and new white dwarf LTE and NLTE models for hydrogen- and helium-dominated atmospheres with metals. These include complete molecular formation in chemical equilibrium and a model for the alkali resonance line broadening based on the damping profiles of Allard et al. (2003), as well as new molecular line opacities for metal hydrides. First results of our calculations indicate good agreement with a hydrogen-dominated WD atmosphere with a Na abundance roughly consistent with a state of high accretion. We analyse deviations of the abundances of Na, K, Mg and Ca from the cosmic pattern and comment on implications of these results for standard accretion scenarios.

  19. Broad iron line in the fast spinning neutron-star system 4U 1636-53

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, Andrea; Mendez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Linares, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the X-ray spectra of six observations, simultaneously taken with XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. The observations cover several states of the source, and therefore a large range of inferred mass accretion rate. These six observations show a broad emission line in the spectrum at around 6.5 keV, likely due to iron. We fitted this line with a set of phenomenological models of a relativistically broadened line, plus a model that accounts for relativistically smeared and ionised reflection from the accretion disc. The latter model includes the incident emission from both the neutron-star surface or boundary layer and the corona that is responsible for the high-energy emission in these systems. From the fits with the reflection model we found that in four out of the six observations the main contribution to the reflected spectrum comes from the neutron-star surface or boundary layer, whereas in the other two observations the main ...

  20. DETECTION OF THE INTERMEDIATE-WIDTH EMISSION LINE REGION IN QUASAR OI 287 WITH THE BROAD EMISSION LINE REGION OBSCURED BY THE DUSTY TORUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: lizz08@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouhongyan@pric.org.cn, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, Jinqiao Rd. 451, Shanghai, 200136 (China)

    2015-10-20

    The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole to be ∼2.9 pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of ∼1.3 pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of ∼10{sup 8.8}–10{sup 9.4} cm{sup −3}, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty torus. In the spectrum of this quasar, we identified only one narrow absorption-line system associated with the dusty material. With the aid of photo-ionization model calculations, we found that the obscuring material might originate from an outer region of the dusty torus. We speculate that the dusty torus, which is exposed to the central ionizing source, may produce IELs through photo-ionization processes, as well as obscure BELs as a natural “coronagraph.” Such a “coronagraph” could be found in a large number of partially obscured quasars and may be a useful tool to study IELRs.

  1. Magnetically elevated accretion disks in active galactic nuclei: broad emission line regions and associated star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the accretion disks fueling active galactic nuclei are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal ($\\phi-$direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disk dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at $R$ to large heights $z > 0.1 R$ and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass --- but contributing very little accretion --- around the equator. We show that such a disk model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disk models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disk models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: th...

  2. Role of emission angular directionality in spin determination of accreting black holes with broad iron line

    CERN Document Server

    Svoboda, J; Goosmann, R W; Karas, V

    2009-01-01

    Spin of an accreting black hole can be determined by spectroscopy of the emission and absorption features produced in the inner regions of an accretion disc. We discuss the method employing the relativistic line profiles of iron in the X-ray domain, where the emergent spectrum is blurred by general relativistic effects. Precision of spectra fitting procedure could be compromised by inappropriate account of the angular distribution of the disc emission. Often a unique profile is assumed, invariable over the entire range of radii in the disc and energy in the spectral band. We study how sensitive the spin determination is to the assumptions about the intrinsic angular distribution of the emitted photons. We find that the uncertainty of the directional emission distribution translates to 20% uncertainty in determination of the marginally stable orbit. By assuming a rotating black hole in the centre of an accretion disc, we perform radiation transfer computations of an X-ray irradiated disc atmosphere to determin...

  3. A Revised Broad-Line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Peterson, B M; Pogge, R W; Atlee, D W; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Lamb, J; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Yoshii, Y

    2009-01-01

    We present the first results from a high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world. The primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity AGNs. We feature results for NGC 4051 here because, until now, this object has been a significant outlier from AGN scaling relationships, e.g., it was previously a ~2-3sigma outlier on the relationship between the broad-line region (BLR) radius and the optical continuum luminosity - the R_BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hbeta emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R_BLR = 1.75 (+0.50 -0.68) light days and black hole mass of M_BH = 1.58 (+0.50 -0.65) x 10^6 M_sun. This radius is consistent with that expected from the R_BLR-L relationship, based on the...

  4. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Atlee, D. W.; Bentz, M. C.; Bird, J. C.; Brokofsky, D. J.; Comins, M. L.; Dietrich, M.; Doroshenko, V. T.; Eastman, J. D.; Efimov, Y. S.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hedrick, C. H.; Klimanov, S. A.; Klimek, E. S.; Kruse, A. K.; Lamb, J. B.; Leighly, K.; Minezaki, T.; Nazarov, S. V.; Petersen, E. A.; Peterson, P.; Poindexter, S.; Schlesinger, Y.; Sakata, K. J.; Sergeev, S. G.; Tobin, J. J.; Unterborn, C.; Vestergaard, M.; Watkins, A. E.; Yoshii, Y.

    2009-09-01

    We present the first results from a high sampling rate, multimonth reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world. The primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hβ reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We feature results for NGC 4051 here because, until now, this object has been a significant outlier from AGN scaling relationships, e.g., it was previously a ~2-3σ outlier on the relationship between the broad-line region (BLR) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hβ emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M BH = (1.73+0.55 -0.52) × 106 M sun. This radius is consistent with that expected from the R BLR-L relationship, based on the present luminosity of NGC 4051 and the most current calibration of the relation by Bentz et al.. We also present a preliminary look at velocity-resolved Hβ light curves and time delay measurements, although we are unable to reconstruct an unambiguous velocity-resolved reverberation signal.

  5. On the origin of the absorption and emission line components in the spectra of PHL 293B

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Terlevich, Roberto; Terlevich, Elena

    2015-01-01

    From the structure of PHL 293B and the physical properties of its ionizing cluster and based on results of hydrodynamic models, we point at the various events required to explain in detail the emission and absorption components seen in its optical spectrum. We ascribe the narrow and well centered emission lines, showing the low metallicity of the galaxy, to an HII region that spans through the main body of the galaxy. The broad emission line components are due to two off-centered supernova remnants evolving within the ionizing cluster volume and the absorption line profiles are due to a stationary cluster wind able to recombine at a close distance from the cluster surface, as originally suggested by Silich et al. (2004). Our numerical models and analytical estimates confirm the ionized and neutral column density values and the inferred X-ray emission derived from the observations.

  6. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianqiang; Xu Yuanze; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Li; Wang Zeyong, E-mail: jianqguo@home.swjtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  7. Testing Disk-Wind Models with Quasar CIV 1549Å Associated Absorption Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Narrow associated C IV 1549Å absorption lines (NALs) with a rest equivalent width EW =3 Å detected in z ˜ 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, (a) exhibit evidence of an origin in radiatively accelerated gas, and (b) may be closely related to broad absorption line (BAL) outflows. These NALs...... and the few BALs detected in this quasar sample obey key predictions of models of radiatively driven disk-winds in which (1) the local disk luminosity launches the wind, (2) the central UV radiation drives it outwards, and (3) the wind acceleration (i.e., terminal velocity) depends on the strength of the X......-ray to UV emission ratio, i.e., aOX. The latter means that quasars with flat aOX (like radio-louds) should not have strong, high-velocity (BAL-like) outflows. These results are of interest not only to studies of disk wind scenarios and quasar structure, but also to studies of quasar feedback: NALs...

  8. Spatially Resolving the Kinematics of the <100 {\\mu}as Quasar Broad Line Region using Spectroastrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Jonathan; Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    The broad line region (BLR) of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a prominent observational signature of the accretion flow around supermassive black holes, which can be used to measure their masses (M_BH) over cosmic history. Due to the <100 {\\mu}as angular size of the BLR, current direct constraints on BLR kinematics are limited to those provided by reverberation mapping studies, which are most efficiently carried out on low-luminosity L and low-redshift z AGN. We analyze the possibility to measure the BLR size and study its kinematic structure using spectroastrometry, whereby one measures the spatial position centroid of emission line photons as a function of velocity. We calculate the expected spectroastrometric signal of a rotation-dominated BLR for various assumptions about the ratio of random to rotational motions, and the radial distribution of the BLR gas. We show that for hyper-luminous quasars at z < 2.5, the size of the low-ionization BLR can already be constrained with existing telesc...

  9. Locally Optimally-Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K T; Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-01-01

    [abridged] We test the ``locally optimally-emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic data base of the Seyfert~1, NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an {\\em ad~hoc} selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission line light curves for the 1989 {\\em IUE} and 1993 {\\em HST} campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags --- a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those pre...

  10. Searching for Binary Supermassive Black Holes via Variable Broad Emission Line Shifts: Low Binary Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lile; Ju, Wenhua; Rafikov, Roman R; Ruan, John J; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHs) are expected to result from galaxy mergers, and thus are natural byproducts (and probes) of hierarchical structure formation in the Universe. They are also the primary expected source of low-frequency gravitational wave emission. We search for binary BHs using time-variable velocity shifts in broad Mg II emission lines of quasars with multi-epoch observations. First, we inspect velocity shifts of the binary SMBH candidates identified in Ju et al. (2013), using SDSS spectra with an additional epoch of data that lengthens the typical baseline to ~10 yr. We find variations in the line-of-sight velocity shifts over 10 years that are comparable to the shifts observed over 1-2 years, ruling out the binary model for the bulk of our candidates. We then analyze 1438 objects with 8 yr median time baselines, from which we would expect to see velocity shifts >1000 km/s from sub-pc binaries. We find only one object with an outlying velocity of 448 km/s, indicating, based on our mod...

  11. Searching for Binary Supermassive Black Holes via Variable Broad Emission Line Shifts: Low Binary Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lile; Greene, Jenny E.; Ju, Wenhua; Rafikov, Roman R.; Ruan, John J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHs) are expected to result from galaxy mergers, and thus are natural byproducts (and probes) of hierarchical structure formation in the universe. They are also the primary expected source of low-frequency gravitational wave emission. We search for binary BHs using time-variable velocity shifts in broad Mg ii emission lines of quasars with multi-epoch observations. First, we inspect velocity shifts of the binary SMBH candidates identified in Ju et al., using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra with an additional epoch of data that lengthens the typical baseline to ∼10 yr. We find variations in the line of sight velocity shifts over 10 yr that are comparable to the shifts observed over 1–2 yr, ruling out the binary model for the bulk of our candidates. We then analyze 1438 objects with eight-year median time baselines, from which we would expect to see velocity shifts >1000 {km} {{{s}}}-1 from sub-parsec binaries. We find only one object with an outlying velocity of 448 {km} {{{s}}}-1, indicating—based on our modeling—that ≲1% (the value varies with different assumptions) of SMBHs that are active as quasars reside in binaries with ∼0.1 pc separations. Binaries either sweep rapidly through these small separations or stall at larger radii.

  12. Real-time monitoring of reactive species in downstream etch reactor by VUV broad-band absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, R.; Vallier, L.; Cunge, G.; Sadeghi, N.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma etching of nanometric size, high aspect-ratio structures is more challenging at each new technological node. Remote plasmas are beginning to find use when damages on nanostructures by ion bombardment become critical or when etching with high selectivity on different materials present on the wafer is necessary (i . e . tungsten oxide etching with fluorine and hydrogen containing plasmas in remote reactor from AMAT). Furthermore, it is expected that downstream plasma will replace many wet chemical etching processes to alleviate the issue of pattern collapses caused by capillary forces when nanometer size high aspect ratio structures are immersed in liquids. In these downstream plasmas, radicals are the main active species and a control of their density is of prime importance. Most of gases used and radicals produced in etching plasmas (HBr, BrCl, Br2, NF3, CH2F2,...) have strong absorption bands in the vacuum UV spectral region and we have shown that very low concentration of these species can be detected by VUV absorption. We have recently improved the technique by using a VUV CCD camera, instead of the PMT, which render possible the Broad-Band absorption spectroscopy in the 120-200 nm range, with a deuterium lamp, or a laser produced xenon arc lamp as light source. The multi-spectral detection ability of the CCD reduces the acquisition time to less than 1 second and can permit the real time control of the process control.

  13. Constraining fundamental constants of physics with quasar absorption line systems

    CERN Document Server

    Petitjean, Patrick; Chand, Hum; Ivanchik, Alexander; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Gupta, Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the attempts by our group and others to derive constraints on variations of fundamental constants over cosmic time using quasar absorption lines. Most upper limits reside in the range 0.5-1.5x10-5 at the 3sigma level over a redshift range of approximately 0.5-2.5 for the fine-structure constant, alpha, the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu, and a combination of the proton gyromagnetic factor and the two previous constants, gp(alpha^2/mu)^nu, for only one claimed variation of alpha. It is therefore very important to perform new measurements to improve the sensitivity of the numerous methods to at least <0.1x10-5 which should be possible in the next few years. Future instrumentations on ELTs in the optical and/or ALMA, EVLA and SKA pathfinders in the radio will undoutedly boost this field by allowing to reach much better signal-to-noise ratios at higher spectral resolution and to perform measurements on molecules in the ISM of high redshift galaxies.

  14. Interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of Gamma Velorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Bhavsar, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus scans of selected interstellar absorption lines in the UV spectrum of Gamma Vel are analyzed, together with ground-based data, to obtain column densities for various ion states of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, Ca, Mn, Fe, and CO. N I and O I are fitted to a single empirical curve of growth with a velocity parameter (b) of 8 km/s; Mg II, Si II, P II, S II, Mn II, and Fe II are fitted to another curve with b between 3 and 9 km/s. Abundance determinations relative to H I show that: (1) C, N, P, S, and Ar are probably close to their solar values; (2) O may be depleted by about a factor of 2; (3) Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Mn, and Fe are depleted by a factor of 4 or more: (4) Al is depleted by at least a factor of 10 in the H II region; and (5) both N V and O VI are present, but not C IV. The N V/O VI ratio implies that the electron temperature in the H II region is about 275,000 K.

  15. Tracing Inflows and Outflows with Absorption Lines in Circumgalactic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Amanda Brady; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D; Katz, Neal; Kollmeier, Juna A; Thompson, Robert; Weinberg, David H

    2013-01-01

    We examine how HI and metal absorption lines within low-redshift galaxy halos trace the dynamical state of circumgalactic gas, using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations that include a well-vetted heuristic model for galactic outflows. We categorize inflowing, outflowing, and ambient gas based on its history and fate as tracked in our simulation. Following our earlier work showing that the ionisation level of absorbers was a primary factor in determining the physical conditions of absorbing gas, we show here that it is also a governing factor for its dynamical state. Low-ionisation metal absorbers (e.g. MgII) tend to arise in gas that will fall onto galaxies within several Gyr, while high-ionisation metal absorbers (e.g. OVI) generally trace material that was deposited by outflows many Gyr ago. Inflowing gas is dominated by enriched material that was previously ejected in an outflow, hence accretion at low redshifts is typically substantially enriched. Recycling wind material is preferentially found closer t...

  16. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  17. The intensity calculation of the gas absorption line by multi-line Voigt fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Meng-ran; LI Zhen-bi; ZHONG Ming-yu; HE Gang

    2008-01-01

    Adopted the distribution feedback type (DFB) laser to measure the coal minegas methane,according to the methane located 1.6 pm nearby 2 v3 with a R9 direct ab-sorption spectrum,attraction wire intensity of each line was calculated through the multi-line Voigt fitting.The experimental result indicates that in the obtained four attraction recover of wire,the maximum deviation is 2.7%,and the minimum deviation is 0.02%,other results are all in experimental error scope.This research method may apply in the spectrum survey methane gas density,it has characteristics including high precision,strong selectivity,fast response and so on.

  18. Broad-line Reverberation in the Kepler-field Seyfert Galaxy Zw 229-015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Nguyen, My L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Gorjian, Varoujan; Joner, Michael D.; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Botyanszki, Janos; Cenko, S. Bradley; Childress, Michael; Choi, Jieun; Comerford, Julia M.; Cucciara, Antonino; da Silva, Robert; Duchêne, Gaspard; Fumagalli, Michele; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gates, Elinor L.; Gerke, Brian F.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Harris, Chelsea; Hintz, Eric G.; Hsiao, Eric; Kandrashoff, Michael T.; Keel, William C.; Kirkman, David; Kleiser, Io K. W.; Laney, C. David; Lee, Jeffrey; Lopez, Liliana; Lowe, Thomas B.; Moody, J. Ward; Morton, Alekzandir; Nierenberg, A. M.; Nugent, Peter; Pancoast, Anna; Rex, Jacob; Rich, R. Michael; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Suzuki, Nao; Tytler, David; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yang, Yizhe; Zeisse, Carl

    2011-05-01

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from Hβ reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3 m telescope during the dark runs from 2010 June through December, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9 m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of two change in broad Hβ flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the Hβ light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86+0.69 -0.90 days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for Hα and Hγ and find an upper limit to the Hδ lag. Combining the Hβ lag measurement with a broad Hβ width of σline = 1590 ± 47 km s-1 measured from the rms variability spectrum, we obtain a virial estimate of M BH = 1.00+0.19 -0.24 × 107 M sun for the black hole in Zw 229-015. As a Kepler target, Zw 229-015 will eventually have one of the highest-quality optical light curves ever measured for any active galaxy, and the black hole mass determined from reverberation mapping will serve as a benchmark for testing relationships between black hole mass and continuum variability characteristics in active galactic nuclei.

  19. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ligong; Li, Di; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-11-01

    A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively.A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More XPS and UV-Vis spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04402e

  20. The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-ray Burst Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, D; Parrent, J T; Soderberg, A M; Fesen, R A; Mazzali, P; Maeda, K; Sanders, N E; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Filippenko, A V; Kamble, A; Chakraborti, S; Drout, M R; Kirshner, R P; Pickering, T E; Kawabata, K; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E Y; Stritzinger, M D; Marion, G H; Vinko, J; Wheeler, J C

    2014-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of 20,000 km/s that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (> 27,000 km/s). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Msolar, a kinetic energy of 1.0x10^{52} erg, and a 56Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Msolar. Nebular spectra (t > 200d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [OI] 6300,6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an al...

  1. Ultrafast light induced unusually broad transient absorption in the sub-bandgap region of GeSe2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, A. R.; Bapna, Mukund; Drabold, D. A.; Adarsh, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show for the first time that ultrafast light illumination can induce an unusually broad transient optical absorption (TA), spanning of ~ 200 nm in the sub-bandgap region of chalcogenide GeSe2 thin films, which we interpret as being a manifestation of creation and annihilation of light induced defects. Further, TA in ultrashort time scales show a maximum at longer wavelength, however blue shifts as time evolves, which provides the first direct evidence of the multiple decay mechanisms of these defects. Detailed global analysis of the kinetic data clearly demonstrates that two and three decay constants are required to quantitatively model the experimental data at ps and ns respectively.

  2. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS) : Detecting spiral arm clouds by CH absorption lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.-L; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Möller, T.; Rolffs, R.; Müller, H.S.P.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Bergin, E. A.; Bell, T. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Blake, G.A.; Cabrit, S.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M. -L; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Morris, P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pagani, L.; Pearson, J. C.; Pérault, M.; Plume, R.; Salez, M.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Wang, S.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Boogert, A.; Güsten, R.; Hartogh, P.; Honingh, N.; Karpov, A.; Kooi, J.; Krieg, J. -M; Schieder, R.; Diez-Gonzalez, M. C.; Bachiller, R.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Baechtold, W.; Olberg, M.; Nordh, L. H.; Gill, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, G.

    2010-01-01

    We have observed CH absorption lines (J = 3/2, N = 1 ≤ftarrow J = 1/2, N = 1) against the continuum source Sgr B2(M) using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. With the high spectral resolution and wide velocity coverage provided by HIFI, 31 CH absorption features with different radial velocities and line

  3. Evidence for Magnetar Formation in Broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae 1998bw and 2002ap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. J.; Yu, H.; Liu, L. D.; Wang, S. Q.; Han, Y. H.; Xu, D.; Dai, Z. G.; Qiu, Y. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Broad-lined type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are peculiar stellar explosions that are distinct from ordinary SNe. Some SNe Ic-BL are associated with long-duration (≳ 2 {{s}}) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Black holes and magnetars are two types of compact objects that are hypothesized to be central engines of GRBs. In spite of decades of investigations, no direct evidence for the formation of black holes or magnetars has yet been found for GRBs. Here we report the finding that the early peak (t≲ 50 {days}) and late-time (t≳ 300 {days}) slow decay displayed in the light curves of SNe 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) and 2002ap (not GRB-associated) can be attributed to magnetar spin-down with an initial rotation period {P}0∼ 20 {ms}, while the intermediate-time (50≲ t≲ 300 {days}) exponential decline is caused by the radioactive decay of 56Ni. The connection between the early peak and late-time slow decline in the light curves is unexpected in alternative models. We thus suggest that GRB 980425 and SN 2002ap were powered by magnetars.

  4. Solving the 56Ni puzzle of magnetar-powered broad-lined type Ic supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Xu, Dong; Wang, Shan-Qin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Broad-lined type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are of great importance because their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) holds the key to deciphering the central engine of LGRBs, which refrains from being unveiled despite decades of investigation. Among the two popularly hypothesized types of central engine, i.e., black holes and strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars), there is mounting evidence that the central engine of GRB-associated SNe (GRB-SNe) is rapidly rotating magnetars. Theoretical analysis also suggests that magnetars could be the central engine of SNe Ic-BL. What puzzled the researchers is the fact that light curve modeling indicates that as much as 0.2-0.5 solar mass of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion of the SNe Ic-BL, which is unfortunately in direct conflict with current state-of-the-art understanding of magnetar-powered 56Ni synthesis. Here we propose a dynamic model of magnetar-powered SNe to take into account the acceleration of the ejecta by the magnetar, a...

  5. ISO observations and models of galaxies with Hidden Broad Line Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Efstathiou, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present ISO mid-infrared spectrophotometry and far-infrared photometry of galaxies with Hidden Broad Line Regions (HBLR). We also present radiative transfer models of their spectral energy distributions which enable us to separate the contributions from the dusty disc of the AGN and the dusty starbursts. We find that the combination of tapered discs (discs whose thickness increases with distance from the central source in the inner part but stays constant in the outer part) and starbursts provide good fits to the data. The tapered discs dominate in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum and the starbursts in the far-infrared. After correcting the AGN luminosity for anisotropic emission we find that the ratio of the AGN luminosity to the starburst luminosity, L(AGN)/L(SB), ranges from about unity for IRAS14454-4343 to about 13 for IRAS01475-0740. Our results suggest that the warm IRAS colours of HBLR are due to the relatively high L(AGN)/L(SB). Our fits are consistent with the unified model and...

  6. Evidence for magnetar formation in broad-lined type Ic supernovae 1998bw and 2002ap

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, L J; Liu, L D; Wang, S Q; Han, Y H; Xu, D; Dai, Z G; Qiu, Y L; Wei, J Y

    2016-01-01

    Broad-lined type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are peculiar stellar explosions that distinguish themselves from ordinary SNe. Some SNe Ic-BL are associated with long-duration (\\gtrsim 2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Black holes and magnetars are two types of compact objects that are hypothesized to be central engines of GRBs. In spite of decades of investigations, no direct evidence for the formation of black holes or magnetars has been found for GRBs so far. Here we report the discovery that the early peak (t \\lesssim 50 days) and late-time (t \\gtrsim 300 days) slow decay displayed in the light curves of both SNe 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) and 2002ap (not GRB-associated) can be attributed to magnetar spin-down with initial rotation period P0 \\sim 20 ms, while the intermediate-time (50 \\lesssim t \\lesssim 300 days) linear decline is caused by radioactive decay of 56Ni. The connection between the early peak and late-time slow decline in the light curves is unexpected in alternative models. We thus suggest t...

  7. The study of Seyfert 2 galaxies with and without infrared broad lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bing Cai; Xin-Wen Shu; Zhen-Ya Zheng; Jun-Xian Wang

    2010-01-01

    From the literature,we construct a sample of 25 Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s)with a broad line region (BLR) detected in near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and 29with NIR BLRs which were not detected. We find no significant difference between the nuclei luminosity (extinction-corrected [OIII] 5007) and infrared color f60/f25 between the two populations,suggesting that the non-detections of NIR BLRs could not be due to low AGN luminosity or contamination from the host galaxy. As expected,we find significantly lower X-ray obscurations in Seyfert 2s with NIR BLR detection,supporting the unification scheme. However,such a scheme was challenged by the detection of NIR BLRs in heavily X-ray obscured sources,especially in six of them with Compton-thick X-ray obscuration. The discrepancy could be solved by the clumpy torus model and we propose a toy model demonstrating that IR-thin Xray-thick S2s could be viewed at intermediate inclinations and compared with those IR-thick X-ray-thick S2s. We note that two of the IR-thin X-ray-thick S2s (NGC 1386 and NGC 7674) experienced X-ray transitions,i.e. from Compton-thin to Comptonthick appearance or vice versa based on previous X-ray observations,suggesting that X-ray transitions could be common in this special class of objects.

  8. The Cold Dust Content of Broad and Narrow-Line, Optically Luminous, nearby QSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, A.

    2015-09-01

    Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the overwhelming majority of spheroidal galaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that, with some important caveats, the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the spheroid and the bulge luminosities. Much research has been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms responsible for such a fundamental perhaps causal relation. An accurate census of the basic properties of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in AGN host is pertinent to those investigations because cold molecular gas is the basic fuel for star-formation and black hole growth. We present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess aggregate dust properties. We investigate the relation between star-formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the IR luminosities and SFRs determined from measurements of the 11.3 micron PAH. The differences between the cold dust properties of narrow and broad line AGN will be discussed in the context of models that envision that quasar activity is triggered by gas-rich galaxy mergers.

  9. Correlations among Jet, Accretion Disk, and Broad Line Region of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin; He, Jian-Jian; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The SEDs of 18 GeV FSRQs are collected and compiled from literature, in which both the jet emission and the accretion disk radiation can be observed, in order to investigate the correlations among their jet power (P_jet), accretion disk luminosity (L_disk), and luminosity of broad line region (BLR, L_BLR). On the basis of the SED fits with the jet radiation and accretion disk radiation models, we calculate P_jet and L_disk. No correlation between P_jet with either L_disk or L_BLR is found. With a sub-sample of L_BLR for 13 GeV FSRQs, it is observed that L_BLR is strongly correlated with their L_disk. We also study the BLR covering factors of the GeV FSRQs in our sample, averagely which are smaller than that of the large samples of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. P_jet of some GeV FSRQs is higher than L_disk, but P_jet of all the GeV FSRQs is lower than the accretion power of black hole (BH), which is estimated by \\dot{M}c^2=L_disk/0.1, indicating that the total accretion power of BH is sufficient to drive...

  10. On the orbital motion of cold clouds in broad-line regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen

    2015-08-01

    We study the orbit of a pressure-confined cloud in the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei when the combined effects of the central gravity and anisotropic radiation pressure and the drag force are considered. The physical properties of the intercloud gas, such as its pressure and dynamic viscosity, are defined as power-law functions of the radial distance. For a drag force proportional to the relative velocity of a cloud and the background gas, a detailed analysis of the orbits is performed for different values of the input parameters. We also present analytical solutions for when the intercloud pressure is uniform and the viscosity is proportional to the inverse square of the radial distance. Our analytical and numerical solutions demonstrate decay of the orbits due to the drag force, so that a cloud will eventually fall on to the central region after the so-called time-of-flight. We found that the time-of-flight of a BLR cloud is proportional to the inverse of the dimensionless drag coefficient. If the time-of-flight becomes shorter than the lifetime of the whole system, then mechanisms for continually forming BLR clouds are needed.

  11. Broad Band X-Ray Observations of the Narrow Line X-Ray Galaxy NGC 5506

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, T G; Otani, C; Matsuoka, M; Awaki, H

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of broad band X-ray data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC5506. 2-10 keV band are detected during a 1-day ASCA observation, while no significant change in the 2-10 keV continuum shape is found. The ASCA spectrum consists of an absorbed power-law, a 'soft excess' below 2 keV, and an Fe K$\\alpha$ emission line at 6.4 keV. The 'soft excess' can be well described by either thermal emission from very low abundance material at a temperature kT$\\simeq$0.8 keV, or scattered/leaking flux from the primary power-law plus a small amount of thermal emission. Analysis of ROSAT HRI data reveals that the soft X-ray emission is extended on kpc scales in this object, and the extended component may account for most of the soft X-ray excess observed by the ASCA. The result suggests that in this type 2 AGN, the 'soft excess' at least partly comes from an extended region, imposing serious problem for the model in which the source is partially covered. Fe K$\\alpha$ profile is complex and can not be satisfac...

  12. Gravitational Microlensing of a Reverberating Quasar Broad Line Region - I. Method and Qualitative Results

    CERN Document Server

    Garsden, H; Lewis, G F

    2011-01-01

    The kinematics and morphology of the broad emission line region (BELR) of quasars are the subject of significant debate. The two leading methods for constraining BELR properties are microlensing and reverberation mapping. Here we combine these two methods with a study of the microlensing behaviour of the BELR in Q2237+0305, as a change in continuum emission (a "flare") passes through it. Beginning with some generic models of the BELR - sphere, bicones, disk - we slice in velocity and time to produce brightness profiles of the BELR over the duration of the flare. These are numerically microlensed to determine whether microlensing of reverberation mapping provides new information about the properties of BELRs. We describe our method and show images of the models as they are flaring, and the unlensed and lensed spectra that are produced. Qualitative results and a discussion of the spectra are given in this paper, highlighting some effects that could be observed. Our conclusion is that the influence of microlensi...

  13. The High Energy view of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 111

    CERN Document Server

    Ballo, L; Reeves, J N; Sambruna, R M; Tombesi, F

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of the broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG) 3C 111. Its high energy emission shows variability, a harder continuum with respect to the radio quiet AGN population, and weak reflection features. Suzaku found the source in a minimum flux level; a comparison with the XMM-Newton data implies an increase of a factor of 2.5 in the 0.5-10 keV flux, in the 6 months separating the two observations. The iron K complex is detected in both datasets, with rather low equivalent width(s). The intensity of the iron K complex does not respond to the change in continuum flux. An ultra-fast, high-ionization outflowing gas is clearly detected in the XIS data; the absorber is most likely unstable. Indeed, during the XMM-Newton observation, which was 6 months after, the absorber was not detected. No clear roll-over in the hard X-ray emission is detected, probably due to the emergence of the jet as a dominant component in the hard X-ray band, as suggested by the detection above...

  14. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization Hα line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of Hα favors a flattened, virialized, low-ionization region whereas the symmetric microlensing effect measured in CIV can be reproduced by an emission line formed in a polar wind, without the need of fine-tuned caustic configurations. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposals 076.B-0197 and 076.B-0607 (PI: Courbin).

  15. SN 2010ay IS A LUMINOUS AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA WITHIN A LOW-METALLICITY HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valenti, S.; Smartt, S.; Botticella, M. T. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Terada, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{pi} survey just {approx}4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, M{sub R} Almost-Equal-To -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v{sub Si} Almost-Equal-To 19 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1} at {approx}40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines {approx}2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of {sup 56}Ni, M{sub Ni} = 0.9 M{sub Sun }. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 4.7 M{sub Sun }, and total kinetic energy, E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To 11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. The ratio of M{sub Ni} to M{sub ej} is {approx}2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H){sub PP04} + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and {approx}0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E{sub {gamma}} {approx}< 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E {approx}> 10{sup 48} erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less

  16. C IV absorption line variability in X-ray bright BALQSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Ravi; Srianand, Raghunathan; Majumdar, Jhilik

    2014-01-01

    We report kinematic shift and strength variability of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough in two high-ionization X-ray bright QSOs SDSS J085551+375752 (at zem ~ 1.936) and SDSS J091127+055054 (at zem ~ 2.793). Both these QSOs have shown combination of profile shift, appearance and disappearance of absorption components belonging to a single BAL trough, which we argue that they can be explained by combination of transverse and curved path motion of many small clouds. Our results supports the BAL outflow models involving many small self shielded clouds with low volume filling factor rather than a conventional single homogeneous continuous radial outflows. We found an average deceleration of ~ - 0.69 \\pm 0.09 cm/s^2, - 1.96 \\pm 0.09 cm/s^2 over a rest-frame time-span of 3.11 yr and 2.34 yr for SDSS J085551+375752 and SDSS J091127+055054, respectively. To our knowledge, these are largest kinematic shifts exceeding by factor 2.8, 7.8 than the highest deceleration reported in the literature; making both of them...

  17. The different origins of high- and low-ionization broad emission lines revealed by gravitational microlensing in the Einstein cross

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique; Anguita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the kinematics and ionization structure of the broad emission line region of the gravitationally lensed quasar QSO2237+0305 (the Einstein cross) using differential microlensing in the high- and low-ionization broad emission lines. We combine visible and near-infrared spectra of the four images of the lensed quasar and detect a large-amplitude microlensing effect distorting the high-ionization CIV and low-ionization H$\\alpha$ line profiles in image A. While microlensing only magnifies the red wing of the Balmer line, it symmetrically magnifies the wings of the CIV emission line. Given that the same microlensing pattern magnifies both the high- and low-ionization broad emission line regions, these dissimilar distortions of the line profiles suggest that the high- and low-ionization regions are governed by different kinematics. Since this quasar is likely viewed at intermediate inclination, we argue that the differential magnification of the blue and red wings of H$\\alpha$ favors a flattened, viri...

  18. A Census of Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies: Coeval Star Formation and Rapid Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Fang, Jerome J; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D

    2012-01-01

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are used to dis- entangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid superm...

  19. Solving the 56Ni Puzzle of Magnetar-powered Broad-lined Type IC Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Han, Yan-Hui; Xu, Dong; Wang, Shan-Qin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are of great importance because their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) holds the key to deciphering the central engine of LGRBs, which refrains from being unveiled despite decades of investigation. Among the two popularly hypothesized types of central engine, i.e., black holes and strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars), there is mounting evidence that the central engine of GRB-associated SNe (GRB-SNe) is rapidly rotating magnetars. Theoretical analysis also suggests that magnetars could be the central engine of SNe Ic-BL. What puzzled the researchers is the fact that light-curve modeling indicates that as much as 0.2{--}0.5 {M}⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion of the SNe Ic-BL, which is unfortunately in direct conflict with current state-of-the-art understanding of magnetar-powered 56Ni synthesis. Here we propose a dynamic model of magnetar-powered SNe to take into account the acceleration of the ejecta by the magnetar, as well as the thermalization of the injected energy. Assuming that the SN kinetic energy comes exclusively from the magnetar acceleration, we find that although a major fraction of the rotational energy of the magnetar is to accelerate the SN ejecta, a tiny fraction of this energy deposited as thermal energy of the ejecta is enough to reduce the needed 56Ni to 0.06 M ⊙ for both SN 1997ef and SN 2007ru. We therefore suggest that magnetars could power SNe Ic-BL in aspects both of energetics and of 56Ni synthesis.

  20. Kinematics and structure of clumps in broad-line regions in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayuri, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We use the Jeans equations for an ensemble of collisionless particles to describe the distribution of broad-line region (BLR) cloud in three classes: (A) non-disc (B) disc-wind (C) pure disc structure. We propose that clumpy structures in the brightest quasars belong to class A, fainter quasars and brighter Seyferts belong to class B, and dimmer Seyfert galaxies and all low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) belong to class C. We derive the virial factor, f, for disc-like structures and find a negative correlation between the inclination angle, θ0, and f. We find similar behaviour for f as a function of the FWHM and σz, the z component of velocity dispersion. For different values of θ0 we find that 1.0 ≲ f ≲ 9.0 in type1 AGNs and 0.5 ≲ f ≲ 1.0 in type2 AGNs. Moreover we have 0.5 ≲ f ≲ 6.5 for different values of FWHM and 1.4 ≲ f ≲ 1.8 for different values of σz. We also find that f is relatively insensitive to the variations of bolometric luminosity and column density of each cloud and the range of variation of f is in order of 0.01. Considering wide range of f we see the use of average virial factor is not very safe. Therefore we propose AGN community to divide a sample into a few subsamples based on the value of θ0 and FWHM of members and calculate for each group separately to reduce uncertainty in black hole mass estimation.

  1. Modelling photometric reverberation data -- a disk-like broad line region and larger black hole mass for 3C120

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, F Pozo; Ramolla, M; Westhues, C; Haas, M; Chini, R; Steenbrugge, K; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2013-01-01

    We consider photometric reverberation mapping, where the nuclear continuum variations are monitored via a broad band filter and the echo of emission line clouds of the broad line region (BLR) is measured with a suitable narrow band (NB) filter. We investigate how an incomplete emission line coverage by the NB filter influences the BLR size determination. This includes two basic cases: 1) a symmetric cut of the blue and red part of the line wings, and 2) the filter positioned asymmetrically to the line center so that essentially a complete half of the emission line is contained in the NB filter. We find that symmetric cutting of line wings may lead to an overestimate of the BLR size which is less than 5%. The case of asymmetric line coverage, as for our data of the Seyfert-1 galaxy 3C120, yields the BLR size with less than 1% bias. Our results suggest that any BLR size bias due to narrow-band line cut in photometric reverberation mapping is small and in most cases negligible. We use well sampled photometric re...

  2. The nature of a broad line radio galaxy: Simultaneous RXTE and Chandra HETG observations of 3C 382

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, M; Eracleous, M; Yaqoob, T

    2007-01-01

    We present the results from simultaneous chandra and rxte observations of the X-ray bright Broad-Line Radio Galaxy (BLRG) 3C 382. The long (120 ks) exposure with chandra HETG allows a detailed study of the soft X-ray continuum and of the narrow component of the Fe Kalpha line. The rxte PCA data are used to put an upper limit on the broad line component and constrain the hard X-ray continuum. A strong soft excess below 1 keV is observed in the time-averaged HETG spectrum, which can be parameterized with a steep power law or a thermal model. The flux variability at low energies indicates that the origin of the soft excess cannot be entirely ascribed to the circumnuclear diffuse emission, detected by chandra on scales of 20-30 arcsec (22-33 kpc). A narrow (sigma<90 eV) Fe Kalpha line (with EW< 100 eV) is observed by the chandra HEG. Similar values for the line parameters are measured by the rxte PCA, suggesting that the contribution from a broad line component is negligible. The fact that the exposure is s...

  3. Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang

    2012-05-15

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) sandwich a blend layer of conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor between a transparent ITO positive electrode and a low work function metal negative electrode. In comparison with traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, PSCs offer a simpler device structure, easier fabrication, lower cost, and lighter weight, and these structures can be fabricated into flexible devices. But currently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs is not sufficient for future commercialization. The polymer donors and fullerene derivative acceptors are the key photovoltaic materials that will need to be optimized for high-performance PSCs. In this Account, I discuss the basic requirements and scientific issues in the molecular design of high efficiency photovoltaic molecules. I also summarize recent progress in electronic energy level engineering and absorption spectral broadening of the donor and acceptor photovoltaic materials by my research group and others. For high-efficiency conjugated polymer donors, key requirements are a narrower energy bandgap (E(g)) and broad absorption, relatively lower-lying HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) level, and higher hole mobility. There are three strategies to meet these requirements: D-A copolymerization for narrower E(g) and lower-lying HOMO, substitution with electron-withdrawing groups for lower-lying HOMO, and two-dimensional conjugation for broad absorption and higher hole mobility. Moreover, better main chain planarity and less side chain steric hindrance could strengthen π-π stacking and increase hole mobility. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polymers also influences their photovoltaic performance. To produce high efficiency photovoltaic polymers, researchers should attempt to increase molecular weight while maintaining solubility. High-efficiency D-A copolymers have been obtained by using benzodithiophene (BDT), dithienosilole

  4. Effect of a progressive sound wave on the profiles of spectral lines. 2: Asymmetry of faint Fraunhofer lines. [absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyk, R. I.

    1974-01-01

    The absorption coefficient profile was calculated for lines of different chemical elements in a medium with progressive sound waves. Calculations show that (1) the degree and direction of asymmetry depend on the atomic ionization potential and the potential of lower level excitation of the individual line; (2) the degree of asymmetry of a line decreases from the center toward the limb of the solar disc; and (3) turbulent motions 'suppress' the asymmetry.

  5. The location of the broad HI absorption in 3C305: clear evidence for a jet-accelerated neutral outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, R; Tadhunter, C N; Van Moorsel, G; Emonts, B

    2005-01-01

    We present high-spatial resolution 21-cm HI VLA observations of the radio galaxy 3C305 (z=0.041). These new high-resolution data show that the ~1000 km/s broad HI absorption, earlier detected in low-resolution WSRT observations, is occurring against the bright, eastern radio lobe, about 1.6 kpc from the nucleus. We use new optical spectra taken with the WHT to make a detailed comparison of the kinematics of the neutral hydrogen with that of the ionised gas. The striking similarity between the complex kinematics of the two gas phases suggests that both the ionised gas and the neutral gas are part of the same outflow. Earlier studies of the ionised gas had already found evidence for a strong interaction between the radio jet and the interstellar medium at the location of the eastern radio lobe. Our results show that the fast outflow produced by this interaction also contains a component of neutral atomic hydrogen. The most likely interpretation is that the radio jet ionises the ISM and accelerates it to the hig...

  6. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. IV. Anomalous behavior of the broad ultraviolet emission lines in NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R; De Rosa, G; Kriss, G A; Edelson, R; Barth, A J; Ferland, G J; Kochanek, C S; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; Bentz, M C; Bisogni, S; Crenshaw, D M; Denney, K D; Ely, J; Fausnaugh, M M; Grier, C J; Gupta, A; Horne, K D; Kaastra, J; Pancoast, A; Pei, L; Pogge, R W; Skielboe, A; Starkey, D; Vestergaard, M; Zu, Y; Anderson, M D; Arevalo, P; Bazhaw, C; Borman, G A; Boroson, T A; Bottorff, M C; Brandt, W N; Breeveld, A A; Brewer, B J; Cackett, E M; Carini, M T; Croxall, K V; Bonta, E Dalla; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Dietrich, M; Efimova, N V; Evans, P A; Filippenko, A V; Flatland, K; Gehrels, N; Geier, S; Gelbord, G M; Gonzalez, L; Gorjian, V; Grupe, D; Hall, P B; Hicks, S; Horenstein, D; Hutchison, T; Im, M; Jensen, J J; Joner, M D; Jones, J; Kaspi, S; Kelly, B C; Kennea, J A; Kim, M; Kim, S C; Klimanov, S A; Larionov, V M; Lee, J C; Leonard, D C; Lira, P; MacInnis, F; Manne-Nicholas, E R; Mathur, S; McHardy, I M; Montouri, C; Musso, R; Nazarov, S V; Norris, R P; Nousek, J A; Okhmat, D N; Papadakis, I; Parks, J R; Pott, J -U; Rafter, S E; Rix, H -W; Saylor, D A; Schimoia, J S; Schnulle, K; Sergeev, S G; Siegel, M; Spencer, M; Sung, H -I; Teems, K G; Treu, T; Turner, C S; Uttley, P; Villforth, C; Weiss, Y; Woo, J -H; Yan, H; Young, S; Zheng, W -K

    2016-01-01

    During an intensive Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) UV monitoring campaign of the Seyfert~1 galaxy NGC 5548 performed from 2014 February to July, the normally highly correlated far-UV continuum and broad emission-line variations decorrelated for ~60 to 70 days, starting ~75 days after the first HST/COS observation. Following this anomalous state, the flux and variability of the broad emission lines returned to a more normal state. This transient behavior, characterised by significant deficits in flux and equivalent width of the strong broad UV emission lines, is the first of its kind to be unambiguously identified in an active galactic nucleus reverberation mapping campaign. The largest corresponding emission-line flux deficits occurred for the high-ionization collisionally excited lines, C IV and Si IV(+O IV]), and also He II(+O III]), while the anomaly in Ly-alpha was substantially smaller. This pattern of behavior indicates a depletion in the flux of photons with E_{\\rm ph} >...

  7. The link between broad emission line fluctuations and non-thermal emission from the inner AGN jet

    CERN Document Server

    León-Tavares, J; Lobanov, A; Valtaoja, E; Arshakian, T G

    2014-01-01

    AGN reverberate when the broad emission lines respond to changes of the ionizing thermal continuum emission. Reverberation measurements have been commonly used to estimate the size of the broad-line region (BLR) and the mass of the central black hole. However, reverberation mapping studies have been mostly performed on radio-quiet sources where the contribution of the jet can be neglected. In radio-loud AGN, jets and outflows may affect substantially the relation observed between the ionizing continuum and the line emission. To investigate this relation, we have conducted a series of multiwavelength studies of radio-loud AGN, combining optical spectral line monitoring with regular VLBI observations. Our results suggest that at least a fraction of the broad-line emitting material can be located in a sub-relativistic outflow ionized by non-thermal continuum emission generated in the jet at large distances (> 1pc) from the central engine of AGN. This finding may have a strong impact on black hole mass estimates ...

  8. Steps towards determination of the size and structure of the Broad-Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei; 13, Ultraviolet observations of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 390.3

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, P T; Leighly, K; Alloin, D; Clavel, J; Crenshaw, D M; Edelson, R A; Horne, K; Kriss, G A; Krolik, J H; Malkan, M A; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; Reichert, G A; Rodríguez-Pascual, P M; Wamsteker, W; Watch, The International AGN

    1998-01-01

    As part of an extensive multi-wavelength monitoring campaign, the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite was used to observe the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 during the period 1994 December 31 to 1996 March 5. Spectra were obtained every 6-10 days. The UV continuum varied by a factor of 7 through the campaign, while the broad emission-lines varied by factors of 2-5. Unlike previously monitored Seyfert 1 galaxies, in which the X-ray continuum generally varies with a larger amplitude than the UV, in 3C 390.3 the UV continuum light-curve is similar in both amplitude and shape to the X-ray light-curve observed by ROSAT. The UV broad emission-line variability lags that of the UV continuum by 35-70 days for Ly-alpha and CIV 1549; values larger than those found for Seyfert 1 galaxies of comparable UV luminosity. These lags are also larger than those found for the Balmer lines in 3C 390.3 over the same period. The red and blue wings of CIV and Ly-alpha vary in phase, suggesting that radial motion does not d...

  9. On the reality of broad iron L lines from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies 1H0707-495 and IRAS 13224-3809

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbhari Pawar, Pramod; Dewangan, Gulab Chand; Khushalrao Patil, Madhav; Misra, Ranjeev; Keshav Jogadand, Sharada

    2016-11-01

    We performed time resolved spectroscopy of 1H0707-495 and IRAS 13224-3809 using long XMM-Newton observations. These are strongly variable narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies and show broad features around 1 keV that have been interpreted as relativistically broad Fe Lα lines. Such features are not clearly observed in other active galactic nuclei despite sometimes having high iron abundance required by the best fitted blurred reflection models. Given the importance of these lines, we explore whether the rapid variability of spectral parameters may introduce broad bumps/dips artificially in the time averaged spectrum, which may then be mistaken as broadened lines. We tested this hypothesis by performing time resolved spectroscopy using long (>100 ks) XMM-Newton observations and by dividing them into segments with typical exposures of a few ks. We extracted spectra from each such segment and modeled them using a two component phenomenological model consisting of a power law to represent the hard component and a black body to represent the soft emission. As expected, both the sources showed variations in the spectral parameters. Using these variation trends, we simulated model spectra for each segment and then co-added to get a combined simulated spectrum. In the simulated spectra, we found no broad features below 1 keV and in particular no deviation near 0.9 keV as seen in the real averaged spectra. This implies that the broad Fe Lα line that is seen in the spectra of these sources is not an artifact of the variation of spectral components and, hence, provides evidence that the line is indeed genuine.

  10. Absorption line profile recovery based on TDLS and MEMS micro-mirror for photoacoustic gas sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Arsad, Norhana; Stewart, George; Thursby, Graham; Uttamchandani, Deepak; Culshaw, Brian; Yi-ding, Wang

    2011-07-01

    A novel and efficient absorption line recovery technique is presented. A micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror driven by an electrothermal actuator is used to generate laser intensity modulation through the mirror reflection. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) are used to recover the target absorption line profile which is compared with the theoretical Voigt profile. The target gas is 0.01% acetylene (C2H2) in a nitrogen host gas. The laser diode wavelength is swept across the P17 absorption line of acetylene at 1535.4 nm by a current ramp, and an erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is used to enhance the optical intensity and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A SNR of about 35 is obtained with 100 mW laser power from the EDFA. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental results and the theoretical simulation for the P17 absorption line profile.

  11. Absorption Line Profile Recovery Based on TDLS and MEMS Micro-Mirror for Photoacoustic Gas Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; Norhana Arsad; George Stewart; Graham Thursby; Deepak Uttamchandani; Brian Culshaw; WANG Yi-ding

    2011-01-01

    A novel and efficient absorption line recovery technique is presented. A micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror driven by an electrothermal actuator is used to generate laser intensity modulation through the mirror reflection. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) are used to recover the target absorption line profile which is compared with the theoretical Voigt profile. The target gas is 0.01% acetylene (C2 H2 ) in a nitrogen host gas. The laser diode wavelength is swept across the P17 absorption line of acetylene at 1 535.4 nm by a current ramp, and an erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) is used to enhance the optical intensity and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A SNR of about 35 is obtained with 100 mW laser power from the EDFA Good agreement is achieved between the experimental results and the theoretical simulation for the P17 absorption line profile.

  12. Active galactic nuclei at z~1.5: II. Black Hole Mass estimation by means of broad emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mejía-Restrepo, Julián E; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Capellupo, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers aiming to test how the mass ($M_{\\rm BH}$), accretion rate ($\\dot{M}$) and spin ($a_{*}$) of super massive black holes (SMBHs) determine the observed properties of type-I active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our project utilizes a sample of 39 unobscured AGN at $z\\simeq1.55$ observed by VLT/X-shooter, selected to map a large range in $M_{\\rm BH}$ and $L/L_{\\rm edd}$ and covers the most prominent UV-optical (broad) emission lines, including H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$, MgII, and CIV. This paper focuses on single-epoch, "virial" $M_{\\rm BH}$ determinations from broad emission lines and examines the implications of different continuum modeling approaches in line width measurements. We find that using a "local" power-law continuum instead of a physically-motivated thin disk continuum leads to only slight underestimation of the FWHM of the lines and the associated $M_{\\rm BH}\\left({\\rm FWHM}\\right)$. However, the line dispersion $\\sigma_{\\rm line}$ and associated $M_{\\rm BH}\\left(\\sigma_{...

  13. Probing low-redshift galaxies using quasar absorption lines with an emphasis on Ca II absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardane, Gendith M.

    2016-05-01

    We searched for intervening CaII absorption in nearly 95,000 quasar spectra with i≤20 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS) data releases DR7+DR9. Our identification of >400 CaII systems is the largest compilation of CaII absorbers in a blind search. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  14. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  15. High Resolution Spectropolarimetry of the H-alpha Line: Obscured Stars and Absorptive Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Harrington, D M

    2008-01-01

    The near-star environment around obscured stars is very dynamic. Many classes of stars show evidence for winds, disks, inflows and outflows with many phenomena occurring simultaneously. These processes are involved in stellar evolution, star and planet formation, and influence the formation and habitability of planets around host stars. Even for the nearest stars, this region will not be imaged even after the completion of the next generation of telescopes. Other methods for measuring the physical properties of circumstellar material must be developed. The polarization of light across spectral lines is a signature that contains information about the circumstellar material on these small spatial scales. We used the HiVIS (R=13000 to 50000) and ESPaDOnS (R=68000) spectropolarimeters to monitor several classes of stars on over a hundred nights of observing from 2004-2008. In 10/30 classical Be stars, the traditional broad depolarization morphology is reproduced, but with some additional absorptive effects in 4 o...

  16. Broad band Transmission Performance over Residential Power Lines Employing VDSL2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani K R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridging and Transmission of VDSL2 broadband over power lines has received considerable attention recently to cater to broadband distribution within the premises of a residence. Power lines are fundamentally different from telephone lines both in topology and load impedance. Power lines have a thicker gauge and shorter straight lengths, apart from a large number of bridge taps (BT with inductive load terminations, which are not matched to line impedances. In this paper ABCD parameters of the individual sections are used to analyze the power line channel of upto 10 bridge taps over a 600 meter length. The noise profiles considered include periodic impulse noise which is predominant over power line sections, apart from AWGN. Tone loading profiles have been obtained using Discrete Multitone Transmission (DMT as in VDSL2 over a bandwidth of 30 MHz. This analysis points to the fact that lower Transmit PSD would suffice to match the rates achievable by traditional VDSL2 when bridge taps are open. However with inductive loads typical in residences, we recommend a two step approach of (a equipping existing VDSL2 modem front end hybrids with settable impedances that would approach a conjugate match of the loaded line along with (b capability to nominally increase the Transmit PSD and added subbands to achieve the desired rates in a seamless manner as in VDSL2.

  17. Direct Insights into Observational Absorption Line Analysis Methods of the Circumgalactic Medium Using Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, Christopher W; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Klypin, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    We study the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of a z=0.54 simulated dwarf galaxy using hydroART simulations. We present our analysis methods, which emulate observations, including objective absorption line detection, apparent optical depth (AOD) measurements, Voigt profile (VP) decomposition, and ionization modelling. By comparing the inferred CGM gas properties from the absorption lines directly to the gas selected by low ionization HI and MgII, and by higher ionization CIV and OVI absorption, we examine how well observational analysis methods recover the "true" properties of CGM gas. In this dwarf galaxy, low ionization gas arises in kiloparsec "cloud" structures, but high ionization gas arises in multiple extended structures spread over 100 kpc; due to complex velocity fields, highly separated structures give rise to absorption at similar velocities. We show that AOD and VP analysis fails to accurately characterize the spatial, kinematic, and thermal conditions of high ionization gas. We find that HI absorption...

  18. Two-Component Structure of the Hbeta Broad-Line Region in Quasars. I. Evidence from Spectral Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Ferland, Gary J; Baldwin, Jack A; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500--5500 \\AA. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, \\emph{the fractional-contribution spectrum}, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstr...

  19. Microlensing of the broad-line region in the quadruply imaged quasar HE0435-1223

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, L; Sluse, D; Anguita, T; García-Vergara, C J

    2014-01-01

    Using infrared spectra of the z = 1.693 quadruply lensed quasar HE0435-1223 acquired in 2009 with the spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we have detected a clear microlensing effect in images A and D. While microlensing affects the blue and red wings of the H{\\alpha} line profile in image D very differently, it de-magnifies the line core in image A. The combination of these different effects sets constraints on the line-emitting region; these constraints suggest that a rotating ring is at the origin of the H{\\alpha} line. Visible spectra obtained in 2004 and 2012 indicate that the MgII line profile is microlensed in the same way as the H{\\alpha} line. Our results therefore favour flattened geometries for the low-ionization line-emitting region, for example, a Keplerian disk. Biconical models cannot be ruled out but require more fine-tuning. Flux ratios between the different images are also derived and confirm flux anomalies with respect to estimates from lens models with smooth mass distrib...

  20. Detection of faint broad emission lines in type 2 AGN - I. Near-infrared observations and spectral fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onori, F.; La Franca, F.; Ricci, F.; Brusa, M.; Sani, E.; Maiolino, R.; Bianchi, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Marconi, A.; Vignali, C.

    2017-01-01

    We present medium resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 41 obscured and intermediate class active galactic nuclei (AGN; type 2, 1.9 and 1.8; AGN2) with redshift z ≲ 0.1, selected from the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope 70-month catalogue. The observations have been carried out in the framework of a systematic study of the AGN2 near-infrared spectral properties and have been executed using Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera/VLT, X-shooter/VLT and LUCI/LBT, reaching an average S/N ratio of ˜30 per resolution element. For those objects observed with X-shooter, we also obtained simultaneous optical and UV spectroscopy. We have identified a component from the broad line region in 13 out of 41 AGN2, with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) > 800 km s-1. We have verified that the detection of the broad line region components does not significantly depend on selection effects due to the quality of the spectra, the X-ray or near-infrared fluxes, the orientation angle of the host galaxy or the hydrogen column density measured in the X-ray band. The average broad line region components found in AGN2 has a significantly (a factor 2) smaller FWHM if compared with a control sample of type 1 AGN.

  1. Detection of faint broad emission lines in type 2 AGN: I. Near infrared observations and spectral fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, F; Ricci, F; Brusa, M; Sani, E; Maiolino, R; Bianchi, S; Bongiorno, A; Fiore, F; Marconi, A; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    We present medium resolution near infrared spectroscopic observations of 41 obscured and intermediate class AGN (type 2, 1.9 and 1.8; AGN2) with redshift $z \\lesssim$0.1, selected from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalogue. The observations have been carried out in the framework of a systematic study of the AGN2 near infrared spectral properties and have been executed using ISAAC/VLT, X-shooter/VLT and LUCI/LBT, reaching an average S/N ratio of $\\sim$30 per resolution element. For those objects observed with X-shooter we also obtained simultaneous optical and UV spectroscopy. We have identified a component from the broad line region in 13 out of 41 AGN2, with FWHM ${\\rm > 800 }$ km/s. We have verified that the detection of the broad line region components does not significantly depend on selection effects due to the quality of the spectra, the X-ray or near infrared fluxes, the orientation angle of the host galaxy or the hydrogen column density measured in the X-ray band. The average broad line region components f...

  2. Detection of faint broad emission lines in type 2 AGN: I. Near infrared observations and spectral fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onori, F.; La Franca, F.; Ricci, F.; Brusa, M.; Sani, E.; Maiolino, R.; Bianchi, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Fiore, F.; Marconi, A.; Vignali, C.

    2016-09-01

    We present medium resolution near infrared spectroscopic observations of 41 obscured and intermediate class AGN (type 2, 1.9 and 1.8; AGN2) with redshift z ≲0.1, selected from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalogue. The observations have been carried out in the framework of a systematic study of the AGN2 near infrared spectral properties and have been executed using ISAAC/VLT, X-shooter/VLT and LUCI/LBT, reaching an average S/N ratio of ˜30 per resolution element. For those objects observed with X-shooter we also obtained simultaneous optical and UV spectroscopy. We have identified a component from the broad line region in 13 out of 41 AGN2, with FWHM >800 km s-1. We have verified that the detection of the broad line region components does not significantly depend on selection effects due to the quality of the spectra, the X-ray or near infrared fluxes, the orientation angle of the host galaxy or the hydrogen column density measured in the X-ray band. The average broad line region components found in AGN2 has a significantly (a factor 2) smaller FWHM if compared with a control sample of type 1 AGN.

  3. Synthetic absorption lines for a clumpy medium: a spectral signature for cloud acceleration in AGN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Tim; Proga, Daniel; Dannen, Randall; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the highly ionised multiphase components of AGN disc winds may be due to thermal instability. The ions responsible for forming the observed X-ray absorption lines may only exist in relatively cool clumps that can be identified with the so-called `warm absorbers'. Here we calculate synthetic absorption lines for such warm absorbers from first principles by combining 2D hydrodynamic solutions of a two-phase medium with a dense grid of photoionization models to determine the detailed ionization structure of the gas. Our calculations reveal that cloud disruption, which leads to a highly complicated velocity field (i.e. a clumpy flow), will only mildly affect line shapes and strengths when the warm gas becomes highly mixed but not depleted. Prior to complete disruption, clouds which are optically thin to the driving UV resonance lines will cause absorption at an increasingly blueshifted line of sight velocity as they are accelerated. This behavior will imprint an identifiable signature on the line profile if warm absorbers are enshrouded in an even broader absorption line produced by a high column of intercloud gas. Interestingly, we show that it is possible to develop a spectral diagnostic for cloud acceleration by differencing the absorption components of a doublet line, a result which can be qualitatively understood using a simple partial covering model. Our calculations also permit us to comment on the spectral differences between cloud disruption and ionization changes driven by flux variability. Notably, cloud disruption offers another possibility for explaining absorption line variability.

  4. On the reality of broad iron L lines from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies 1H0707-495 and IRAS 13224-3809

    CERN Document Server

    Pawar, Pramod; Patil, Madhav; Misra, Ranjeev; Jogadand, Sharada

    2016-01-01

    We performed time resolved spectroscopy of 1H0707-495 and IRAS 13224-3809 using long XMM-Newton observations. These are strongly variable narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies and show broad features around 1 keV that has been interpreted as relativistically broad Fe L$\\alpha$ lines. Such features are not clearly observed in other AGN despite sometimes having high iron abundance required by the best fitted blurred reflection models. Given the importance of these lines, we explore the possibility if rapid variability of spectral parameters may introduce broad bumps/dips artificially in the time averaged spectrum, which may then be mistaken as broadened lines. We tested this hypothesis by performing time resolved spectroscopy using long (> 100 ks) XMM-Newton observations and by dividing it into segments with typical exposure of few ks. We extracted spectra from each such segment and modelled using a two component phenomenological model consisting of a power law to represent hard component and a black body to represent...

  5. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - IV: Near-Infrared Coronal Lines, Hidden Broad Lines, and Correlation with Hard X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamperti, Isabella; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Schawinski, Kevin; Ricci, Claudio; Oh, Kyuseok; Landt, Hermine; Riffel, Rogério; Rodríguez-Ardila, Alberto; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Masetti, Nicola; Mushotzky, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive census of the near-Infrared (NIR, 0.8-2.4 μm) spectroscopic properties of 102 nearby (z X-ray band (14-195 keV) from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. With the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope this regime is of increasing importance for dusty and obscured AGN surveys. We measure black hole masses in 68% (69/102) of the sample using broad emission lines (34/102) and/or the velocity dispersion of the Ca II triplet or the CO band-heads (46/102). We find that emission line diagnostics in the NIR are ineffective at identifying bright, nearby AGN galaxies because ([Fe II] 1.257μm/Paβ and H2 2.12μm/Brγ) identify only 25% (25/102) as AGN with significant overlap with star forming galaxies and only 20% of Seyfert 2 have detected coronal lines (6/30). We measure the coronal line emission in Seyfert 2 to be weaker than in Seyfert 1 of the same bolometric luminosity suggesting obscuration by the nuclear torus. We find that the correlation between the hard X-ray and the [Fe II] coronal line luminosity is significantly better than with the [O III] λ5007 luminosity. Finally, we find 3/29 galaxies (10%) that are optically classified as Seyfert 2 show broad emission lines in the NIR. These AGN have the lowest levels of obscuration among the Seyfert 2s in our sample (log NH < 22.43 cm-2), and all show signs of galaxy-scale interactions or mergers suggesting that the optical broad emission lines are obscured by host galaxy dust.

  6. Discovery of Carbon Radio Recombination Lines in absorption towards Cygnus~A

    CERN Document Server

    Oonk, J B R; Salgado, F; Morabito, L K; Tielens, A G G M; Rottgering, H J A; Asgekar, A; White, G J; Alexov, A; Anderson, J; Avruch, I M; Batejat, F; Beck, R; Bell, M E; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Brentjens, M; Broderick, J; Brueggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; de Vos, M; Duscha, S; Eisloeffel, J; Engels, D; van Enst, J; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Griessmeier, J; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; van der Horst, A; Iacobelli, M; Jackson, N J; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Klijn, W; Kohler, J; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Maat, P; Macario, G; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Mol, J D; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Scaife, A M M; Schoenmakers, A; Schwarz, D; Shulevski, A; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Sobey, C; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Toribio, C; van Nieuwpoort, R; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Vogt, C; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detection of carbon radio recombination line absorption along the line of sight to Cygnus A. The observations were carried out with the LOw Frequency ARray in the 33 to 57 MHz range. These low frequency radio observations provide us with a new line of sight to study the diffuse, neutral gas in our Galaxy. To our knowledge this is the first time that foreground Milky Way recombination line absorption has been observed against a bright extragalactic background source. By stacking 48 carbon $\\alpha$ lines in the observed frequency range we detect carbon absorption with a signal-to-noise ratio of about 5. The average carbon absorption has a peak optical depth of 2$\\times$10$^{-4}$, a line width of 10 km s$^{-1}$ and a velocity of +4 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the local standard of rest. The associated gas is found to have an electron temperature $T_{e}\\sim$ 110 K and density $n_{e}\\sim$ 0.06 cm$^{-3}$. These properties imply that the observed carbon $\\alpha$ absorption likely arises in the c...

  7. A REVERBERATION LAG FOR THE HIGH-IONIZATION COMPONENT OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 Mrk 335

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); Chen, C.; Cohen, S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); and others

    2012-01-15

    We present the first results from a detailed analysis of photometric and spectrophotometric data on the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Mrk 335, collected over a 120 day span in the fall of 2010. From these data we measure the lag in the He II {lambda}4686 broad emission line relative to the optical continuum to be 2.7 {+-} 0.6 days and the lag in the H{beta}{lambda}4861 broad emission line to be 13.9 {+-} 0.9 days. Combined with the line width, the He II lag yields a black hole mass M{sub BH} = (2.6 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. This measurement is consistent with measurements made using the H{beta}{lambda}4861 line, suggesting that the He II emission originates in the same structure as H{beta}, but at a much smaller radius. This constitutes the first robust lag measurement for a high-ionization line in an NLS1 galaxy and supports a scenario in which the He II emission originates from gas in virial motion rather than outflow.

  8. Epoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in lambda Cep

    CERN Document Server

    Uuh-Sonda, J M; Eenens, P; Mahy, L; Palate, M; Gosset, E; Flores, C A

    2014-01-01

    We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin.

  9. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  10. Line shape of 57Co sources exhibiting self absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, H.; Ksenofontov, V.; Leupold, O.; Kusz, J.; Deák, L.; Németh, Z.; Bogdán, C.; Bottyán, L.; Nagy, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of selfabsorption in Mössbauer sources is studied in detail. Spectra were measured using an old 57 C o/ R h source of 74 M B q activity with an original activity of ca. 3.7 G B q and a 0.15 G B q 57 C o/ α - F e source magnetized by an in-plane magnetic field of 0.2 T. The 57 C o/ α - F e source of a thickness of 25 μ was used both from the active and the inactive side giving cause to very different selfabsorption effects. The absorber was a single crystal of ferrous ammonium sulphate hexahydrate (FAS). Its absorption properties were taken over from a detailed study (Bull et al., Hyperfine Interact. 94(1-3), 1; Spiering et al. 2). FAS (space group P21/c) crystallizes as flat plates containing the (overline {2}01) plane. The γ-direction was orthogonal to the crystal plate. The 57 C o atoms of the 57 C o/ R h source were assumed to be homogeneously distributed over a 6 μ thick Rh foil and to follow a one dimensional diffusion profile in the 25 μ Fe-foil. The diffusion length was fitted to 10 μ. The theory follows the Blume-Kistner equations for forward scattering (Blume and Kistner, Phys. Rev. 171, 417, 3) by integrating over the source sampled up to 128 layers.

  11. Broad K$\\alpha$ iron line from accretion disks around traversable wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the supermassive black hole candidates at the centers of galaxies might be wormholes formed in the early Universe and connecting our Universe with other sister Universes. The analysis of the profile of the relativistic K$\\alpha$ iron line is currently the only available approach to probe the spacetime geometry around these objects. In this paper, I compute the expected K$\\alpha$ iron line in some wormhole spacetimes and I compare the results with the line produced around Kerr black holes. The line produced in accretion disks around non-rotating or very slow-rotating wormholes is relatively similar to the one expected around Kerr black holes with mid or high value of spin parameter and current observations are still marginally compatible with the possibility that the supermassive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei are these objects. For wormholes with spin parameter $a_* \\gtrsim 0.02$, the associated K$\\alpha$ iron line is instead quite different from the one produced around Ker...

  12. On the Origin of Broad Iron Lines in Neutron Star Low-mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Chia-Ying; Miller, Jon M; Barret, Didier; Fabian, Andy C; D'Ai, Antonino; Parker, Michael L; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Burderi, Luciano; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Egron, Elise; Homan, Jeroen; Iaria, Rosario; Lin, Dacheng; Miller, M Coleman

    2015-01-01

    Broad Fe K emission lines have been widely observed in the X-ray spectra of black hole systems, and in neutron star systems as well. The intrinsically narrow Fe K fluorescent line is generally believed to be part of the reflection spectrum originating in an illuminated accretion disk, and broadened by strong relativistic effects. However, the nature of the lines in neutron star LMXBs has been under debate. We therefore obtained the longest, high-resolution X-ray spectrum of a neutron star LMXB to date with a 300 ks Chandra HETGS observation of Serpens X-1. The observation was taken under the "continuous clocking" mode and thus free of photon pile-up effects. We carry out a systematic analysis and find that the blurred reflection model fits the Fe line of Serpens X-1 significantly better than a broad Gaussian component does, implying that the relativistic reflection scenario is much preferred. Chandra HETGS also provides highest spectral resolution view of the Fe K region and we find no strong evidence for add...

  13. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  14. Optical Monitoring of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C390.3

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Matthias; Grier, Catherine J; Bentz, Misty C; Eastman, Jason; Frank, Stephan; Gonzalez, Raymond; Marshall, Jennifer L; DePoy, Darren L; Prieto, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    We have undertaken a new ground-based monitoring campaign on the BLRG 3C390.3 to improve the measurement of the size of the BLR and to estimate the black hole mass. Optical spectra and g-band images were observed in 2005 using the 2.4m telescope at MDM Observatory. Integrated emission-line flux variations were measured for Ha, Hb, Hg, and for HeII4686, as well as g-band fluxes and the optical AGN continuum at 5100A. The g-band fluxes and the AGN continuum vary simultaneously within the uncertainties, tau=(0.2+-1.1)days. We find that the emission-line variations are delayed with respect to the variable g-band continuum by tau(Ha)=56.3(+2.4-6.6)days, tau(Hb)=44.3(+3.0_-3.3)days, tau(Hg)=58.1(+4.3-6.1)days, and tau(HeII4686)=22.3(+6.5-3.8)days. The blue and red peak in the double peaked line profiles, as well as the blue and red outer profile wings, vary simultaneously within +-3 days. This provides strong support for gravitationally bound orbital motion of the dominant part of the line emitting gas. Combining t...

  15. The Structure of the Broad Line Region in AGN: I. Reconstructed Velocity-Delay Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, C J; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M C; Pogge, R W; Denney, K D; De Rosa, G; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C S; Zu, Y; Shappee, B; Siverd, R; Beatty, T G; Sergeev, S G; Kaspi, S; Salvo, C Araya; Bird, J C; Bord, D J; Borman, G A; Che, X; Chen, C; Cohen, S A; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Efimov, Yu S; Free, N; Ginsburg, I; Henderson, C B; King, A L; Mogren, K; Molina, M; Mosquera, A M; Nazarov, S V; Okhmat, D N; Pejcha, O; Rafter, S; Shields, J C; Skowron, J; Szczygiel, D M; Valluri, M; van Saders, J L

    2012-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum-entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C120, and PG2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H\\beta\\ emission line, but see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the HeII 4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the HeII emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. The maps for 3C120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and ...

  16. Spectroscopic measurements of a CO2 absorption line in an open vertical path using an airborne lidar

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Anand; Allan, Graham R; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J; Hasselbrack, William E; Browell, Edward V; Abshire, James B

    2013-01-01

    We use an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption lidar to make spectroscopic measurements of the pressure-induced line broadening and line center shift of atmospheric CO2 at the 1572.335 nm absorption line. We measure the absorption lineshape in the vertical column between the aircraft and ground. A comparison of our measured absorption lineshape to calculations based on HITRAN shows excellent agreement with the peak optical depth accurate to within 0.3%. Additionally, we measure changes in the line center position to within 5.2 MHz of calculations, and the absorption linewidth to within 0.6% of calculations.

  17. Eddington ratio Distribution of X-ray selected broad-line AGNs at 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Hyewon; Steinhardt, Charles; Silverman, John D; Schramm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the redshift range 1.0broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find that a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z~2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the "AGN cosmic downsizing" phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the co-moving number density at the b...

  18. EMPIRICAL LINE LISTS AND ABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR METHANE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Dulick, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, 4541 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Bailey, J., E-mail: rhargrea@odu.edu [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    Hot methane is found in many “cool” sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  19. Empirical line lists and absorption cross sections for methane at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Robert J; Bailey, Jeremy; Dulick, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hot methane is found in many "cool" sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  20. Subaru high resolution spectroscopy of complex metal absorption lines of QSO HS1603+3820

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, T; Takada-Hidai, M; Wang, Y; Kashikawa, N; Iye, M; Tanaka, I; Misawa, Toru; Yamada, Toru; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Wang, Yiping; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Tanaka, Ichi

    2002-01-01

    We present a high resolution spectrum of the quasar, HS1603+3820 (z_em=2.542), observed with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) on Subaru Telescope. This quasar, first discovered in the Hamburg/CfA Quasar Survey, has 11 C IV lines at 1.96 2.29 and resolves some of them into multiple narrow components with b 65 km/s). We use three properties of C IV lines, specifically, time variability, covering factor, and absorption line profile, to classify them into quasar intrinsic absorption lines (QIALs) and spatially intervening absorption lines (SIALs). The C IV lines at 2.42 < z_abs < 2.45 are classified as QIALs in spite of their large velocity shifts from the quasar. Perhaps they are produced by gas clouds ejected from the quasar with the velocity of v_ej = 8000 km/s -- 10000 km/s. On the other hand, three C IV lines at 2.48 < z_abs < 2.55 are classified as SIALs, which suggests there exist intervening absorbers near the quasar. We, however, cannot rule out QIALs for the two lines at z_abs ~ 2.54...

  1. Reionization and high-redshift galaxies: the view from quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, George D; Lidz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Determining when and how the first galaxies reionized the intergalactic medium (IGM) promises to shed light on both the nature of the first objects and the cosmic history of baryons. Towards this goal, quasar absorption lines play a unique role by probing the properties of diffuse gas on galactic and intergalactic scales. In this review we examine the multiple ways in which absorption lines trace the connection between galaxies and the IGM near the reionization epoch. We first describe how the Ly$\\alpha$ forest is used to determine the intensity of the ionizing ultraviolet background and the global ionizing emissivity budget. Critically, these measurements reflect the escaping ionizing radiation from all galaxies, including those too faint to detect directly. We then discuss insights from metal absorption lines into reionization-era galaxies and their surroundings. Current observations suggest a buildup of metals in the circumgalactic environments of galaxies over $z \\sim 6$ to 5, although changes in ionizati...

  2. Echo mappping of the broad line region of agns a critical appraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Maoz, D

    1994-01-01

    The results of recent AGN monitoring campaigns confirm the ``big picture'' of the echo paradigm, but the details of the emission-line light curves cannot be accurately reproduced with only the simplest assumptions, some of which must be invalid. I discuss possible solutions. I present some preliminary optical light curves from Wise Observatory for NGC 4151 during the December 1993 multi-satellite campaign. The optical data show a continuity with the complex behavior observed in the IUE data, and may explain the peculiarities in emission-line response seen in this and other AGNs. I review some recent results on quasar emission line variability from the Steward-Wise PG quasar monitoring program, which allow extension of the observed AGN BLR Radius--Luminosity relation to higher luminosities than previously feasible. Agreement with the expected R\\propto L^{1/2} relation is suggested. Finally, I criticize the trend to attribute significance to the details of transfer functions recovered by inversion techniques. I...

  3. HI Absorption Lines Detected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-zu, Wu; Martha P, Haynes; Riccardo, Giovanelli; Ming, Zhu; Ru-rong, Chen

    2015-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of an on-going study of HI 21-cm absorption lines based on the 40% survey data released by the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA). (1) Ten HI candidate absorbers have been detected. Five of them are previously published in the literature, and the rest of them are new detections that need further confirmation. (2) For those sources with no detected absorptions, we have calculated the upper limit of their foreground HI column density NHI. The statistical result of the NHI distribution indicates that the ratio Ts/f between the averaged spin temperature and coverage factor for DLAs (the damped Lyα systems) might be larger than 500 K. The radio frequency interference (RFI) and standing wave are the main factors affecting the detection of HI absorption lines, which have been analyzed and discussed as well in order to find a method of solution. Our study can serve as a pathfinder for the future large-scale search of HI 21-cm absorption lines using the Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST), which is an Arecibo-type radio telescope currently under construction in China with greatly increased sensitivity, bandwidth, and observational sky area. As prospects, we have discussed two types of observational studies of HI absorption lines toward extragalactic sources using the FAST telescope.

  4. GRIS detection of Al-26 1809 keV line emission from the Galactic center region as a broad line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Juan E.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Bartlett, Lyle M.; Gehrels, Neil; Leventhal, Marvin; Parsons, Ann; Teegarden, Bonnard J.; Tueller, Jack

    1997-01-01

    The gamma ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS) was used to observe the 1809 keV emission from the Galactic center region. The observed line is broader than the instrument resolution. The measured intrinsic width is 5.4 +/- 1.4 keV full width half medium, which is more than three times the maximum Doppler broadening expected due to Galactic rotation. The detection of such a wide feature, suggesting a high dispersion velocity has implications for the origin of Galactic Al-26. It suggests a supernova explosion origin or a Wolf-Rayet stellar wind origin of Al-26. The fact that the Al-26 has not come to rest after 10(exp 6) years presents a challenge to the current understanding of the Al-26 production and propagation in the Galaxy.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: QSOs narrow absorption line variability (Hacker+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, T. L.; Brunner, R. J.; Lundgren, B. F.; York, D. G.

    2013-06-01

    Catalogues of 2,522 QAL systems and 33 variable NAL systems detected in SDSS DR7 quasars with repeat observations. The object identifiers, position coordinates, and plate-MJD-fibre designations are taken from the SpecObjAll table in the SDSS Catalogue Archive Server (CAS) while the quasar redshifts (zqso) are from Hewett & Wild (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/405/2302). The absorption system redshift (zabs), system grade, and detected lines are outputs of the York et al. (2013, in. prep.) QAL detection pipeline. Some absorption lines are flagged based on alternate identifications (a), proximity of masked pixels (b), or questionable continuum fits (c). (3 data files).

  6. Broad-Line Reverberation in the Kepler-Field Seyfert Galaxy Zw 229-015

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, A J; Malkan, M A; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Gorjian, V; Joner, M D; Bennert, V N; Botyanszki, J; Cenko, S B; Childress, M; Choi, J; Comerford, J M; Cucciara, A; da Silva, R; Duchene, G; Fumagalli, M; Ganeshalingam, M; Gates, E L; Gerke, B F; Griffith, C V; Harris, C; Hintz, E G; Hsiao, E; Kandrashoff, M T; Keel, W C; Kirkman, D; Kleiser, I K W; Laney, C D; Lee, J; Lopez, L; Lowe, T B; Moody, J W; Morton, A; Nierenberg, A M; Nugent, P; Pancoast, A; Rex, J; Rich, R M; Silverman, J M; Smith, G H; Sonnenfeld, A; Suzuki, N; Tytler, D; Walsh, J L; Woo, J -H; Yang, Y; Zeisse, C

    2011-01-01

    The Seyfert 1 galaxy Zw 229-015 is among the brightest active galaxies being monitored by the Kepler mission. In order to determine the black hole mass in Zw 229-015 from H-beta reverberation mapping, we have carried out nightly observations with the Kast Spectrograph at the Lick 3m telescope during the dark runs from June through December 2010, obtaining 54 spectroscopic observations in total. We have also obtained nightly V-band imaging with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and with the 0.9m telescope at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory over the same period. We detect strong variability in the source, which exhibited more than a factor of 2 change in broad H-beta flux. From cross-correlation measurements, we find that the H-beta light curve has a rest-frame lag of 3.86(+0.69,-0.90) days with respect to the V-band continuum variations. We also measure reverberation lags for H-alpha and H-gamma and find an upper limit to the H-delta lag. Combining the H-beta la...

  7. The Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 390.3

    CERN Document Server

    Lohfink, Anne; Tombesi, Francesco; Walton, Dominic; Balokovic, Mislav; Zoghbi, Abdu; Ballantyne, David; Boggs, Steven; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William; Fabian, Andrew; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona; King, Ashley; Madejski, Greg; Matt, Giorgio; Reynolds, Christopher; Stern, Daniel; Ursini, Francesco; Zhang, William

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from a joint Suzaku/NuSTAR broad-band spectral analysis of 3C 390.3. The high quality data enables us to clearly separate the primary continuum from the reprocessed components allowing us to detect a high energy spectral cut-off ($E_\\text{cut}=117_{-14}^{+18}$ keV), and to place constraints on the Comptonization parameters of the primary continuum for the first time. The hard over soft compactness is 69$_{-24}^{+124}$ and the optical depth 4.1$_{-3.6}^{+0.5}$, this leads to an electron temperature of $30_{-8}^{+32}$ keV. Expanding our study of the Comptonization spectrum to the optical/UV by studying the simultaneous Swift-UVOT data, we find indications that the compactness of the corona allows only a small fraction of the total UV/optical flux to be Comptonized. Our analysis of the reprocessed emission show that 3C 390.3 only has a small amount of reflection (R~0.3), and of that the vast majority is from distant neutral matter. However we also discover a soft X-ray excess in the source...

  8. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes: Comparison of Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.

  9. Broad-range self-sweeping of a narrow-line self-pulsing Yb-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Ivan A.; Kablukov, Sergey I.; Podivilov, Evgeniy V.; Babin, Sergey A.

    2011-08-01

    The effect of broad-range (16 nm) self-sweeping of a narrow-line (less than 1 pm) Yb-doped fiber laser has been demonstrated experimentally. It is found that the effect arises from the self-sustained relaxation oscillations. As a result, the sweeping rate increases as square root of the laser power and decreases with increasing cavity length. Based on these results we propose a model describing dynamics of the laser frequency. The model takes into account the effects of gain saturation at the laser transition and spatial hole burning in the self-pulsing regime.

  10. An X-ray variable absorber within the Broad Line Region in Fairall 51

    CERN Document Server

    Svoboda, Jiri; Guainazzi, Matteo; Longinotti, Anna Lia; Piconcelli, Enrico; Wilms, Joern

    2015-01-01

    Fairall 51 is a polar-scattered Seyfert 1 galaxy, a type of active galaxies believed to represent a bridge between unobscured type-1 and obscured type-2 objects. Fairall 51 has shown complex and variable X-ray absorption but only little is known about its origin. In our research, we observed Fairall 51 with the X-ray satellite Suzaku in order to constrain a characteristic time-scale of its variability. We performed timing and spectral analysis of four observations separated by 1.5, 2 and 5.5 day intervals. We found that the 0.5-50 keV broadband X-ray spectra are dominated by a primary power-law emission (with the photon index ~ 2). This emission is affected by at least three absorbers with different ionisations (log(xi) ~ 1-4). The spectrum is further shaped by a reprocessed emission, possibly coming from two regions -- the accretion disc and a more distant scattering region. The accretion disc emission is smeared by the relativistic effects, from which we measured the spin of the black hole as a ~ 0.8 (+-0.2...

  11. Reverberation Mapping Analysis of the Broad-Line Region in Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, S. J.; Cheng, F. Z.

    By careful and intensive monitoring the continuum variations and the resulting emission-line response in AGN, it is possible to determine the physical conditions and the structure of the BLR through the process of "reverberation mapping (RM)". We have applied such a technique to Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 by using the optical monitoring data obtained in a recent international AGN watch campaign in 1993. In order to tackle the issue revealed by the preliminary analysis of this watch campaign, i.e. the BLR size is very different from the result determined several years ago, we carried out the following two kinds of RM analysis: a) Test how a specific continuum variation can affect the delay of the emission-lines by use of Mone-Carlo simulations. b) Solve the BLR transfer function, which describes the size and the structure of the BLR in NGC 4151, by use of the regularized linear-inversion method. We find that the transfer function of NGC 4151 was drastically changed from the shape in 1988, and this naturally explains the size problem of NGC 4151.

  12. Constraints on Black Hole Spin in a Sample of Broad Iron Line AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a uniform X-ray spectral analysis of nine type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have been previously found to harbor relativistically broadened iron emission lines. We show that the need for relativistic effects in the spectrum is robust even when one includes continuum "reflection" from the accretion disk. We then proceed to model these relativistic effects in order to constrain the spin of the supermassive black holes in these AGN. Our principal assumption, supported by recent simulations of geometrically-thin accretion disks, is that no iron line emission (or any associated Xray reflection features) can originate from the disk within the innermost stable circular orbit. Under this assumption, which tends to lead to constraints in the form of lower limits on the spin parameter, we obtain non-trivial spin constraints on five AGN. The spin parameters of these sources range from moderate (a approximates 0.6) to high (a > 0.96). Our results allow, for the first time, an observational constraint on the spin distribution function of local supermassive black holes. Parameterizing this as a power-law in dimensionless spin parameter (f(a) varies as absolute value of (a) exp zeta), we present the probability distribution for zeta implied by our results. Our results suggest 90% and 95% confidence limits of zeta > -0.09 and zeta > -0.3 respectively.

  13. An Extreme, Blueshifted Iron-Line Profile in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 PG 1402+261: An Edge-on Accretion Disk or Highly Ionized Absorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. N.; Porquet, D.; Turner, T. J.

    2004-11-01

    We report on a short XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PG 1402+261. The EPIC X-ray spectrum of PG 1402+261 shows a strong excess of counts between 6 and 9 keV in the rest frame. This feature can be modeled by an unusually strong (equivalent width 2 keV) and very broad (FWHM velocity of 110,000 km s-1) iron K-shell emission line. The line centroid energy at 7.3 keV appears blueshifted with respect to the iron Kα emission band between 6.4 and 6.97 keV, while the blue wing of the line extends to 9 keV in the quasar rest frame. The line profile can be fitted by reflection from the inner accretion disk, but an inclination angle of >60° is required to model the extreme blue wing of the line. Furthermore, the extreme strength of the line requires a geometry whereby the hard X-ray emission from PG 1402+261 above 2 keV is dominated by the pure-reflection component from the disk, while little or none of the direct hard power law is observed. Alternatively, the spectrum above 2 keV may be explained by an ionized absorber, if the column density is sufficiently high (NH>3×1023 cm-2) and if the matter is ionized enough to produce a deep (τ~1) iron K-shell absorption edge at 9 keV. This absorber could originate in a large column density, high-velocity outflow, perhaps similar to those that appear to be observed in several other high accretion rate active galactic nuclei. Further observations, especially at higher spectral resolution, are required to distinguish between the accretion disk reflection and outflow scenarios.

  14. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Lyman Alpha Systems in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P; York, Donald G; Ge, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We study the average absorption spectrum of the Damped Lyman Alpha system (DLA) population at $z ~ 2.5$ by stacking normalized, rest-frame shifted spectra of $\\sim 27\\,000$ DLAs from the Data Release 12 of the BOSS survey of SDSS-III. We list measurements of the mean equivalent width of 50 individual metal absorption lines in 5 intervals of DLA hydrogen column density $N_{\\rm HI}$, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. We show that the mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with $N_{\\rm HI}$ as expected, but this increase is much weaker or non-existent for high-ionization lines. We develop a theoretical model to infer mean column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated lines, based on the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra. We use this model to infer mean column densities in DLAs of 14 low-ionization species, as well as for AlIII, SIII, SiIII, CIV, SiIV,...

  15. The Origins of a Rich Absorption Line Complex in a Quasar at Redshift 3.45

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Leah E

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the nature and origin of a rich complex of narrow absorption lines in the quasar J102325.31+514251.0 at redshift 3.447. We measure nine C IV(\\lambda1548,1551) absorption line systems with velocities from -1400 to -6200 km/s, and full widths at half minimum ranging from 16 to 350 km/s. We also detect other absorption lines in these systems, including H I, C III, N V, O VI, and Si IV. Lower ionisation lines are not present, indicating a generally high degree of ionisation in all nine systems. The total hydrogen column densities range from = 1-8 Z_{sun}. The lowest velocity system, which has an ambiguous location, also has the lowest metallicity, Z <= 0.3 Z_{sun}, and might form in a non-outflow environment farther from the quasar. Overall, however, this complex of narrow absorption lines can be identified with a highly structured, multi-component ou tflow from the quasar. The high metallicities are similar to those derived for other quasars at similar redshifts and luminosities, and are consistent...

  16. On the Origin of the Wide HI Absorption Line towards Sgr A*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. S. Dwarakanath; W. M. Goss; J. H. Zhao; C. C. Lang

    2004-09-01

    We have imaged a region of ∼ 5' extent surrounding Sgr A* in the HI 21 cm-line absorption using the Very Large Array. A Gaussian decomposition of the optical depth spectra at positions within ∼ 2' (∼ 5 pc at 8.5 kpc) of Sgr A∙ detects a wide line underlying the many narrow absorption lines. The wide line has a mean peak optical depth of 0.32 ± 0.12 centered at a mean velocity of lsr = -4 ± 15 km s-1. The mean full width at half maximum is 119±42 km s-1. Such a wide line is absent in the spectra at positions beyond ∼ 2' from Sgr A*. The position-velocity diagrams in optical depth reveal that the wide line originates in various components of the circumnuclear disk (radius ∼ 1.3') surrounding Sgr A*. These components contribute to the optical depth of the wide line in different velocity ranges. The position-velocity diagrams do not reveal any diffuse feature which could be attributed to a large number of HI clouds along the line of sight to Sgr A*. Consequently, the wide line has no implications either to a global population of shocked HI clouds in the Galaxy or to the energetics of the interstellar medium as was earlier thought.

  17. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Broad-line Region Radii and Black Hole Masses from Reverberation Mapping of Hβ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Barth, Aaron J.; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Hidas, Marton G.; Hiner, Kyle D.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Serduke, Frank J. D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.; Stern, Daniel; Street, Rachel A.; Thornton, Carol E.; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xiaofeng; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2009-11-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hβ emission. We present here the light curves for all the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hβ time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hβ lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region (BLR) in AGNs, and by combining the Hβ lag time with the measured width of the Hβ emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supermassive black hole in these nine AGNs. The absolute calibration of the black hole masses is based on the normalization derived by Onken et al., which brings the masses determined by reverberation mapping into agreement with the local M BH-σsstarfrelationship for quiescent galaxies. We also examine the time lag response as a function of velocity across the Hβ line profile for six of the AGNs. The analysis of four leads to rather ambiguous results with relatively flat time lags as a function of velocity. However, SBS 1116+583A exhibits a symmetric time lag response around the line center reminiscent of simple models for circularly orbiting BLR clouds, and Arp 151 shows an asymmetric profile that is most easily explained by a simple gravitational infall model. Further investigation will be necessary to fully understand the constraints placed on the physical models of the BLR by the velocity-resolved response in these objects.

  18. Reddening, Emission-Line, and Intrinsic Absorption Properties in the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy Akn 564

    CERN Document Server

    Crenshaw, D M; Turner, T J; Collier, S J; Peterson, B M; Brandt, W N; Clavel, J; George, I M; Horne, K; Kriss, G A; Mathur, S; Netzer, H; Pogge, R W; Pounds, K A; Romano, P; Shemmer, O; Wamsteker, W

    2002-01-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope UV and optical spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Akn 564 to investigate its internal reddening and properties of its emission-line and intrinsic UV absorption gas. We find that the extinction curve of Akn 564, derived from a comparison of its UV/optical continuum to that of an unreddened NLS1, lacks a 2200 A bump and turns up towards the UV at a longer wavelength (4000 A) than the standard Galactic, LMC, and SMC curves. However, it does not show the extremely steep rise to 1200 A that characterizes the extinction curve of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3227. The emission-lines and continuum experience the same amount of reddening, indicating the presence of a dust screen that is external to the narrow-line region (NLR). Echelle spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph show intrinsic UV absorption lines due to Ly-alpha, N V, C IV, Si IV, and Si III, centered at a radial velocity of -190 km/s (relative to the host galaxy). Photoionization models of the UV ab...

  19. Interstellar Absorption Lines in the Direction of the Cataclysmic Variable SS Cygni

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchey, Adam M; McKeever, Jean

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption lines in high-resolution optical echelle spectra of SS Cyg obtained during an outburst in 2013 June and in archival Hubble Space Telescope and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer data. The Ca II K and Na I D lines toward SS Cyg are compared with those toward nearby B and A stars in an effort to place constraints on the distance to SS Cyg. We find that the distance constraints are not very robust from this method due to the rather slow increase in neutral gas column density with distance and the scatter in the column densities from one sight line to another. However, the optical absorption-line measurements allow us to derive a precise estimate for the line-of-sight reddening of E(B-V) = 0.020+/-0.005 mag. Furthermore, our analysis of the absorption lines of O I, Si II, P II, and Fe II seen in the UV spectra yields an estimate of the H I column density and depletion strength in this direction.

  20. The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Broad-Line Region Radii and Black Hole Masses from Reverberation Mapping of Hbeta

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Barth, Aaron J; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Hidas, Marton G; Hiner, Kyle D; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Serduke, Frank J D; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Steele, Thea N; Stern, Daniel; Street, Rachel A; Thornton, Carol E; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xiaofeng; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z < 0.05) Seyfert 1 galaxies with expected masses in the range ~10^6-10^7 M_sun and also the well-studied nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. Nine of the objects in the sample (including NGC 5548) showed optical variability of sufficient strength during the monitoring campaign to allow for a time lag to be measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hbeta emission. We present here the light curves for the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hbeta time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hbeta lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region, and by combining the lag time with the measured width of the Hbeta emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supe...

  1. Single-Epoch Black Hole Mass Estimators For Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei: Recalibrating Hbeta with A New Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Hua; Li, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Based on an updated Hbeta reverberation mapping (RM) sample of 44 nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN), we propose a novel approach for black hole (BH) mass estimation using two filtered luminosities computed from single-epoch (SE) AGN spectra around the Hbeta region. We found that the two optimal-filter luminosities extract virial information (size and virial velocity of the broad line region, BLR) from the spectra, justifying their usage in this empirical BH mass estimator. The major advantages of this new recipe over traditional SE BH mass estimators utilizing continuum luminosity and broad line width are: 1) it has a smaller intrinsic scatter of 0.28 dex calibrated against RM masses; 2) it is extremely simple to use in practice, without any need to decompose the spectrum; 3) it produces unambiguous and highly repeatable results even with low signal-to-noise spectra. The combination of the two luminosities can also cancel out, to some extent, systematic luminosity errors potentially introduced by uncertaint...

  2. Magnetically elevated accretion discs in active galactic nuclei: broad emission-line regions and associated star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    We propose that the accretion discs fueling active galactic nuclei (AGN) are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ-direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disc dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ≳ 0.1R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disc model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission-line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disc models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disc models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission-line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disc of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ≳ 0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  3. THE DIFFERENCES IN THE TORUS GEOMETRY BETWEEN HIDDEN AND NON-HIDDEN BROAD LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Packham, Christopher; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Alsip, Crystal D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; González-Martín, Omaira [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elitzur, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Levenson, Nancy A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Rachel E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: ichikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results from the fitting of infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of 21 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with clumpy torus models. We compiled high spatial resolution (∼0.3–0.7 arcsec) mid-IR (MIR) N-band spectroscopy, Q-band imaging, and nuclear near- and MIR photometry from the literature. Combining these nuclear near- and MIR observations, far-IR photometry, and clumpy torus models enables us to put constraints on the torus properties and geometry. We divide the sample into three types according to the broad line region (BLR) properties: type-1s, type-2s with scattered or hidden broad line region (HBLR) previously observed, and type-2s without any published HBLR signature (NHBLR). Comparing the torus model parameters gives us the first quantitative torus geometrical view for each subgroup. We find that NHBLR AGNs have smaller torus opening angles and larger covering factors than HBLR AGNs. This suggests that the chance to observe scattered (polarized) flux from the BLR in NHBLR could be reduced by the dual effects of (a) less scattering medium due to the reduced scattering volume given the small torus opening angle and (b) the increased torus obscuration between the observer and the scattering region. These effects give a reasonable explanation for the lack of observed HBLR in some type-2 AGNs.

  4. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Nathan E; Valenti, S; Chomiuk, L; Berger, E; Smartt, S; Hurley, K; Barthelmy, S D; Chornock, R; Foley, R J; Levesque, E M; Narayan, G; Kirshner, R P; Botticella, M T; Briggs, M S; Connaughton, V; Terada, Y; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Mazets, E; Cline, T; von Kienlin, A; Boynton, W; Chambers, K C; Grav, T; Heasley, J N; Hodapp, K W; Jedicke, R; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Luppino, G A; Lupton, R H; Magnier, E A; Monet, D G; Morgan, J S; Onaka, P M; Price, P A; Stubbs, C W; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waterson, M F

    2011-01-01

    [abridged] We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN 2010ay at z\\approx0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{\\pi} survey just \\sim3 days after explosion. We estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, MR\\approx-20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion, v_ph\\approx19.2x10^3 km/s at \\sim40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN 2010ay is 2-5x higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56 Ni, M_Ni=0.9+0.2 M_solar. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, Mej\\approx4.7M_so...

  5. An ALMA Early Science survey of molecular absorption lines toward PKS1830-211 -- Analysis of the absorption profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Guelin, M; Gerin, M; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Black, J H; Curran, S J; Darling, J; Dinh-V-Trung,; Garcia-Burillo, S; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Martin, S; Marti-Vidal, I; Menten, K M; Murphy, M T; Ott, J; Wiklind, T; Zwaan, M A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an ALMA spectral survey of strong absorption lines for common interstellar species in the z=0.89 molecular absorber toward the lensed blazar PKS1830-211. The dataset brings essential information on the structure and composition of the absorbing gas in the foreground galaxy. In particular, we find absorption over large velocity intervals (gtrsim 100 km/s) toward both lensed images of the blazar. This suggests either that the galaxy inclination is intermediate and that we sample velocity gradients or streaming motions in the disk plane, that the molecular gas has a large vertical distribution or extraplanar components, or that the absorber is not a simple spiral galaxy but might be a merger system. The number of detected species is now reaching a total of 42 different species plus 14 different rare isotopologues toward the SW image, and 14 species toward the NE line-of-sight. The abundances of CH, H2O, HCO+, HCN, and NH3 relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in the G...

  6. Radio Properties of Low Redshift Broad Line Active Galactic Nuclei Including Multiple Component Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the radio properties of a low redshift (z FRIIs. From these data we find an FRI/FRII luminosity dividing line like that found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974), where we use our core-only sources as proxies for FRIs, and our multi-component sources for the FRIIs. We find a bimodal distribution for the radio loudness (R = L(radio)/L(opt)) where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the multi-component extended sources, compared with no evidence for bimodality when just the core-only sources are used. We also find that a log(R) value of 1.75 is well suited to separate the FRIs from the FRIIs, and that the R bimodality seen here is really a manifestation of the FRI/FRII break originally found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974). We find modest trends in the radio loud fraction as a function of Eddington ratio and black hole mass, where the fraction of RL AGNs decreases with increasing Eddington ratio, and increases when the black hole mass is above 2 x 108 solar masses.

  7. The corona of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Ogle, P.; Tombesi, F.; Walton, D.; Baloković, M.; Zoghbi, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; King, A. L.; Madejski, G.; Matt, G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Ursini, F.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-11-13

    We present the results from a joint Suzaku/NuSTAR broadband spectral analysis of 3C 390.3. The high quality data enables us to clearly separate the primary continuum from the reprocessed components allowing us to detect a high energy spectral cut-off (${E}_{\\mathrm{cut}}={117}_{-14}^{+18}$ keV), and to place constraints on the Comptonization parameters of the primary continuum for the first time. The hard over soft compactness is ${69}_{-24}^{+124}$ and the optical depth is ${4.1}_{-3.6}^{+0.5},$ this leads to an electron temperature of ${30}_{-8}^{+32}$ keV. Expanding our study of the Comptonization spectrum to the optical/UV by studying the simultaneous Swift-UVOT data, we find indications that the compactness of the corona allows only a small fraction of the total UV/optical flux to be Comptonized. Our analysis of the reprocessed emission show that 3C 390.3 only has a small amount of reflection (R ~ 0.3), and of that the vast majority is from distant neutral matter. However, we also discover a soft-X-ray excess in the source, which can be described by a weak ionized reflection component from the inner parts of the accretion disk. In addition to the backscattered emission, we also detect the highly ionized iron emission lines Fe xxv and Fe xxvi.

  8. Broad iron emission line and kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations in the neutron star system 4U 1636-53

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, Andrea; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Hiemstra, Beike; Linares, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Both the broad iron (Fe) line and the frequency of the kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) can potentially provide independent measures of the inner radius of the accretion disc. We use XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the LMXB 4U 1636-53 to test this hypothesis. We study the properties of the Fe-K emission line as a function of the spectral state of the source and the frequency of the kHz QPOs. We find that the inner radius of the accretion disc deduced from the frequency of the upper kHz QPO varies as a function of the position of the source in the colour-colour diagram, in accordance with previous work and with the standard scenario of accretion disc geometry. On the contrary, the inner disc radius deduced from the profile of the Fe line is not correlated with the spectral state of the source. The values of the inner radius inferred from kHz QPOs and Fe lines, in four observations, do not lead to a consisten...

  9. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Steinhardt, Charles [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Kavli IPMU, WPI) (Japan)

    2015-12-20

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion.

  10. Narrow absorption lines with two observations of Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhi-Fu; Chen, Yan-Mei; Cao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    We assemble 3524 quasars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with repeated observations to search for variations of narrow C IV1548,1551 and Mg II2796,2803 absorption doublets in spectral regions shortward of 7000 Ang at the observed frame, which corresponds to time-scales of about 150 ~ 2643 days at quasar rest frame. In these quasar spectra, we detect 3580 C IV absorption systems with z_{abs} = 1.5188 ~ 3.5212, and 1809 Mg II absorption systems with z_{abs} = 0.3948 ~ 1.7167. In term of the absorber velocity (beta) distribution at quasar rest frame, we find a substantial number of C IV absorbers with beta4sigma for lambda2796 lines and >3sigma for lambda2803 lines.

  11. Cross section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjuoy, E.

    1974-01-01

    Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.

  12. Infrared absorption line intensities for U (5) model of linear triatomic molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于少英

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry of the rotation-vibration spectra for linear triatomic molecules is described by means of the group U(5). The rotation-vibration levels of linear triatomic molecules HCN and COS are calculated. The infrared absorption line intensities are calculated for the COS molecule. The results are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Origin and Properties of Strong Mg II Quasar Absorption Line Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Strong Mg II quasar absorption line systems provide us with a useful tool to understand the gas that plays an important role in galaxy formation. In this paper, placing the theories of galaxy formation in a cosmological context, we present semi-analytic models and Monte-Carlo simulations for strong Mg II absorbers produced in gaseous galactic haloes and/or galaxy discs. We investigate the redshift path density for the MgII absorption lines and the properties of galaxy/absorber pairs, in particular the anti-correlation between the equivalent width of Mg II absorption line and the projected galaxy-to-sightline distance. The simulated result of the mean redshift path density of strong Mg II systems is consistent with the observational result. The fraction of strong Mg II systems arising from galaxy disks is predicted to be ~ 10% of the total. There exists an anti-correlation between the absorption line equivalent and the projected distance of sightline to galaxy center and galaxy luminosity. We determined that the mean absorbing radius Rabs ≈ 29h-1 kpc(LB/LB*)0.35. After taking selection effects into consideration, this becomes Rabs ≈ 38 h-1 kpc(LB/LB*)0.18, which is in good agreement with the observational result. This shows the importance of considering selection effects when comparing models with observations.

  14. Dust depletion of Ca and Ti in QSO absorption line systems

    CERN Document Server

    Guber, C R

    2016-01-01

    To explore the role of titanium- and calcium-dust depletion in gas in and around galaxies we systematically study Ti/Ca abundance ratios in intervening absorption-line systems at low and high redshift. We investigate high-resolution optical spectra obtained by the UVES instrument at the Very Large Telescope and spectroscopically analyze 34 absorption-line systems at z<=0.5 to measure column densities (or limits) for CaII and TiII. We complement our UVES data set with previously published absorption-line data on Ti/Ca for redshifts up to z~3.8. Our absorber sample contains 110 absorbers (DLAs, sub-DLAs & LLSs). We compare our Ti/Ca findings with results from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds and discuss the properties of Ti/Ca absorbers in the general context of quasar absorption-line systems.Our analysis indicates that there are two distinct populations of absorbers with either high or low Ti/Ca ratios with a separation at [Ti/Ca}]~1. While the calcium dust depletion in most of the absorbers appe...

  15. Archival research on absorption lines in violently star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    A computerized analysis of a starburst model is discussed. The model proposes that the absorption line equivalent width should scale with the level of star forming activity. Archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data on IUE spectra of luminous blue galaxies were compared with previous IUE observations of extragalactic HII regions and low luminosity galaxies. The comparisons are summarized and causes for offsets are discussed.

  16. The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v approx. 20,000 km s(exp. -1) that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v approx. greater than 27,000 km s(exp. -1)). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Solar mass, a kinetic energy of 1.0×1052 erg, and a (56)Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Solar mass. Nebular spectra (t > 200 d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN2012ap joins SN2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black-hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable properties including above-average environmental metallicities of Z approx. greater than Solar Z, moderate to high levels of host-galaxy extinction (E(B -V ) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] > 1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  17. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fesen, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Maeda, K. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Pickering, T. E. [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Kawabata, K. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsiao, E. Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  18. The Variability of Hardness Ratio 1 observed by ROSAT:Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies versus Broad-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the ROSAT Hardness Ratio 1and Count Rates eight Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (NLS1s) and 14 Broad-lineSeyfert1 Galaxies (BLS1s). We found that six of the NLS1s show a positive HR1-CTs correlation, and seven of the BLS1s, a negative correlation. The other twoNLS1s and seven BLS1s do not show any clear HR1-CTs correlation. Thus, thespectral behavior is statistically different for the NLS1s and BLS1s. The differentin NLS1s and weak in BLS1s, plus a power law component, common to both, whichsoftens with increasing flux.

  19. Synthetic absorption lines for a clumpy medium: a spectral signature for cloud acceleration in AGN?

    CERN Document Server

    Waters, Tim; Dannen, Randall; Kallman, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the highly ionized multiphase components of AGN disk winds may be due to thermal instability. The ions responsible for forming the observed X-ray absorption lines may only exist in relatively cold clumps that can be identified with the so-called 'warm absorbers'. Here we calculate synthetic absorption lines for such warm absorbers from first principles by combining 2D hydrodynamic solutions of a two-phase medium with a dense grid of photoionization models to determine the detailed ionization structure of the gas. Our calculations reveal that cloud disruption, which leads to a highly complicated velocity field (i.e. a clumpy flow), will only mildly affect line shapes and strengths when the cold gas becomes highly mixed but not depleted. Prior to complete disruption, clouds which are optically thin to the driving UV resonance lines will cause absorption at an increasingly blueshifted line of sight velocity as they are accelerated. This behavior will imprint an identifiable sign...

  20. Herschel observations of extra-ordinary sources: Detecting spiral arm clouds by CH absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, S -L; Comito, C; Möller, T; Rolffs, R; Müller, H S P; Belloche, A; Menten, K M; Lis, D C; Phillips, T G; Bergin, E A; Bell, T A; Crockett, N R; Blake, G A; Cabrit, S; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Falgarone, E; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Herbst, E; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Langer, W D; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Morris, P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Pagani, L; Pearson, J C; Pérault, M; Plume, R; Salez, M; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Wang, S; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Zmuidzinas, J; Boogert, A; Güsten, R; Hartogh, P; Honingh, N; Karpov, A; Kooi, J; Krieg, J M; Schieder, R; Diez-Gonzalez, M C; Bachille, R; Martin-Pintado, J; Baechtold, W; Olberg, M; Nordh, L H; Gill, J L; Chattopadhyay, G

    2010-01-01

    We have observed CH absorption lines ($J=3/2, N=1 \\leftarrow J=1/2, N=1$) against the continuum source Sgr~B2(M) using the \\textit{Herschel}/HIFI instrument. With the high spectral resolution and wide velocity coverage provided by HIFI, 31 CH absorption features with different radial velocities and line widths are detected and identified. The narrower line width and lower column density clouds show `spiral arm' cloud characteristics, while the absorption component with the broadest line width and highest column density corresponds to the gas from the Sgr~B2 envelope. The observations show that each `spiral arm' harbors multiple velocity components, indicating that the clouds are not uniform and that they have internal structure. This line-of-sight through almost the entire Galaxy offers unique possibilities to study the basic chemistry of simple molecules in diffuse clouds, as a variety of different cloud classes are sampled simultaneously. We find that the linear relationship between CH and H$_2$ column dens...

  1. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at z>1

    CERN Document Server

    van der Wel, A; Rix, H -W; Finkelstein, S L; Koekemoer, A M; Weiner, B J; Wuyts, S; Bell, E F; Faber, S M; Trump, J R; Koo, D; Ferguson, H C; Scarlata, C; Hathi, N P; Dunlop, J S; Newman, J A; Dickinson, M; Salmon, B; Kocevski, D F de Mello D D; Lai, K; Grogin, N A; Rodney, S A; Guo, Yicheng; McGrath, E G; Lee, K -S; Calvo, G B; Huang, K -H

    2011-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z=1.6-1.8 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared, broad-band fluxes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines -- with rest-frame equivalent widths ~1000\\AA -- in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are dwarf galaxies with ~10^8 Msol in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/(dM*/dt) of only ~15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7 x 10^-4 Mpc^-3) can produce in ~4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10^8-10^9 Mso...

  2. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskell, C Martin

    2016-01-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line H$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ ratio of $\\thickapprox 2.72 \\pm 0.04$, consistent with the Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. (2004). The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (FUV--NUV) colour index strongly rules out a steep SMC-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum. For very blue AGNs the Ly$\\alpha$/H$\\beta$ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhance...

  3. Constraining UV continuum slopes of active galactic nuclei with cloudy models of broad-line region extreme-ultraviolet emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moloney, Joshua [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Michael Shull, J., E-mail: joshua.moloney@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [Also at Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK. (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the composition and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is important for answering many outstanding questions in supermassive black hole evolution, galaxy evolution, and ionization of the intergalactic medium. We used single-epoch UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure EUV emission-line fluxes from four individual AGNs with 0.49 ≤ z ≤ 0.64, two AGNs with 0.32 ≤ z ≤ 0.40, and a composite of 159 AGNs. With the CLOUDY photoionization code, we calculated emission-line fluxes from BLR clouds with a range of density, hydrogen ionizing flux, and incident continuum spectral indices. The photoionization grids were fit to the observations using single-component and locally optimally emitting cloud (LOC) models. The LOC models provide good fits to the measured fluxes, while the single-component models do not. The UV spectral indices preferred by our LOC models are consistent with those measured from COS spectra. EUV emission lines such as N IV λ765, O II λ833, and O III λ834 originate primarily from gas with electron temperatures between 37,000 K and 55,000 K. This gas is found in BLR clouds with high hydrogen densities (n {sub H} ≥ 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}) and hydrogen ionizing photon fluxes (Φ{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}).

  4. Multiwavelength campaign on Mrk 509 XV. A global modeling of the broad emission lines in the Optical, UV and X-ray bands

    CERN Document Server

    Costantini, E; Kaastra, J S; Bianchi, S; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Cappi, M; De Marco, B; Ebrero, J; Mehdipour, M; Petrucci, P -O; Paltani, S; Ponti, G; Steenbrugge, K C; Arav, N

    2016-01-01

    We model the broad emission lines present in the optical, UV and X-ray spectra of Mrk 509, a bright type 1 Seyfert galaxy. The broad lines were simultaneously observed during a large multiwavelength campaign, using the XMM-Newton-OM for the optical lines, HST-COS for the UV lines and XMM-Newton-RGS and Epic for the X-ray lines respectively. We also used FUSE archival data for the broad lines observed in the far-ultra-violet. The goal is to find a physical connection among the lines measured at different wavelengths and determine the size and the distance from the central source of the emitting gas components. We used the "Locally optimally emission Cloud" (LOC) model which interprets the emissivity of the broad line region (BLR) as regulated by powerlaw distributions of both gas density and distances from the central source. We find that one LOC component cannot model all the lines simultaneously. In particular, we find that the X-ray and UV lines likely may originate in the more internal part of the AGN, at ...

  5. Selection of the optimal combination of water vapor absorption lines for detection of temperature in combustion zones of mixing supersonic gas flows by diode laser absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironenko V.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a gas medium temperature by diode laser absorption spectrometry (DLAS is based on the measurement of integral intensities of the absorption lines of a test molecule (generally water vapor molecule. In case of local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature is inferred from the ratio of the integral intensities of two lines with different low energy levels. For the total gas pressure above 1 atm the absorption lines are broadened and one cannot find isolated well resolved water vapor absorption lines within relatively narrow spectral interval of fast diode laser (DL tuning range (about 3 cm−1. For diagnostics of a gas object in the case of high temperature and pressure DLAS technique can be realized with two diode lasers working in different spectral regions with strong absorption lines. In such situation the criteria of the optimal line selection differs significantly from the case of narrow lines. These criteria are discussed in our work. The software for selection the optimal spectral regions using the HITRAN-2012 and HITEMP data bases is developed. The program selects spectral regions of DL tuning, minimizing the error of temperature determination δТ/T, basing on the attainable experimental error of line intensity measurement δS. Two combinations of optimal spectral regions were selected – (1.392 & 1.343 μm and (1.392 & 1.339 μm. Different algorithms of experimental data processing are discussed.

  6. Relation between the "Double-Hump" Behavior in the Radio Band and the Broad-Line Luminosity for Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Hua Xie; Hong Dai; Jian-Ming Hao; Lei-Ming Du; Xiong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The physics behind the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars remains open.We assembled 36 blazars to tackle the factors that control their SED. Now, many blazar spectra have the "double hump" feature in the radio and far-IR frequencies. For these a parameter,△, is created to characterize the behavior of the SED. We found a significant correlation between the broad-line luminosity (LBLR) and △. Because LBLR is an indicator of the accreting power of the source in blazars, we derived a linear correlation,△∝ (M)1/3. 18, which suggests that the SED of blazars may depend on the accretion rate, like that of BL Lac objects. We also found a significant correlation between (m) and△ for a sample of 11 blazars (out of one of 36)with available black hole masses. This implies the Eddington accretion ratio may influence the shape of the SED of blazars.

  7. VLTI/AMBER differential interferometry of the broad-line region of the quasar 3C273

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Romain G; Lagarde, Stéphane; Vannier, Martin; Rakshit, Suvendu; Marconi, Alessandro; Weigelt, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Unveiling the structure of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of AGNs is critical to understand the quasar phenomenon. Resolving a few BLRs by optical interferometry will bring decisive information to confront, complement and calibrate the reverberation mapping technique, basis of the mass-luminosity relation in quasars. BLRs are much smaller than the angular resolution of the VLT and Keck interferometers and they can be resolved only by differential interferometry very accurate measurements of differential visibility and phase as a function of wavelength. The latter yields the photocenter variation with wavelength, and constrains the size, position and velocity law of various regions of the BLR. AGNs are below the magnitude limit for spectrally resolved interferometry set by currently available fringe trackers. A new "blind" observation method and a data processing based on the accumulation of 2D Fourier power and cross spectra permitted us to obtain the first spectrally resolved interferometric observation of a BL...

  8. The broad line type Ic supernova SN 2007ru: Adding to the diversity of type Ic supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, D K; Anupama, G C; Gurugubelli, Uday K; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Photometric and spectral evolution of the type Ic supernova SN 2007ru during the first 3 months are presented. The spectra show broad spectral features due to very high expansion velocity, normally seen in hypernovae. The photospheric velocity is higher than other type Ic supernovae. It is lower than SN 1998bw at $\\sim$ 8 days after the explosion, but is comparable at later epochs. The light curve evolution of SN 2007ru indicates a fast rise time of 8$\\pm$3 days to $B$ band maximum and post-maximum decline more rapidly than other broad-line type Ic supernovae.With an absolute $V$ magnitude of -19.10, SN 2007ru is comparable in brightness with SN 1998bw and lies at the brighter end of the observed type Ic supernovae. The mass of \\Nifs is estimated to be $\\sim 0.4\\Msun$. The fast rise and decline of the light curve and the high expansion velocity suggest that SN 2007ru is an explosion with a high kinetic energy/ejecta mass ratio ($E_{\\rm K}/M_{\\rm {ej}}$). This adds to the diversity of type Ic supernovae.

  9. Discovery of Broad Molecular lines and of Shocked Molecular Hydrogen from the Supernova Remnant G357.7+0.3: HHSMT, APEX, Spitzer and SOFIA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, J; Hewitt, J; Andersen, M; Reach, W T; Guesten, R

    2016-01-01

    We report a discovery of shocked gas from the supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3. Our millimeter and submillimeter observations reveal broad molecular lines of CO(2-1), CO(3-2), CO(4-3), 13CO (2-1) and 13CO (3-2), HCO^+ and HCN using HHSMT, Arizona 12-Meter Telescope, APEX and MOPRA Telescope. The widths of the broad lines are 15-30 kms, and the detection of such broad lines is unambiguous, dynamic evidence showing that the SNR G357.7+0.3 is interacting with molecular clouds. The broad lines appear in extended regions (>4.5'x5'). We also present detection of shocked H2 emission in mid-infrared but lacking ionic lines using the Spitzer IRS observations to map a few arcmin area. The H2 excitation diagram shows a best-fit with a two-temperature LTE model with the temperatures of ~200 and 660 K. We observed [C II] at 158um and high-J CO(11-10) with the GREAT on SOFIA. The GREAT spectrum of [C II], a 3 sigma detection, shows a broad line profile with a width of 15.7 km/s that is similar to those of broad CO molecu...

  10. Disk emission and absorption lines in LMXB. Note on the physical conditions of an absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    We show that the continuum X-ray spectrum of 4U 1630-472 with iron absorption lines can be satisfactorily modeled by the spectrum from an accretion disk atmosphere. We performed full radiative transfer calculations using our code ATM21 to model the emission from an accretion disk surface that is seen at different viewing angles. Computed models are then fitted to the high-resolution X-ray spectra of 4U 1630-472 obtained by {\\it Suzaku} satellite. Absorption lines of highly ionized iron originating in a hot accretion-disk atmospheres are important part of the observed line profile, and can be an alternative or complementary explanation to the wind model usually favored for this type of sources. Next, assuming that absorption lines originate from the wind illuminated by X-ray central source in LMXBs, we can put constrains on the wind location only if we know the volume density number of the absorbing material. There are a few derivations of the distance to the wind in X-ray binaries. We show here, that the dens...

  11. Chandra X-ray Observations of NGC 4258: Iron Absorption Lines from the Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Young, A J

    2004-01-01

    We report sub-arcsecond resolution X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the low luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 4258 and its immediate surroundings with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. NGC 4258 was observed four times, with the first two observations separated by one month, followed over a year later by two consecutive observations. The spectrum of the nucleus is well described by a heavily absorbed, hard X-ray power law of variable luminosity, plus a constant, thermal soft X-ray component. We do not detect an iron K alpha emission line with the upper limit to the equivalent width of a narrow, neutral iron line ranging between 94 and 887 eV (90% confidence) for the different observations. During the second observation on 2000-04-17, two narrow absorption features are seen with >99.5% confidence at ~6.4 keV and ~6.9 keV, which we identify as resonant absorption lines of Fe XVIII - Fe XIX K alpha and Fe XXVI K alpha, respectively. In addition, the 6.9 keV absorption line is probably variable on a timescale of...

  12. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line Hα/Hβ ratio of ≈2.72 ± 0.04, consistent with a Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. (2004). The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (FUV-NUV) colour index strongly rules out a steep SMC-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum for the bluest AGNs. For very blue AGNs the Lyα/Hβ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhanced Lyα/Hβ ratio at very high velocities is a consequence of continuum fluorescence in the Lyman lines (Case C). Reddenings of AGNs mean that the far-UV luminosity is often underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. This is a major factor causing the discrepancies between measured accretion disc sizes and the predictions of simple accretion disc theory. Dust covering fractions for most AGNs are lower than has been estimated. The total mass in lower mass supermassive black holes must be greater than hitherto estimated.

  13. Comparison of line-by-line and band models of near-IR methane absorption applied to outer planet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Fry, P. M.; Boudon, V.; Campargue, A.; Nikitin, A.

    2012-03-01

    Recent improvements in high spectral resolution measurements of methane absorption at wavenumbers between 4800 cm-1 and 7919 cm-1 have greatly increased the number of lines with known lower state energies, the number of weak lines, and the number of lines observed at low temperatures (Campargue, A., Wang, L., Kassi, S., Mašát, M., Votava, O. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1141-1151; Campargue, A., Wang, L., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Kassi, S. [2010]. Chem. Phys. 373, 203-210; Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Wang, L.C. [2011]. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 7985-7996; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2011a]. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 268, 93-106; Nikitin, A.V. et al. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 2211-2224; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Campargue, A. [2010]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 111, 1130-1140; Wang, L., Kassi, S., Liu, A.W., Hu, S.M., Campargue, A. [2011]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 112, 937-951), making it possible to fit near-IR spectra of Titan using line-by-line calculations instead of band models (Bailey, J., Ahlsved, L., Meadows, V.S. [2011]. Icarus 213, 218-232; de Bergh, C. et al. [2011]. Planet. Space Sci. doi:10.1016/j.pss.2011.05.003). Using these new results, we compiled an improved line list relative that used by Bailey et al. by updating several spectral regions with either calculated or more recently measured line parameters, revising lower state energy estimates for lines lacking them, and adding room temperature lines to make the list applicable over a wider range of temperatures. We compared current band models with line-by-line calculations using this new line list, both to assess the behavior of band models, and to identify remaining issues with line-by-line calculations when applied to outer planet atmospheres and over a wider range of wavelengths. Comparisons were made for a selection of uniform paths representing outer planet conditions and for representative non-uniform paths within the atmospheres of Uranus, Saturn

  14. Detection of the Intermediate-width Emission Line Region in Quasar OI 287 with the Broad Emission Line Region Obscured by the Dusty Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenzhen; Hao, Lei; Wang, Huiyuan; Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole of $\\sim 2.9$ pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of $\\sim 1.3$ pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of $\\sim 10^{8.8}-10^{9.4} ~ \\rm cm^{-3}$, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty t...

  15. The Spectral SN-GRB Connection: Systematic Spectral Comparisons between Type Ic Supernovae, broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae with and without Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 10 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. We analyze a total of 396 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra data of Modjaz et al. (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, along with standard deviation and maximum deviation contours. We find that SN~1994I is not a typical SN Ic, in contrast to common belief, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities (as traced by FeII 5169) and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher ab...

  16. Revealing the broad iron Kα line in Cygnus X-1 through simultaneous XMM-Newton, RXTE, and INTEGRAL observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Grinberg, Victoria; Miškovičová, Ivica; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Tomsick, John; Hanke, Manfred; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Kreykenbohm, Sonja; Cadolle Bel, Marion; Bodaghee, Arash; Lohfink, Anne; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-05-01

    We report on the analysis of the broad Fe Kα line feature of Cyg X-1 in the spectra of four simultaneous hard intermediate state observations made with the X-ray Multiple Mirror mission (XMM-Newton), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). The high quality of the XMM-Newton data taken in the Modified Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera provides a great opportunity to investigate the broadened Fe Kα reflection line at 6.4 keV with a very high signal to noise ratio. The 4-500 keV energy range is used to constrain the underlying continuum and the reflection at higher energies. We first investigate the data by applying a phenomenological model that consists of the sum of an exponentially cutoff power law and relativistically smeared reflection. Additionally, we apply a more physical approach and model the irradiation of the accretion disk directly from the lamp post geometry. All four observations show consistent values for the black hole parameters with a spin of a ~ 0.9, in agreement with recent measurements from reflection and disk continuum fitting. The inclination is found to be i ~ 30°, consistent with the orbital inclination and different from inclination measurements made during the soft state, which show a higher inclination. We speculate that the difference between the inclination measurements is due to changes in the inner region of the accretion disk.

  17. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes I: Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Khai

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as...

  18. Broad-band continuum and line emission of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0537-441

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Hartman, R C; Maraschi, L; Tavecchio, F; Tornikoski, M; Treves, A; Urry, C M; Ballo, L; Mukherjee, R; Scarpa, R; Thompson, D J; Pesce, J E

    2002-01-01

    PKS 0537-441, a bright gamma-ray emitting blazar, was observed at radio, optical, UV and X-ray frequencies during various EGRET pointings, often quasi-simultaneously. In 1995 the object was found in an intense emission state at all wavelengths. BeppoSAX observations made in 1998, non-simultaneously with exposures at other frequencies, allow us to characterize precisely the spectral shape of the high energy blazar component, which we attribute to inverse Compton scattering. The optical-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distributions at the different epochs show that the gamma-ray luminosity dominates the bolometric output. This, together with the presence of optical and UV line emission, suggests that, besides the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism, the Compton upscattering of photons external to the jet (e.g., in the broad line region) may have a significant role for high energy radiation. The multiwavelength variability can be reproduced by changes of the plasma bulk Lorentz factor. The spectrum secured by IUE in...

  19. Revealing the broad iron Kalpha line in Cygnus X-1 through simultaneous XMM-Newton, RXTE, and INTEGRAL observations

    CERN Document Server

    Duro, Refiz; Grinberg, Victoria; Miškovičová, Ivica; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Tomsick, John; Hanke, Manfred; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A; Kreykenbohm, Sonja; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Bodaghee, Arash; Lohfink, Anne; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G F; Staubert, Rüdiger; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the broad Fe Kalpha line feature of Cygnus X-1 in the spectra of four simultaneous hard intermediate state observations made with the X-ray Multiple Mirror mission (XMM-Newton), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). The high quality of the XMM-Newton data taken in the Modified Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera provides a great opportunity to investigate the broadened Fe Kalpha reflection line at 6.4keV with a very high signal to noise ratio. The 4-500keV energy range is used to constrain the underlying continuum and the reflection at higher energies. We first investigate the data by applying a phenomenological model that consists of the sum of an exponentially cutoff power law and relativistically smeared reflection. Additionally, we apply a more physical approach and model the irradiation of the accretion disk directly from the lamp post geometry. All four observations show consistent values for the black hole ...

  20. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Basu

    2001-12-01

    Optical variability of extragalactic objects, viz., QSOs, BL Lacs and Seyfert galaxies has been monitored systematically over an appreciable period of time and a large amount of data have accumulated. The present work reports results of investigations involving statistical analysis of updated data on relationships between variability and various observed properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines. It is found that at high frequencies (rest frame) radio spectral index does not change significantly with the degree of variability. However, the degree of variability depends on redshifts. On the other hand, presence or absence of absorption lines is significantly associated with variability for QSOs with larger redshifts ( > 1.0), while no such relationship exists for QSOs at smaller redshifts ( < 1.0 or other objects. Correlation between color indices and redshifts depends on the degree of variability and the sample chosen for the color index.

  1. Spectral Polarization of the Redshifted 21 cm Absorption Line Toward 3C 286

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Arthur M; Robishaw, Timothy; Heiles, Carl; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2011-01-01

    A re-analysis of the Stokes-parameter spectra obtained of the z=0.692 21 cm absorption line toward 3C 286 shows that our original claimed detection of Zeeman splitting by a line-of-sight magnetic field, B_los = 87 microgauss is incorrect. Because of an insidious software error, what we reported as Stokes V is actually Stokes U: the revised Stokes V spectrum indicates a 3-sigma upper limit of B_los < 17 microgauss. The correct analysis reveals an absorption feature in fractional polarization that is offset in velocity from the Stokes I spectrum by -1.9 km/s. The polarization position-angle spectrum shows a dip that is also significantly offset from the Stokes I feature, but at a velocity that differs slightly from the absorption feature in fractional polarization. We model the absorption feature with 3 velocity components against the core-jet structure of 3C 286. Our chisquare minimization fitting results in components with differing (1) ratios of H I column density to spin temperature, (2) velocity centroi...

  2. Possible evidence for a variable fine structure constant from QSO absorption lines motivations, analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Dzuba, V A; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X; Barrow, John D; Wolfe, A M

    2001-01-01

    An experimental search for variation in the fundamental coupling constants is strongly motivated by modern high-energy physics theories. Comparison of quasar absorption line spectra with laboratory spectra provides a sensitive probe for variability of the fine structure constant, alpha, over cosmological time-scales. We have previously developed and applied a new method providing an order of magnitude gain in precision over previous optical astrophysical constraints. Here we extend that work by including new quasar spectra of damped Lyman-alpha absorption systems. We also re-analyse our previous lower redshift data and confirm our initial results. The constraints on alpha come from simultaneous fitting of absorption lines of subsets of the following species: Mg I, Mg II, Al II, Al III, Si II, Cr II, Fe II, Ni II and Zn II. We present a detailed description of our methods and results based on an analysis of 49 quasar absorption systems (towards 28 QSOs) covering the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. There is...

  3. A Candidate for an Intrinsic Dusty Absorber with a Metal-rich Damped Lyα Absorption Line System in the Quasar J170542.91+354340.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiang; Zhou, Hongyan; Ge, Jian; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Bin; Lu, Honglin; Ji, Tuo; Zhang, Shaohua; Shi, Xiheng

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the unusual damped Lyα absorption line system (DLA) toward the quasar SDSS J170542.91+354340.2 at a redshift of 2, previously reported by Noterdaeme et al. as one of the very few CO absorbers known to date at high z. This DLA is exceptional in that: (1) its extinction curve is similar to peculiar Milky Way sightlines penetrating star formation regions; (2) its absorption components are redshifted at a speed of several hundred km s‑1 compared to broad Balmer emission lines; (3) its gas-phase metallicity is super-solar as evaluated from more than 30 absorption lines; (4) detection of residual flux in the DLA trough and variability of {{C}} {{IV}} absorption is possible. Based on these facts, we argue that this dusty DLA is a good candidate for an intrinsic quasar 2175 Å absorber, and can originate from star formation regions of the quasar’s host galaxy. We discuss in detail the gas and dust properties, and the dust depletion. Follow-up observations, such as spectropolarimetry and optical/infrared spectroscopy, will help to confirm the system’s intrinsic nature and to explore how dust grains behave in the extreme environments proximate to quasars.

  4. Neutral atomic absorption lines and far-UV extinction: Possible implications for depletions and grain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine nine lines of sight within the Galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) for which data on both neutral atomic absorption lines (Snow 1984; White 1986; Welty, Hobbs, and York 1989) and far UV extinction (Bless and Savage 1972; Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer 1986) are available, in order to test the assumption that variations in gamma/alpha will cancel in taking ratios of the ionization balance equation, and to try to determine to what extent that assumption has affected the aforementioned studies of depletions and grain properties.

  5. Observations of absorption lines from highly ionized atoms. [of interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward B.

    1987-01-01

    In the ultraviolet spectra of hot stars, absorption lines can be seen from highly ionized species in the interstellar medium. Observations of these features which have been very influential in revising the perception of the medium's various physical states, are discussed. The pervasiveness of O 6 absorption lines, coupled with complementary observations of a diffuse background in soft X-rays and EUV radiation, shows that there is an extensive network of low density gas (n approx. few x 0.001/cu cm) existing at coronal temperatures log T = 5.3 or 6.3. Shocks created by supernova explosions or mass loss from early-type stars can propagate freely through space and eventually transfer a large amount of energy to the medium. To create the coronal temperatures, the shocks must have velocities in excess of 150 km/sec; shocks at somewhat lower velocity (v = 100 km/sec) can be directly observed in the lines of Si3. Observations of other lines in the ultraviolet, such as Si 4V and C 5, may highlight the widespread presence of energetic UV radiation from very hot, dwarf stars. More advanced techniques in visible and X-ray astronomical spectroscopy may open up for inspection selected lines from atoms in much higher stages of ionization.

  6. On the Origin of Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines in z<1 QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguly, R; Charlton, J C; Eracleous, M; Brandt, W N; Churchill, C W; Ganguly, Rajib; Bond, Nicholas A.; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the associated, high ionization narrow absorption line (NAL) systems in a sample of 59 QSOs defined from the HST QSO Absorption Line Key Project. We have compiled the QSO luminosities at 2500 A, 5 GHz, and 2 keV, spectral indices at 2500 A and 5 GHz, the H-beta emission line FWHM, the CIV emission line FWHM, and the radio core fraction. We find 17 associated NALs toward 15 QSOs, of which ~10 are statistically expected to be intrinsic. From a multivariate clustering analysis, the QSOs seem to group together based primarily on radio luminosity, followed by radio spectral index, CIV emission line FWHM, and soft X-ray luminosity. Radio-loud QSOs which have compact radio morphologies, flat radio spectra, and mediocre CIV FWHM (1.5 A] in our low redshift sample which implies evolution in the number of strong NALs with redshift. We interpret these results in the context of an accretion-disk model. In this framework, we suggest that the observational clues result from differences ...

  7. Wavelength Locking to CO2 Absorption Line-Center for 2-Micron Pulsed IPDA Lidar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta; Antill, Charles W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    An airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This IPDA lidar system targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements. Independent wavelength control of each of the transmitted laser pulses is a key feature for the success of this instrument. The wavelength control unit provides switching, tuning and locking for each pulse in reference to a 2-micron CW (Continuous Wave) laser source locked to CO2 line-center. Targeting the CO2 R30 line center, at 2050.967 nanometers, a wavelength locking unit has been integrated using semiconductor laser diode. The CO2 center-line locking unit includes a laser diode current driver, temperature controller, center-line locking controller and CO2 absorption cell. This paper presents the CO2 center-line locking unit architecture, characterization procedure and results. Assessment of wavelength jitter on the IPDA measurement error will also be addressed by comparison to the system design.

  8. Spectral optical monitoring of 3C390.3 in 1995-2007: I. Light curves and flux variation of the continuum and broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kollatschny, D Ilic W; Bochkarev, A Kovacevic N G; Carrasco, L; León-Tavares, J; Mercado, A; Valdes, J R; Vlasuyk, V V; de la Fuente, E

    2010-01-01

    Here we present the results of the long-term (1995-2007) spectral monitoring of the broad line radio galaxy \\object{3C~390.3}, a well known AGN with the double peaked broad emission lines, usually assumed to be emitted from an accretion disk. To explore dimensions and structure of the BLR, we analyze the light curves of the broad H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line fluxes and the continuum flux. In order to find changes in the BLR, we analyze the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line profiles, as well as the change in the line profiles during the monitoring period. First we try to find a periodicity in the continuum and H$\\beta$ light curves, finding that there is a good chance for quasi-periodical oscillations. Using the line shapes and their characteristics (as e.g. peaks separation and their intensity ratio, or FWHM) of broad H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ lines, we discuss the structure of the BLR. Also, we cross-correlate the continuum flux with H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ lines to find dimensions of the BLR. We found that during the ...

  9. Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B. M.; Ferrarese, L.; Gilbert, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present improved black hole masses for 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a complete and consistent reanalysis of broad emission-line reverberation-mapping data. From objects with multiple line measurements, we find that the highest precision measure of the virial product is obtained by...

  10. X-Ray Lines and Absorption Edges in GRBs and Their Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, M

    2002-01-01

    Absorption and Reprocessing of Gamma-ray burst radiation in the environment of cosmological GRBs can be used as a powerful probe of the elusive nature of their progenitors. In particular, transient X-ray emission line and absorption features in the prompt and early afterglows of GRBs are sensitive to details of the location and density structure of the reprocessing and/or absorbing material. To date, there have been only rather few detections of such features, and the significance is marginal in most individual cases. However, transient X-ray emission lines in GRB afterglows have now been found by four different X-ray satellites, which may justify a more detailed theoretical investigation of their origin. In this paper, I will first present a brief review of the status of observations of transient X-ray emission line and absorption features. I will then discuss general physics constraints which those results impose on isotropy, homogeneity, and location of the reprocessing material with respect to the GRB sou...

  11. Probing the Extended Gaseous Regions of M31 with Quasar Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Sandhya; Turnshek, David; Thilker, David; Walterbos, Rene; Berk, Daniel Vanden; York, Donald

    2013-01-01

    We present HST-COS spectra of ten quasars located behind M31, selected to investigate the properties of gas associated with its extended disk and high velocity clouds (HVCs). The sightlines have impact parameters ranging between b= 13 kpc and 112 kpc. No absorption is detected in the four sightlines beyond b=57 kpc. Of the six remaining sightlines, all of which lie at b<32 kpc and within the N(HI)= 2E18 cm^{-2} boundary of the HI disk of M31, we detect low-ionization absorption at M31 velocities along four of them (three of which include MgII absorption). We also detect MgII absorption from an HVC. We find that along sightlines where both are detected, the velocity location of the low-ion gas tracks the peak in 21 cm emission. High-ionization absorption is detected along the three inner sightlines, but not along the three outer sightlines, for which CIV data exist. As inferred from 21 cm emission line maps, only one sightline may have a damped Ly-alpha system. This sightline has b= 17.5 kpc, and we detect ...

  12. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D' Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

    2012-06-07

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  13. DETECTION OF BROAD Hα EMISSION LINES IN THE LATE-TIME SPECTRA OF A HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Lin; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Quimby, R. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ofek, E.; Gal-Yam, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Leloudas, G.; Cia, A. de; Yaron, O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cao, Y.; Kulkarni, S. R. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nugent, P. E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rebbapragada, Umaa D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woźniak, P. R., E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.edu [Space and Remote Sensing, ISR-2, MS-B244 Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.3434, with a slow-evolving light curve and spectral features similar to SN2007bi. It rises in 83–148 days to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}, then decays slowly at 0.015 mag day{sup −1}. The measured ejecta velocity is ∼ 13,000 km s{sup −1}. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (70–220 M{sub ⊙}), and the total radiative and kinetic energy (E{sub rad} ∼ 10{sup 51} erg, E{sub kin} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 53} erg), are typical of slow-evolving H-poor SLSN events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251 days (rest, post-peak) reveals a Balmer Hα emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ∼4500 km s{sup −1} and a ∼300 km s{sup −1} blueward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Hα emission with a luminosity of ∼2 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1} as resulting from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a discrete H-rich shell, located at a distance of ∼4 × 10{sup 16} cm from the explosion site. This interaction causes the rest-frame r-band LC to brighten at late times. The fact that the late-time spectra are not completely absorbed by the shock-ionized H-shell implies that its Thomson scattering optical depth is likely ≤1, thus setting upper limits on the shell mass ≤30 M{sub ⊙}. Of the existing models, a Pulsational Pair Instability supernova model can naturally explain the observed 30 M{sub ⊙} H-shell, ejected from a progenitor star with an initial mass of (95–150) M{sub ⊙} about 40 years ago. We estimate that at least ∼15% of all SLSNe-I may have late-time Balmer emission lines.

  14. SDSS J163459.82+204936.0: A Ringed Infrared-Luminous Quasar with Outflows in both Absorption and Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Ning; Wu, Xufen; Lyu, Jianwei; Shi, Xiheng; Shu, Xinwen; Jiang, Peng; Ji, Tuo; Wang, Jiang-Guo; Wang, Shu-Fen; Sun, Luming

    2016-01-01

    SDSS J1634+2049 is a local (z = 0.1293) infrared-luminous quasar with LIR= 10^11.91 Lsun. We present a detailed multiwavelength study of both the host galaxy and the nucleus. The host galaxy demonstrates violent, obscured star formation activities with SFR ~ 140 Msun yr^-1, estimated from either the PAH emission or IR luminosity. The optical to NIR spectra exhibit a blueshifted narrow cuspy component in Hb, HeI5876,10830 and other emission lines consistently with an offset velocity of ~900 km/s, as well as additional blueshifting phenomena in high-ionization lines , while there exist blueshifted broad absorption lines (BALs) in NaID and HeI*3889,10830, indicative of the AGN outflows producing BALs and emission lines. Constrained mutually by the several BALs with CLOUDY, the physical properties of the absorption-line outflow are derived as follows: 10^4 < n_H <= 10^5 cm^-3, 10^-1.3 <= U <= 10^-0.7 and 10^22.5<= N_H <= 10^22.9 cm^-2 , similar to those derived for the emission-line outflows. Th...

  15. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: xinliu@astro.ucla.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup –1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (∼sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broadlines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broadlines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup –1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broadlines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ∼10-200 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ∼10 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either Hα or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the

  16. Multiple Absorption-Line Spectroscopy of the Intergalactic Medium. I. Model

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yangsen; Danforth, Charles W; Keeney, Brian A; Stocke, John T

    2011-01-01

    We present a physically-based absorption-line model for the spectroscopic study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). This model adopts results from Cloudy simulations and theoretical calculations by Gnat and Sternberg (2007) to examine the resulting observational signatures of the absorbing gas with the following ionization scenarios: collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), photoionization equilibrium, hybrid (photo- plus collisional ionization), and non-equilibrium cooling. As a demonstration, we apply this model to new observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of the IGM absorbers at z~0.1877 along the 1ES 1553+113 sight line. We identify Ly alpha, C III, O VI, and N V absorption lines with two distinct velocity components (blue at z_b=0.18757; red at z_r=0.18772) separated by Delta(cz)/(1+z)~38 km/s. Joint analyses of these lines indicate that none of the examined ionization scenarios can be applied with confidence to the blue velocity component, although phot...

  17. Absorption-Line Probes of Gas and Dust in Galactic Superwinds

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, T M; Strickland, D K; Armus, L; Heckman, Timothy M.; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Strickland, David K.; Armus, Lee

    2000-01-01

    We discuss moderate resolution spectra of the NaD absorption-line in a sampleof 32 far-IR-bright starburst galaxies. In 18 cases, the line is producedprimarily by interstellar gas, and in 12 of these it is blueshifted by over 100km/s relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The absorption-line profiles inthese outflow sources span the range from near the galaxy systemic velocity toa maximum blueshift of 400 to 600 km/s. The outflows occur in galaxiessystematically viewed more nearly face-on than the others. We therefore arguethat the absorbing material consists of ambient interstellar gas acceleratedalong the minor axis of the galaxy by a hot starburst-driven superwind. The NaDlines are optically-thick, but indirect arguments imply total Hydrogen columndensities of N_H = few X 10^{21} cm^{-2}. This implies that the superwind isexpelling matter at a rate comparable to the star-formation rate. Thisoutflowing material is very dusty: we find a strong correlation between thedepth of the NaD profile and the line-o...

  18. Measuring Changes in the Fundamental Constants with Redshifted Radio Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, S J; Darling, J K

    2004-01-01

    Strong evidence has recently emerged for a variation in the fine structure constant, $\\alpha\\equiv e^2/\\hbar c$, over the history of the Universe. This was concluded from a detailed study of the relative positions of redshifted optical quasar absorption spectra. However, {\\it radio} absorption lines at high redshift offer a much higher sensitivity to a cosmological change in $\\alpha$ than optical lines. Furthermore, through the comparison of various radio transitions, \\HI, OH and millimetre molecular (e.g. CO) lines, any variations in the proton g-factor, $g_p$, and the ratio of electron/proton masses, $\\mu\\equiv m_e/m_p$, may also be constrained. Presently, however, systems exhibiting redshifted radio lines are rare with the bias being towards those associated with optically selected QSOs. With its unprecedented sensitivity, large bandwidth and wide field of view, the SKA will prove paramount in surveying the sky for absorbers unbiased by dust extinction. This is expected to yield whole new samples of \\HI ~a...

  19. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Baldwin, Jack A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, 3270 Biomedical Physical Sciences Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: wangjm@mail.ihep.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 177 Chemistry/Physics Building, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} in the

  20. Water Absorption From Line-of-Sight Clouds Toward W49A

    CERN Document Server

    Plume, R; Neufeld, D A; Snell, R L; Hollenbach, D J; Goldsmith, P F; Howe, J; Bergin, E A; Melnick, G J; Bensch, F; Plume, Rene; Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.; Snell, Ronald L.; Hollenbach, David J.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Howe, John; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bensch, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We have observed 6 clouds along the line-of-sight toward W49A using the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) and several ground-based observatories. The ortho-H2O 1-0 and OH (1665 and 1667 MHz) transitions are observed in absorption, whereas the low-J CO, 13CO, and C18O lines, as well as the [CI] 1-0 transition, are seen in emission. By using both the o-H218O and o-H2O absorption lines, we are able to constrain the column-averaged o-H_2O abundances in each line-of-sight cloud to within about an order of magnitude. Assuming the standard N(H2)/N(CO) ratio of 10^4, we find N(o-H2O)/N(H2) = 8.1 x 10^-8 - 4 x 10^-7 for three clouds with optically thin water lines. In three additional clouds, the H$_2$O lines are saturated so we have used observations of the H218O ground-state transition to find upper limits to the water abundance of 8.2x 10^-8 - 1.5x10^-6. We measure the OH abundance from the average of the 1665 and 1667 MHz observations and find N(OH)/N(H2) = 2.3x10^-7 - 1.1x10^-6. The o-H2O and OH abund...

  1. NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R; Brenneman, L W; Madsen, K K; Balokovic, M; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Lohfink, A M; Marinucci, A; Markwardt, C B; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    Broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are active galactic nuclei that produce powerful, large-scale radio jets, but appear as Seyfert 1 galaxies in their optical spectra. In the X-ray band, BLRGs also appear like Seyfert galaxies, but with flatter spectra and weaker reflection features. One explanation for these properties is that the X-ray continuum is diluted by emission from the jet. Here, we present two NuSTAR observations of the BLRG 3C 382 that show clear evidence that the continuum of this source is dominated by thermal Comptonization, as in Seyfert 1 galaxies. The two observations were separated by over a year and found 3C 382 in different states separated by a factor of 1.7 in flux. The lower flux spectrum has a photon-index of $\\Gamma=1.68^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$, while the photon-index of the higher flux spectrum is $\\Gamma=1.78^{+0.02}_{-0.03}$. Thermal and anisotropic Comptonization models provide an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\\pm 30$ keV in the low f...

  2. Modeling the spectral-energy-distribution of 3C 454.3 in a "flat" broad-line-region scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Maichang

    2014-01-01

    The broad-line region (BLR) of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) could have a "flat" geometrical structure to allow GeV gamma-ray photons escape, to produce the observed gamma-ray flares with short timescales. In this paper, we collect the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the FSRQ 3C 454.3 obtained by the multi-wavelength campaigns spanning from 2007 July to 2011 January, and use a model with the "flat" structure BLR, the accretion disc and the dust torus to explain the SEDs of gamma-ray outbursts. We obtain the following results: (i) The jet is almost in equipartition between magnetic and particle energy densities during the outbursts; (ii) When the emitting region locates inside the cavity of the BLR, the covering factor $f_{\\rm BLR}$ of the BLR is very small; as the emitting region goes into the BLR structure, $f_{\\rm BLR}$ increases. (iii) The aperture angle $\\alpha$ describing the BLR structure is about $45^{\\circ}$; (iv) The central black hole (BH) mass is about $5\\times 10^{...

  3. A reduced density-matrix theory of absorption line shape of molecular aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mino

    2005-09-22

    A theory for the absorption line shape of molecular aggregates in condensed phase is formulated based on a reduced density-matrix approach. Intermolecular couplings in the aggregates are assumed to be weak (Förster type of energy transfer mechanism). The spin-Boson model is employed to include the effect of electron-phonon coupling. Using the projection operator technique, we derive kinetic equations for the reduced electronic density matrix associated with the absorption spectrum. General expressions of time-dependent rate constants in the kinetic equations are derived by using the cumulant expansion technique. The resulting time-dependent kinetic equations are solved numerically. We illustrate the applicability of the present theory by calculating the line shape of a dimer (a pair of donor and acceptor of energy transfer). For a J-aggregate type of molecular pair (with excitonic redshift), a tail appears on the blue side of the absorption spectrum due to the existence of inhomogeneity in electronic state mixing which is originated from the electron-phonon coupling.

  4. Exploratory Study of the X-Ray Properties of Quasars With Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, Toru; Chartas, George; Charlton, Jane C

    2008-01-01

    We have used archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of quasars hosting intrinsic narrow UV absorption lines (intrinsic NALs) to carry out an exploratory survey of their X-ray properties. Our sample consists of three intrinsic-NAL quasars and one "mini-BAL" quasar, plus four quasars without intrinsic absorption lines for comparison. These were drawn in a systematic manner from an optical/UV-selected sample. The X-ray properties of intrinsic-NAL quasars are indistinguishable from those of "normal" quasars. We do not find any excess absorption in quasars with intrinsic NALs, with upper limits of a few times 10^22 cm^-2. We compare the X-ray and UV properties of our sample quasars by plotting the equivalent width and blueshift velocity of the intrinsic NALs and the X-ray spectral index against the "optical-to-X-ray" slope, alpha-ox. When BAL quasars and other AGNs with intrinsic NALs are included, the plots suggest that intrinsic-NAL quasars form an extension of the BAL sequences and tend to bridge the gap ...

  5. UV Interstellar Absorption Lines towards the Starburst Dwarf Galaxy NGC 1705

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, M S

    1997-01-01

    Archival Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph low-resolution spectra of NGC 1705, with wavelength ranges 1170.3 to 1461.7 A and 1453.5 to 1740.1 A and a velocity resolution of about 100 km\\s, have been used to derive the velocity structure and equivalent widths of the absorption lines of Si II 1190.42, 1260.42, 1304.37 and 1526.71 A, S II 1253 , Al II 1670.79 Aand Fe II 1608.45 A in this sightline. Three relatively narrow absorption components are seen at LSR velocities --20 km/s, 260 km/sand 540 km/s. Arguments are presented to show these absorption features are interstellar rather than stellar in origin based on a comparison with the C III 1175.7 A absorption feature. We identify the --20 km/s component with Milky Way disk/halo gas and the 260 km/s component with an isolated high-velocity cloud HVC 487. This small HVC is located about 10 degrees from the H I gas which envelops the Magellanic Clouds and the Magellanic Stream (MS). The (Si/H) ratio for this HVC is > 0.6 (Si/H)solar which together with velocit...

  6. A new analysis of fine-structure constant measurements and modelling errors from quasar absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczynska, Michael R; King, Julian A; Murphy, Michael T; Bainbridge, Matthew B; Flambaum, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of $0.4 \\leq z_{abs} \\leq 2.3$ observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha=\\left(0.22\\pm0.23\\right)\\times10^{-5}$, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ measurements, th...

  7. Broadband X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the Neutron Star - White Dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Aditya S; Pahari, Mayukh; Misra, Ranjeev; Kembhavi, Ajit K; Raychaudhuri, Biplab

    2016-01-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disk. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U~1820--30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broadband spectral study of the atoll source using \\suzaku{} and simultaneous \

  8. A High Galactic Latitude HI 21 cm-line Absorption Survey using the GMRT: I. Observations and Spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rekhesh Mohan; K. S. Dwarakanath; G. Srinivasan

    2004-09-01

    We have used the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to measure the Galactic HI 21-cm line absorption towards 102 extragalactic radio continuum sources, located at high (|| > 15°) Galactic latitudes. The Declination coverage of the present survey is ≳ -45°. With a mean rms optical depth of ∼ 0.003, this is the most sensitive Galactic HI 21-cm line absorption survey to date. To supplement the absorption data, we have extracted the HI 21-cm line emission profiles towards these 102 lines of sight from the Leiden Dwingeloo Survey of Galactic neutral hydrogen. We have carried out a Gaussian fitting analysis to identify the discrete absorption and emission components in these profiles. In this paper, we present the spectra and the components. A subsequent paper will discuss the interpretation of these results.

  9. A RADIAL VELOCITY TEST FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BROAD, DOUBLE-PEAKED EMISSION LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Halpern, Jules P. [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Gravitation and The Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    One of the proposed explanations for the broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines observed in the spectra of some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is that they are associated with sub-parsec supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. Here, we test the binary broad-line region hypothesis through several decades of monitoring of the velocity structure of double-peaked Hα emission lines in 13 low-redshift, mostly radio-loud AGNs. This is a much larger set of objects compared to an earlier test by Eracleous et al. and we use much longer time series for the three objects studied in that paper. Although systematic changes in radial velocity can be traced in many of their lines, they are demonstrably not like those of a spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit. Any spectroscopic binary period must therefore be much longer than the span of the monitoring (assuming a circular orbit), which in turn would require black hole masses that exceed by 1–2 orders of magnitude the values obtained for these objects using techniques such as reverberation mapping and stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, the response of the double-peaked Balmer line profiles to fluctuations of the ionizing continuum and the shape of the Lyα profiles are incompatible with an SMBH binary. The binary broad-line region hypothesis is therefore disfavored. Other processes evidently shape these line profiles and cause the long-term velocity variations of the double peaks.

  10. The Radio to Infrared Emission of Very High Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts: Probing Early Star Formation through Molecular and Atomic Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, S; Ciardi, B; Inoue, Susumu; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Ciardi, Benedetta

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the broadband afterglow emission of very high redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using standard relativistic blastwave models with both forward and reverse shock components. For a broad range of parameters, a generic property for GRBs at redshifts $z \\sim$ 5--30 is that the emission peaks in the millimeter to far-infrared bands with milli-Jansky flux levels, first at a few hours after the burst due to the reverse shock, and then again for several days afterwards with somewhat lower flux due to the forward shock. The radio, submillimeter and infrared continuum emission should be readily detectable out to $z \\ga 30$ by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), Extended Very Large Array (EVLA), Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and other facilities. For relatively bright bursts, spectroscopic measurements of molecular and atomic absorption lines due to ambient protostellar gas may be possible. Utilizing models of primordial protostellar clouds, we show that under certain conditions, appreciable absorption ...

  11. Invisible Active Galactic Nuclei. II Radio Morphologies & Five New HI 21 cm Absorption Line Detections

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Ting; Darling, Jeremy; Momjian, Emmanuel; Sharma, Soniya; Kanekar, Nissim

    2015-01-01

    We have selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper 1. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and HI 21cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz VLA continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size 0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The most compact 36 sources were then observed with the VLBA at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, a detection rate of CSOs ~3 times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty seven sources were observed for HI 21cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only ...

  12. Line formation in Be star circumstellar disks Shear broadening, shell absorption, stellar obscuration and rotational parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, W.; Vrancken, M.

    2000-07-01

    We improve the theory of Horne & Marsh on shear broadening in accretion disks of CVs and adapt it to Be star circumstellar disks. Stellar obscuration and shell absorption are taken into account in detail. It is shown that shell absorption is already present in those emission lines where the central depression does not drop below the stellar continuum. The model profiles are fitted to observed symmetric Hα net emission lines with low equivalent width. The derived disk radii range from Rd = 5.3 R_* to Rd = 18 R_* and the surface emissivity varies as ~ R-m with 1.6 (1)/(2) with the optically thick Hα profile of HR 5440 rules out the range of j>(1)/(2). This can be understood by the lack of velocity shear in the outer disk regions. We conclude that Keplerian rotation (j=(1)/(2)) is a valid approximation. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), CNRS, France.

  13. UV Absorption Line Ratios in Circumgalactic Medium at Low Redshift in Realistic Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cen, Renyue

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we investigate various ultra-violet absorption lines in the circumgalactic medium of star forming galaxies at low redshift, in hopes of checking and alleviating the claimed observational conundrum of the ratio of NV to OVI absorbers, among others. We find a satisfactory agreement between simulations and extant observational data with respect to the ratios of the following four line pairs examined, NV/OVI, SiIV/OVI, NIII/OVI and NII/OVI. For the pairs involving nitrogen lines, we examine two cases of nitrogen abundance, one with constant N/O ratio and the other with varying N/O ratio, with the latter motivated by theoretical considerations of two different synthetic sources of nitrogen that is empirically verified independently. Along a separate vector, for all line pairs, we examine two cases of radiation field, one with the Haardt-Madau background radiation field and the other with an additional local radiation field sourced by hot gas in the ho...

  14. Absorption-line systems in simulated galaxies fed by cold streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel R.

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-cosmological simulations reveal that massive galaxies at high redshift are fed by long narrow streams of merging galaxies and a smoother component of cold gas. We post-process seven high-resolution simulated galaxies with radiative transfer to study the absorption characteristics of the gas in galaxies and streams, in comparison with the statistics of observed absorption-line systems. We find that much of the stream gas is ionized by UV radiation from background and local stellar sources, but still optically thick (? cm-2) so that the streams appear as Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). At z > 3, the fraction of neutral gas in streams becomes non-negligible, giving rise to damped Lyman α absorbers (DLAs) as well. The gas in the central and incoming galaxies remains mostly neutral, responsible for DLAs. Within one (two) virial radii, the covering factor of optically thick gas is cold streams in the studied mass range, Mvir= 1010-1012 M⊙, account for >30 per cent of the observed absorbers in the foreground of quasars, the rest possibly arising from smaller galaxies or the intergalactic medium. The mean metallicity in the streams is ˜1 per cent solar, much lower than in the galaxies. The simulated galaxies reproduce the Lyα-absorption equivalent widths observed around Lyman-break galaxies, but they severely underpredict the equivalent widths in metal lines, suggesting that the latter may arise from outflows. We conclude that the observed metal-poor LLSs are likely detections of the predicted cold streams. Revised analysis of the observed LLSs kinematics and simulations with more massive outflows in conjunction with the inflows may enable a clearer distinction between the signatures of the various gas modes.

  15. REVERBERATION MAPPING WITH INTERMEDIATE-BAND PHOTOMETRY: DETECTION OF BROAD-LINE Hα TIME LAGS FOR QUASARS AT 0.2 < z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Morganson, Eric [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Windhorst, Rogier A., E-mail: jiangKIAA@pku.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We present a reverberation mapping (RM) experiment that combines broad- and intermediate-band photometry; it is the first such attempt targeting 13 quasars at 0.2 < z < 0.9. The quasars were selected to have strong Hα or Hβ emission lines that are located in one of three intermediate bands (with FWHM around 200 Å) centered at 8045, 8505, and 9171 Å. The imaging observations were carried out in the intermediate bands and the broad i and z bands using the prime-focus imager 90Prime on the 2.3 m Bok telescope. Because of the large (∼1 deg{sup 2}) field of view (FOV) of 90Prime, we included the 13 quasars within only five telescope pointings or fields. The five fields were repeatedly observed over 20–30 epochs that were unevenly distributed over a duration of 5–6 months. The combination of the broad- and intermediate-band photometry allows us to derive accurate light curves for both optical continuum emission (from the accretion disk) and line emission (from the broad-line region, or BLR). We detect Hα time lags between the continuum and line emission in six quasars. These quasars are at relatively low redshifts 0.2 < z < 0.4. The measured lags are consistent with the current BLR size–luminosity relation for Hβ at z < 0.3. While this experiment appears successful in detecting lags of the bright Hα line, further investigation is required to see if it can also be applied to the fainter Hβ line for quasars at higher redshifts. Finally we demonstrate that, by using a small telescope with a large FOV, intermediate-band photometric RM can be efficiently executed for a large sample of quasars at z > 0.2.

  16. The link between quasar broad-line region and galaxy-scale outflows and accurate CIV-based black hole masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate black-hole (BH) mass estimates for high-redshift (z>2) quasars are essential for better understanding the relationship between super-massive BH accretion and star formation. Progress is currently limited by the large systematic errors in virial BH-masses derived from the CIV broad emission line, which is often significantly blueshifted relative to systemic, most likely due to outflowing gas in the quasar broad-line region. We have assembled Balmer-line based BH masses for a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (1045.5-1048 ergs-1), redshift 1.5blueshifts seen in the quasar population. We find the CIV-based BH-masses to be larger than the corresponding Balmer line-based masses by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts (˜5000 kms-1). An empirical correction to the CIV BH-masses is derived, which depends only on the properties of the CIV line itself (i.e. blueshift and FWHM). We show that this new correction now enables the derivation of un-biased CIV-based virial BH masses for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars.In the same high-luminosity quasar sample, we find the narrow [OIII] emission to be weaker and more asymmetric than is generally found in lower-luminosity AGN and that a significant fraction of our quasars have exceptionally broad (FWHM > 3000 kms-1), blueshifted [OIII] emission. We find a strong correlation between the CIV and [OIII] blueshifts. This correlation holds even for quasars at fixed luminosity and suggests that broad line region outflows in quasars are connected to galaxy-scale winds.

  17. Made-to-measure galaxy modelling utilising absorption line strength data

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We enhance the Syer & Tremaine made-to-measure (M2M) particle method of stellar dynamical modelling to model simultaneously both kinematic data and absorption line strength data thus creating a `chemo-M2M' modelling scheme. We apply the enhanced method to four galaxies (NGC 1248, NGC 3838, NGC 4452, NGC 4551) observed using the SAURON integral-field spectrograph as part of the ATLAS3D programme. We are able to reproduce successfully the 2D line strength data achieving mean chi^2 per bin values of ~1 with >95\\% of particles having converged weights. Because M2M uses a 3D particle system, we are also able to examine the underlying 3D line strength distributions. The extent to which these distributions are plausible representations of real galaxies requires further consideration. Overall we consider the modelling exercise to be a promising first step in developing a `chemo-M2M' modelling system and in understanding some of the issues to be addressed. Whilst the made-to-measure techniques developed have been ...

  18. Probing the Circumgalactic Medium of Submillimeter Galaxies with QSO Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Stockton, Alan N.; Mutel, Robert Lucien; Casey, Caitlin; Cooray, Asantha R.; Keres, Dusan

    2017-01-01

    We present first results from an ongoing survey to characterize the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the massive high-redshift galaxieds detected as submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). By cross-matching far-infrared-selected galaxies from Herschel with spectroscopically confirmed quasars, we constructed a sample of 163 SMG-QSO pairs with separations less than 36". We observed 62 SMG-QSO pairs with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). These observations obtained sub-arcsecond positions of 31 SMGs and identified seven previously-thought SMG-QSO pairs as submillimeter-luminous QSOs. We are currently conducting a redshift survey of the VLA/ALMA-confirmed SMGs and acquiring high S/N UV-optical specrtoscopy of the background QSOs. For the small sample of three VLA-confirmed SMG-QSO pairs that we have the complete data set, absorption line spectra of the background QSOs allow us to analyze the CGM of SMGs for the first time, providing insight into the fuel-supply ultimately powering their tremendous starbursts. Our observations reveal strong HI Ly-alpha absorption (rest-frame equivalent widths about 2-3 A) around all three SMGs; however, none exhibit compelling evidence for strong neutral absorbers (NHI > 1017.2 cm-2) or metal absorption, allowing us to place an 1-sigma upper limit on the covering factor of optically thick HI gas around SMGs of fC cool gas reservoirs in their halos and that they may inhabit much less massive halos than previously thought.

  19. Isotopic ratios at z=0.68 from molecular absorption lines toward B 0218+357

    CERN Document Server

    Wallstrom, S H J; Guelin, M

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic ratios of heavy elements are a key signature of the nucleosynthesis processes in stellar interiors. The contribution of successive generations of stars to the metal enrichment of the Universe is imprinted on the evolution of isotopic ratios over time. We investigate the isotopic ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur through millimeter molecular absorption lines arising in the z=0.68 absorber toward the blazar B 0218+357. We find that these ratios differ from those observed in the Galactic interstellar medium, but are remarkably close to those in the only other source at intermediate redshift for which isotopic ratios have been measured to date, the z=0.89 absorber in front of PKS1830-211. The isotopic ratios in these two absorbers should reflect enrichment mostly from massive stars, and they are indeed close to the values observed toward local starburst galaxies. Our measurements set constraints on nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution models.

  20. Determination of molecular line parameters for acrolein (C(3)H(4)O) using infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harward, Charles N; Thweatt, W David; Baren, Randall E; Parrish, Milton E

    2006-04-01

    Acrolein (C(3)H(4)O) molecular line parameters, including infrared (IR) absorption positions, strengths, and nitrogen broadened half-widths, must be determined since they are not included in the high resolution transmission (HITRAN) molecular absorption database of spectral lines. These parameters are required for developing a quantitative analytical method for measuring acrolein in a single puff of cigarette smoke using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The task is complex since acrolein has many highly overlapping infrared absorption lines in the room temperature spectrum and the cigarette smoke matrix contains thousands of compounds. This work describes the procedure for estimating the molecular line parameters for these overlapping absorption lines in the wavenumber range (958.7-958.9 cm(-1)) using quantitative reference spectra taken with the infrared lead-salt TDLAS instrument at different pressures and concentrations. The nitrogen broadened half-width for acrolein is 0.0937 cm(-1)atm(-1) and to our knowledge, is the first time it has been reported in the literature.

  1. High-resolution absorption spectroscopy of the OH 2Pi 3/2 ground state line

    CERN Document Server

    Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Heyminck, Stefan; Karl, Jacobs; Menten, Karl; Neufeld, David; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; Stutzki, Jürgen; 10.1051/0004-6361/201218915

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the interstellar medium is determined by gas phase chemistry, assisted by grain surface reactions, and by shock chemistry. The aim of this study is to measure the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in diffuse spiral arm clouds as a contribution to our understanding of the underlying network of chemical reactions. Owing to their high critical density, the ground states of light hydrides provide a tool to directly estimate column densities by means of absorption spectroscopy against bright background sources. We observed onboard the SOFIA observatory the 2Pi3/2, J = 5/2 3/2 2.5 THz line of ground-state OH in the diffuse clouds of the Carina-Sagittarius spiral arm. OH column densities in the spiral arm clouds along the sightlines to W49N, W51 and G34.26+0.15 were found to be of the order of 10^14 cm^-2, which corresponds to a fractional abundance of 10^-7 to 10^-8, which is comparable to that of H_2O. The absorption spectra of both species have similar velocity components, and the...

  2. XMM-Newton and UV Detection of OVIII and Broad HI absorption towards PKS 0558-504: a possible WHIM filament

    CERN Document Server

    Nicastro, F; Fields, D; Conciatore, M L; Zappacosta, L; Elvis, M; Mathur, S; Papadakis, I

    2009-01-01

    We present the first likely X-ray detection associated with Broad HI Ly$\\beta$ (BLB) and Ly$\\alpha$ (BLA) absorbers, consistent with being a WHIM filament. The absorber lies along the line of sight to the nearby ($z=0.1372$) Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 0558-504. The X-ray absorber is marginally detected in two independent XMM-Newton spectra of PKS 0558-504, with a combined single line statistical significance of 2.8$\\sigma$ (2.7$\\sigma$ and 1.2$\\sigma$ in the two spectra, respectively). When fitted with our self-consistent hybrid-photoionization WHIM models, the combined XMM-{\\em Newton} spectrum is consistent with the presence of an OVIII K$\\alpha$ absorber at $z=(0.117 \\pm 0.001)$, with log$T=6.56_{-0.17}^{+0.19}$ K, and logN$_H=(21.5 \\pm 0.3) (Z/Z_{0.01\\odot})^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$. The lack of detection of associated OVI in the archival FUSE spectrum of PKS 0558-504, allows us to infer a tighter lower limit on the temperature, of log$T>6.52$ K (at 1$\\sigma$). The statistical sigificance of this single X-ray detection ...

  3. Impact of difference in absorption line parameters in spectroscopic databases on CO2 and CH4 atmospheric content retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokova, T. Yu.; Chentsov, A. V.; Rokotyan, N. V.; Zakharov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The impact of uncertainties in CH4 and CO2 absorption line parameters in modern spectroscopic databases on the atmospheric transmission simulation in the near-infrared region is investigated. The atmospheric contents of CH4 and CO2 are retrieved from the absorption solar spectra measured by a ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer. Different spectroscopic databases are used in the forward radiative transfer model and a comparison of the retrieved results is made.

  4. A new perspective on the interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun from UV absorption line results

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    We offer a new, more inclusive, picture of the local interstellar medium, where it is composed of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions. Our study of velocities based on Mg II and Fe II ultraviolet absorption lines indicates that the cloud has an average motion consistent with the velocity vector of gas impacting the heliosphere and does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like the squashing of a balloon. The outer boundary of the cloud is in average 10 pc away from us but is highly irregular, being only a few parsecs away in some directions, with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. Average H I volume densities vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different sight lines. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in this effect from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is...

  5. High-resolution IUE observations of interstellar absorption lines in the Vela supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Wallerstein, G.; Silk, J.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of 45 stars in the vicinity of the Vela supernova remnant were recorded by the short-wavelength echelle spectrograph aboard the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Over one-third of the stars show interstellar absorption lines at large radial velocities (greater than 60 km/s). The mapping of these high-velocity components in the sky suggests the motions are chaotic, rather than from a coherent expansion of the remnant material. In accord with earlier conclusions from Copernicus data, the gas at high velocity exhibits higher than normal ionization and shows substantially less depletion of nonvolatile elements than normal interstellar material at low velocities. Relatively strong lines from neutral carbon in the two excited fine-structure states indicate that the neutral clouds within the remnant have had their pressures enhanced by the passage of the blast wave from the supernova. Also, the remnant seems to show a significant enhancement in the abundances of low-velocity Si IV, C IV, and N V over those found in the general interstellar medium.

  6. The broad H-alpha, [O III] line wings in stellar supercluster A of NGC2363 and the turbulent mixing layer hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Binette, Luc; Ubeda, Leonardo; Raga, Alejandro C; Robert, Carmelle; Krongold, Yair

    2009-01-01

    Context. SuperclusterA in the extragalactic HII region NGC2363 is remarkable for the hypersonic gas seen as faint extended broad emission lines with a full width zero intensity of 7000km/s. Aims. We explore the possibility that the observed broad profiles are the result of the interaction of a high velocity cluster wind with dense photoionized clumps. Methods. The geometry considered is that of near static photoionized condensations at the surface of which turbulent mixing layers arise as a result of the interaction with the hot wind. The approximative treatment of turbulence is carried out using the mixing length approach of Canto & Raga. The code mappings Ic is used to derive the mean quantities describing the flow and to compute the line emissivities within the turbulent layers. The velocity projection in three dimensions of the line sources is carried out analytically. Results. A fast entraining wind of up to ~4300km/s appears to be required to reproduce the faint wings of the broad H-alpha and [O III...

  7. The Broad Institute: Screening for Dependencies in Cancer Cell Lines Using Small Molecules | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using cancer cell-line profiling, we established an ongoing resource to identify, as comprehensively as possible, the drug-targetable dependencies that specific genomic alterations impart on human cancers. We measured the sensitivity of hundreds of genetically characterized cancer cell lines to hundreds of small-molecule probes and drugs that have highly selective interactions with their targets, and that collectively modulate many distinct nodes in cancer cell circuitry.

  8. The location of the broad H i absorption in 3C 305: clear evidence for a jet-accelerated neutral outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Tadhunter, C. N.; van Moorsel, G.; Emonts, B.

    2005-08-01

    We present high-spatial resolution 21-cm H i VLA observations of the radio galaxy 3C 305 (z=0.041). These new high-resolution data show that the ˜ 1000 km s-1 broad H I absorption, earlier detected in low-resolution WSRT observations, is occurring against the bright, eastern radio lobe, about 1.6 kpc from the nucleus. We use new optical spectra taken with the WHT to make a detailed comparison of the kinematics of the neutral hydrogen with that of the ionised gas. The striking similarity between the complex kinematics of the two gas phases suggests that both the ionised gas and the neutral gas are part of the same outflow. Earlier studies of the ionised gas had already found evidence for a strong interaction between the radio jet and the interstellar medium at the location of the eastern radio lobe. Our results show that the fast outflow produced by this interaction also contains a component of neutral atomic hydrogen. The most likely interpretation is that the radio jet ionises the ISM and accelerates it to the high outflow velocities observed. Our observations demonstrate that, following this strong jet-cloud interaction, not all gas clouds are destroyed and that part of the gas can cool and become neutral. The mass outflow rate measured in 3C 305 is comparable, although at the lower end of the distribution, to that found in Ultra-Luminous IR galaxies. This suggests that AGN-driven outflows, and in particular jet-driven outflows, can have a similar impact on the evolution of a galaxy as starburst-driven superwinds.

  9. Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, B M; Gilbert, K M; Kaspi, S; Malkan, M A; Maoz, D; Merritt, D; Netzer, H; Onken, C A; Pogge, R W; Vestergaard, M; Wandel, A

    2004-01-01

    We present improved black hole masses for 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a complete and consistent reanalysis of broad emission-line reverberation-mapping data. From objects with multiple line measurements, we find that the highest precision measure of the virial product is obtained by using the cross-correlation function centroid (as opposed to the cross-correlation function peak) for the time delay and the line dispersion (as opposed to full width half maximum) for the line width and by measuring the line width in the variable part of the spectrum. Accurate line-width measurement depends critically on avoiding contaminating features, in particular the narrow components of the emission lines. We find that the precision (or random component of the error) of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements is typically around 30%, comparable to the precision attained in measurement of black hole masses in quiescent galaxies by gas or stellar dynamical methods. Based on results presented in a compani...

  10. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place...... are not significantly absorbed (NH ≲ 1024 cm-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain...... statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%....

  11. Melon RNA interference (RNAi) lines silenced for Cm-eIF4E show broad virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana M; Gosalvez, Blanca; Sempere, Raquel N; Burgos, Lorenzo; Aranda, Miguel A; Truniger, Verónica

    2012-09-01

    Efficient and sustainable control of plant viruses may be achieved using genetically resistant crop varieties, although resistance genes are not always available for each pathogen; in this regard, the identification of new genes that are able to confer broad-spectrum and durable resistance is highly desirable. Recently, the cloning and characterization of recessive resistance genes from different plant species has pointed towards eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIF) of the 4E family as factors required for the multiplication of many different viruses. Thus, we hypothesized that eIF4E may control the susceptibility of melon (Cucumis melo L.) to a broad range of viruses. To test this hypothesis, Cm-eIF4E knockdown melon plants were generated by the transformation of explants with a construct that was designed to induce the silencing of this gene, and the plants from T2 generations were genetically and phenotypically characterized. In transformed plants, Cm-eIF4E was specifically silenced, as identified by the decreased accumulation of Cm-eIF4E mRNA and the appearance of small interfering RNAs derived from the transgene, whereas the Cm-eIF(iso)4E mRNA levels remained unaffected. We challenged these transgenic melon plants with eight agronomically important melon-infecting viruses, and identified that they were resistant to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), indicating that Cm-eIF4E controls melon susceptibility to these four viruses. Therefore, Cm-eIF4E is an efficient target for the identification of new resistance alleles able to confer broad-spectrum virus resistance in melon.

  12. WISE J233237.05–505643.5: A double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus with a spiral-shaped radio morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu, Jingwen [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Emonts, Bjorn [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Barrows, R. Scott [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Norris, Ray P. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Lonsdale, Carol [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); High, F. William [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H., E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-10

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging, and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) WISE J233237.05–505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid morphology, characterized by a bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in Australian Telescope Compact Array continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332–5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5'' linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch, optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 yr baseline from the AGN component. Gemini South optical data show unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of Hα and Hβ are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ∼3800 km s{sup –1}. We examine possible cases that involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system and discuss the required future investigations to disentangle the mysterious nature of this system.

  13. WISE J233237.05-505643.5: a Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Stern, Daniel; Bjorn, Emonts; Barrows, R Scott; Assef, Roberto J; Norris, Ray P; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Lonsdale, Carol J; Blain, Andrew W; Benford, Dominic J; Wu, Jingwen; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W; High, F William; Li, K L; Kong, Albert K H

    2013-01-01

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ~ 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive blac...

  14. An intense and broad FeKalpha line observed in the X-ray luminous quasar Q0056-363 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Porquet, D; Porquet, Delphine

    2003-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet quasar Q0056-363 (z=0.162). This is the first time that this quasar is observed in the hard X-ray range (above 2 keV). We find that Q0056-363 is a powerful X-ray quasar, with a 0.3-12 keV unabsorbed luminosity of about 1.2 x 10^45 erg s-1 with the largest part (~67%) emitted below 2 keV. The spectrum reveals a large featureless soft X-ray excess below 2 keV and a strong broad FeKalpha line at 6.4 keV (in the quasar frame). The FeK alpha line is due to low to moderate ionization states of iron (i.e., < Fe XVII), with an equivalent width of about 250 eV and a velocity width of about 25,000 km s-1. Q0056-363 is presently the most luminous AGN known to exhibit such a broad and intense FeKalpha line profile from near neutral iron. The line can be fitted with a relativistic profile from an accretion disc around either a Schwarzschild (non-rotating) or a Kerr (rotating) black hole. A combination of two thermal Comptonization components and a disc reflection ...

  15. WISE J233237.05-505643.5: A Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Stern, Daniel; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Assef, Roberto J.; Norris, Ray P.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; Benford, Dominic J.; Wu, Jingwen; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W.; High, F. William; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by approximately 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system, and discuss required future investigations to disentangle the mystery nature of this system.

  16. New Perspective on Galaxy Outflows From the First Detection of Both Intrinsic and Traverse Metal-Line Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, Glenn G; Bouché, Nicolas; Churchill, Christopher W; Cooke, Jeff; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane; Ho, Stephanie H; Klimek, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z=0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy ("down-the-barrel") and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by MgII, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight-line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes MgI and MgII absorption obtained from Keck/LRIS and Lya, SiII and SiIII absorption obtained from HST/COS. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between $V_{dtb}=45-255$ km/s. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities $V_{outflow}=40-80$ km/s to reproduce the transverse MgII absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of $V_...

  17. Interstellar H I and H_2 in the Magellanic Clouds: An Expanded Sample Based on UV Absorption-Line Data

    CERN Document Server

    Welty, Daniel E; Wong, Tony

    2011-01-01

    We have determined column densities of H I and/or H_2 for sight lines in the Magellanic Clouds from archival HST and FUSE spectra of H I Lyman-alpha and H_2 Lyman-band absorption. Together with some similar data from the literature, we now have absorption-based N(H I) and/or N(H_2) for 285 LMC and SMC sight lines (114 with a detection or limit for both species) -- enabling more extensive, direct, and accurate determinations of molecular fractions, gas-to-dust ratios, and elemental depletions in these two nearby, low-metallicity galaxies. For sight lines where the N(H I) estimated from 21 cm emission is significantly higher than the value derived from Lyman-alpha absorption (presumably due to emission from gas beyond the target stars), integration of the 21 cm profile only over the velocity range seen in Na I or H_2 absorption generally yields much better agreement. Conversely, N(21 cm) can be lower than N(Ly-alpha) by factors of 2--3 in some LMC sight lines -- suggestive of small-scale structure within the 21...

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Marie Curie Fellow at the Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Siverd, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 5301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan - Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H{beta} emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II {lambda}4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  19. Absolute absorption on the potassium D lines:theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, Ryan K; Hughes, Ifan G; Cornish, Simon L

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the absolute Doppler-broadened absorption of a probe beam scanned across the potassium D lines in a thermal vapour. Spectra using a weak probe were measured on the 4S $\\rightarrow$ 4P transition and compared to the theoretical model of the electric susceptibility detailed by Zentile et al. (2015) in the code named ElecSus. Comparisons were also made on the 4S $\\rightarrow$ 5P transition with an adapted version of ElecSus. This is the first experimental test of ElecSus on an atom with a ground state hyperfine splitting smaller than that of the Doppler width. An excellent agreement was found between ElecSus and experimental measurements at a variety of temperatures with rms errors of $\\sim 10^{-3}$. We have also demonstrated the use of ElecSus as an atomic vapour thermometry tool, and present a possible new measurement technique of transition decay rates which we predict to have a precision $\\sim$ 3 kHz.

  20. Isotopic ratios at z = 0.68 from molecular absorption lines toward B 0218+357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, S. H. J.; Muller, S.; Guélin, M.

    2016-11-01

    Isotopic ratios of heavy elements are a key signature of the nucleosynthesis processes in stellar interiors. The contribution of successive generations of stars to the metal enrichment of the Universe is imprinted on the evolution of isotopic ratios over time. We investigate the isotopic ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur through millimeter molecular absorption lines arising in the z = 0.68 absorber toward the blazar B 0218+357. We find that these ratios differ from those observed in the Galactic interstellar medium, but are remarkably close to those in the only other source at intermediate redshift for which isotopic ratios have been measured to date, the z = 0.89 absorber in front of PKS 1830-211. The isotopic ratios in these two absorbers should reflect enrichment mostly from massive stars, and they are indeed close to the values observed toward local starburst galaxies. Our measurements set constraints on nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution models. The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A96

  1. Analysis of the influence of various effects on frequency shifts of the acetylene saturated absorption lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Lei; Zhang Lei; Dou Hai-Peng; Yin Wang-Bao; Jia Suo-Tang

    2008-01-01

    Frequency shifts of the acetylene saturated absorption lines at 1.5μm with temperature,gas pressure and laser power have been investigated in detail.The second-order Doppler effect,the recoil effect,the Zeeman effect,the pressure shift and the power shift are taken into consideration.The magnitudes of those shifts caused by various effects are evaluated.In order to reproduce the stability of 5.7 x 10-14 obtained by Edwards,all necessary conditions are given.The results show that when there is a larger external magnetic field,the Zeeman shift could not be neglected,so that the shield should be employed.And the design of a long cavity is advantageous to reduce the influence of the second-order Doppler effect.The results also show that at least ±2.5°C temperature control for cavity can effectively prevent several effects and improve the frequency stability.

  2. Absorption lines from magnetically-driven winds in X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravorty, S; Ferreira, J; Henri, G; Belmont, R; Clavel, M; Corbel, S; Rodriguez, J; Coriat, M; Drappeau, S; Malzac, J

    2016-01-01

    High resolution X-ray spectra of black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) show blueshifted absorption lines from disk winds which seem to be equatorial. Winds occur in the Softer (disk-dominated) states of the outburst and are less prominent or absent in the Harder (power-law dominated) states. We use self-similar magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) accretion-ejection models to explain the disk winds in BHBs. In our models, the density at the base of the outflow from the accretion disk is not a free parameter, but is determined by solving the full set of dynamical MHD equations. Thus the physical properties of the outflow are controlled by the global structure of the disk. We studied different MHD solutions characterized by different values of (a) the disk aspect ratio ($\\varepsilon$) and (b) the ejection efficiency ($p$). We use two kinds of MHD solutions depending on the absence (cold solution) or presence (warm solution) of heating at the disk surface. Such heating could be from e.g. dissipation of energy due to MHD turbul...

  3. Absorption line indices from high resolution spectra. I. New Response Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Tantalo, R; Munari, U; Piovan, L; Sordo, R

    2004-01-01

    Basing on the huge library of 1A resolution spectra calculated by Munari et al. (2004) over a large range of atmospheric parameters (log Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) and both for solar and alpha-enhanced abundance ratios, we present theoretical absorption line indices on the Lick system. Firstly we derive the so-called Response Functions (RFs) of Tripicco & Bell (1995, TB95) for a wide range of atmospheric parameters, and [a/Fe]=+0.4. The RFs are commonly used to correct indices with solar [a/Fe] ratios to indices with [a/Fe]>0. Not only the RFs vary with the type of star but also with the metallicity. Secondly, with the aid of this and the Fitting Functions (FFs) of Worthey et al. (1994), we derive the indices for SSPs and compare them with those obtained by previous authors. The new RFs not only supersede the old ones by TB95, but also confirm that method adopted by Tantalo & Chiosi (2004a) to include the effect of alpha-enhancement was correct, and clearly show that also Hb increases with the degree of enh...

  4. Selective Absorption Processes as the Origin of Puzzling Spectral Line Polarization from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo-Bueno, J; Collados, M; Merenda, L; Sainz, R M

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a key role in most astrophysical systems, from the Sun to active galactic nuclei. They can be studied through their effects on atomic energy levels, which produce polarized spectral lines. In particular, anisotropic radiation pumping processes (which send electrons to higher atomic levels) induce population imbalances that are modified by weak magnetic fields. Here we report peculiarly polarized light in the He I 10830-\\AA multiplet observed in a coronal filament located at the centre of the solar disk. We show that the polarized light arises from selective absorption from the ground level of the triplet system of helium, and that it implies the presence of magnetic fields of the order of a few gauss that are highly inclined with respect to the solar radius vector. This disproves the common belief that population imbalances in long-lived atomic levels are insignificant in the presence of inclined fields with strengths in the gauss range, and demonstrates the operation of the ground-level ...

  5. Multi-Sightline Observation of Narrow Absorption Lines in Lensed Quasar SDSS J1029+2623

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C; Eracleous, Michael; Chartas, George; Bauer, Franz E; Inada, Naohisa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the widely-separated images of the lensed quasar SDSS J1029+2623 ($z_{em}$=2.197, $\\theta =22^{\\prime\\prime}\\!\\!.5$) to observe its outflowing wind through two different sightlines. We present an analysis of three observations, including two with the Subaru telescope in 2010 February (Misawa et al. 2013) and 2014 April (Misawa et al. 2014), separated by 4 years, and one with the Very Large Telescope, separated from the second Subaru observation by $\\sim$2 months. We detect 66 narrow absorption lines (NALs), of which 24 are classified as intrinsic NALs that are physically associated with the quasar based on partial coverage analysis. The velocities of intrinsic NALs appear to cluster around values of $v_{ej}$ $\\sim$ 59,000, 43,000, and 29,000 km/s, which is reminiscent of filamentary structures obtained by numerical simulations. There are no common intrinsic NALs at the same redshift along the two sightlines, implying that the transverse size of the NAL absorbers should be smaller than the sightline...

  6. Constraints on Hydrodynamical Subgrid Models from Quasar Absorption Line Studies of the Simulated Circumgalactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Hummels, Cameron; Smith, Britton; Turk, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy evolution are increasingly able to produce realistic galaxies, but the largest hurdle remaining is in constructing subgrid models that accurately describe the behavior of stellar feedback. As an alternate way to test and calibrate such models, we propose to focus on the circumgalactic medium. To do so, we generate a suite of adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR) simulations for a Milky-Way-massed galaxy run to z=0, systematically varying the feedback implementation. We then post-process the simulation data to compute the absorbing column density for a wide range of common atomic absorbers throughout the galactic halo, including H I, Mg II, Si II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, N V, O VI, and O VII. The radial profiles of these atomic column densities are compared against several quasar absorption line studies, to determine if one feedback prescription is favored. We find that although our models match some of the observations (specifically those ions with lower ionization stre...

  7. The Pittsburgh Sloan Digital Sky Survey MgII Quasar Absorption-Line Survey Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Quider, Anna M; Turnshek, David A; Rao, Sandhya M; Monier, Eric M; Weyant, Anja N; Busche, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalog of intervening MgII quasar absorption-line systems in the redshift interval 0.36 17,000 measured MgII doublets. We also present data on the ~44,600 quasar spectra which were searched to construct the catalog, including redshift and magnitude information, continuum-normalized spectra, and corresponding arrays of redshift-dependent minimum rest equivalent widths detectable at our confidence threshold. The catalog is available on the web. A careful second search of 500 random spectra indicated that, for every 100 spectra searched, approximately one significant MgII system was accidentally rejected. Current plans to expand the catalog beyond DR4 quasars are discussed. Many MgII absorbers are known to be associated with galaxies. Therefore, the combination of large size and well understood statistics makes this catalog ideal for precision studies of the low-ionization and neutral gas regions associated with galaxies at low to moderate redshift. An analysis of the statistics of MgII absorbers ...

  8. A High Galactic Latitude HI 21 cm-line Absorption Survey using the GMRT: II. Results and Interpretation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rekhesh Mohan; K. S. Dwarakanath; G. Srinivasan

    2004-09-01

    We have carried out a sensitive high-latitude (|| > 15°) HI 21 cm-line absorption survey towards 102 sources using the GMRT. With a 3 detection limit in optical depth of ∼ 0.01, this is the most sensitive HI absorption survey. We detected 126 absorption features most of which also have corresponding HI emission features in the Leiden Dwingeloo Survey of Galactic neutral Hydrogen. The histogram of random velocities of the absorption features is well-fit by two Gaussians centered at lsr ∼ 0 km s−1 with velocity dispersions of 7.6 ± 0.3 km s-1 and 21 ± 4 km s-1 respectively. About 20% of the HI absorption features form the larger velocity dispersion component. The HI absorption features forming the narrow Gaussian have a mean optical depth of 0.20 ± 0.19, a mean HI column density of (1.46 ± 1.03) × 1020 cm-2, and a mean spin temperature of 121 ± 69 K. These HI concentrations can be identified with the standard HI clouds in the cold neutral medium of the Galaxy. The HI absorption features forming the wider Gaussian have a mean optical depth of 0.04 ± 0.02, a mean HI column density of (4.3 ± 3.4)× 1019 cm-2, and a mean spin temperature of 125 ± 82 K. The HI column densities of these fast clouds decrease with their increasing random velocities. These fast clouds can be identified with a population of clouds detected so far only in optical absorption and in HI emission lines with a similar velocity dispersion. This population of fast clouds is likely to be in the lower Galactic Halo.

  9. Detection of Highly Ionized Metal Absorption Lines in the Ultracompact X-ray Dipper 4U 1916-05

    CERN Document Server

    Juett, A M; Juett, Adrienne M.; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2006-01-01

    We present the high-resolution Chandra X-ray Observatory persistent (non-dip) spectrum of 4U 1916-05 which revealed narrow absorption lines from hydrogenic neon, magnesium, silicon, and sulfur, in addition to the previous identified hydrogenic and helium-like iron absorption lines. This makes 4U 1916-05 only the second of the classical X-ray dipper systems to show narrow absorption lines from elements other than iron. We propose two possible explanations for the small measured line widths (>~ 500-2000 km s^{-1}), compared to the expected Keplerian velocities (> 1000 km s^{-1}) of the accretion disk in this 50-min orbital period system, and lack of wavelength shifts (>~ 250 km s^{-1}). First, the ionized absorber may be stationary. Alternatively, the line properties may measure the relative size of the emission region. From this hypothesis, we find that the emission region is constrained to be >~ 0.25 times the radial extent of the absorber. Our results also imply that the ionized absorber spans a range of ion...

  10. C-13H3OH in OMC-1. [and spectral line identifications combining laboratory spectroscopy with broad-band astronomical line searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, G. A.; Sutton, E. C.; Masson, C. R.; Phillips, T. G.; Herbst, E.; Plummer, G. M.; De Lucia, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Transition line data for C-13H3OH in OMC-1 were gathered with a superconducting tunnel junction receiver and a 512 channel spectrometer on a 10.4 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. The methanol was scanned at 236 GHz and an observational efficiency of 85 percent. The survey was carried out to complement the data base on the line frequencies of internal rotors such as methanol and thereby the resolution of the C-12/C-13 ratio toward the galactic center. The data indicated that previous emission lines attributed to CO(+) and CH3CHO are actually methanol emissions, and the associated C-12/C-13 ratio is about 30.

  11. Noninvasive monitoring of glucose concentration using differential absorption low-coherence interferometry based on rapid scanning optical delay line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yong; Zeng Nan; He Yonghong, E-mail: heyh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China)

    2011-01-01

    A non-invasive method of detecting glucose concentration using differential absorption low-coherence interferometry (DALCI) based on rapid scanning optical delay line is presented. Two light sources, one centered within (1625 nm) a glucose absorption band, while the other outside (1310 nm) the glucose absorption band, are used in the experiment. The low-coherence interferometry (LCI) is employed to obtain the signals back-reflecting from the iris which carries the messages of material concentration in anterior chamber. Using rapid scanning optical delay line (RSOD) as the reference arm, we can detect the signals in a very short time. Therefore the glucose concentration can be monitored in real-time, which is very important for the detection in vivo. In our experiments, the cornea and aqueous humor can be treated as nearly non-scattering substance. The difference in the absorption coefficient is much larger than the difference in the scattering coefficient, so the influence of scattering can be neglected. By subtracting the algorithmic low-coherence interference signals of the two wavelengths, the absorption coefficient can be calculated which is proportional to glucose concentration. To reduce the speckle noise, a 30 variation of signals were used before the final calculation of the glucose concentration. The improvements of our experiment are also discussed in the article. The method has a potential application for noninvasive detection of glucose concentration in vivo and in real-time.

  12. The 9.7 and 18 um silicate absorption profiles towards diffuse and molecular cloud lines-of-sight

    CERN Document Server

    van Breemen, J M; Chiar, J E; Waters, L B F M; Kemper, F; Boogert, A C A; Cami, J; Decin, L; Knez, C; Sloan, G C; Tielens, A G G M

    2010-01-01

    Studying the composition of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) is crucial in understanding the cycle of dust in our galaxy. The mid-infrared spectral signature of amorphous silicates, the most abundant dust species in the ISM, is studied in different lines-of-sight through the Galactic plane, thus probing different conditions in the ISM. We have analysed 10 spectra from the Spitzer archive, of which 6 lines-of-sight probe diffuse interstellar medium material and 4 probe molecular cloud material. The 9.7 um silicate absorption features in 7 of these spectra were studied in terms of their shape and strength. In addition, the shape of the 18 um silicate absorption features in 4 of the diffuse sightline spectra were analysed. The 9.7 um silicate absorption bands in the diffuse sightlines show a strikingly similar band shape. This is also the case for all but one of the 18 um silicate absorption bands observed in diffuse lines-of-sight. The 9.7 um bands in the 4 molecular sightlines show small variations in sha...

  13. Absorption-line probes of the prevalence and properties of outflows in present-day star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Heckman, Timothy M; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Weiner, Benjamin J; Brinchmann, Jarle; Wang, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We analyze star forming galaxies drawn from SDSS DR7 to show how the interstellar medium (ISM) Na I 5890, 5896 (Na D) absorption lines depend on galaxy physical properties, and to look for evidence of galactic winds. We combine the spectra of galaxies with similar geometry/physical parameters to create composite spectra with signal-to-noise ~300. The stellar continuum is modeled using stellar population synthesis models, and the continuum-normalized spectrum is fit with two Na I absorption components. We find that: (1) ISM Na D absorption lines with equivalent widths EW > 0.8A are only prevalent in disk galaxies with specific properties -- large extinction (Av), high star formation rates (SFR), high star formation rate per unit area ($\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$), or high stellar mass (M*). (2) the ISM Na D absorption lines can be separated into two components: a quiescent disk-like component at the galaxy systemic velocity and an outflow component; (3) the disk-like component is much stronger in the edge-on systems, a...

  14. Suzaku discovery of iron absorption lines in outburst spectra of the X-ray transient 4U 1630-472

    CERN Document Server

    Kubota, A; Cottam, J; Kotani, T; Done, C; Ueda, Y; Fabian, A C; Yasuda, T; Takahashi, H; Fukazawa, Y; Yamaoka, K; Makishima, K; Yamada, S; Kohmura, T; Angelini, L; Kubota, Aya; Dotani, Tadayasu; Cottam, Jean; Kotani, Taro; Done, Chris; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Yasuda, Tomonori; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Makishima, Kazuo; Yamada, Shinya; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Angelini, Lorella

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of six Suzaku observations of the recurrent black hole transient 4U1630-472 during its decline from outburst from February 8 to March 23 in 2006. All observations show the typical high/soft state spectral shape in the 2-50keV band, roughly described by an optically thick disk spectrum in the soft energy band plus a weak power-law tail that becomes dominant only above \\~20keV. The disk temperature decreases from 1.4keV to 1.2keV as the flux decreases by a factor 2, consistent with a constant radius as expected for disk-dominated spectra. All the observations reveal significant absorption lines from highly ionized (H-like and He-like) iron Ka at 7.0keV and 6.7keV. The brightest datasets also show significant but weaker absorption structures between 7.8keV and 8.2keV, which we identify as a blend of iron Kb and nickel Ka absorption lines. The energies of these absorption lines suggest a blue shift with an outflow velocity of ~1000km/s.. The H-like iron Ka equivalent width remains approxima...

  15. Spectral variability of the 3C 390.3 nucleus for more than twenty years. I. Variability of the broad and narrow emission-line fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Sergeev, S G; Borman, G A

    2016-01-01

    We summarize results of the analysis of the optical variability of the continuum and emission-line fluxes in the 3C390.3 nucleus during 1992-2014. The [OIII]5007 flux increases monotonically by $\\approx$30 per cent in 2003-2014. The narrow Balmer lines show similar monotonic increase, while the variability patterns of the [OI]6300 narrow line are completely different from that of [OIII]. The reverberation lags are found to be 88.6$\\pm$8.4, 161$\\pm$15, and 113$\\pm$14d for the H$\\beta$, H$\\alpha$, and H$\\gamma$ broad emission-lines, respectively. The reverberation mass of the central black hole equals to (1.87$\\pm$0.26)$\\times10^9\\,M_\\odot$ and (2.81$\\pm$0.38)$\\times10^9\\,M_\\odot$, for the H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ lines and assuming a scaling factor that converts the virial product to a mass to be f=5.5. A difference between both masses can point to a difference between kinematics of the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission regions. We show that the reverberation mapping can only be applied to the entire period of obs...

  16. The broad emission-line region: the confluence of the outer accretion disc with the inner edge of the dusty torus

    CERN Document Server

    Goad, M R; Ruff, A J

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate the observational characteristics of BLR geometries in which the BLR clouds bridge the gap, both in distance and scale height, between the outer accretion disc and the hot dust, forming an effective surface of a "bowl". The gas dynamics are dominated by gravity, and we include the effects of transverse Doppler shift, gravitational redshift and scale-height dependent macro-turbulence. Our simple model reproduces many of the phenomena observed in broad emission-line variability studies, including (i) the absence of response in the core of the optical recombination lines on short timescales, (ii) the enhanced red-wing response on short timescales, (iii) differences between the measured delays for the HILs and LILs, and (iv) identifies turbulence as a means of producing Lorentzian profiles (esp. for LILs) in low inclination systems, and for suppressing significant continuum--emission-line delays between the line wings and line core (esp. in LILs). A key motivation of this work was to rev...

  17. A new strip line broad-band measurement evaluation for determining the complex permeability of thin ferromagnetic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, V.; Seemann, K. E-mail: klaus.seemann@imf.fzk.de; Leiste, H

    2004-04-01

    In the present paper, a new method for determining the frequency dependent complex permeability of thin magnetic films, designed for measurements up to 5 GHz, is presented. The measurement technique described here was carried out by a one-port permeameter, which is based on a short-circuited strip line. The complex permeability was deduced by a new analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line (S{sub 11}) with and without a ferromagnetic film material inside. An adaptive error correction was applied in the measurement procedure. The spectral permeability of thin FeCoAlN films with an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy of {mu}{sub 0}{sup *}H{sub a}=3.2 mT induced by annealing at CMOS temperatures in a static magnetic field was investigated. The measurements were compared with a theoretical model taking the Landau-Lifshitz and eddy current theories into account. A resonant frequency of about 1.6 GHz was observed.

  18. A Bayesian Approach to Estimate the Size and Structure of the Broad-line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei Using Reverberation Mapping Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan-Rong; Ho, Luis C; Du, Pu; Bai, Jin-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This is the first paper in a series devoted to systematic study of the size and structure of the broad-line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using reverberation mapping (RM) data. We employ a recently developed Bayesian approach that statistically describes the variabibility as a damped random walk process and delineates the BLR structure using a flexible disk geometry that can account for a variety of shapes, including disks, rings, shells, and spheres. We allow for the possibility that the line emission may respond non-linearly to the continuum, and we detrend the light curves when there is clear evidence for secular variation. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo implementation based on Bayesian statistics to recover the parameters and uncertainties for the BLR model. The corresponding transfer function is obtained self-consistently. We tentatively constrain the virial factor used to estimate black hole masses; more accurate determinations will have to await velocity-resolved RM data. Application...

  19. NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M.; Brenneman, L. W.;

    2014-01-01

    an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet......-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable...... relativistic Fe K$\\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk....

  20. A upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. L. Shillings

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere can potentially act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric field studies have so far yielded inconclusive results. Here we report spectral measurements in the near-infrared in the expected region of the third overtone of the water dimer hydrogen-bonded OHb stretching vibration around 750 nm. The results were obtained using broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy (BBCRDS, a methodology that allows absorption measurements to be made under controlled laboratory conditions but over absorption path lengths representative of atmospheric conditions. In order to account correctly and completely for overlapping absorption of monomer molecules in the same spectral region, we have also constructed a new list of spectral data (UCL08 for the water monomer in the 750–20 000 cm−1 (13 μm–500 nm range.

    Our results show that the additional lines included in the UCL08 spectral database provide a substantially improved representation of the measured water monomer absorption in the 750 nm region, particularly at wavelengths dominated by weak monomer absorption features. No absorption features which could not be attributed to the water monomer were detected in the BBCRDS experiments up to water mixing ratios more than an order of magnitude greater than those in the ambient atmosphere. The absence of detectable water dimer features leads us to conclude that, in the absence of significant errors in calculated dimer oscillator strengths or monomer/dimer equilibrium constants, the widths of water dimer features present around 750 nm must be substantially greater (~100 cm−1 HWHM than

  1. Detection of Broad H$\\alpha$ Emission Lines in the Late-time Spectra of a Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Lin; Ofek, E; Gal-Yam, A; Mazzali, P; Perley, D; Vreeswijk, P; Leloudas, G; de Cia, A; Masci, F; Cenko, S B; Cao, Y; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Woźniak, P R; Yaron, O

    2015-01-01

    iPTF13ehe is a hydrogen-poor superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z=0.3434, with properties similar to SN2007bi. It rises within (83-148)days (rest-frame) to reach a peak bolometric luminosity of 1.3x$10^{44}$erg/s, then decays very slowly at 0.015mag. per day. The measured ejecta velocity is 13000km/s. The inferred explosion characteristics, such as the ejecta mass (67-220$M_\\odot$), the total radiative and kinetic energy ($10^{51}$ & 2x$10^{53}$erg respectively), is typical of SLSN-R events. However, the late-time spectrum taken at +251days reveals a Balmer Halpha emission feature with broad and narrow components, which has never been detected before among other H-poor SLSNe. The broad component has a velocity width of ~4500km/s and has a ~300km/s blue-ward shift relative to the narrow component. We interpret this broad Halpha emission line as the interaction between the supernova ejecta and a H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM) shell, located at a distance of ~4x$10^{16}$cm from the explosion site. This eje...

  2. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: First Broad-line Hbeta and MgII Lags at z>~0.3 from six-Month Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yue; Grier, C J; Peterson, Bradley M; Denney, Kelly D; Trump, Jonathan R; Sun, Mouyuan; Brandt, W N; Kochanek, Christopher S; Dawson, Kyle S; Green, Paul J; Greene, Jenny E; Hall, Patrick B; Ho, Luis C; Jiang, Linhua; Kinemuchi, Karen; McGreer, Ian D; Petitjean, Patrick; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A; Tao, Charling; Wood-Vasey, W M; Zu, Ying; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ge, Jian; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) measurements of broad-line region (BLR) lags in z>0.3 quasars are important for directly measuring black hole masses in these distant objects, but so far there have been limited attempts and success given the practical difficulties of RM in this regime. Here we report preliminary results of 15 BLR lag measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project, a dedicated RM program with multi-object spectroscopy designed for RM over a wide redshift range. The lags are based on the 2014 spectroscopic light curves alone (32 epochs over 6 months) and focus on the Hbeta and MgII broad lines in the 100 lowest-redshift (z0.3 is not yet possible due to the limitations in our current lag sample and selection biases inherent to our program. Our results demonstrate the general feasibility and potential of multi-object RM for z>0.3 quasars, and motivate more intensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring to derive high-quality lag measurements for these objects...

  3. On the cosmic evolution of the scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: Broad Line AGN in the zCOSMOS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Merloni, A; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Gilli, R; Hao, H; Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A M; Lusso, E; Mainieri, V; Mignoli, M; Miyaji, T; Renzini, A; Salvato, M; Silverman, Joseph; Trump, J; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Capak, P; Lilly, S J; Sanders, D; Taniguchi, Y; Bardelli, S; Carollo, C M; Caputi, K; Contini, T; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Iovino, A; Iwasawa, K; Kampczyk, P; Kneib, J -P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Le Fèvre, O; Maier, C; Pellò, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Scodeggio, M; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L A M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E

    2009-01-01

    (Abriged) We report on the measurement of the rest frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass of the hosts of 89 broad line Active Galactic Nuclei detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1broad Mg II emission lines observed in the medium-resolution spectra taken with VIMOS/VLT as part of the zCOSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best fit evolution of the form (1+z)^{0.68 \\pm0.12 +0.6 -0.3}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of IMF, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. A thoroug...

  4. The Near Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Water by CRDS Between 1.26-1.70 µm:Complete Empirical Line List and Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelain, Didier; Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mikhailenko, Semen

    2014-06-01

    Due to the increasing performances of Airborne- and ground-based spectrometers, a more and more accurate characterization of the water vapor absorption is required. This is especially true in the transparency windows, corresponding to low absorption spectral regions widely used for probing the Earth's atmosphere. State-of-the-art experimental developments are required to fulfill the needs in terms of accuracy of the spectroscopic data. For that purpose, we are using high-sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) allowing reproducing in laboratory conditions comparable to the atmospheric ones in terms of absorption path length (tens of kilometers), temperature and pressure. From extensive analysis of our CRDS spectra, we have constructed an empirical line list for "natural" water vapor at 296 K in the 5850 7920 cm-1 region including 38 318 transitions of four major water isotopologues (H2 16O, H218O, H217O and HD16O) with an intensity cut-off of 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The list is made mostly complete over the whole spectral region by including a large number of unobserved weak lines with positions calculated using experimentally determined energy levels and intensities obtained from variational calculations. In addition, we provide HD18O and HD 17O lists in the same region for transitions with intensities larger than 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The HD18O and HD17O lists (1 972 lines in total) were obtained using empirical energy levels available in the literature and variational intensities. The global list (40 290 transitions) including the contribution of the six major isotopologues has been adopted for the new edition of the GEISA database in the region. The advantages and drawbacks of our list will be discussed in comparison with the list provided for the same region in the 2012 edition of the HITRAN database. Separate experiments were dedicated to the measurement of the water vapor self-continuum crosssections in the 1.6 µm window by CW

  5. An extreme, blueshifted iron line profile in the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 PG 1402+261; an edge-on accretion disk or highly ionized absorption?

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, J N; Turner, T J

    2004-01-01

    We report on a short XMM-Newton observation of the radio-quiet Narrow Line Seyfert 1 PG 1402+261. The EPIC X-ray spectrum of PG 1402+261 shows a strong excess of counts between 6-9 keV in the rest frame. This feature can be modeled by an unusually strong (equivalent width 2 keV) and very broad (FWHM velocity of 110000 km/s) iron K-shell emission line. The line centroid energy at 7.3 keV appears blue-shifted with respect to the iron Kalpha emission band between 6.4-6.97 keV, while the blue-wing of the line extends to 9 keV in the quasar rest frame. The line profile can be fitted by reflection from the inner accretion disk, but an inclination angle of >60 deg is required to model the extreme blue-wing of the line. Furthermore the extreme strength of the line requires a geometry whereby the hard X-ray emission from PG 1402+261 above 2 keV is dominated by the pure-reflection component from the disk, while little or none of the direct hard power-law is observed. Alternatively the spectrum above 2 keV may instead b...

  6. Chemical evolution of the Universe at 0.7 < z < 1.6 derived from abundance diagnostics of the broad-line region of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sameshima, Hiroaki; Kawara, Kimiaki

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Mg II $\\lambda2798$ and Fe II UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of $0.72 < z < 1.63$. A strong anticorrelation between Mg II equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between Fe II EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg II and Fe II emission lines, we have performed photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (i) Mg II and Fe II emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (ii) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indic...

  7. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  8. Searching for narrow absorption and emission lines in XMM-Newton spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; D'Avanzo, P; Ghirlanda, G; Melandri, A; Pescalli, A; Salafia, O S; Salvaterra, R; Tagliaferri, G; Vergani, S D

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic search for narrow emission and absorption features in the X-ray spectra of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Using XMM-Newton data, both EPIC and RGS spectra, of six bright (fluence >10^{-7} erg cm^{-2}) and relatively nearby (z=0.54-1.41) GRBs, we performed a blind search for emission or absorption lines that could be related to a high cloud density or metal-rich gas in the environ close to the GRBs. We detected five emission features in four of the six GRBs with an overall statistical significance, assessed through Monte Carlo simulations, of <3.0 sigma. Most of the lines are detected around the observed energy of the oxygen edge at ~0.5 keV, suggesting that they are not related to the GRB environment but are most likely of Galactic origin. No significant absorption features were detected. A spectral fitting with a free Galactic column density (N_H) testing different models for the Galactic absorption confirms this origin because we found an indication of an...

  9. Reconstruction of combustion temperature and gas concentration distributions using line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhirong; Sun, Pengshuai; Pang, Tao; Xia, Hua; Cui, Xiaojuan; Li, Zhe; Han, Luo; Wu, Bian; Wang, Yu; Sigrist, Markus W.; Dong, Fengzhong

    2016-07-01

    Spatial temperature and gas concentration distributions are crucial for combustion studies to characterize the combustion position and to evaluate the combustion regime and the released heat quantity. Optical computer tomography (CT) enables the reconstruction of temperature and gas concentration fields in a flame on the basis of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (LOS-TDLAS). A pair of H2O absorption lines at wavelengths 1395.51 and 1395.69 nm is selected. Temperature and H2O concentration distributions for a flat flame furnace are calculated by superimposing two absorption peaks with a discrete algebraic iterative algorithm and a mathematical fitting algorithm. By comparison, direct absorption spectroscopy measurements agree well with the thermocouple measurements and yield a good correlation. The CT reconstruction data of different air-to-fuel ratio combustion conditions (incomplete combustion and full combustion) and three different types of burners (one, two, and three flat flame furnaces) demonstrate that TDLAS has the potential of short response time and enables real-time temperature and gas concentration distribution measurements for combustion diagnosis.

  10. Absorption-line detections of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} K gas in spiral-rich groups of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocke, John T.; Keeney, Brian A.; Danforth, Charles W.; Syphers, David; Yamamoto, H.; Shull, J. Michael; Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart; Kim, Tae-Sun [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ryan-Weber, Emma V.; Kacprzak, Glenn G., E-mail: john.stocke@colorado.edu [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, the COS Science Team has conducted a high signal-to-noise survey of 14 bright QSOs. In a previous paper, these far-UV spectra were used to discover 14 'warm' (T ≥ 10{sup 5} K) absorbers using a combination of broad Lyα and broad O VI absorptions. A reanalysis of a few of this new class of absorbers using slightly relaxed fitting criteria finds as many as 20 warm absorbers could be present in this sample. A shallow, wide spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey has been conducted around these sight lines to investigate the warm absorber environment, which is found to be spiral-rich groups or cluster outskirts with radial velocity dispersions σ = 250-750 km s{sup –1}. While 2σ evidence is presented favoring the hypothesis that these absorptions are associated with the galaxy groups and not with the individual, nearest galaxies, this evidence has considerable systematic uncertainties and is based on a small sample size so it is not entirely conclusive. If the associations are with galaxy groups, the observed frequency of warm absorbers (dN/dz = 3.5-5 per unit redshift) requires them to be very extended as an ensemble on the sky (∼1 Mpc in radius at high covering factor). Most likely these warm absorbers are interface gas clouds whose presence implies the existence of a hotter (T ∼ 10{sup 6.5} K), diffuse, and probably very massive (>10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) intra-group medium which has yet to be detected directly.

  11. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Shi, Jiaru, E-mail: shij@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-01

    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  12. Absorption-line ''forest'' in quasar spectra, and the structure of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Muket, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    The ''forest'' of absorption lines observed in the spectrum of distant quasars is interpreted in light of the adiabatic (pancake) theory for the origin and evolution of structure in the universe. The hidden mass might reside in neutrino-like particles (perhaps unstable) having a rest mass of about 60--100 eV. Opportunities for testing the hypothesis observationally are discussed.

  13. Recovery of acetylene absorption line profile basing on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation and photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Thursby, Graham; Stewart, George; Arsad, Norhana; Uttamchandani, Deepak; Culshaw, Brian; Wang, Yiding

    2010-04-01

    A novel and direct absorption line recovery technique based on tunable diode laser spectroscopy with intensity modulation is presented. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied for high sensitivity, zero background and efficient acoustic enhancement at a low modulation frequency. A micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror driven by an electrothermal actuator is used for generating laser intensity modulation (without wavelength modulation) through the external reflection. The MEMS mirror with 10μm thick structure material layer and 100nm thick gold coating is formed as a circular mirror of 2mm diameter attached to an electrothermal actuator and is fabricated on a chip that is wire-bonded and placed on a PCB holder. Low modulation frequency is adopted (since the resonant frequencies of the photoacoustic gas cell and the electrothermal actuator are different) and intrinsic high signal amplitude characteristics in low frequency region achieved from measured frequency responses for the MEMS mirror and the gas cell. Based on the property of photoacoustic spectroscopy and Beer's law that detectable sensitivity is a function of input laser intensity in the case of constant gas concentration and laser path length, a Keopsys erbium doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) with opto-communication C band and high output power up to 1W is chosen to increase the laser power. High modulation depth is achieved through adjusting the MEMS mirror's reflection position and driving voltage. In order to scan through the target gas absorption line, the temperature swept method is adopted for the tunable distributed feed-back (DFB) diode laser working at 1535nm that accesses the near-infrared vibration-rotation spectrum of acetylene. The profile of acetylene P17 absorption line at 1535.39nm is recovered ideally for ~100 parts-per-million (ppm) acetylene balanced by nitrogen. The experimental signal to noise ratio (SNR) of absorption line recovery for 500mW laser power was ~80 and hence the

  14. Theoretical study of photophysical properties of 1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole-cored branched molecules with thienylenevinylene arms toward broad absorption spectra for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanshan; Tang, Binbin; Liang, Dadong; Chen, Guang; Jin, Ruifa

    2013-09-01

    A series of oligo(thienylenevinylene) derivatives with 1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-b]pyrrole as core has been investigated at the PBE0/6-31G(d) and the TD-PBE0/6-31+G(d,p) levels to design materials with high performances such as broad absorption spectra and higher balance transfer property. The results show that position and amount of arm affect the electronic density contours of frontier molecular orbitals significantly. The molecule with four arms owns the narrowest energy gap and the largest maximum absorption wavelength, and the molecule with two arms in positions a and c has the broadest absorption region among the designed molecules. Calculated reorganization energies of the designed molecules indicate that the molecules with two arms can be good potential ambipolar transport materials under proper operating conditions.

  15. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Raj, V Stalin; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Kallies, Stephan; Smits, Saskia L; Wollny, Robert; Bestebroer, Theo M; Specht, Sabine; Suliman, Tasnim; Zimmermann, Katrin; Binger, Tabea; Eckerle, Isabella; Tschapka, Marco; Zaki, Ali M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Haagmans, Bart L; Drosten, Christian

    2012-12-11

    A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister species. Here we investigated whether it might utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Knowledge of the receptor is highly critical because the restriction of the SARS receptor to deep compartments of the human respiratory tract limited the spread of SARS. In baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, lentiviral transduction of human ACE2 (hACE2) conferred permissiveness and replication for SARS-CoV but not for hCoV-EMC. Monkey and human kidney cells (LLC-MK2, Vero, and 769-P) and swine kidney cells were permissive for both viruses, but only SARS-CoV infection could be blocked by anti-hACE2 antibody and could be neutralized by preincubation of virus with soluble ACE2. Our data show that ACE2 is neither necessary nor sufficient for hCoV-EMC replication. Moreover, hCoV-EMC, but not SARS-CoV, replicated in cell lines from Rousettus, Rhinolophus, Pipistrellus, Myotis, and Carollia bats, representing four major chiropteran families from both suborders. As human CoV normally cannot replicate in bat cells from different families, this suggests that hCoV-EMC might use a receptor molecule that is conserved in bats, pigs, and humans, implicating a low barrier against cross-host transmission. IMPORTANCE A new human coronavirus (hCoV) emerged recently in the Middle East. The disease resembled SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), causing a fatal epidemic in 2002/2003. Coronaviruses have a reservoir in bats and because this novel virus is related to SARS-CoV, we investigated whether it might replicate in bat cells and use the same receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]). This knowledge is

  16. NEW PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY OUTFLOWS FROM THE FIRST DETECTION OF BOTH INTRINSIC AND TRAVERSE METAL-LINE ABSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Cooke, Jeff [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Martin, Crystal L.; Ho, Stephanie H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bouché, Nicolas; LeReun, Audrey; Schroetter, Ilane [CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP) de Toulouse, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Churchill, Christopher W.; Klimek, Elizabeth, E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present the first observation of a galaxy (z = 0.2) that exhibits metal-line absorption back-illuminated by the galaxy (down-the-barrel) and transversely by a background quasar at a projected distance of 58 kpc. Both absorption systems, traced by Mg II, are blueshifted relative to the galaxy systemic velocity. The quasar sight line, which resides almost directly along the projected minor axis of the galaxy, probes Mg I and Mg II absorption obtained from the Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer as well as Lyα, Si II, and Si III absorption obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. For the first time, we combine two independent models used to quantify the outflow properties for down-the-barrel and transverse absorption. We find that the modeled down-the-barrel deprojected outflow velocities range between V {sub dtb} = 45-255 km s{sup –1}. The transverse bi-conical outflow model, assuming constant-velocity flows perpendicular to the disk, requires wind velocities V {sub outflow} = 40-80 km s{sup –1} to reproduce the transverse Mg II absorption kinematics, which is consistent with the range of V {sub dtb}. The galaxy has a metallicity, derived from Hα and N II, of [O/H] = –0.21 ± 0.08, whereas the transverse absorption has [X/H] = –1.12 ± 0.02. The galaxy star formation rate is constrained between 4.6-15 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} while the estimated outflow rate ranges between 1.6-4.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and yields a wind loading factor ranging between 0.1-0.9. The galaxy and gas metallicities, the galaxy-quasar sight-line geometry, and the down-the-barrel and transverse modeled outflow velocities collectively suggest that the transverse gas originates from ongoing outflowing material from the galaxy. The ∼1 dex decrease in metallicity from the base of the outflow to the outer halo suggests metal dilution of the gas by the time it reached 58 kpc.

  17. Spectral variability of the 3C 390.3 nucleus for more than 20 yr - I. Variability of the broad and narrow emission line fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, S. G.; Nazarov, S. V.; Borman, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We summarize results of the analysis of the optical variability of the continuum and emission-line fluxes in the 3C 390.3 nucleus during 1992-2014. The [O III] λ5007 flux increases monotonically by ≈30 per cent in 2003-2014. The narrow Balmer lines show similar monotonic increase, while the variability patterns of the [O I] λ6300 narrow line are completely different from that of [O III]. The reverberation lags are found to be 88.6 ± 8.4, 161 ± 15, and 113 ± 14 d for the Hβ, Hα, and Hγ broad emission lines, respectively. The reverberation mass of the central black hole equals to (1.87 ± 0.26) × 109 M⊙ and (2.81 ± 0.38) × 109 M⊙, for the Hβ and Hα lines and assuming a scaling factor which converts the virial product to a mass to be f = 5.5. A difference between both masses can point to a difference between kinematics of the Hα and Hβ emission regions. We show that the reverberation mapping can only be applied to the entire period of observations of the 3C 390.3 nucleus after removing a long-term trend. This trend has been expressed by a slowly varying scalefactor c(t) in the power-law relationship between the line and continuum fluxes: F_{line}∝ c(t) F_{cont}^a. We find that the power-law index a equals to 0.77 and 0.54 for the Hβ and Hα lines, respectively. The observed relationship between the Balmer decrement and the optical continuum flux is as follows: F(Hα)/F(H β ) ∝ F_{cont}^{-0.20} and F(Hβ)/F(H γ ) ∝ F_{cont}^{-0.18}. The 3C 390.3 nucleus is an 'outsider' in the relationship between optical luminosity and black hole mass. Its Eddington ratio is Ebol/EEdd = 0.0037.

  18. Discovery of a broad O VIII Ly alpha line in the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624

    CERN Document Server

    Madej, O K

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a broad emission feature at ~0.7 keV in the spectra of the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624, obtained with the high-resolution spectrographs of the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. We confirm the presence of the feature in the broad band MOS2 spectrum of the source. As suggested before in the literature, the donor star in this source is a CO or ONe white dwarf, which transfers oxygen-rich material to the accretor, conceivably a neutron star. The X-rays reprocessed in this oxygen-rich accretion disc could give a reflection spectrum with O VIII Ly alpha as the most prominent emission line. Apart from the feature at ~0.7 keV we confirm the possible presence of a weak emission feature at ~6.6 keV, which was reported in the literature for this data set. We interpret the feature at ~0.7 keV and ~6.6 keV as O VIII Ly alpha and Fe K alpha emission respectively, caused by X-rays reflected off the accretion disc in the strong gravitational field close to the accretor.

  19. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Line Shapes from 3-13 km Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's planned ASCENDS space mission. Our technique uses two pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band and surface height and backscatter. The lidar measures the energy and time of flight of the laser echoes reflected from the atmosphere and surface. The lasers are rapidly and precisely stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line region during the measurement. The direct detection receiver uses a telescope and photon counting detectors, and measures the background light and energies of the laser echoes from the surface along with scattering from any aerosols in the path. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of the on- and off- line signals via the DIAL technique. Time gating is used to isolate the laser echo signals from the surface, and to reject laser photons scattered in the atmosphere. The time of flight of the laser pulses are also used to estimate the height of the scattering surface and to identify cases of mixed cloud and ground scattering. We have developed an airborne lidar to demonstrate the CO2 measurement from the NASA Glenn Lear-25 aircraft. The airborne lidar steps the pulsed laser's wavelength across the selected CO2 line with 20 steps per scan. The line scan rate is 450 Hz, the laser pulse widths are 1 usec, and laser pulse energy is 24 uJ. The time resolved laser backscatter is collected by a 20 cm telescope, detected by a photomultiplier and is recorded by a photon counting system. We made initial airborne measurements on flights during fall 2008. Laser backscatter and absorption measurements were made over a variety of land and water surfaces and through thin clouds. The atmospheric CO2 column measurements using the 1572.33 nm CO2 lines. Two flights were made above the

  20. AGN environments: is the viewing angle sufficient to explain the difference between broad-line and narrow-line AGN? -- A low-redshift study of close AGN neighbours. Paper I

    CERN Document Server

    Villarroel, Beatriz; Matsuoka, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    The unification of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a model that has been difficult to test due to the lack of knowledge on the intrinsic luminosities of the objects. We present a test were we probe the model by statistical investigation of the neighbours to AGN at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.2 within a projected distance of 350 kpc and |\\Delta z|<0.001, 0.006, 0.012 and 0.03 between AGN and neighbour. 1658 Type-1 (broad-line) AGN-galaxy pairs and 5698 Type-2 AGN-galaxy pairs with spectroscopic redshifts from the Data Release 7 of Sloan Digital Sky Survey were used together with a complementary set of pairs with photometric redshifts on the neighbour galaxies (13519 Type-1 AGN-galaxy and 58743 Type-2 AGN-galaxy pairs). Morphologies for the AGN host galaxies were derived from the Galaxy Zoo project. Our results suggest that broad-line AGN and narrow-line AGN reside in widely different environments where the neighbours to Type-2 AGN are more star-forming and bluer than those of Type-1 AGN. There is a colour-...

  1. Partial Coverage and Time Variability of Narrow-Line Intrinsic QSO Absorption Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, T A; Sargent, W L W; Barlow, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    It is possible to distinguish ``intrinsic'' absorption systems (gas clouds within the quasar environment) from ``intervening'' systems (gas clouds unrelated to the quasar phenomenon) by considering certain observational properties. We find that the most direct determinations of the intrinsic nature of a system are time variability and partial coverage of the background light source by the absorption region. Both of these conditions are unlikely to occur in intervening systems. We present Keck and HIRES data which demonstrate both these phenomena. We also summarize a list of several other observational properties which appear to be indicative of ``intrinsic'' systems.

  2. SHORT-TIMESCALE MONITORING OF THE X-RAY, UV, AND BROAD DOUBLE-PEAK EMISSION LINE OF THE NUCLEUS OF NGC 1097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Campus do Vale, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupe, Dirk [Space Science Center, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Baldwin, Jack A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Nemmen, Rodrigo S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Winge, Cláudia, E-mail: silva.schimoia@ufrgs.br [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-10

    Recent studies have suggested that the short-timescale (≲ 7 days) variability of the broad (∼10,000 km s{sup –1}) double-peaked Hα profile of the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097 could be driven by a variable X-ray emission from a central radiatively inefficient accretion flow. To test this scenario, we have monitored the NGC 1097 nucleus in X-ray and UV continuum with Swift and the Hα flux and profile in the optical spectrum using SOAR and Gemini-South from 2012 August to 2013 February. During the monitoring campaign, the Hα flux remained at a very low level—three times lower than the maximum flux observed in previous campaigns and showing only limited (∼20%) variability. The X-ray variations were small, only ∼13% throughout the campaign, while the UV did not show significant variations. We concluded that the timescale of the Hα profile variation is close to the sampling interval of the optical observations, which results in only a marginal correlation between the X-ray and Hα fluxes. We have caught the active galaxy nucleus in NGC 1097 in a very low activity state, in which the ionizing source was very weak and capable of ionizing just the innermost part of the gas in the disk. Nonetheless, the data presented here still support the picture in which the gas that emits the broad double-peaked Balmer lines is illuminated/ionized by a source of high-energy photons which is located interior to the inner radius of the line-emitting part of the disk.

  3. Average Properties of a Large Sample of z_abs ~ z_em associated Mg II Absorption Line Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berk, D Vanden; York, D G; Richards, G T; Lundgren, B; Alsayyad, Y; Kulkarni, V P; Subba-Rao, M; Schneider, D P; Heckman, T; Anderson, S; Crotts, A P S; Frieman, J; Stoughton, C; Lauroesch, J T; Hall, P B; Meiksin, A; Steffing, M; Vanlandingham, J

    2008-01-01

    We have studied a sample of 415 associated (z_ab z_em; relative velocity with respect to QSO 3000km/s), so as to understand their origin. From the analysis of the composite spectra, as well as from the comparison of measured equivalent widths in individual spectra, we conclude that the associated Mg II absorbers have higher apparent ionization, measured by the strength of the C IV absorption lines compared to the Mg II absorption lines, than the intervening absorbers. The ionization so measured appears to be related to apparent ejection velocity, being lower as the apparent ejection velocity is more and more positive. There is clear evidence, from the composite spectra, for SMC like dust attenuation in these systems; the 2175AA absorption feature is not present. The extinction is almost twice that observed in the similarly selected sample of intervening systems. We reconfirm that QSOs with non-zero FIRST radio flux are intrinsically redder than the QSOs with no detection in the FIRST survey. The incidence of ...

  4. Narrow CIV lambda 1549A Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2001-01-01

    A large, high-quality spectral data base of well-selected, moderate-redshift radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars is used to characterize the incidence of narrow associated CIV lambda 1549 absorption, and how this may depend on some quasar properties, including radio-type. Preliminary results...

  5. Probing recent star formation with absorption-line strengths in hierarchical models and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trager, S. C.; Somerville, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Stellar population parameters (e. g. age, metallicity and stellar abundance ratios) derived from spectral line strengths provide a powerful probe of galaxy properties and formation histories. We implement the machinery for extracting line strengths and 'single-stellar-population-equivalent' (SSP-equ

  6. An upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. L. Shillings

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere has the potential to act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric field studies have so far yielded inconclusive results. Here we report spectral measurements in the near-infrared around 750 nm in the expected region of the | 0〈f | 4〉b|0 〉 overtone of the water dimer's hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibration. The results were obtained using broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy (BBCRDS, a methodology that allows absorption measurements to be made under controlled laboratory conditions but over absorption path lengths representative of atmospheric conditions. In order to account correctly and completely for the overlapping absorption of monomer molecules in the same spectral region, we have also constructed a new list of spectral data (UCL08 for the water monomer in the 750–20 000 cm−1 (13 μm–500 nm range.

    Our results show that the additional lines included in the UCL08 spectral database provide an improved representation of the measured water monomer absorption in the 750 nm region. No absorption features other than those attributable to the water monomer were detected in BBCRDS experiments performed on water vapour samples containing dimer concentrations up to an order of magnitude greater than expected in the ambient atmosphere. The absence of detectable water dimer features leads us to conclude that, in the absence of significant errors in calculated dimer oscillator strengths or monomer/dimer equilibrium constants, the widths of any water dimer absorption features present around 750 nm are of the order of 100 cm−1 HWHM, and certainly greater

  7. The CORALS Survey: A Review and Report on The Search for Dust Obscured Quasar Absorption Line Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, S L; Churchill, C W; Hook, I M; López, S; Rix, S A; Shaver, P; Wall, J V; Yan, L; Ellison, Sara L.; Pettini, Max; Churchill, Chris W.; Hook, Isobel M.; Lopez, Sebastian; Rix, Samantha A.; Shaver, Peter; Yan, Lin

    2003-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the ongoing Complete Optical and Radio Absorption Line System (CORALS) survey. We review the results of our survey for z>2.2 damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs) and present the preliminary results of an extended survey to lower redshifts (0.7absorption systems selected via MgII towards optically faint QSOs. We also briefly review the results from some spin-off projects from CORALS including the low alpha/Fe abundances of multiple DLAs and the possible excess of absorbers within 3000 km/s of the QSO redshift.

  8. The size of the X-ray emitting region in SWIFT J2127.4+5654 via a broad line region cloud X-ray eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfrutos, Mario; Agís-González, Beatriz; Fabian, Andy C; Miller, Jon M; Panessa, Francesca; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2013-01-01

    We present results obtained from the time-resolved X-ray spectral analysis of the Narrow-Line-Seyfert 1 galaxy SWIFT J2127.4+5654 during a ~130 ks XMM-Newton observation. We reveal large spectral variations, especially during the first ~90 ks of the XMM-Newton exposure. The spectral variability can be attributed to a partial eclipse of the X-ray source by an intervening low-ionization/cold absorbing structure (cloud) with column density N_H = 2.0^{+0.2}_{-0.3}e22 cm^-2 which gradually covers and then uncovers the X-ray emitting region with covering fraction ranging from zero to ~43 per cent. Our analysis enables us to constrain the size, number density, and location of the absorbing cloud with good accuracy. We infer a cloud size (diameter) of $D_c 1.5e9 cm^-3 at a distance of R_c > 4.3e16 cm from the central black hole. All of the inferred quantities concur to identify the absorbing structure with one single cloud associated with the broad line region of SWIFT J2127.4+5654. We are also able to constrain the...

  9. Testing the space-time geometry around black hole candidates with the analysis of the broad K$\\alpha$ iron line

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2012-01-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes predicted by General Relativity, but there is not yet a clear evidence that the geometry of the space-time around these objects is really described by the Kerr metric. In order to confirm the Kerr black hole hypothesis, we have to observe strong gravity features and check they are in agreement with the ones predicted by General Relativity. In this paper, I study what kind of information can be extracted by analyzing the broad K$\\alpha$ iron line, which is often seen in the X-ray spectrum of both stellar-mass and super-massive black hole candidates and whose shape is supposed to be strongly affected by the space-time geometry. I extend previous studies in the literature. It turns out that there is a strong degeneracy between the spin parameter and the deformation parameter; that is, the line emitted around a Kerr black hole with a certain spin can be very similar to the one coming from the space-time around a non-Kerr object with a quit...

  10. Cauchois and S\\'en\\'emaud Tables of wavelengths of X-ray emission lines and absorption edges

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnard, Philippe; 10.1002/xrs.1293

    2011-01-01

    We present the Cauchois and S\\'en\\'emaud Tables of X-ray emission lines and absorption edges. They are written both in French and English. They were published in 1978 by Pergamon Press and are insufficiently known. However they are of large interest because of their completeness. They comprise the energies of all the K, L, M, N and O emission lines of natural elements from lithium up to uranium as well as the energies of satellite emissions and absorption discontinuities. The more intense lines of radio-elements up to fermium (Z = 100) are also given. The Tables range from the hard X-rays (122 keV, 0.01 nm) to the extreme ultra-violet (12 eV, 102 nm). For each transition, the wavelength ({\\AA} and uX) and energy (eV and Ry) are given and references are indicated. The transitions are grouped by increasing wavelength (decreasing photon energy) and also by element and spectral series. We present, as an example, the use of the Tables to identify the emissions of the molybdenum L spectrum. We decided to scan the C...

  11. Highly Ionized Fe-K Absorption Line from Cygnus X-1 in the High/Soft State Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S; Mineshige, S; Ueda, Y; Kubota, A; Gandhi, P; Done, C; Noda, H; Yoshikawa, A; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K alpha absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start and the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for ~10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of ~3, peaking at an orbital phase of ~0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of ~10^(10-12) cm with a density of ~10^((-13)-(-11)) g cm^-...

  12. Interstellar H I and H2 in the Magellanic Clouds: An Expanded Sample Based on UV Absorption-Line Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony

    2010-11-01

    We have determined column densities of H I and/or H2 for sight lines in the Magellanic Clouds from archival HST and FUSE spectra of H I Lyman-α and H2 Lyman-band absorption. Together with (some) similar data from the literature, we now have absorption-based N(H I) and/or N(H2) for about 250 Magellanic Clouds sight lines - enabling more extensive, direct, and accurate determinations of molecular fractions, dust-to-gas ratios, and elemental depletions. The N(H I) estimated from 21 cm emission (for the same sight lines) can be lower by factors of 2-3 in the LMC - suggestive of small-scale structure within the 21 cm beam(s) and/or some saturation in the emission. Both E(B-V)/N(H I) and E(B-V)/N(Htot) are smaller than in our Galaxy, by factors of 2.7-3.4 in the LMC and 4.3-4.9 in the SMC - similar to the differences in metallicity. The E(B-V)/N(N2) ratio is more similar in the three galaxies, however. These data may be used to test models of the atomic-to-molecular transition at low metallicities and predictions of N(H2) based on comparisons of 21 cm emission and the IR emission from dust.

  13. Detection of High Velocity Absorption Components in the He I Lines of Eta Carinae near the Time of Periastron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Noel D.; St-Jean, Lucas; Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas; Hillier, D. John; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Corcoran, Michael; Damineli, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a total of 58 high spectral resolution (R90,000) spectra of the massive binary star eta Carinae since 2012 in an effort to continue our orbital and long-term echelle monitoring of this extreme binary (Richardson et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1534) with the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO 1.5 m telescope (Tokovinin et al. 2013, PASP, 125, 1336) in the 45507500A region. We have increased our monitoring efforts and observation frequency as the periastron event of 2014 has approached. We note that there were multiple epochs this year where we observe unusual absorption components in the P Cygni troughs of the He I triplet lines. In particular, we note high velocity absorption components related to the following epochs for the following lines: He I 4713: HJD 2456754- 2456795 (velocity -450 to -560 kms) He I 5876: HJD 2456791- 2456819 (velocity -690 to -800 kms) He I 7065: HJD 2456791- 2456810 (velocity -665 to -730 kms) Figures: Note that red indicates a high-velocity component noted above. He I 4713: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson4713.png He I 5876: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson5876.png He I 7065: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson7065.png These absorptions are likely related to the wind-wind collision region and bow shock, as suggested by the high-velocity absorption observed by Groh et al. (2010, AA, 519, 9) in the He I 10830 Atransition. In these cases, we suspect that we look along an arm of the shock cone and that we will see a fast absorption change from the other collision region shortly after periastron. We suspect that this is related to the multiple-components of the He II 4686 line that was noted by Walter (ATel6334), and is confirmed in our data. Further, high spectral resolution data are highly encouraged,especially for resolving powers greater than 50,000.These observations were obtained with the CTIO 1.5 m telescope, operated by the SMARTS Consortium, and were obtained through both SMARTS and NOAO programs 2012A-0216,2012B-0194

  14. THE COS-HALOS SURVEY: AN EMPIRICAL DESCRIPTION OF METAL-LINE ABSORPTION IN THE LOW-REDSHIFT CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tripp, Todd M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); O' Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael' s College, Colchester, VT (United States); Peeples, Molly S., E-mail: jwerk@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angles, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the equivalent width and column density measurements for low and intermediate ionization states of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding 44 low-z, L Almost-Equal-To L* galaxies drawn from the COS-Halos survey. These measurements are derived from far-UV transitions observed in HST/COS and Keck/HIRES spectra of background quasars within an impact parameter R < 160 kpc to the targeted galaxies. The data show significant metal-line absorption for 33 of the 44 galaxies, including quiescent systems, revealing the common occurrence of a cool (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} K), metal-enriched CGM. The detection rates and column densities derived for these metal lines decrease with increasing impact parameter, a trend we interpret as a declining metal surface density profile for the CGM. A comparison of the relative column densities of adjacent ionization states indicates that the gas is predominantly ionized. The large surface density in metals demands a large reservoir of metals and gas in the cool CGM (very conservatively, M {sup cool} {sub CGM} > 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun }), which likely traces a distinct density and/or temperature regime from the highly ionized CGM traced by O{sup +5} absorption. The large dispersion in absorption strengths (including non-detections) suggests that the cool CGM traces a wide range of densities or a mix of local ionizing conditions. Lastly, the kinematics inferred from the metal-line profiles are consistent with the cool CGM being bound to the dark matter halos hosting the galaxies; this gas may serve as fuel for future star formation. Future work will leverage this data set to provide estimates on the mass, metallicity, dynamics, and origin of the cool CGM in low-z, L* galaxies.

  15. Digital signal processor-based high-precision on-line Voigt lineshape fitting for direct absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Zheng, Deyan; Cao, Zhang; Cai, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    To realize on-line high-accuracy measurement in direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), a system-on-chip, high-precision digital signal processor-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting implementation is introduced in this paper. Given that the Voigt lineshape is determined by the Gauss full width at half maximum (FWHM) and Lorentz FWHM, a look-up table, which covers a range of combinations of both, is first built to achieve rapid and accurate calculation of Voigt lineshape. With the look-up table and raw absorbance data in hand, Gauss-Newton nonlinear fitting module is implemented to obtain the parameters including both the Gauss and Lorentz FWHMs, which can be used to calculate the integrated absorbance. To realize the proposed method in hardware, a digital signal processor (DSP) is adopted to fit the Voigt lineshape in a real-time DAS measurement system. In experiment, temperature and H2O concentration of a flat flame are recovered from the transitions of 7444.36 cm(-1) and 7185.6 cm(-1) by the DSP-based on-line Voigt lineshape fitting and on-line integral of the raw absorbance, respectively. The results show that the proposed method can not only fit the Voigt lineshape on-line but also improve the measurement accuracy compared with those obtained from the direct integral of the raw absorbance.

  16. Measurement of storage time, estimation of ion number and study of absorption line profile in a Paul trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Bhattacharyya; Anita Gupta; S G Nakhate; Pushpa M Rao

    2006-12-01

    Europium (Eu+) ions were confined in a Paul trap and detected by non-destructive method. Storage time of Eu+ ions achieved in vacuum was improved by orders of magnitude employing buffer gas cooling. The experimentally detected signal was fitted to the ion response signal and the total number of ions trapped was estimated. It is found that the peak signal amplitude as well as the product of FWHM and the peak signal amplitude is proportional to the total number of trapped ions. The trapped ion secular frequency was swept at different rates and its effect on the absorption line profile was studied both experimentally and theoretically.

  17. Time-variability of the fine-structure constant expected from the Oklo constraint and the QSO absorption lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y

    2003-01-01

    The data from the QSO absorption lines indicating a nonzero time-variability of the fine-structure constant has been re-analyzed on the basis of a "damped-oscillator" fit, as motivated by the same type of behavior of a scalar field, dilaton, which mimics a cosmological constant to understand the accelerating universe. We find nearly as good fit to the latest data as the simple weighted mean. In this way, we offer a way to fit the more stringent result from the Oklo phenomenon, as well.

  18. Time-variability of the fine-structure constant expected from the Oklo constraint and the QSO absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yasunori

    2003-10-01

    The data from the QSO absorption lines indicating a nonzero time-variability of the fine-structure constant has been re-analyzed on the basis of a ``damped-oscillator'' fit, as motivated by the same type of behavior of a scalar field, dilaton, which mimics a cosmological constant to understand the accelerating universe. We find nearly as good fit to the latest data as the simple weighted mean. In this way, we offer a way to fit the more stringent result from the Oklo phenomenon, as well.

  19. Photolysis rate coefficients in the upper atmosphere: Effect of line by line calculations of the O{sub 2} absorption cross section in the Schumann-Runge bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Rafael P. [INFIQC, Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Palancar, Gustavo G. [INFIQC, Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: palancar@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Madronich, Sasha [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table mesa Drive, Boulder, CO, 80303 (United States); Toselli, Beatriz M. [INFIQC, Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: tosellib@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2007-03-15

    A line by line (LBL) method to calculate highly resolved O{sub 2} absorption cross sections in the Schumann-Runge (SR) bands region was developed and integrated in the widely used Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible (TUV) model to calculate accurate photolysis rate coefficients (J values) in the upper atmosphere at both small and large solar zenith angles (SZA). In order to obtain the O{sub 2} cross section between 49,000 and 57,000cm{sup -1}, an algorithm which considers the position, strength, and half width of each spectral line was used. Every transition was calculated by using the HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption database (HITRAN) and a Voigt profile. The temperature dependence of both the strength and the half widths was considered within the range of temperatures characteristic of the US standard atmosphere, although the results show a very good agreement also at 79K. The cross section calculation was carried out on a 0.5cm{sup -1} grid and the contributions from all the lines lying at +/-500cm{sup -1} were considered for every wavelength. Both the SR and the Herzberg continuums were included. By coupling the LBL method to the TUV model, full radiative transfer calculations that compute J values including Rayleigh scattering at high altitudes and large SZA can now be done. Thus, the J values calculations were performed for altitudes from 0 to 120km and for SZA up to 89{sup o}. The results show, in the J{sub O{sub 2}} case, differences of more than +/-10% (e.g. at 96km and 30{sup o}) when compared against the last version of the TUV model (4.4), which uses the Koppers and Murtagh parameterization for the O{sub 2} cross section. Consequently, the J values of species with cross sections overlapping the SR band region show variable differences at lower altitudes. Although many species have been analyzed, the results for only four of them (O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, HNO{sub 3}, CFC12) are presented. Due to the fact that the HNO{sub 3} absorption cross

  20. The SAURON project - XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntschner, Harald; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M; Peletier, Reynier F; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L; Bosch, Remco C E van den; van de Ven, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of Hbeta, Fe5015, and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise, together with predictions from up-to-date stellar population models, we estimate the simple stellar population-equivalent (SSP-equivalent) age, metallicity and abundance ratio [alpha/Fe] over a two-dimensional field extending up to approximately one effective radius. We find a large range of SSP-equivalent ages in our sample, of which ~40% of the galaxies show signs of a contribution from a young stellar population. The most extreme cases of post-starburst galaxies, with SSP-equivalent ages of =10 Gyr) stellar populations.

  1. The merger Seyfert galaxy Arp 220. Line and continuum absorption and emission

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, M

    2012-01-01

    The line and continuum spectra of the merger galaxy Arp 220 are analysed with the aim of investigating the ionizing and heating sources. We refer to radio, optical, infrared and X-ray spectra. The results show that in agreement with other merger galaxies, the optical lines are emitted from gas photoionised by the AGN and heated by the shocks in the extended NLR. The infrared lines are better explained by the emission from gas close to the starburst. The starburst dominates the infrared emission. [OI] and [CI] lines in the far-infrared are formed in the internal region of extended clouds and are therefore absorbed, while [CII] lines are emitted from the external edges of outflowing clouds. The O/H relative abundances are about solar and N/H are higher than solar by a factor of 1.5, throughout the starburst region, while in the AGN extended NLR the O/H ratio is half solar. A relatively high dust-to-gas ratio is indicated by modelling the dust reprocessed radiation peak consistently with bremsstrahlung emitted f...

  2. HIGHLY IONIZED Fe-K ABSORPTION LINE FROM CYGNUS X-1 IN THE HIGH/SOFT STATE OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Yoshikawa, A.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kubota, A. [Department of Electronic Information Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamiharas, 229-8510 Kanagawa (Japan); Done, C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20

    We present observations of a transient He-like Fe K{alpha} absorption line in Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 on 2011 October 5 near superior conjunction during the high/soft state, which enable us to map the full evolution from the start to the end of the episodic accretion phenomena or dips for the first time. We model the X-ray spectra during the event and trace their evolution. The absorption line is rather weak in the first half of the observation, but instantly deepens for {approx}10 ks, and weakens thereafter. The overall change in equivalent width is a factor of {approx}3, peaking at an orbital phase of {approx}0.08. This is evidence that the companion stellar wind feeding the black hole is clumpy. By analyzing the line with a Voigt profile, it is found to be consistent with a slightly redshifted Fe XXV transition, or possibly a mixture of several species less ionized than Fe XXV. The data may be explained by a clump located at a distance of {approx}10{sup 10-12} cm with a density of {approx}10{sup (-13)-(-11)} g cm{sup -3}, which accretes onto and/or transits the line of sight to the black hole, causing an instant decrease in the observed degree of ionization and/or an increase in density of the accreting matter. Continued monitoring for individual events with future X-ray calorimeter missions such as ASTRO-H and AXSIO will allow us to map out the accretion environment in detail and how it changes between the various accretion states.

  3. Optimal design and loss mechanism analysis of microwave absorbing unidirectional SiC fiber composites with broad absorption band and good polarization stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guangchao; Jiang, Jianjun; He, Yun; Bie, Shaowei

    2016-04-01

    A microwave-absorbing unidirectional SiC fiber composite with wide absorption and good polarization stability was designed by genetic algorithm. The anisotropic nature of unidirectional fiber composites was considered in the design by characterizing tensor permittivity. This special composite is composed of two kinds of SiC fibers that separately exhibit relatively high conductivity and low conductivity. The electromagnetic loss mechanism of this composite was examined for polarizations that differ in the electric field of the incident wave, applied either in the direction of the fiber or in the transverse direction, perpendicular to the fibers. For both polarizations, the absorption band of our composite can reach 6 GHz and the lowest microwave reflectivity was about -20 dB over a range of 8-18 GHz. When the electric field is polarized parallel to fibers, strong coupling among the high-conductivity fibers can induce a strong current and thus efficiently dissipate the electromagnetic energy. When the electric field is polarized perpendicular to fibers, the electromagnetic loss mechanism in the composite resembles the electric energy loss in capacitors and currents in the transverse direction are obstructed by the fibers resulting in attenuation of the electromagnetic energy in the matrix.

  4. Monte Carlo inversion of hydrogen and metal lines from QSO absorption spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Kegel, W H; Levshakov, Sergei A.; Agafonova, Irina I.; Kegel, Wilhelm H.

    2000-01-01

    A new method, based on the simulated annealing algorithm and aimed at theinverse problem in the analysis of intergalactic (interstellar) complex spectraof hydrogen and metal lines, is presented. We consider the process of lineformation in clumpy stochastic media accounting for fluctuating velocity anddensity fields (mesoturbulence). This approach generalizes our previous ReverseMonte Carlo and Entropy-Regularized Minimization methods which were applied tovelocity fluctuations only. The method allows one to estimate, from an observedsystem of spectral lines, both the physical parameters of the absorbing gas andappropriate structures of the velocity and density distributions along the lineof sight. The validity of the computational procedure is demonstrated using aseries of synthetic spectra that emulate the up-to-date best quality data. HI,CII, SiII, CIV, SiIV, and OVI lines, exhibiting complex profiles, were fittedsimultaneously. The adopted physical parameters have been recovered with asufficiently high accu...

  5. Stratospheric HNO3 quantification from line-by-line nonlinear least-squares analysis of high-resolution balloon-borne solar absorption spectra in the 870/cm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A.; Gillis, J. R.; Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, D. G.; Rinsland, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Line parameters for the nu(5) and 2nu(9) bands and associated hot bands of HNO3 have been calculated and compared with laboratory spectra, and the results are presented. Spectral intervals near 870/cm for which best agreement was obtained are used to quantitatively analyze HNO3 absorption features in 0.02/cm resolution stratospheric solar absorption spectra.

  6. Interstellar H I and H2 in the Magellanic Clouds: An Expanded Sample Based on Ultraviolet Absorption-line Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Daniel E.; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony

    2012-02-01

    We have determined column densities of H I and/or H2 for sight lines in the Magellanic Clouds from archival Hubble Space Telescope and Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectra of H I Lyα and H2 Lyman-band absorption. Together with some similar data from the literature, we now have absorption-based N(H I) and/or N(H2) for 285 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) sight lines (114 with a detection or limit for both species)—enabling more extensive, direct, and accurate determinations of molecular fractions, gas-to-dust ratios, and elemental depletions in these two nearby, low-metallicity galaxies. For sight lines where the N(H I) estimated from 21 cm emission is significantly higher than the value derived from Lyα absorption (presumably due to emission from gas beyond the target stars), integration of the 21 cm profile only over the velocity range seen in Na I or H2 absorption generally yields much better agreement. Conversely, N(21 cm) can be lower than N(Lyα) by factors of 2-3 in some LMC sight lines—suggestive of small-scale structure within the 21 cm beam(s) and/or some saturation in the emission. The mean gas-to-dust ratios obtained from N(Htot)/E(B - V) are larger than in our Galaxy, by factors of 2.8-2.9 in the LMC and 4.1-5.2 in the SMC—i.e., factors similar to the differences in metallicity. The N(H2)/E(B - V) ratios are more similar in the three galaxies, but with considerable scatter within each galaxy. These data may be used to test models of the atomic-to-molecular transition at low metallicities and predictions of N(H2) based on comparisons of 21 cm emission and the IR emission from dust. ), the MAST archive at STScI (FUSE data), and the University of Bonn (LAB and GASS 21 cm surveys).

  7. Warm Gas in and Around Simulated Galaxy Clusters as Probed by Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Emerick, Andrew; Putman, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding gas flows into and out of the most massive dark matter structures in our Universe, galaxy clusters, is fundamental to understanding their evolution. Gas in clusters is well studied in the hot ($>$ 10$^{6}$ K) and cold ($<$ 10$^{4}$ K) regimes, but the warm gas component (10$^{4}$ - 10$^{6}$ K) is poorly constrained. It is challenging to observe directly, but can be probed through Ly$\\alpha$ absorption studies. We produce the first systematic study of the warm gas content of galaxy clusters through synthetic Ly$\\alpha$ absorption studies using cosmological simulations of two galaxy clusters produced with Enzo. We explore the spatial and kinematic properties of our cluster absorbers, and show that the majority of the identified absorbers are due to fast moving gas associated with cluster infall from IGM filaments. Towards the center of the clusters, however, the warm IGM filaments are no longer dominant and the absorbers tend to have higher column densities and metallicities, representing strip...

  8. Optical Follow-Up Observations of PTF10qts, a Luminous Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Found by the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, E S; Pian, E; Hurley, K; Arcavi, I; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Horesh, A; Kasliwal, M; Poznanski, D; Silverman, J M; Sullivan, M; Bloom, J S; Filippenko, A V; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Ofek, E; Barthelmy, S; Boynton, W; Goldsten, J; Golenetskii, S; Ohno, M; Tashiro, M S; Yamaoka, K; Zhang, X L-

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SNIc-BL) PTF10qts, which was discovered as part of the Palomar Transient Factory. The supernova was located in a dwarf galaxy of magnitude $r=21.1$ at a redshift $z=0.0907$. We find that the $R$-band light curve is a poor proxy for bolometric data and use photometric and spectroscopic data to construct and constrain the bolometric light curve. The derived bolometric magnitude at maximum light is $M_{\\rm bol} = -18.51\\pm0.2$ mag, comparable to that of SN 1998bw ($M_{\\rm bol} = -18.7$ mag) which was associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB). PTF10qts is one of the most luminous SNIc-BL observed without an accompanying GRB. We estimate the physical parameters of the explosion using data from our programme of follow-up observations, finding that it produced a larger mass of radioactive nickel compared to other SNeIc-BL with similar inferred ejecta masses and kinetic energies. The progenitor of the event was likely a $\\sim20$M$_{\\od...

  9. Properties of long-term optical variability of active galactic nuclei with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we study properties of long-term optical variability of a large sample of 106 SDSS spectroscopically confirmed AGN with double-peaked broad low-ionization emission lines (double-peaked emitters). The long-term optical light curves over 8 years are collected from the Catalina Sky Surveys Data Release 2. And, the Damped Random Walk (DRW) process is applied to describe the long-term variability of the double-peaked emitters. Meanwhile, the same DRW process is applied to long-term optical light curves of more than 7000 spectroscopically confirmed normal quasars in the SDSS Stripe82 Database. Then, we can find that the DRW process determined rest-frame intrinsic variability timescales $\\ln(\\tau/{\\rm days})$ are about 5.8 and about 4.8 for the double-peaked emitters and for the normal quasars, respectively. The statistically longer intrinsic variability timescales can be confirmed in the double-peaked emitters, after considerations of necessary effects, such as the effects from different distrib...

  10. Optical Follow-Up Observations of PTF10qts, a Luminous Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Found by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Pian, E.; Hurley, K.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Horesh, A.; Kasliwal, M.; Poznanski, D.; Silverman, J. M.; Barthelmy, S.

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic-BL) PTF10qts, which was discovered as part of the Palomar Transient Factory. The supernova was located in a dwarf galaxy of magnitude r = 21.1 at a redshift z = 0.0907.We find that the R-band light curve is a poor proxy for bolometric data and use photometric and spectroscopic data to construct and constrain the bolometric light curve. The derived bolometric magnitude at maximum light is Mbol = -18.51 +/- 0.2 mag, comparable to that of SN1998bw (Mbol = -18.7 mag) which was associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB). PTF10qts is one of the most luminous SN Ic-BL observed without an accompanying GRB. We estimate the physical parameters of the explosion using data from our programme of follow-up observations, finding that it produced a larger mass of radioactive nickel compared to other SNeIc-BL with similar inferred ejecta masses and kinetic energies. The progenitor of the event was likely a approximately 20 solar mass star.

  11. Possible evidence for a variable fine structure constant from QSO absorption lines systematic errors

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, M T; Flambaum, V V; Churchill, C W; Prochaska, J X

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of quasar absorption spectra with laboratory spectra allow us to probe possible variations in the fundamental constants over cosmological time-scales. In a companion paper we present an analysis of Keck/HIRES spectra and report possible evidence suggesting that the fine structure constant, alpha, may have been smaller in the past: da/a = (-0.72 +/- 0.18) * 10^{-5} over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 3.5. In this paper we describe a comprehensive investigation into possible systematic effects. Most of these do not significantly influence our results. When we correct for those which do produce a significant systematic effect in the data, the deviation of da/a from zero becomes more significant. We are lead increasingly to the interpretation that alpha was slightly smaller in the past.

  12. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation.

  13. The SLUGGS survey: Globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A

    2014-01-01

    As part of the SLUGGS survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal to noise ratios of $\\sim 90$ \\AA$^{-1}$. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the H$\\alpha$ and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet--colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour--metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour--metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stackin...

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. 6: Properties of the metal-rich systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Petitjean, Patrick; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bahcall, John N.; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of a sample of 18 metal-rich, low-redshift z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) absorbers seen in low- and medium-resolution spectra obtained for the Quasar Absorption Line Key Project with the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS). For most of the C IV and Lyman-limit systems, observations in the optical wavelength range of the expected associated Mg II absorption are available. As at high redshift (z approximately 2), there are two subclasses of absorbers which are characterized by the presence or absence of MG II absorption. However, some low-redshift Mg II and Fe absorptions originate from regions optically thin to UV ionizing photons and thus, at low redshift, the low-ionization systems do not always trace high opacities, as is the case at high redshift. This implies that the mean ionization state of metal-rich, optically thin absorbing clouds falls with decreasing redshift, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the gas is photoionized by the metagalactic UV background radiation field. Two main constraints are derived from the analysis of the Lyman-limit sample, assuming photoionization models are valid. First, a low opacity to ionizing photons (tau(sub LL) approximately less than 1), as observed for several Mg II-Fe II systems at z approximately 0.5, sets limits on the ionization level of hydrogen, thus on the total hydrogen column density and the heavy element abundances, (Z/H) approximately -0.5 to -0.3. Second, the dimensions of individual Mg II clouds are smaller than at high redshift by a factor 3-10. At z approximately greater than 0.6, the O VI absorption doublet is detected in four of the five z(sub abs) much less than z(sub em) systems for which the O VI wavelength range has been observed, whereas the associated N V doublet is detected in only two cases. This suggests that the presence of a high-ionization O VI phase is a general property of z approximately 0.6-1 absorption systems

  15. Strong CH+ J = 1-0 emission and absorption in DR21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Lesaffre, P.; Godard, B.; Pearson, J.; Cabrit, S.; Joblin, Ch.; Benz, A. O.; Boulanger, F.; Fuente, A.; Güsten, R.; Harris, A.; Klein, T.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Martin, P.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Neufeld, D.; Phillips, T. G.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; van der Tak, F.; Teyssier, D.; Yorke, H.; Erickson, N.; Fich, M.; Jellema, W.; Marston, A.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Schmülling, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ towards the massive star-forming region DR 21 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. The line profile exhibits a broad emission line, in addition to two deep and broad absorption f

  16. Strong CH+ J=1-0 emission and absorption in DR21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Lesaffre, P.; Godard, B.; Pearson, J.; Cabrit, S.; Joblin, Ch; Benz, A. O.; Boulanger, F.; Fuente, A.; Güsten, R.; Harris, A.; Klein, T.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Martin, P.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Neufeld, D.; Phillips, T. G.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; van der Tak, F.; Teyssier, D.; Yorke, H.; Erickson, N.; Fich, M.; Jellema, W.; Marston, A.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Schmülling, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ towards the massive star-forming region DR 21 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. The line profile exhibits a broad emission line, in addition to two deep and broad absorption f

  17. A Census of Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Quasars at z = 2-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Ganguly, Rajib; Tytler, David; Kirkman, David; Suzuki, Nao; Lubin, Dan

    2007-07-01

    We use Keck HIRES spectra of 37 optically bright quasars at z=2-4 to study narrow absorption lines that are intrinsic to the quasars (intrinsic NALs, produced in gas that is physically associated with the quasar central engine). We identify 150 NAL systems, which contain 124 C IV, 12 N V, and 50 Si IV doublets, of which 18 are associated systems (within 5000 km s-1 of the quasar redshift). We use partial coverage analysis to separate intrinsic NALs from NALs produced in cosmologically intervening structures. We find 39 candidate intrinsic systems (28 reliable determinations and 11 that are possibly intrinsic). We estimate that 10%-17% of C IV systems at blueshifts of 5000-70,000 km s-1 relative to quasars are intrinsic. At least 32% of quasars contain one or more intrinsic C IV NALs. Considering N V and Si IV doublets showing partial coverage as well, at least 50% of quasars host intrinsic NALs. This result constrains the solid angle subtended by the absorbers to the background source(s). We identify two families of intrinsic NAL systems, those with strong N V absorption and those with negligible absorption in N V but with partial coverage in the C IV doublet. We discuss the idea that these two families represent different regions or conditions in accretion disk winds. Of the 26 intrinsic C IV NAL systems, 13 have detectable low-ionization absorption lines at similar velocities, suggesting that these are two-phase structures in the wind rather than absorbers in the host galaxy. We also compare possible models for quasar outflows, including radiatively accelerated disk-driven winds, magnetocentrifugally accelerated winds, and pressure-driven winds, and we discuss ways of distinguishing between these models observationally. The data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  18. Study of the Many Fluorescent Lines and the Absorption Variability in GX 301-2 with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, F.; Suchy, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Barragan, L.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Caballero, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Ferrigno, C.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present an in-depth study of the High Mass X-ray Binary (HMXB) GX 301-2 during its pre-periastron flare using data from the XMM-Newton satellite. The energy spectrum shows a power law continuum absorbed by a large equivalent hydrogen column on the order of 10(exp 24)/ sq cm and a prominent Fe K-alpha fluorescent emission line. Besides the Fe K-alpha line, evidence for Fe K-Beta, Ni K-alpha, Ni K-Beta, S K-alpha, Ar K-alp