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Sample records for brn3a regulates neuronal

  1. Brn3a regulates neuronal subtype specification in the trigeminal ganglion by promoting Runx expression during sensory differentiation

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    Raisa Eng S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transcription factor Brn3a, product of the pou4f1 gene, is expressed in most sensory neurons throughout embryogenesis. Prior work has demonstrated a role for Brn3a in the repression of early neurogenic genes; here we describe a second major role for Brn3a in the specification of sensory subtypes in the trigeminal ganglion (TG. Sensory neurons initially co-express multiple Trk-family neurotrophin receptors, but are later marked by the unique expression of TrkA, TrkB or TrkC. Maturation of these sensory subtypes is known to depend on the expression of Runx transcription factors. Newborn Brn3a knockout mice fail to express TrkC, which is associated in the TG with mechanoreceptors, plus a set of functional genes associated with nociceptor subtypes. In embryonic Brn3a-/- ganglia, the normal expression of Runx3 is never initiated in TrkC+ neurons, and Runx1 expression is greatly attenuated in TrkA+ nociceptors. These changes are accompanied by expanded expression of TrkB in neurons that abnormally express multiple Trks, followed by the loss of TrkC and TrkA expression. In transgenic embryos expressing a Brn3a-VP16 dominant transactivator, Runx3 mRNA expression is increased, suggesting that it is a direct regulatory target of Brn3a. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirms that Brn3a binds in vivo to a conserved upstream enhancer element within histone H3-acetylated chromatin in the Runx3 locus. Together these data show that Brn3a acts upstream of the Runx factors, which then repress TrkB expression to allow establishment of the non-overlapping Trk receptor profiles and correct terminally differentiated phenotypes.

  2. Neuronal transcription factor Brn-3a(l is over expressed in high-grade ovarian carcinomas and tumor cells from ascites of patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer

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    Ahmed Nuzhat

    2010-07-01

    consistent with its known role in inhibiting apoptosis and enhancing tumorigenesis. Specific targeting of Brn-3a may provide a useful strategy for regulating multiple tumor related genes involved with ovarian carcinomas.

  3. Staufen2 Regulates Neuronal Target RNAs

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    Jacki E. Heraud-Farlow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RNA-binding proteins play crucial roles in directing RNA translation to neuronal synapses. Staufen2 (Stau2 has been implicated in both dendritic RNA localization and synaptic plasticity in mammalian neurons. Here, we report the identification of functionally relevant Stau2 target mRNAs in neurons. The majority of Stau2-copurifying mRNAs expressed in the hippocampus are present in neuronal processes, further implicating Stau2 in dendritic mRNA regulation. Stau2 targets are enriched for secondary structures similar to those identified in the 3′ UTRs of Drosophila Staufen targets. Next, we show that Stau2 regulates steady-state levels of many neuronal RNAs and that its targets are predominantly downregulated in Stau2-deficient neurons. Detailed analysis confirms that Stau2 stabilizes the expression of one synaptic signaling component, the regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4 mRNA, via its 3′ UTR. This study defines the global impact of Stau2 on mRNAs in neurons, revealing a role in stabilization of the levels of synaptic targets.

  4. Progranulin regulates neuronal outgrowth independent of Sortilin

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    Gass Jennifer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progranulin (PGRN, a widely secreted growth factor, is involved in multiple biological functions, and mutations located within the PGRN gene (GRN are a major cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions (FLTD-TDP. In light of recent reports suggesting PGRN functions as a protective neurotrophic factor and that sortilin (SORT1 is a neuronal receptor for PGRN, we used a Sort1-deficient (Sort1−/− murine primary hippocampal neuron model to investigate whether PGRN’s neurotrophic effects are dependent on SORT1. We sought to elucidate this relationship to determine what role SORT1, as a regulator of PGRN levels, plays in modulating PGRN’s neurotrophic effects. Results As the first group to evaluate the effect of PGRN loss in Grn knockout primary neuronal cultures, we show neurite outgrowth and branching are significantly decreased in Grn−/− neurons compared to wild-type (WT neurons. More importantly, we also demonstrate that PGRN overexpression can rescue this phenotype. However, the recovery in outgrowth is not observed following treatment with recombinant PGRN harboring missense mutations p.C139R, p.P248L or p.R432C, indicating that these mutations adversely affect the neurotrophic properties of PGRN. In addition, we also present evidence that cleavage of full-length PGRN into granulin peptides is required for increased neuronal outgrowth, suggesting that the neurotrophic functions of PGRN are contained within certain granulins. To further characterize the mechanism by which PGRN impacts neuronal morphology, we assessed the involvement of SORT1. We demonstrate that PGRN induced-outgrowth occurs in the absence of SORT1 in Sort1−/− cultures. Conclusion We demonstrate that loss of PGRN impairs proper neurite outgrowth and branching, and that exogenous PGRN alleviates this impairment. Furthermore, we determined that exogenous PGRN induces outgrowth independent of SORT1, suggesting another

  5. Sensory neuron differentiation potential of in utero mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in rat fetuses with spina bifida aperta.

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    Ma, Wei; Wei, Xiaowei; Gu, Hui; Li, Hui; Guan, Kaoping; Liu, Dan; Chen, Lizhu; Cao, Songying; An, Dong; Zhang, Henan; Huang, Tianchu; Miao, Jianing; Zhao, Guifeng; Wu, Di; Liu, Bo; Wang, Weilin; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2015-09-01

    In previous studies, we found that the deficiency of sensory and motor neurons was a primary defect associated with the spinal malformation. Upon prenatal treatment of spina bifida through in utero stem cell transplantation in a retinoic acid-induced spina bifida rat model, we found that the mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) survived, migrated, and differentiated into cells of a neural lineage. In the present study, we investigated whether the transplanted MSCs had the potential to differentiate into sensory neurons or to protect sensory neurons in the defective spinal cord. Pregnant rats treated with retinoic acid on embryonic day (E) 10, underwent fetal surgery for MSC transplantation on E16. The fetuses were harvested on E20. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of Brn3a protein in the transplanted MSCs and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in the defective spinal cords. The expression of the transcription factors Brn3a and Runx1 in spinal cords was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Some of the transplanted MSCs expressed sensory neuron cell specific phenotypes. The expression of Brn3a and Runx1 was upregulated in the defective spinal cords when compared to controls. The percentage of Brn3a-positive neurons in DRG was also increased after transplantation. Our results indicate that the transplantation of MSCs into the spinal cord could promote the transplanted MSCs and the surrounding cells to differentiate toward a sensory neuron cell fate and to play an important role in protecting sensory neurons in DRG. This approach might be of value in the treatment of sensory neuron deficiency in spina bifida aperta. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Dcc regulates asymmetric outgrowth of forebrain neurons in zebrafish.

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    Jingxia Gao

    Full Text Available The guidance receptor DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer ortholog UNC-40 regulates neuronal asymmetry development in Caenorhabditis elegans, but it is not known whether DCC plays a role in the specification of neuronal polarity in vertebrates. To examine the roles of DCC in neuronal asymmetry regulation in vertebrates, we studied zebrafish anterior dorsal telencephalon (ADt neuronal axons. We generated transgenic zebrafish animals expressing the photo-convertible fluorescent protein Kaede in ADt neurons and then photo-converted Kaede to label specifically the ADt neuron axons. We found that ADt axons normally project ventrally. Knock down of Dcc function by injecting antisense morpholino oligonucleotides caused the ADt neurons to project axons dorsally. To examine the axon projection pattern of individual ADt neurons, we labeled single ADt neurons using a forebrain-specific promoter to drive fluorescent protein expression. We found that individual ADt neurons projected axons dorsally or formed multiple processes after morpholino knock down of Dcc function. We further found that knock down of the Dcc ligand, Netrin1, also caused ADt neurons to project axons dorsally. Knockdown of Neogenin1, a guidance receptor closely related to Dcc, enhanced the formation of aberrant dorsal axons in embryos injected with Dcc morpholino. These experiments provide the first evidence that Dcc regulates polarized axon initiation and asymmetric outgrowth of forebrain neurons in vertebrates.

  7. Sensory neuron-derived eph regulates glomerular arbors and modulatory function of a central serotonergic neuron.

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    Ajeet Pratap Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons connect to the antennal lobe of the fly to create the primary units for processing odor cues, the glomeruli. Unique amongst antennal-lobe neurons is an identified wide-field serotonergic neuron, the contralaterally-projecting, serotonin-immunoreactive deutocerebral neuron (CSDn. The CSDn spreads its termini all over the contralateral antennal lobe, suggesting a diffuse neuromodulatory role. A closer examination, however, reveals a restricted pattern of the CSDn arborization in some glomeruli. We show that sensory neuron-derived Eph interacts with Ephrin in the CSDn, to regulate these arborizations. Behavioural analysis of animals with altered Eph-ephrin signaling and with consequent arborization defects suggests that neuromodulation requires local glomerular-specific patterning of the CSDn termini. Our results show the importance of developmental regulation of terminal arborization of even the diffuse modulatory neurons to allow them to route sensory-inputs according to the behavioural contexts.

  8. Regulation of Irregular Neuronal Firing by Autaptic Transmission

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    Guo, Daqing; Wu, Shengdun; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Zhang, Yangsong; Ma, Jingling; Cui, Yan; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    The importance of self-feedback autaptic transmission in modulating spike-time irregularity is still poorly understood. By using a biophysical model that incorporates autaptic coupling, we here show that self-innervation of neurons participates in the modulation of irregular neuronal firing, primarily by regulating the occurrence frequency of burst firing. In particular, we find that both excitatory and electrical autapses increase the occurrence of burst firing, thus reducing neuronal firing regularity. In contrast, inhibitory autapses suppress burst firing and therefore tend to improve the regularity of neuronal firing. Importantly, we show that these findings are independent of the firing properties of individual neurons, and as such can be observed for neurons operating in different modes. Our results provide an insightful mechanistic understanding of how different types of autapses shape irregular firing at the single-neuron level, and they highlight the functional importance of autaptic self-innervation in taming and modulating neurodynamics.

  9. AgRP Neurons Regulate Bone Mass

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    Jae Geun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus has been implicated in skeletal metabolism. Whether hunger-promoting neurons of the arcuate nucleus impact the bone is not known. We generated multiple lines of mice to affect AgRP neuronal circuit integrity. We found that mice with Ucp2 gene deletion, in which AgRP neuronal function was impaired, were osteopenic. This phenotype was rescued by cell-selective reactivation of Ucp2 in AgRP neurons. When the AgRP circuitry was impaired by early postnatal deletion of AgRP neurons or by cell autonomous deletion of Sirt1 (AgRP-Sirt1−/−, mice also developed reduced bone mass. No impact of leptin receptor deletion in AgRP neurons was found on bone homeostasis. Suppression of sympathetic tone in AgRP-Sirt1−/− mice reversed osteopenia in transgenic animals. Taken together, these observations establish a significant regulatory role for AgRP neurons in skeletal bone metabolism independent of leptin action.

  10. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

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    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Yang [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Tien-Shun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Wang, Tsu-Wei, E-mail: twwang@ntnu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jenn-Yah, E-mail: jyyu@ym.edu.tw [Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-10

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model to study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the Yap

  11. Regulation/modulation of sensory neuron sodium channels.

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    Chahine, Mohamed; O'Leary, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    The pseudounipolar sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) give rise to peripheral branches that convert thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli into electrical signals that are transmitted via central branches to the spinal cord. These neurons express unique combinations of tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) channels that contribute to the resting membrane potential, action potential threshold, and regulate neuronal firing frequency. The small-diameter neurons (35 μm) are typically low-threshold A-fibers that predominately express TTX-S Na(+) currents. Peripheral nerve damage, inflammation, and metabolic diseases alter the expression and function of these Na(+) channels leading to increases in neuronal excitability and pain. The Na(+) channels expressed in these neurons are the target of intracellular signaling cascades that regulate the trafficking, cell surface expression, and gating properties of these channels. Post-translational regulation of Na(+) channels by protein kinases (PKA, PKC, MAPK) alter the expression and function of the channels. Injury-induced changes in these signaling pathways have been linked to sensory neuron hyperexcitability and pain. This review examines the signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms that modulate the voltage-gated Na(+) channels of sensory neurons.

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

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    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  13. Regulation of neuronal communication by G protein-coupled receptors.

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    Huang, Yunhong; Thathiah, Amantha

    2015-06-22

    Neuronal communication plays an essential role in the propagation of information in the brain and requires a precisely orchestrated connectivity between neurons. Synaptic transmission is the mechanism through which neurons communicate with each other. It is a strictly regulated process which involves membrane depolarization, the cellular exocytosis machinery, neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft, and the interaction between ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and downstream effector molecules. The focus of this review is to explore the role of GPCRs and G protein-signaling in neurotransmission, to highlight the function of GPCRs, which are localized in both presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane terminals, in regulation of intrasynaptic and intersynaptic communication, and to discuss the involvement of astrocytic GPCRs in the regulation of neuronal communication. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroanatomical Evidence That Kisspeptin Directly Regulates Isotocin and Vasotocin Neurons

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    Kanda, Shinji; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Mitani, Yuta; Okubo, Kataaki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide kisspeptin has been suggested to be an essential central regulator of reproduction in response to changes in serum gonadal steroid concentrations. However, in spite of wide kisspeptin receptor distribution in the brain, especially in the preoptic area and hypothalamus, the research focus has mostly been confined to the kisspeptin regulation on GnRH neurons. Here, by using medaka whose kisspeptin (kiss1) neurons have been clearly demonstrated to be regulated by sex steroids, we analyzed the anatomical distribution of kisspeptin receptors Gpr54-1 and Gpr54-2. Because the both receptors were shown to be activated by kisspeptins (Kiss1 and Kiss2), we analyzed the anatomical distribution of the both receptors by in situ hybridization. They were mainly expressed in the ventral telencephalon, preoptic area, and hypothalamus, which have been suggested to be involved in homeostatic functions including reproduction. First, we found gpr54-2 mRNA expression in nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis and demonstrated that vasotocin and isotocin (Vasopressin and Oxytocin ortholog, respectively) neurons express gpr54-2 by dual in situ hybridization. Given that kisspeptin administration increases serum oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in mammals, the present finding are likely to be vertebrate-wide phenomenon, although direct regulation has not yet been demonstrated in mammals. We then analyzed co-expression of kisspeptin receptors in three types of GnRH neurons. It was clearly demonstrated that gpr54-expressing cells were located adjacent to GnRH1 neurons, although they were not GnRH1 neurons themselves. In contrast, there was no gpr54-expressing cell in the vicinities of neuromodulatory GnRH2 or GnRH3 neurons. From these results, we suggest that medaka kisspeptin neurons directly regulate some behavioral and neuroendocrine functions via vasotocin/isotocin neurons, whereas they do not regulate hypophysiotropic GnRH1 neurons at least in a direct manner. Thus

  15. Neuroanatomical evidence that kisspeptin directly regulates isotocin and vasotocin neurons.

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    Shinji Kanda

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide kisspeptin has been suggested to be an essential central regulator of reproduction in response to changes in serum gonadal steroid concentrations. However, in spite of wide kisspeptin receptor distribution in the brain, especially in the preoptic area and hypothalamus, the research focus has mostly been confined to the kisspeptin regulation on GnRH neurons. Here, by using medaka whose kisspeptin (kiss1 neurons have been clearly demonstrated to be regulated by sex steroids, we analyzed the anatomical distribution of kisspeptin receptors Gpr54-1 and Gpr54-2. Because the both receptors were shown to be activated by kisspeptins (Kiss1 and Kiss2, we analyzed the anatomical distribution of the both receptors by in situ hybridization. They were mainly expressed in the ventral telencephalon, preoptic area, and hypothalamus, which have been suggested to be involved in homeostatic functions including reproduction. First, we found gpr54-2 mRNA expression in nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis and demonstrated that vasotocin and isotocin (Vasopressin and Oxytocin ortholog, respectively neurons express gpr54-2 by dual in situ hybridization. Given that kisspeptin administration increases serum oxytocin and vasopressin concentration in mammals, the present finding are likely to be vertebrate-wide phenomenon, although direct regulation has not yet been demonstrated in mammals. We then analyzed co-expression of kisspeptin receptors in three types of GnRH neurons. It was clearly demonstrated that gpr54-expressing cells were located adjacent to GnRH1 neurons, although they were not GnRH1 neurons themselves. In contrast, there was no gpr54-expressing cell in the vicinities of neuromodulatory GnRH2 or GnRH3 neurons. From these results, we suggest that medaka kisspeptin neurons directly regulate some behavioral and neuroendocrine functions via vasotocin/isotocin neurons, whereas they do not regulate hypophysiotropic GnRH1 neurons at least in a direct

  16. Prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity in pregnancy and lactation.

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    Augustine, Rachael A; Ladyman, Sharon R; Bouwer, Gregory T; Alyousif, Yousif; Sapsford, Tony J; Scott, Victoria; Kokay, Ilona C; Grattan, David R; Brown, Colin H

    2017-06-01

    During lactation, prolactin promotes milk synthesis and oxytocin stimulates milk ejection. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits the activity of oxytocin-secreting neurones. We found that prolactin inhibition of oxytocin neurone activity is lost in lactation, and that some oxytocin neurones were excited by prolactin in lactating rats. The change in prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity was not associated with a change in activation of intracellular signalling pathways known to couple to prolactin receptors. The change in prolactin regulation of oxytocin neurone activity in lactation might allow coordinated activation of both populations of neurones when required for successful lactation. Secretion of prolactin for milk synthesis and oxytocin for milk secretion is required for successful lactation. In virgin rats, prolactin inhibits oxytocin neurones but this effect would be counterproductive during lactation when secretion of both hormones is required for synthesis and delivery of milk to the newborn. Hence, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) prolactin on oxytocin neurones in urethane-anaesthetised virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Prolactin (2 μg) consistently inhibited oxytocin neurones in virgin and pregnant rats (by 1.9 ± 0.4 and 1.8 ± 0.5 spikes s -1 , respectively), but not in lactating rats; indeed, prolactin excited six of 27 oxytocin neurones by >1 spike s -1 in lactating rats but excited none in virgin or pregnant rats (χ 2 2  = 7.2, P = 0.03). Vasopressin neurones were unaffected by prolactin (2 μg) in virgin rats but were inhibited by 1.1 ± 0.2 spikes s -1 in lactating rats. Immunohistochemistry showed that i.c.v. prolactin increased oxytocin expression in virgin and lactating rats and increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 phosphorylation to a similar extent in oxytocin neurones of virgin and lactating rats. Western blotting showed that i.c.v. prolactin did not affect

  17. Neuronal regulation of immune responses in the central nervous system.

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    Tian, Li; Rauvala, Heikki; Gahmberg, Carl G

    2009-02-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has traditionally been considered to be immunologically privileged, but over the years there has been a re-evaluation of this dogma. To date, studies have tended to focus on the immune functions of glial cells, whereas the roles of neurons have been regarded as passive and their immune-regulatory properties have been less examined. However, recent findings indicate that CNS neurons actively participate in immune regulation by controlling their glial cell counterparts and infiltrated T cells. Here, we describe the immune-regulatory roles of CNS neurons by both contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms. In addition, we specifically deal with the immune functions of neuronal cell adhesion molecules, many of which are key modulators of neuronal synaptic formation and plasticity.

  18. Novel transcriptional networks regulated by CLOCK in human neurons.

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    Fontenot, Miles R; Berto, Stefano; Liu, Yuxiang; Werthmann, Gordon; Douglas, Connor; Usui, Noriyoshi; Gleason, Kelly; Tamminga, Carol A; Takahashi, Joseph S; Konopka, Genevieve

    2017-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying human brain evolution are not fully understood; however, previous work suggested that expression of the transcription factor CLOCK in the human cortex might be relevant to human cognition and disease. In this study, we investigated this novel transcriptional role for CLOCK in human neurons by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing for endogenous CLOCK in adult neocortices and RNA sequencing following CLOCK knockdown in differentiated human neurons in vitro. These data suggested that CLOCK regulates the expression of genes involved in neuronal migration, and a functional assay showed that CLOCK knockdown increased neuronal migratory distance. Furthermore, dysregulation of CLOCK disrupts coexpressed networks of genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, and the expression of these networks is driven by hub genes with human-specific patterns of expression. These data support a role for CLOCK-regulated transcriptional cascades involved in human brain evolution and function. © 2017 Fontenot et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling

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    Tingting Gu

    2013-12-01

    Although the growth capacity of mature neurons is often limited, some neurons can shift through largely unknown mechanisms from stable maintenance growth to dynamic, organizational growth (e.g. to repair injury, or during development transitions. During insect metamorphosis, many terminally differentiated larval neurons undergo extensive remodeling, involving elimination of larval neurites and outgrowth and elaboration of adult-specific projections. Here, we show in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, that a metamorphosis-specific increase in insulin signaling promotes neuronal growth and axon branching after prolonged stability during the larval stages. FOXO, a negative effector in the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon. RNA interference and CCAP/bursicon cell-targeted expression of dominant-negative constructs for other components of the insulin signaling pathway (InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, S6K also partially suppressed the growth of the CCAP/bursicon neuron somata and neurite arbor. In contrast, expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, Rheb, and TOR, as well as RNA interference for negative regulators of insulin signaling (PTEN, FOXO, stimulated overgrowth. Interestingly, InR displayed little effect on larval CCAP/bursicon neuron growth, in contrast to its strong effects during metamorphosis. Manipulations of insulin signaling in many other peptidergic neurons revealed generalized growth stimulation during metamorphosis, but not during larval development. These findings reveal a fundamental shift in growth control mechanisms when mature, differentiated neurons enter a new phase of organizational growth. Moreover, they highlight strong evolutionarily conservation of insulin signaling in neuronal growth regulation.

  20. Reelin secreted by GABAergic neurons regulates glutamate receptor homeostasis.

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    Cecilia Gonzalez Campo

    that reelin is a trans-neuronal messenger secreted by GABAergic neurons that regulates NMDARs homeostasis in postnatal hippocampus. Defects in reelin secretion could play a major role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly those associated with deregulation of NMDARs such as schizophrenia.

  1. Insm1a Regulates Motor Neuron Development in Zebrafish

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    Jie Gong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulinoma-associated1a (insm1a is a zinc-finger transcription factor playing a series of functions in cell formation and differentiation of vertebrate central and peripheral nervous systems and neuroendocrine system. However, its roles on the development of motor neuron have still remained uncovered. Here, we provided evidences that insm1a was a vital regulator of motor neuron development, and provided a mechanistic understanding of how it contributes to this process. Firstly, we showed the localization of insm1a in spinal cord, and primary motor neurons (PMNs of zebrafish embryos by in situ hybridization, and imaging analysis of transgenic reporter line Tg(insm1a: mCherryntu805. Then we demonstrated that the deficiency of insm1a in zebrafish larvae lead to the defects of PMNs development, including the reduction of caudal primary motor neurons (CaP, and middle primary motor neurons (MiP, the excessive branching of motor axons, and the disorganized distance between adjacent CaPs. Additionally, knockout of insm1 impaired motor neuron differentiation in the spinal cord. Locomotion analysis showed that swimming activity was significantly reduced in the insm1a-null zebrafish. Furthermore, we showed that the insm1a loss of function significantly decreased the transcript levels of both olig2 and nkx6.1. Microinjection of olig2 and nkx6.1 mRNA rescued the motor neuron defects in insm1a deficient embryos. Taken together, these data indicated that insm1a regulated the motor neuron development, at least in part, through modulation of the expressions of olig2 and nkx6.1.

  2. Development of primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal nervous system; dependency on neurotrophins and other substances

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    Hiroyuki Ichikawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents information about the development of primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal nervous system. The deficiency of high affinity receptors for nerve growth factor (trkA and neurotrophin-3 (trk-C causesa reduction of primary nociceptors in the trigeminal ganglion (TG. The disruption of trkB, a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4, causes a loss of Meissner endings in the palate and Ruffini endings in the periodontal ligament. The number of Merkel cells in palatal rugae is also severely reduced by the absence of trkA, trkB or trkC. In the mesencephalic trigeminal tract nucleus (Mes5, primary proprioceptors are decreased by 50% in trkC null mutant mice. On the other hand, the deficiency of Brn-3a, a member of the POU family of transcription factors, decreases primary nociceptors and low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the TG. In the Mes5 of Brn-3a knockout mice, primary proprioceptors are completely lost. In addition, the disruption of dystonin which is a member of the plakin family of high molecular weight cytoskeletal linker proteins causes a reduction of nociceptors in the TG but not proprioceptors in the Mes5. The dependency of primary nociceptors, low-threshold mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors on neurotrophins, Brn-3a and dystonin in the trigeminal nervous system is discussed.

  3. Regulation of the Hypothalamic Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) Neuron by Neuronal and Peripheral Inputs

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    Nillni, Eduardo A.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis plays a critical role in mediating changes in metabolism and thermogenesis. Thus, the central regulation of the thyroid axis by Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is of key importance for the normal function of the axis under different physiological conditions including cold stress and changes in nutritional status. Before the TRH peptide becomes biologically active, a series of tightly regulated processes occur including the proper folding of the prohormone for targeting to the secretory pathway, its post-translational processing, and targeting of the processed peptides to the secretory granules near the plasma membrane of the cell ready for secretion. Multiple inputs coming from the periphery or from neurons present in different areas of the brain including the hypothalamus are responsible for the activation or inhibition of the TRH neuron and in turn affect the output of TRH and the set point of the axis. PMID:20074584

  4. TRH regulates action potential shape in cerebral cortex pyramidal neurons.

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    Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Patiño, Javier; Vargas, Yamili; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-07

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with a wide neural distribution and a variety of functions. It modulates neuronal electrophysiological properties, including resting membrane potential, as well as excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike frequencies. We explored, with whole-cell patch clamp, TRH effect on action potential shape in pyramidal neurons of the sensorimotor cortex. TRH reduced spike and after hyperpolarization amplitudes, and increased spike half-width. The effect varied with dose, time and cortical layer. In layer V, 0.5µM of TRH induced a small increase in spike half-width, while 1 and 5µM induced a strong but transient change in spike half-width, and amplitude; after hyperpolarization amplitude was modified at 5µM of TRH. Cortical layers III and VI neurons responded intensely to 0.5µM TRH; layer II neurons response was small. The effect of 1µM TRH on action potential shape in layer V neurons was blocked by G-protein inhibition. Inhibition of the activity of the TRH-degrading enzyme pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII) reproduced the effect of TRH, with enhanced spike half-width. Many cortical PPII mRNA+ cells were VGLUT1 mRNA+, and some GAD mRNA+. These data show that TRH regulates action potential shape in pyramidal cortical neurons, and are consistent with the hypothesis that PPII controls its action in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kisspeptin Regulation of Neuronal Activity throughout the Central Nervous System

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    Xinhuai Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin signaling at the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuron is now relatively well characterized and established as being critical for the neural control of fertility. However, kisspeptin fibers and the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R are detected throughout the brain suggesting that kisspeptin is involved in regulating the activity of multiple neuronal circuits. We provide here a review of kisspeptin actions on neuronal populations throughout the brain including the magnocellular oxytocin and vasopressin neurons, and cells within the arcuate nucleus, hippocampus, and amygdala. The actions of kisspeptin in these brain regions are compared to its effects upon GnRH neurons. Two major themes arise from this analysis. First, it is apparent that kisspeptin signaling through KISS1R at the GnRH neuron is a unique, extremely potent form or neurotransmission whereas kisspeptin actions through KISS1R in other brain regions exhibit neuromodulatory actions typical of other neuropeptides. Second, it is becoming increasingly likely that kisspeptin acts as a neuromodulator not only through KISS1R but also through other RFamide receptors such as the neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFRs. We suggest likely locations of kisspeptin signaling through NPFFRs but note that only limited tools are presently available for examining kisspeptin cross-signaling within the RFamide family of neuropeptides.

  6. Sensory experience regulates cortical inhibition by inducing IGF1 in VIP neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinly, A R; Spiegel, I; Patrizi, A; Centofante, E; Bazinet, J E; Tzeng, C P; Mandel-Brehm, C; Harmin, D A; Adesnik, H; Fagiolini, M; Greenberg, M E

    2016-03-17

    Inhibitory neurons regulate the adaptation of neural circuits to sensory experience, but the molecular mechanisms by which experience controls the connectivity between different types of inhibitory neuron to regulate cortical plasticity are largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of dark-housed mice to light induces a gene program in cortical vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons that is markedly distinct from that induced in excitatory neurons and other subtypes of inhibitory neuron. We identify Igf1 as one of several activity-regulated genes that are specific to VIP neurons, and demonstrate that IGF1 functions cell-autonomously in VIP neurons to increase inhibitory synaptic input onto these neurons. Our findings further suggest that in cortical VIP neurons, experience-dependent gene transcription regulates visual acuity by activating the expression of IGF1, thus promoting the inhibition of disinhibitory neurons and affecting inhibition onto cortical pyramidal neurons.

  7. Regulation of neuronal input transformations by tunable dendritic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Turi, Gergely F; Kaifosh, Patrick; Lee, Peter H; Bolze, Frédéric; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Nicoud, Jean-François; Zemelman, Boris V; Sternson, Scott M; Losonczy, Attila

    2012-01-15

    Transforming synaptic input into action potential output is a fundamental function of neurons. The pattern of action potential output from principal cells of the mammalian hippocampus encodes spatial and nonspatial information, but the cellular and circuit mechanisms by which neurons transform their synaptic input into a given output are unknown. Using a combination of optical activation and cell type-specific pharmacogenetic silencing in vitro, we found that dendritic inhibition is the primary regulator of input-output transformations in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and acts by gating the dendritic electrogenesis driving burst spiking. Dendrite-targeting interneurons are themselves modulated by interneurons targeting pyramidal cell somata, providing a synaptic substrate for tuning pyramidal cell output through interactions in the local inhibitory network. These results provide evidence for a division of labor in cortical circuits, where distinct computational functions are implemented by subtypes of local inhibitory neurons.

  8. Alternative Splicing of G9a Regulates Neuronal Differentiation

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    Ana Fiszbein

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin modifications are critical for the establishment and maintenance of differentiation programs. G9a, the enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in mammalian euchromatin, exists as two isoforms with differential inclusion of exon 10 (E10 through alternative splicing. We find that the G9a methyltransferase is required for differentiation of the mouse neuronal cell line N2a and that E10 inclusion increases during neuronal differentiation of cultured cells, as well as in the developing mouse brain. Although E10 inclusion greatly stimulates overall H3K9me2 levels, it does not affect G9a catalytic activity. Instead, E10 increases G9a nuclear localization. We show that the G9a E10+ isoform is necessary for neuron differentiation and regulates the alternative splicing pattern of its own pre-mRNA, enhancing E10 inclusion. Overall, our findings indicate that by regulating its own alternative splicing, G9a promotes neuron differentiation and creates a positive feedback loop that reinforces cellular commitment to differentiation.

  9. Bifurcation analysis of the regulation of nociceptive neuronal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, O. E.

    2017-11-01

    A model of the membrane of a nociceptive neuron from a rat dorsal ganglion has been used to address the problem of analyzing the regulation of nociceptive signals by 5-hydroxy-γ-pyrone-2-carboxylic acid, which is the active pharmaceutic ingredient of the analgesic Anoceptin. The study has applied bifurcation analysis to report the relationship between the values of model parameters and the type of problem solution before and after the parameters change in response to analgesic modulation.

  10. Estrogenic Regulation of the GnRH Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally eRadovick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive function is regulated by the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH from the pituitary and the steroid hormones from the gonads. The dynamic changes in the levels of the reproductive hormones regulate secondary sex characteristics, gametogenesis, cellular function and behavior. Hypothalamic GnRH neurons, with cell bodies located in the basal hypothalamus, represent the final common pathway for neuronally derived signals to the pituitary. As such, they serve as integrators of a dizzying array of signals including sensory inputs mediating information about circadian, seasonal, behavioral, pheromonal and emotional cues. Additionally, information about peripheral physiological function may also be included in the integrative signal to the GnRH neuron. These signals may communicate information about metabolic status, disease or infection. Gonadal steroid hormones arguably exert the most important effects on GnRH neuronal function. In both males and females, the gonadal steroid hormones exert negative feedback regulation on axis activity at both the level of the pituitary and the hypothalamus. These negative feedback loops regulate homeostasis of steroid hormone levels. In females, a cyclic reversal of estrogen feedback produces a positive feedback loop at both the hypothalamic and pituitary levels. Central positive feedback results in a dramatic increase in GnRH secretion (Sisk and others 2001; Clarke 1993; Moenter, Brand and Karsch 1992; Xia and others 1992. This is coupled with an increase in pituitary sensitivity to GnRH (Turzillo, DiGregorio and Nett 1995; Savoy-Moore and others 1980, which produces the massive surge in secretion of LH that triggers ovulation.

  11. Phospholipase Cβ1 regulates proliferation of neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwain, Osama; Valla, Kaitlyn; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2018-01-12

    Cells have developed lineage-specific mechanisms to control proliferation and drive morphologic changes upon differentiation. A hallmark of differentiation is the assembly of signaling molecules that transduce extracellular signals, such as the production of the G protein-regulated enzyme phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ), which generates calcium signals from sensory stimuli. We found that in most cancerous cell lines there is positive correlation between PLCβ1 levels and cell proliferation. In cells of neuronal lineage, however, reducing PLCβ1 levels increases the rate of proliferation. Using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods, we find that, in the G1 phase, a cytosolic population of PLCβ1 associates with cyclin-dependent kinase 16 (CDK16), a neuron-specific enzyme that is activated by cyclin Y to inactivate the antioncogenic protein p27Kip1. Binding of PLCβ1 directly inhibits CDK16 activity and in turn reduces the ability of cells to enter the S phase. Activation of Gαq by carbachol causes movement of PLCβ from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, reducing its association with CDK16. Similarly, the overexpression of activated Gαq moves PLCβ1 to the membrane, reverses G1 arrest, and promotes proliferation, thereby connecting external stimuli with cell proliferation. Our results present a model in which the transient high expression of PLCβ1 that occurs at the onset of differentiation arrests cells in the G1 phase through its association with CDK16 and allows CDK16 to transition to its postmitotic function of neurite outgrowth and trafficking of synaptic vesicles. The novel role of PLCβ1 in neuronal cell proliferation offers a unique interaction that can be manipulated to guide cells into a neuronal phenotype or to develop therapies for neuroblastomas.-Garwain, O., Valla, K., Scarlata, S. Phospholipase Cβ1 regulates proliferation of neuronal cells.

  12. Role of the dorsal medial habenula in the regulation of voluntary activity, motor function, hedonic state, and primary reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Wang, Si D; Wang, Shirong; Morton, Glenn; Zariwala, Hatim A; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Turner, Eric E

    2014-08-20

    The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which neurons of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb) are developmentally eliminated, via tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a). Mice with dMHb lesions perform poorly in motivation-based locomotor behaviors, such as voluntary wheel running and the accelerating rotarod, but show only minor abnormalities in gait and balance and exhibit normal levels of basal locomotion. These mice also show deficits in sucrose preference, but not in the forced swim test, two measures of depression-related phenotypes in rodents. We have also used Cre recombinase-mediated expression of channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin to activate dMHb neurons or silence their output in freely moving mice, respectively. Optical activation of the dMHb in vivo supports intracranial self-stimulation, showing that dMHb activity is intrinsically reinforcing, whereas optical silencing of dMHb outputs is aversive. Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411366-19$15.00/0.

  13. Global analysis of neuronal phosphoproteome regulation by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yu

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are major components of the extracellular matrix which mediate inhibition of axonal regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS. Several neuronal receptors for CSPGs have recently been identified; however, the signaling pathways by which CSPGs restrict axonal growth are still largely unknown. In this study, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate the global changes in protein phosphorylation induced by CSPGs in primary neurons. In combination with isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ labeling, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX fractionation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC and LC-MS/MS, we identified and quantified 2214 unique phosphopeptides corresponding to 1118 phosphoproteins, with 118 changing significantly in abundance with CSPG treatment. The proteins that were regulated by CSPGs included key components of synaptic vesicle trafficking, axon guidance mediated by semaphorins, integrin signaling, cadherin signaling and EGF receptor signaling pathways. A significant number of the regulated proteins are cytoskeletal and related proteins that have been implicated in regulating neurite growth. Another highly represented protein category regulated by CSPGs is nucleic acid binding proteins involved in RNA post-transcriptional regulation. Together, by screening the overall phosphoproteome changes induced by CSPGs, this data expand our understanding of CSPG signaling, which provides new insights into development of strategies for overcoming CSPG inhibition and promoting axonal regeneration after CNS injury.

  14. APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moore

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons.

  15. Regulation of neuronal APL-1 expression by cholesterol starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Mary; Antebi, Adam; Zheng, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid plaques composed primarily of the amyloid-β peptide, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP). While mutations in APP lead to the development of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD), sporadic AD has only one clear genetic modifier: the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene. Cholesterol starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to molting and arrest phenotypes similar to loss-of-function mutants of the APP ortholog, apl-1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1), and lrp-1 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1), suggesting a potential interaction between apl-1 and cholesterol metabolism. Previously, we found that RNAi knock-down of apl-1 leads to aldicarb hypersensitivity, indicating a defect in synaptic function. Here we find the same defect is recapitulated during lrp-1 knock-down and by cholesterol starvation. A cholesterol-free diet or loss of lrp-1 directly affects APL-1 levels as both lead to loss of APL-1::GFP fluorescence in neurons. However, loss of cholesterol does not affect global transcription or protein levels as seen by qPCR and Western blot. Our results show that cholesterol and lrp-1 are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, similar to apl-1. Both are able to modulate APL-1 protein levels in neurons, however cholesterol changes do not affect global apl-1 transcription or APL-1 protein indicating the changes are specific to neurons. Thus, regulation of synaptic transmission and molting by LRP-1 and cholesterol may be mediated by their ability to control APL-1 neuronal protein expression.

  16. Regulation of neuronal APL-1 expression by cholesterol starvation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wiese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid plaques composed primarily of the amyloid-β peptide, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP. While mutations in APP lead to the development of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD, sporadic AD has only one clear genetic modifier: the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE gene. Cholesterol starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to molting and arrest phenotypes similar to loss-of-function mutants of the APP ortholog, apl-1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1, and lrp-1 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, suggesting a potential interaction between apl-1 and cholesterol metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously, we found that RNAi knock-down of apl-1 leads to aldicarb hypersensitivity, indicating a defect in synaptic function. Here we find the same defect is recapitulated during lrp-1 knock-down and by cholesterol starvation. A cholesterol-free diet or loss of lrp-1 directly affects APL-1 levels as both lead to loss of APL-1::GFP fluorescence in neurons. However, loss of cholesterol does not affect global transcription or protein levels as seen by qPCR and Western blot. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that cholesterol and lrp-1 are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, similar to apl-1. Both are able to modulate APL-1 protein levels in neurons, however cholesterol changes do not affect global apl-1 transcription or APL-1 protein indicating the changes are specific to neurons. Thus, regulation of synaptic transmission and molting by LRP-1 and cholesterol may be mediated by their ability to control APL-1 neuronal protein expression.

  17. The central clock neurons regulate lipid storage in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R DiAngelo

    Full Text Available A proper balance of lipid breakdown and synthesis is essential for achieving energy homeostasis as alterations in either of these processes can lead to pathological states such as obesity. The regulation of lipid metabolism is quite complex with multiple signals integrated to control overall triglyceride levels in metabolic tissues. Based upon studies demonstrating effects of the circadian clock on metabolism, we sought to determine if the central clock cells in the Drosophila brain contribute to lipid levels in the fat body, the main nutrient storage organ of the fly. Here, we show that altering the function of the Drosophila central clock neurons leads to an increase in fat body triglycerides. We also show that although triglyceride levels are not affected by age, they are increased by expression of the amyloid-beta protein in central clock neurons. The effect on lipid storage seems to be independent of circadian clock output as changes in triglycerides are not always observed in genetic manipulations that result in altered locomotor rhythms. These data demonstrate that the activity of the central clock neurons is necessary for proper lipid storage.

  18. Circadian factor BMAL1 in histaminergic neurons regulates sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zecharia, Anna; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Qianzi; Yustos, Raquel; Jager, Polona; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Chesham, Johanna E; Ma, Ying; Brickley, Stephen G; Hastings, Michael H; Franks, Nicholas P; Wisden, William

    2014-12-01

    Circadian clocks allow anticipation of daily environmental changes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) houses the master clock, but clocks are also widely expressed elsewhere in the body. Although some peripheral clocks have established roles, it is unclear what local brain clocks do. We tested the contribution of one putative local clock in mouse histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus to the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Histaminergic neurons are silent during sleep, and start firing after wake onset; the released histamine, made by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC), enhances wakefulness. We found that hdc gene expression varies with time of day. Selectively deleting the Bmal1 (also known as Arntl or Mop3) clock gene from histaminergic cells removes this variation, producing higher HDC expression and brain histamine levels during the day. The consequences include more fragmented sleep, prolonged wake at night, shallower sleep depth (lower nonrapid eye movement [NREM] δ power), increased NREM-to-REM transitions, hindered recovery sleep after sleep deprivation, and impaired memory. Removing BMAL1 from histaminergic neurons does not, however, affect circadian rhythms. We propose that for mammals with polyphasic/nonwake consolidating sleep, the local BMAL1-dependent clock directs appropriately timed declines and increases in histamine biosynthesis to produce an appropriate balance of wake and sleep within the overall daily cycle of rest and activity specified by the SCN. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental regulation of neuronal genes by DNA methylation: environmental influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melinda E; Sengoku, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    Steroid hormones have wide-ranging organizational, activational and protective actions in the brain. In particular, the organizational effects of early exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) and glucocorticoids are essential for long-lasting behavioral and cognitive functions. Both steroid hormones mediate many of their actions through intracellular receptors that act as transcription factors. In the rodent cerebral cortex, estrogen receptor mRNA and protein expression are high early in postnatal life and declines dramatically as the animal approaches puberty. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this developmental regulation of gene expression is critical for understanding the complex events that determine lasting brain physiology and prime the plasticity of neurons. Gene expression can be suppressed by the epigenetic modification of the promoter regions by DNA methylation that results in gene silencing. Indeed, the decrease in ERα mRNA expression in the cortex during development is accompanied by an increase in promoter methylation. Numerous environmental stimuli can alter the DNA methylation that occurs for ERα, glucocorticoid receptors, as well as many other critical genes involved in neuronal development. For example, maternal behavior toward pups can alter epigenetic regulation of ERα mRNA expression. Additionally perinatal stress and exposure to environmental estrogens can also have lasting effects on gene expression by modifying DNA methylation of these important genes. Taken together, there appears to be a critical window during development where, outside factors that alter epigenetic programming can have lasting effects on neuronal gene expression. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic Interplay between Astrocytes and Neurons Regulates Endocannabinoid Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreu Viader

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG is a retrograde lipid messenger that modulates synaptic function, neurophysiology, and behavior. 2-AG signaling is terminated by enzymatic hydrolysis—a reaction that is principally performed by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL. MAGL is broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, and the contributions of different brain cell types to the regulation of 2-AG activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we genetically dissect the cellular anatomy of MAGL-mediated 2-AG metabolism in the brain and show that neurons and astrocytes coordinately regulate 2-AG content and endocannabinoid-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity and behavior. We also find that astrocytic MAGL is mainly responsible for converting 2-AG to neuroinflammatory prostaglandins via a mechanism that may involve transcellular shuttling of lipid substrates. Astrocytic-neuronal interplay thus provides distributed oversight of 2-AG metabolism and function and, through doing so, protects the nervous system from excessive CB1 receptor activation and promotes endocannabinoid crosstalk with other lipid transmitter systems.

  1. Neurons Containing Orexin or Melanin Concentrating Hormone Reciprocally Regulate Wake and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda Rani eKonadhode

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable amount of data on arousal neurons whereas there is a paucity of knowledge regarding neurons that make us fall asleep. Indeed, current network models of sleep-wake regulation list many arousal neuronal populations compared to only one sleep group located in the preoptic area. There are neurons outside the preoptic area that are active during sleep, but they have never been selectively manipulated. Indeed, none of the sleep-active neurons have been selectively stimulated. To close this knowledge gap we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH. The MCH neurons are located in the posterior hypothalamus intermingled with the orexin arousal neurons. Our data indicated that optogenetic stimulation of MCH neurons in wildtype mice (J Neuroscience, 2013 robustly increased both non-REM and REM sleep. MCH neuron stimulation increased sleep during the animal’s normal active period, which is compelling evidence that stimulation of MCH neurons has a powerful effect in counteracting the strong arousal signal from all of the arousal neurons. The MCH neurons represent the only group of sleep-active neurons that when selectively stimulated induce sleep. From a translational perspective this is potentially useful in sleep disorders, such as insomnia, where sleep needs to be triggered against a strong arousal drive. Our studies indicate that the MCH neurons belong within an overall model of sleep-wake regulation.

  2. Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryony L Winters; Gabrielle C Gregoriou; Sarah A Kissiwaa; Oliver A Wells; Danashi I Medagoda; Sam M Hermes; Neil T Burford; Andrew Alt; Sue A Aicher; Elena E Bagley

    2017-01-01

    .... Postsynaptically, the opioids activate a potassium conductance through the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), suggesting for the first time that endogenously released opioids directly regulate neuronal excitability...

  3. LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Telese, Francesca; Ma, Qi; Perez, Patricia Montilla; Notani, Dimple; Oh, Soohwan; Li, Wenbo; Comoletti, Davide; Ohgi, Kenneth A; Taylor, Havilah; Rosenfeld, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we identify the epigenetic signature of the neuronal enhancers required for transcriptional regulation of synaptic plasticity genes during memory formation, linking this to Reelin signaling...

  4. Gut–neuron interaction via Hh signaling regulates intestinal progenitor cell differentiation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui; Pan, Chenyu; Liu, Chunying; Lv, Xiangdong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Yue; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Han, Junhai; Zhou, Zhaocai; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their progenies. A complex autonomic nervous system spreads over posterior intestine. However, whether and how neurons regulate posterior intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. Here we report that neurons regulate Drosophila posterior intestinal homeostasis. Specifically, downregulation of neuronal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling inhibits the differentiation of ISCs toward enterocytes (ECs), whereas upregulated neuronal Hh signaling promotes such process. We demonstrate that, among multiple sources of Hh ligand, those secreted by ECs induces similar phenotypes as does neuronal Hh. In addition, intestinal JAK/STAT signaling responds to activated neuronal Hh signaling, suggesting that JAK/STAT signaling acts downstream of neuronal Hh signaling in intestine. Collectively, our results indicate that neuronal Hh signaling is essential for the determination of ISC fate. PMID:27462407

  5. Gut-neuron interaction via Hh signaling regulates intestinal progenitor cell differentiation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui; Pan, Chenyu; Liu, Chunying; Lv, Xiangdong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Yue; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wenqing; Han, Junhai; Zhou, Zhaocai; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their progenies. A complex autonomic nervous system spreads over posterior intestine. However, whether and how neurons regulate posterior intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. Here we report that neurons regulate Drosophila posterior intestinal homeostasis. Specifically, downregulation of neuronal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling inhibits the differentiation of ISCs toward enterocytes (ECs), whereas upregulated neuronal Hh signaling promotes such process. We demonstrate that, among multiple sources of Hh ligand, those secreted by ECs induces similar phenotypes as does neuronal Hh. In addition, intestinal JAK/STAT signaling responds to activated neuronal Hh signaling, suggesting that JAK/STAT signaling acts downstream of neuronal Hh signaling in intestine. Collectively, our results indicate that neuronal Hh signaling is essential for the determination of ISC fate.

  6. Immature spinal cord neurons are dynamic regulators of adult nociceptive sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with unknown mechanism. Nociceptive sensitivity may be regulated by genetic factors, some of which have been separately linked to neuronal progenitor cells and neuronal differentiation. This suggests that genetic factors that interfere with neuronal differentiation may contribute to a chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity, by extending the immature, hyperexcitable stage of spinal cord neurons. Although adult rodent spinal cord neurogenesis was pr...

  7. Nerve Growth Factor Regulates Synaptophysin Expression In Developing Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tarsa, L.; Balkowiec, A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of neuronal growth factors in synaptic maturation of sensory neurons, including trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates the intracellular distribution of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin (Syp) in newborn rat TG neurons in vitro. While reducing the number of Syp-positive cell bodies, NGF dramatically increases Syp immunoreactivity in both proximal and distal segments of the neurite. Intriguingly, the...

  8. Developmental regulation of a local positive autocontrol of supraoptic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevaleyre, V; Dayanithi, G; Moos, F C; Desarmenien, M G

    2000-08-01

    Mature oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei (SON) autocontrol their electrical activity via somatodendritic release of their respective peptides. Because OT and AVP are synthesized early in development and could play an important role in the maturation of these neurons, we checked whether the peptides are released within the SON and act on their secreting neurons during 3 weeks of postnatal development. We used patch-clamp recordings from SON neurons in rat hypothalamic horizontal slices to show that the spontaneous electrical activity of immature SON neurons is blocked by OT or AVP receptor antagonists, demonstrating a basal somatodendritic release of the peptides. Application of OT or AVP depolarizes SON neurons and stimulates activity typical of the corresponding mature neurons. This effect is directly on SON neurons because it is recorded in dissociated neurons. Radioimmunoassays from isolated SON were used to show that each peptide facilitates its own release at a somatodendritic level, exhibiting a self-sustaining positive feedback loop. This autocontrol is not uniform during development because the proportion of neurons depolarized by the peptides, the amplitude of the depolarization, and the propensity of the peptides to facilitate their own release are maximal during the second postnatal week and decrease thereafter. These data are consistent with a role of autocontrol in the maturation of SON neurons because it is maximal during the delimited period of postnatal development that corresponds to the period of major synapse formation.

  9. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eWatanabe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction.

  10. Regulation of dopamine quantal size in midbrain and hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothos, Emmanuel N

    2002-03-10

    Since the pioneering work of Bernard Katz and his colleagues decades ago, neurotransmitter quantal size (defined as the number of neurotransmitter molecules released by a single synaptic vesicle during exocytosis) is often modeled as invariant. This assumption had tremendous implications for basic research on synaptic plasticity. For instance, it focused attention on the postsynaptic rather than the presynaptic component in studies of learning and memory (the field of long-term potentiation comes to mind as the best example). Furthermore, this assumption somehow 'spilled over' onto studies of monoamine neurotransmitters, which apparently use diffusion and slow action to exert their modulatory effects, in contrast to the fast acting neurotransmitters studied by Katz. Consequently, research on dopamine-related diseases (e.g. psychotic and movement disorders) did not pay as much attention to presynaptic mechanisms that regulate dopamine release, as to postsynaptic receptor action. Part of the problem, of course, has been the lack of technology to directly measure quanta from presynaptic sites and the obligatory reliance on measurements of miniature postsynaptic potentials (minis) for reaching conclusions about presynaptic quantal events. Due to the introduction of the carbon fiber amperometric microelectrode in tissue electrophysiology, initially by Francois Gonon (University of Bordeaux) and then by Mark Wightman (University of North Carolina), we were able to directly measure dopamine quanta from neurites of cultured midbrain dopamine neurons by amperometry. This was the first approach to provide direct measurement of the number of molecules and kinetics of presynaptic quantal release from CNS neuronal terminals. The interventions altering dopamine quantal size are so far the following. (1) Alteration of neurotransmitter synthesis--an increase of cytosolic dopamine availability (e.g. by exposure to L-DOPA) increases quantal size and a decrease of cytosolic dopamine

  11. Nitric oxide regulates neuronal activity via calcium-activated potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ray Zhong

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons.

  12. Overnight fasting regulates inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groessl, Florian; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Talmage, David A; Role, Lorna W; Jo, Young-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) contributes to the regulation of overall energy homeostasis by modulating energy intake as well as energy expenditure. Despite the importance of the DMH in the control of energy balance, DMH-specific genetic markers or neuronal subtypes are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate the presence of cholinergic neurons in the DMH using genetically modified mice that express enhanced green florescent protein (eGFP) selectively in choline acetyltransferase (Chat)-neurons. Overnight food deprivation increases the activity of DMH cholinergic neurons, as shown by induction of fos protein and a significant shift in the baseline resting membrane potential. DMH cholinergic neurons receive both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic input, but the activation of these neurons by an overnight fast is due entirely to decreased inhibitory tone. The decreased inhibition is associated with decreased frequency and amplitude of GABAergic synaptic currents in the cholinergic DMH neurons, while glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not altered. As neither the frequency nor amplitude of miniature GABAergic or glutamatergic postsynaptic currents is affected by overnight food deprivation, the fasting-induced decrease in inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons is dependent on superthreshold activity of GABAergic inputs. This study reveals that cholinergic neurons in the DMH readily sense the availability of nutrients and respond to overnight fasting via decreased GABAergic inhibitory tone. As such, altered synaptic as well as neuronal activity of DMH cholinergic neurons may play a critical role in the regulation of overall energy homeostasis.

  13. Overnight fasting regulates inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Groessl

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH contributes to the regulation of overall energy homeostasis by modulating energy intake as well as energy expenditure. Despite the importance of the DMH in the control of energy balance, DMH-specific genetic markers or neuronal subtypes are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate the presence of cholinergic neurons in the DMH using genetically modified mice that express enhanced green florescent protein (eGFP selectively in choline acetyltransferase (Chat-neurons. Overnight food deprivation increases the activity of DMH cholinergic neurons, as shown by induction of fos protein and a significant shift in the baseline resting membrane potential. DMH cholinergic neurons receive both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic input, but the activation of these neurons by an overnight fast is due entirely to decreased inhibitory tone. The decreased inhibition is associated with decreased frequency and amplitude of GABAergic synaptic currents in the cholinergic DMH neurons, while glutamatergic synaptic transmission is not altered. As neither the frequency nor amplitude of miniature GABAergic or glutamatergic postsynaptic currents is affected by overnight food deprivation, the fasting-induced decrease in inhibitory tone to cholinergic neurons is dependent on superthreshold activity of GABAergic inputs. This study reveals that cholinergic neurons in the DMH readily sense the availability of nutrients and respond to overnight fasting via decreased GABAergic inhibitory tone. As such, altered synaptic as well as neuronal activity of DMH cholinergic neurons may play a critical role in the regulation of overall energy homeostasis.

  14. Spatially and Temporally Regulated NRF2 Gene Therapy Using Mcp-1 Promoter in Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fujita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell degeneration triggered by axonal injury is believed to underlie many ocular diseases, including glaucoma and optic neuritis. In these diseases, retinal ganglion cells are affected unevenly, both spatially and temporally, such that healthy and unhealthy cells coexist in different patterns at different time points. Herein, we describe a temporally and spatially regulated adeno-associated virus gene therapy aiming to reduce undesired off-target effects on healthy retinal neurons. The Mcp-1 promoter previously shown to be activated in stressed retinal ganglion cells following murine optic nerve injury was combined with the neuroprotective intracellular transcription factor Nrf2. In this model, Mcp-1 promoter-driven NRF2 expression targeting only stressed retinal ganglion cells showed efficacy equivalent to non-selective cytomegalovirus promoter-driven therapy for preventing cell death. However, cytomegalovirus promoter-mediated NRF2 transcription induced cellular stress responses and death of Brn3A-positive uninjured retinal ganglion cells. Such undesired effects were reduced substantially by adopting the Mcp-1 promoter. Combining a stress-responsive promoter and intracellular therapeutic gene is a versatile approach for specifically targeting cells at risk of degeneration. This strategy may be applicable to numerous chronic ocular and non-ocular conditions.

  15. Neuronal LRP4 regulates synapse formation in the developing CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsani, Andromachi; Marichal, Nicolás; Urban, Severino; Kalamakis, Georgios; Ghanem, Alexander; Schick, Anna; Zhang, Yina; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Rüegg, Markus A; Berninger, Benedikt; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Gascón, Sergio; Kröger, Stephan

    2017-12-15

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) is essential in muscle fibers for the establishment of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we show that LRP4 is also expressed by embryonic cortical and hippocampal neurons, and that downregulation of LRP4 in these neurons causes a reduction in density of synapses and number of primary dendrites. Accordingly, overexpression of LRP4 in cultured neurons had the opposite effect inducing more but shorter primary dendrites with an increased number of spines. Transsynaptic tracing mediated by rabies virus revealed a reduced number of neurons presynaptic to the cortical neurons in which LRP4 was knocked down. Moreover, neuron-specific knockdown of LRP4 by in utero electroporation of LRP4 miRNA in vivo also resulted in neurons with fewer primary dendrites and a lower density of spines in the developing cortex and hippocampus. Collectively, our results demonstrate an essential and novel role of neuronal LRP4 in dendritic development and synaptogenesis in the CNS. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gehman, Lauren T; Stoilov, Peter; Maguire, Jamie; Damianov, Andrey; Lin, Chia-Ho; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Mody, Istvan; Black, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts but their role in neuronal physiology is not clear 1 . We show here that central nervous system (CNS)-specific deletion of the Rbfox1 gene results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording reveals a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole transcriptome analyses ...

  17. Liprin-alpha Proteins Regulate Neuronal Development and Synapse Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Spangler (Samantha)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSynapses are specialized communication junctions between neurons whose plasticity provides the structural and functional basis for information processing and storage in the brain. Recent biochemical, genetic and imaging studies in diverse model systems are beginning to reveal the

  18. Rac1 regulates neuronal polarization through the WAVE complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahirovic, Sabina; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we have generated a conditional knock-out mouse, in which Rac1 is ablated in the whole brain. Rac1-deficient cerebellar granule neurons, which do not express other Rac isoforms, showed impaired neuronal migration and axon formation both in vivo...... and in vitro. In addition, Rac1 ablation disrupts lamellipodia formation in growth cones. The analysis of Rac1 effectors revealed the absence of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE) complex from the plasma membrane of knock-out growth cones. Loss of WAVE...... function inhibited axon growth, whereas overexpression of a membrane-tethered WAVE mutant partially rescued axon growth in Rac1-knock-out neurons. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of the WAVE complex effector Arp2/3 also reduced axon growth. We propose that Rac1 recruits the WAVE complex...

  19. Ezrin mediates neuritogenesis via down-regulation of RhoA activity in cultured cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphogenesis is implicated in neuronal function and development with rearrangement of cytoskeletal organization. Ezrin, a member of Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM proteins links between membrane proteins and actin cytoskeleton, and contributes to maintenance of cellular function and morphology. In cultured hippocampal neurons, suppression of both radixin and moesin showed deficits in growth cone morphology and neurite extensions. Down-regulation of ezrin using siRNA caused impairment of netrin-1-induced axon outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons. However, roles of ezrin in the neuronal morphogenesis of the cultured neurons have been poorly understood. In this report, we performed detailed studies on the roles of ezrin in the cultured cortical neurons prepared from the ezrin knockdown (Vil2(kd/kd mice embryo that showed a very small amount of ezrin expression compared with the wild-type (Vil2(+/+ neurons. Ezrin was mainly expressed in cell body in the cultured cortical neurons. We demonstrated that the cultured cortical neurons prepared from the Vil2(kd/kd mice embryo exhibited impairment of neuritogenesis. Moreover, we observed increased RhoA activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2, as a downstream effector of RhoA in the Vil2(kd/kd neurons. In addition, inhibition of Rho kinase and myosin II rescued the impairment of neuritogenesis in the Vil2(kd/kd neurons. These data altogether suggest a novel role of ezrin in the neuritogenesis of the cultured cortical neurons through down-regulation of RhoA activity.

  20. Activity-dependent Regulation of h Channel Distribution in Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minyoung Shin; Dane M. Chetkovich

    2007-01-01

    ...) channel subunits, HCN1 and HCN2. Pyramidal neuron h channels within hippocampal area CA1 are remarkably enriched in distal apical dendrites, and this unique distribution pattern is critical for regulating dendritic excitability...

  1. Epigenetic regulation of motor neuron cell death through DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Barry A; Chang, Qing; Price, Ann; Lesuisse, Catherine; Wong, Margaret; Martin, Lee J

    2011-11-16

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that Dnmts can mediate neuronal cell death. Enforced expression of Dnmt3a induced degeneration of cultured NSC34 cells. During apoptosis of NSC34 cells induced by camptothecin, levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a increased fivefold and twofold, respectively, and 5-methylcytosine accumulated in nuclei. Truncation mutation of the Dnmt3a catalytic domain and Dnmt3a RNAi blocked apoptosis of cultured neurons. Inhibition of Dnmt catalytic activity with RG108 and procainamide protected cultured neurons from excessive DNA methylation and apoptosis. In vivo, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed differentially during mouse brain and spinal cord maturation and in adulthood when Dnmt3a is abundant in synapses and mitochondria. Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a are expressed in motor neurons of adult mouse spinal cord, and, during their apoptosis induced by sciatic nerve avulsion, nuclear and cytoplasmic 5-methylcytosine immunoreactivity, Dnmt3a protein levels and Dnmt enzyme activity increased preapoptotically. Inhibition of Dnmts with RG108 blocked completely the increase in 5-methycytosine and the apoptosis of motor neurons in mice. In human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons showed changes in Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, and 5-methylcytosine similar to experimental models. Thus, motor neurons can engage epigenetic mechanisms to drive apoptosis, involving Dnmt upregulation and increased DNA methylation. These cellular mechanisms could be relevant to human ALS pathobiology and disease treatment.

  2. Nutritive, Post-ingestive Signals Are the Primary Regulators of AgRP Neuron Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Su

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The brain regulates food intake by processing sensory cues and peripheral physiological signals, but the neural basis of this integration remains unclear. Hypothalamic, agouti-related protein (AgRP-expressing neurons are critical regulators of food intake. AgRP neuron activity is high during hunger and is rapidly reduced by the sight and smell of food. Here, we reveal two distinct components of AgRP neuron activity regulation: a rapid but transient sensory-driven signal and a slower, sustained calorie-dependent signal. We discovered that nutrients are necessary and sufficient for sustained reductions in AgRP neuron activity and that activity reductions are proportional to the calories obtained. This change in activity is recapitulated by exogenous administration of gut-derived satiation signals. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritive value of food trains sensory systems—in a single trial—to drive rapid, anticipatory AgRP neuron activity inhibition. Together, these data demonstrate that nutrients are the primary regulators of AgRP neuron activity. : Su et al. demonstrate that nutrient content in the GI tract is rapidly signaled to hypothalamic neurons activated by hunger. This rapid effect is mediated by three satiation signals that synergistically reduce the activity of AgRP neurons. These findings uncover how hunger circuits in the brain are regulated and raise the possibility that hunger can be pharmacologically controlled. Keywords: calcium imaging, AgRP neurons, calories, satiation signals, sensory regulation, single trial learning, cholecystokinin, CCK, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, PYY, amylin, homeostasis

  3. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-07-01

    Discrete clusters of circadian clock neurons temporally organize daily behaviors such as sleep and wake. In Drosophila, a network of just 150 neurons drives two peaks of timed activity in the morning and evening. A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions. Yet, how PDF acts on downstream circuits to mediate rhythmic behavior is unknown. Using circuit-directed rescue of PDF receptor mutants, we show that PDF targeting of just approximately 30 non-PDF evening circadian neurons is sufficient to drive morning behavior. This function is not accompanied by large changes in core molecular oscillators in light-dark, indicating that PDF RECEPTOR likely regulates the output of these cells under these conditions. We find that PDF also acts on this focused set of non-PDF neurons to regulate both evening activity phase and period length, consistent with modest resetting effects on core oscillators. PDF likely acts on more distributed pacemaker neuron targets, including the PDF neurons themselves, to regulate rhythmic strength. Here we reveal defining features of the circuit-diagram for PDF peptide function in circadian behavior, revealing the direct neuronal targets of PDF as well as its behavioral functions at those sites. These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors.

  4. Nuclear receptor unfulfilled regulates axonal guidance and cell identity of Drosophila mushroom body neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suewei Lin

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs comprise a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors that control diverse critical biological processes including various aspects of brain development. Eighteen NR genes exist in the Drosophila genome. To explore their roles in brain development, we knocked down individual NRs through the development of the mushroom bodies (MBs by targeted RNAi. Besides recapitulating the known MB phenotypes for three NRs, we found that unfulfilled (unf, an ortholog of human photoreceptor specific nuclear receptor (PNR, regulates axonal morphogenesis and neuronal subtype identity. The adult MBs develop through remodeling of gamma neurons plus de-novo elaboration of both alpha'/beta' and alpha/beta neurons. Notably, unf is largely dispensable for the initial elaboration of gamma neurons, but plays an essential role in their re-extension of axons after pruning during early metamorphosis. The subsequently derived MB neuron types also require unf for extension of axons beyond the terminus of the pruned bundle. Tracing single axons revealed misrouting rather than simple truncation. Further, silencing unf in single-cell clones elicited misguidance of axons in otherwise unperturbed MBs. Such axon guidance defects may occur as MB neurons partially lose their subtype identity, as evidenced by suppression of various MB subtype markers in unf knockdown MBs. In sum, unf governs axonal morphogenesis of multiple MB neuron types, possibly through regulating neuronal subtype identity.

  5. Transcriptional co-regulation of neuronal migration and laminar identity in the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kenneth Y; Sestan, Nenad; Anton, E S

    2012-05-01

    The cerebral neocortex is segregated into six horizontal layers, each containing unique populations of molecularly and functionally distinct excitatory projection (pyramidal) neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Development of the neocortex requires the orchestrated execution of a series of crucial processes, including the migration of young neurons into appropriate positions within the nascent neocortex, and the acquisition of layer-specific neuronal identities and axonal projections. Here, we discuss emerging evidence supporting the notion that the migration and final laminar positioning of cortical neurons are also co-regulated by cell type- and layer-specific transcription factors that play concomitant roles in determining the molecular identity and axonal connectivity of these neurons. These transcriptional programs thus provide direct links between the mechanisms controlling the laminar position and identity of cortical neurons.

  6. Immature spinal cord neurons are dynamic regulators of adult nociceptive sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2015-10-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with unknown mechanism. Nociceptive sensitivity may be regulated by genetic factors, some of which have been separately linked to neuronal progenitor cells and neuronal differentiation. This suggests that genetic factors that interfere with neuronal differentiation may contribute to a chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity, by extending the immature, hyperexcitable stage of spinal cord neurons. Although adult rodent spinal cord neurogenesis was previously demonstrated, the fate of these progenitor cells is unknown. Here, we show that peripheral nerve injury in adult rats induces extensive spinal cord neurogenesis and a long-term increase in the number of spinal cord laminae I-II neurons ipsilateral to injury. The production and maturation of these new neurons correlates with the time course and modulation of nociceptive behaviour, and transiently mimics the cellular and behavioural conditions present in genetically modified animal models of chronic pain. This suggests that the number of immature neurons present at any time in the spinal cord dorsal horns contributes to the regulation of nociceptive sensitivity. The continuous turnover of these neurons, which can fluctuate between normal and injured states, is a dynamic regulator of nociceptive sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis, we find that promoters of neuronal differentiation inhibit, while promoters of neurogenesis increase long-term nociception. TrkB agonists, well-known promoters of nociception in the short-term, significantly inhibit long-term nociception by promoting the differentiation of newly produced immature neurons. These findings suggest that promoters of neuronal differentiation may be used to alleviate chronic pain. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Immature spinal cord neurons are dynamic regulators of adult nociceptive sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanescu, Gabriel; Mao, Jianren

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition with unknown mechanism. Nociceptive sensitivity may be regulated by genetic factors, some of which have been separately linked to neuronal progenitor cells and neuronal differentiation. This suggests that genetic factors that interfere with neuronal differentiation may contribute to a chronic increase in nociceptive sensitivity, by extending the immature, hyperexcitable stage of spinal cord neurons. Although adult rodent spinal cord neurogenesis was previously demonstrated, the fate of these progenitor cells is unknown. Here, we show that peripheral nerve injury in adult rats induces extensive spinal cord neurogenesis and a long-term increase in the number of spinal cord laminae I–II neurons ipsilateral to injury. The production and maturation of these new neurons correlates with the time course and modulation of nociceptive behaviour, and transiently mimics the cellular and behavioural conditions present in genetically modified animal models of chronic pain. This suggests that the number of immature neurons present at any time in the spinal cord dorsal horns contributes to the regulation of nociceptive sensitivity. The continuous turnover of these neurons, which can fluctuate between normal and injured states, is a dynamic regulator of nociceptive sensitivity. In support of this hypothesis, we find that promoters of neuronal differentiation inhibit, while promoters of neurogenesis increase long-term nociception. TrkB agonists, well-known promoters of nociception in the short-term, significantly inhibit long-term nociception by promoting the differentiation of newly produced immature neurons. These findings suggest that promoters of neuronal differentiation may be used to alleviate chronic pain. PMID:26223362

  8. C. elegans ZAG-1, a Zn-finger-homeodomain protein, regulates axonal development and neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Scott G; Chiu, Catherine

    2003-08-01

    Neurons acquire distinct cell identities and implement differential gene programs to generate their appropriate neuronal attributes. On the basis of position, axonal structure and synaptic connectivity, the 302 neurons of the nematode Ceanorhabditis elegans are divided into 118 classes. The development and differentiation of many neurons require the gene zag-1, which encodes a deltaEF1/ZFH-1 Zn-finger-homeodomain protein. zag-1 mutations cause misexpression of neuron-specific genes, block formation of stereotypic axon branches, perturb neuronal migrations, and induce various axon-guidance, fasciculation and branching errors. A zag-1-GFP translational reporter is expressed transiently in most or all neurons during embryogenesis and in select neurons during the first larval stage. Analysis of the zag-1 promoter reveals that zag-1 is expressed in neurons and specific muscles, and that ZAG-1 directly represses its own expression. zag-1 activity also downregulates expression of genes involved in either the synthesis or reuptake of serotonin, dopamine and GABA. We propose that ZAG-1 acts as a transcriptional repressor to regulate multiple, discrete, neuron-specific aspects of terminal differentiation, including cell migration, axonal development and gene expression.

  9. Rab23 Regulates Radial Migration of Projection Neurons via N-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Catherine H H; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2018-02-06

    Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration. (Shikanai M, Nakajima K, Kawauchi T. 2011. N-cadherin regulates radial glial fiber-dependent migration of cortical locomoting neurons. Commun Integr Biol. 4:326-330.) Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) also decreases the expression of N-cadherin, implicating an upstream effect of ERK1/2 on N-cadherin and also suggesting a link between Rab23 and ERK1/2. Further biochemical studies show that silencing of Rab23 impedes activation of ERK1/2 via perturbed platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGFRα) signaling. Restoration of the expression of Rab23 or N-cadherin in Rab23-KD neurons could reverse neuron migration defects, indicating that Rab23 modulates migration through N-cadherin. These studies suggest that cortical neuron migration is mediated by a molecular hierarchy downstream of Rab23 via N-cadherin. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms.

  11. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lv

    Full Text Available MHC class I (MHC-I molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade.

  12. Regulation of Intracellular Free Calcium in Neuronal Cells by Opioids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-19

    neurons was measured using a graticule eye-piece (no obvious cell shrinkage was observed after fixation) . The expression of SP-LI ( shaded bar) was...Jiang Q ., Takemori A. E., Sultana M., Portoghese P. S., Bowen W. D., Mosberg H. I., and Porreca F. Differential antagonism of opioid delta

  13. Cdc42 regulates cofilin during the establishment of neuronal polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvalov, Boyan K; Flynn, Kevin C; Neukirchen, Dorothee

    2007-01-01

    suppressed ability to form axons both in vivo and in culture. This was accompanied by disrupted cytoskeletal organization, enlargement of the growth cones, and inhibition of filopodial dynamics. Axon formation in the knock-out neurons was rescued by manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton, indicating...

  14. Lipopolysaccharides and trophic factors regulate the LPS receptor complex in nodose and trigeminal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, P E; Cavicchia, J C; Acosta, C G

    2014-11-07

    Binding of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) triggers an innate immunoresponse associated with pain and inflammation. The expression, and to a greater extent the regulation of TLR4 and its auxiliary proteins (myeloid differentiation protein 1 (MD1), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14)), are both poorly understood in trigeminal and nodose neurons. We used a combination of Western blotting, semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), pharmacological manipulation and immunohistochemistry. The expression pattern and regulation by LPS and trophic factors of TLR4/MD2/CD14 and radioprotective protein of 105kDa (RP105)/MD1 were determined in neonatal trigeminal and nodose mice neurons. We found that all these proteins were expressed in both trigeminal and nodose neurons. The trophic factors Artemin and nerve growth factor (NGF) up-regulated MD2 and RP105 mRNA levels in trigeminal neurons. In nodose neurons the trophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) up-regulated MD1 and RP105 mRNA levels. Also we observed that in both neuronal types LPS acutely (within 20 min) down-regulated CD14 and MD2 mRNAs. In addition, LPS increased significantly the proportion of trigeminal and nodose neurons expressing nociceptin/orphanin FQ in culture probably acting via TLR4/MD2. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the regulation by trophic factors and LPS require further elucidation, the findings of this study indicate that LPS acts through its archetypical receptor in trigeminal and nodose neurons. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuronal SIRT1 (Silent Information Regulator 2 Homologue 1) Regulates Glycolysis and Mediates Resveratrol-Induced Ischemic Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronowski, Kevin B; Khoury, Nathalie; Saul, Isabel; Loris, Zachary B; Cohan, Charles H; Stradecki-Cohan, Holly M; Dave, Kunjan R; Young, Juan I; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2017-11-01

    Resveratrol, at least in part via SIRT1 (silent information regulator 2 homologue 1) activation, protects against cerebral ischemia when administered 2 days before injury. However, it remains unclear if SIRT1 activation must occur, and in which brain cell types, for the induction of neuroprotection. We hypothesized that neuronal SIRT1 is essential for resveratrol-induced ischemic tolerance and sought to characterize the metabolic pathways regulated by neuronal Sirt1 at the cellular level in the brain. We assessed infarct size and functional outcome after transient 60 minute middle cerebral artery occlusion in control and inducible, neuronal-specific SIRT1 knockout mice. Nontargeted primary metabolomics analysis identified putative SIRT1-regulated pathways in brain. Glycolytic function was evaluated in acute brain slices from adult mice and primary neuronal-enriched cultures under ischemic penumbra-like conditions. Resveratrol-induced neuroprotection from stroke was lost in neuronal Sirt1 knockout mice. Metabolomics analysis revealed alterations in glucose metabolism on deletion of neuronal Sirt1, accompanied by transcriptional changes in glucose metabolism machinery. Furthermore, glycolytic ATP production was impaired in acute brain slices from neuronal Sirt1 knockout mice. Conversely, resveratrol increased glycolytic rate in a SIRT1-dependent manner and under ischemic penumbra-like conditions in vitro. Our data demonstrate that resveratrol requires neuronal SIRT1 to elicit ischemic tolerance and identify a novel role for SIRT1 in the regulation of glycolytic function in brain. Identification of robust neuroprotective mechanisms that underlie ischemia tolerance and the metabolic adaptations mediated by SIRT1 in brain are crucial for the translation of therapies in cerebral ischemia and other neurological disorders. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Postembryonic neuronal addition in Zebrafish dorsal root ganglia is regulated by Notch signaling

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    McGraw Hillary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sensory neurons and glia of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG arise from neural crest cells in the developing vertebrate embryo. In mouse and chick, DRG formation is completed during embryogenesis. In contrast, zebrafish continue to add neurons and glia to the DRG into adulthood, long after neural crest migration is complete. The molecular and cellular regulation of late DRG growth in the zebrafish remains to be characterized. Results In the present study, we use transgenic zebrafish lines to examine neuronal addition during postembryonic DRG growth. Neuronal addition is continuous over the period of larval development. Fate-mapping experiments support the hypothesis that new neurons are added from a population of resident, neural crest-derived progenitor cells. Conditional inhibition of Notch signaling was used to assess the role of this signaling pathway in neuronal addition. An increase in the number of DRG neurons is seen when Notch signaling is inhibited during both early and late larval development. Conclusions Postembryonic growth of the zebrafish DRG comes about, in part, by addition of new neurons from a resident progenitor population, a process regulated by Notch signaling.

  17. Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eCansell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus contains at least two crucial populations of neurons that continuously monitor signals reflecting energy status and promote the appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in energy demand. Neurons making pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure through activation of G protein-coupled receptors melanocortin receptors (MCR via the release of a-melanocyte stimulating hormone. A prevailing idea until recently was that the neighboring neurons expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides, agouti-related protein (AgRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY (AgRP neurons increased feeding by opposing the anorexigenic actions of the POMC neurons. AgRP neurons activation but not POMC neurons inhibition was recently demonstrated to be necessary and sufficient to promote feeding. AgRP expressing axons were identified in mesolimbic, midbrain and pontine structure where they regulate feeding but also feeding-independent functions such as reward or peripheral nutrient partitioning. Post-synaptic Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA, lasting in a timeline similar to neuromodulation, was identified as the core mechanism by which hunger-activated neurons regulate feeding and non-food related processes in a melanocortin independent manner.

  18. Regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neurone excitability by oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, B B; Nair, B B; Iremonger, K J

    2017-11-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide that exerts multiple actions throughout the brain and periphery. Within the brain, OT regulates diverse neural populations, including neural networks controlling responses to stress. Local release of OT within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has been suggested to regulate stress responses by modulating the excitability of neighbouring corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurones. However, the mechanisms by which OT regulates CRH neurone excitability are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the morphological relationship between OT and CRH neurones and determined the effects of OT on CRH neurone excitability. Morphological analysis revealed that the processes of OT and CRH neurones were highly intermingled within the PVN, possibly allowing for local cell-to-cell cross-talk. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from CRH neurones were used to study the impact of OT on postsynaptic excitability and synaptic innervation. Bath-applied OT did not alter CRH neurone holding current, spiking output or any action potential parameters. Recordings of evoked excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs/IPSCs) revealed no net effect of OT on current amplitude; however, subgroups of CRH neurones appeared to respond differentially to OT. Analysis of spontaneous EPSC events uncovered a significant reduction in spontaneous EPSC frequency but no change in spontaneous EPSC amplitude in response to OT. Together, these data demonstrate that OT exerts a subtle modulation of synaptic transmission onto CRH neurones providing one potential mechanism by which OT could suppress CRH neurone excitability and stress axis activity. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  19. Hypothalamic STAT proteins: regulation of somatostatin neurones by growth hormone via STAT5b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, E; McGuinness, L; Gevers, E F; Thomas, G B; Robinson, I C A F; Davey, H W; Luckman, S M

    2005-03-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors linked to class I cytokine receptors. In the present study, we investigated whether their distribution in the hypothalamus reflects the feedback regulation by growth hormone and what role they might play in the functioning of target neurones. We demonstrate that each of the seven known STATs has a distinct distribution in the hypothalamus. Notably, the STAT5 proteins, that are important in growth hormone (GH) and prolactin signalling in peripheral tissues, were expressed in somatostatin neurones of the periventricular nucleus and dopamine neurones of the arcuate nucleus. Because somatostatin neurones are regulated by feedback from circulating GH, we investigated the importance of STAT5 in these neurones. We demonstrate that STAT5b protein expression, similar to somatostatin mRNA, is sexually dimorphic in the periventricular nucleus of rats and mice. Furthermore, chronic infusion of male dwarf rats with GH increased the expression of STAT5b, while a single injection of GH into similar rats induced the phosphorylation of STAT5 proteins. The cellular abundance of somatostatin mRNA in STAT5b-deficient mice was significantly reduced in the periventricular nucleus, effectively reducing the sexually dimorphic expression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that STAT5 proteins are involved in the feedback regulation of somatostatin neurones by GH, and that these neurones may respond to patterned GH secretion to reinforce sexual dimorphism in the GH axis.

  20. A role of melanin-concentrating hormone producing neurons in the central regulation of paradoxical sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salin Paul

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidergic neurons containing the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH and the hypocretins (or orexins are intermingled in the zona incerta, perifornical nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area. Both types of neurons have been implicated in the integrated regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. Hypocretin neurons have also been involved in sleep-wake regulation and narcolepsy. We therefore sought to determine whether hypocretin and MCH neurons express Fos in association with enhanced paradoxical sleep (PS or REM sleep during the rebound following PS deprivation. Next, we compared the effect of MCH and NaCl intracerebroventricular (ICV administrations on sleep stage quantities to further determine whether MCH neurons play an active role in PS regulation. Results Here we show that the MCH but not the hypocretin neurons are strongly active during PS, evidenced through combined hypocretin, MCH, and Fos immunostainings in three groups of rats (PS Control, PS Deprived and PS Recovery rats. Further, we show that ICV administration of MCH induces a dose-dependant increase in PS (up to 200% and slow wave sleep (up to 70% quantities. Conclusion These results indicate that MCH is a powerful hypnogenic factor. MCH neurons might play a key role in the state of PS via their widespread projections in the central nervous system.

  1. A role of melanin-concentrating hormone producing neurons in the central regulation of paradoxical sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verret, Laure; Goutagny, Romain; Fort, Patrice; Cagnon, Laurène; Salvert, Denise; Léger, Lucienne; Boissard, Romuald; Salin, Paul; Peyron, Christelle; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2003-09-09

    Peptidergic neurons containing the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and the hypocretins (or orexins) are intermingled in the zona incerta, perifornical nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area. Both types of neurons have been implicated in the integrated regulation of energy homeostasis and body weight. Hypocretin neurons have also been involved in sleep-wake regulation and narcolepsy. We therefore sought to determine whether hypocretin and MCH neurons express Fos in association with enhanced paradoxical sleep (PS or REM sleep) during the rebound following PS deprivation. Next, we compared the effect of MCH and NaCl intracerebroventricular (ICV) administrations on sleep stage quantities to further determine whether MCH neurons play an active role in PS regulation. Here we show that the MCH but not the hypocretin neurons are strongly active during PS, evidenced through combined hypocretin, MCH, and Fos immunostainings in three groups of rats (PS Control, PS Deprived and PS Recovery rats). Further, we show that ICV administration of MCH induces a dose-dependent increase in PS (up to 200%) and slow wave sleep (up to 70%) quantities. These results indicate that MCH is a powerful hypnogenic factor. MCH neurons might play a key role in the state of PS via their widespread projections in the central nervous system.

  2. Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansell, Céline; Denis, Raphaël G P; Joly-Amado, Aurélie; Castel, Julien; Luquet, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus contains at least two populations of neurons that continuously monitor signals reflecting energy status and promote the appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in energy demand. Activation of neurons making pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure through activation of G protein-coupled melanocortin receptors via the release of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Until recently, the prevailing idea was that the neighboring neurons [agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons] co-expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides, AgRP, and neuropeptide Y increase feeding by opposing the anorexigenic actions of the POMC neurons. However, it has now been demonstrated that only AgRP neurons activation - not POMC neurons inhibition - is necessary and sufficient to promote feeding. Projections of AgRP-expressing axons innervate mesolimbic, midbrain, and pontine structures where they regulate feeding and feeding-independent functions such as reward or peripheral nutrient partitioning. AgRP neurons also make gamma aminobutyric acid , which is now thought to mediate many of critical functions of these neurons in a melanocortin-independent manner and on a timescale compatible with neuromodulation.

  3. The MEK-ERK pathway negatively regulates bim expression through the 3' UTR in sympathetic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Mark

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis plays a critical role during neuronal development and disease. Developing sympathetic neurons depend on nerve growth factor (NGF for survival during the late embryonic and early postnatal period and die by apoptosis in its absence. The proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim increases in level after NGF withdrawal and is required for NGF withdrawal-induced death. The regulation of Bim expression in neurons is complex and this study describes a new mechanism by which an NGF-activated signalling pathway regulates bim gene expression in sympathetic neurons. Results We report that U0126, an inhibitor of the prosurvival MEK-ERK pathway, increases bim mRNA levels in sympathetic neurons in the presence of NGF. We find that this effect is independent of PI3-K-Akt and JNK-c-Jun signalling and is not mediated by the promoter, first exon or first intron of the bim gene. By performing 3' RACE and microinjection experiments with a new bim-LUC+3'UTR reporter construct, we show that U0126 increases bim expression via the bim 3' UTR. We demonstrate that this effect does not involve a change in bim mRNA stability and by using PD184352, a specific MEK1/2-ERK1/2 inhibitor, we show that this mechanism involves the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway. Finally, we demonstrate that inhibition of MEK/ERK signalling independently reduces cell survival in NGF-treated sympathetic neurons. Conclusions These results suggest that in sympathetic neurons, MEK-ERK signalling negatively regulates bim expression via the 3' UTR and that this regulation is likely to be at the level of transcription. This data provides further insight into the different mechanisms by which survival signalling pathways regulate bim expression in neurons.

  4. Serotonin: a regulator of neuronal morphology and circuitry

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    Daubert, Elizabeth A.; Condron, Barry G.

    2010-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neuromodulator associated with a wide range of physiological effects in the central nervous system. The exact mechanisms for how serotonin influences brain development are not well understood, although studies in invertebrate and vertebrate model organisms are beginning to unravel a regulatory role for serotonin in neuronal morphology and circuit formation. Recent data suggests a developmental window during which altered serotonin levels permanently impact circuitry, however, the temporal constraints and molecular mechanisms responsible are still under investigation. Growing evidence suggests that alterations in early serotonin signaling contribute to a number of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, understanding how altered serotonin signaling affects neuronal morphology and plasticity, and ultimately animal physiology and pathophysiology, will be of great significance. PMID:20561690

  5. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Julie A.; Ashique, Amir M.; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Patterson, Katelin P.; Hecht, Jonathan H.; Kane, Maureen A.; Folias, Alexandra E.; Choe, Youngshik; May, Scott R.; Kume, Tsutomu; Napoli, Joseph L.; Peterson, Andrew S.; Pleasure, Samuel J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Extrinsic signals controlling generation of neocortical neurons during embryonic life have been difficult to identify. In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development. We took advantage of Foxc1 mutant mice with defects in forebrain meningeal formation. Foxc1 dosage and loss of meninges correlated with a dramatic reduction in both neuron and intermediate progenitor production and elongation of the neuroepithelium. Several types of experiments demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is the key component of this secreted activity. In addition, Rdh10 and Raldh2 expressing cells in the dorsal meninges were either reduced or absent in the Foxc1 mutants and Rdh10 mutants had a cortical phenotype similar to the Foxc1-null mutants. Lastly, in utero RA treatment rescued the cortical phenotype in Foxc1 mutants. These results establish RA as a potent, meningeal-derived cue required for successful corticogenesis. PMID:19879845

  6. Fluctuations in Cytosolic Calcium Regulate the Neuronal Malate-Aspartate NADH Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satrústegui, Jorgina; Bak, Lasse K

    2015-01-01

    that MAS is regulated by fluctuations in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and that this regulation is required to maintain a tight coupling between neuronal activity and mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. At cytosolic Ca(2+) fluctuations below the threshold of the mitochondrial calcium...

  7. Diverse modes of synaptic signaling, regulation, and plasticity distinguish two classes ofC. elegansglutamatergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Donovan; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2017-11-21

    Synaptic vesicle release properties vary between neuronal cell types, but in most cases the molecular basis of this heterogeneity is unknown. Here, we compare in vivo synaptic properties of two neuronal classes in the C. elegans central nervous system, using VGLUT-pHluorin to monitor synaptic vesicle exocytosis and retrieval in intact animals. We show that the glutamatergic sensory neurons AWC ON and ASH have distinct synaptic dynamics associated with tonic and phasic synaptic properties, respectively. Exocytosis in ASH and AWC ON is differentially affected by SNARE-complex regulators that are present in both neurons: phasic ASH release is strongly dependent on UNC-13, whereas tonic AWC ON release relies upon UNC-18 and on the protein kinase C homolog PKC-1. Strong stimuli that elicit high calcium levels increase exocytosis and retrieval rates in AWC ON , generating distinct tonic and evoked synaptic modes. These results highlight the differential deployment of shared presynaptic proteins in neuronal cell type-specific functions.

  8. The splicing regulator Rbfox1 (A2BP1) controls neuronal excitation in the mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehman, Lauren T; Stoilov, Peter; Maguire, Jamie; Damianov, Andrey; Lin, Chia-Ho; Shiue, Lily; Ares, Manuel; Mody, Istvan; Black, Douglas L

    2011-05-29

    The Rbfox family of RNA binding proteins regulates alternative splicing of many important neuronal transcripts, but its role in neuronal physiology is not clear. We show here that central nervous system-specific deletion of the gene encoding Rbfox1 results in heightened susceptibility to spontaneous and kainic acid-induced seizures. Electrophysiological recording revealed a corresponding increase in neuronal excitability in the dentate gyrus of the knockout mice. Whole-transcriptome analyses identified multiple splicing changes in the Rbfox1(-/-) brain with few changes in overall transcript abundance. These splicing changes alter proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and membrane excitation. Thus, Rbfox1 directs a genetic program required in the prevention of neuronal hyperexcitation and seizures. The Rbfox1 knockout mice provide a new model to study the post-transcriptional regulation of synaptic function.

  9. Serotonergic neuron regulation informed by in vivo single-cell transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaethling, Jennifer M.; Piel, David; Dueck, Hannah; Buckley, Peter T.; Morris, Jacqueline F.; Fisher, Stephen A.; Lee, JaeHee; Sul, Jai-Yoon; Kim, Junhyong; Bartfai, Tamas; Beck, Sheryl G.; Eberwine, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of the dorsal raphe (DR) serotonergic (5-HT) nuclei in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety, the molecular components/putative drug targets expressed by these neurons are poorly characterized. Utilizing the promoter of an ETS domain transcription factor that is a stable marker of 5-HT neurons (Pet-1) to drive 5-HT neuronal expression of YFP, we identified 5-HT neurons in live acute slices. We isolated RNA from single 5-HT neurons in the ventromedial and lateral wings of the DR and performed single-cell RNA-Seq analysis identifying >500 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) including receptors for classical transmitters, lipid signals, and peptides as well as dozens of orphan-GPCRs. Using these data to inform our selection of receptors to assess, we found that oxytocin and lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptors are translated and active in costimulating, with the α1-adrenergic receptor, the firing of DR 5-HT neurons, while the effects of histamine are inhibitory and exerted at H3 histamine receptors. The inhibitory histamine response provides evidence for tonic in vivo histamine inhibition of 5-HT neurons. This study illustrates that unbiased single-cell transcriptomics coupled with functional analyses provides novel insights into how neurons and neuronal systems are regulated.—Spaethling, J. M., Piel, D., Dueck, H., Buckley, P. T., Morris, J. F., Fisher, S. A., Lee, J., Sul, J.-Y., Kim, J., Bartfai, T., Beck, S. G., Eberwine, J. H. Serotonergic neuron regulation informed by in vivo single-cell transcriptomics. PMID:24192459

  10. DEPTOR in POMC neurons affects liver metabolism but is dispensable for the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Labbé, Sébastien M; Mouchiroud, Mathilde; Huard, Renaud; Lanfray, Damien; Richard, Denis; Laplante, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated that specific overexpression of DEP-domain containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) protects mice against high-fat diet-induced obesity, revealing DEPTOR as a significant contributor to energy balance regulation. On the basis of evidence that DEPTOR is expressed in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the MBH, the present study aimed to investigate whether these neurons mediate the metabolic effects of DEPTOR. Here, we report that specific DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not recapitulate any of the phenotypes observed when the protein was overexpressed in the MBH. Unlike the previous model, mice overexpressing DEPTOR only in POMC neurons 1) did not show differences in feeding behavior, 2) did not exhibit changes in locomotion activity and oxygen consumption, 3) did not show an improvement in systemic glucose metabolism, and 4) were not resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. These results support the idea that other neuronal populations are responsible for these phenotypes. Nonetheless, we observed a mild elevation in fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, and alterations in liver glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice overexpressing DEPTOR in POMC neurons. Taken together, these results show that DEPTOR overexpression in POMC neurons does not affect energy balance regulation but could modulate metabolism through a brain-liver connection. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Navβ4 regulates fast resurgent sodium currents and excitability in sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cindy; Tan, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Ruizhong; Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith A; Patel, Reesha R; Vasko, Michael R; Zhang, Jun-Ming; Cummins, Theodore R

    2015-09-25

    Increased electrical activity in peripheral sensory neurons including dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia neurons is an important mechanism underlying pain. Voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC) contribute to the excitability of sensory neurons and are essential for the upstroke of action potentials. A unique type of VGSC current, resurgent current (INaR), generates an inward current at repolarizing voltages through an alternate mechanism of inactivation referred to as open-channel block. INaRs are proposed to enable high frequency firing and increased INaRs in sensory neurons are associated with pain pathologies. While Nav1.6 has been identified as the main carrier of fast INaR, our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to INaR generation is limited. Specifically, the open-channel blocker in sensory neurons has not been identified. Previous studies suggest Navβ4 subunit mediates INaR in central nervous system neurons. The goal of this study was to determine whether Navβ4 regulates INaR in DRG sensory neurons. Our immunocytochemistry studies show that Navβ4 expression is highly correlated with Nav1.6 expression predominantly in medium-large diameter rat DRG neurons. Navβ4 knockdown decreased endogenous fast INaR in medium-large diameter neurons as measured with whole-cell voltage clamp. Using a reduced expression system in DRG neurons, we isolated recombinant human Nav1.6 sodium currents in rat DRG neurons and found that overexpression of Navβ4 enhanced Nav1.6 INaR generation. By contrast neither overexpression of Navβ2 nor overexpression of a Navβ4-mutant, predicted to be an inactive form of Navβ4, enhanced Nav1.6 INaR generation. DRG neurons transfected with wild-type Navβ4 exhibited increased excitability with increases in both spontaneous activity and evoked activity. Thus, Navβ4 overexpression enhanced INaR and excitability, whereas knockdown or expression of mutant Navβ4 decreased INaR generation. INaRs are associated with

  12. Neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis is regulated by the alan shepard (shep) gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dahong; Qu, Chunjing; Bjorum, Sonia M; Beckingham, Kathleen M; Hewes, Randall S

    2014-08-01

    Peptidergic neurons are a group of neuronal cells that synthesize and secrete peptides to regulate a variety of biological processes. To identify genes controlling the development and function of peptidergic neurons, we conducted a screen of 545 splice-trap lines and identified 28 loci that drove expression in peptidergic neurons when crossed to a GFP reporter transgene. Among these lines, an insertion in the alan shepard (shep) gene drove expression specifically in most peptidergic neurons. shep transcripts and SHEP proteins were detected primarily and broadly in the central nervous system (CNS) in embryos, and this expression continued into the adult stage. Loss of shep resulted in late pupal lethality, reduced adult life span, wing expansion defects, uncoordinated adult locomotor activities, rejection of males by virgin females, and reduced neuropil area and reduced levels of multiple presynaptic markers throughout the adult CNS. Examination of the bursicon neurons in shep mutant pharate adults revealed smaller somata and fewer axonal branches and boutons, and all of these cellular phenotypes were fully rescued by expression of the most abundant wild-type shep isoform. In contrast to shep mutant animals at the pharate adult stage, shep mutant larvae displayed normal bursicon neuron morphologies. Similarly, shep mutant adults were uncoordinated and weak, while shep mutant larvae displayed largely, although not entirely, normal locomotor behavior. Thus, shep played an important role in the metamorphic development of many neurons. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript mediates the actions of cholecystokinin on rat vagal afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lartigue, Guillaume; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea; Raybould, Helen; De la Serre, Claire Barbier; Dockray, Graham J

    2010-04-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) acts on vagal afferent neurons to inhibit food intake and gastric emptying; it also increases expression of the neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), but the significance of this is unknown. We investigated the role of CARTp in vagal afferent neurons. Release of CART peptide (CARTp) from cultured vagal afferent neurons was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of receptors and neuropeptides in rat vagal afferent neurons in response to CARTp was studied using immunohistochemistry and luciferase promoter reporter constructs. Effects of CARTp and CCK were studied on food intake. CCK stimulated CARTp release from cultured nodose neurons. CARTp replicated the effect of CCK in stimulating expression of Y2R and of CART itself in these neurons in vivo and in vitro, but not in inhibiting cannabinoid-1, melanin-concentrating hormone, and melanin-concentrating hormone-1 receptor expression. Effects of CCK on Y2R and CART expression were reduced by CART small interfering RNA or brefeldin A. Exposure of rats to CARTp increased the inhibitory action of CCK on food intake after short-, but not long-duration, fasting. The actions of CCK in stimulating CART and Y2R expression in vagal afferent neurons and in inhibiting food intake are augmented by CARTp; CARTp is released by CCK from these neurons, indicating that it acts as an autocrine excitatory mediator. 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Ding, Lianggong; Li, Yuhong; Yang, Hui; Zhao, Chunyue; Lei, Ye; Han, Shuting; Tao, Wei; Miao, Dengshun; Steller, Hermann; Welsh, Michael J.; Liu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis. PMID:25201987

  15. Selective conversion of fibroblasts into peripheral sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Joel W; Eade, Kevin T; Szűcs, Attila; Lo Sardo, Valentina; Tsunemoto, Rachel K; Williams, Daniel; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Baldwin, Kristin K

    2015-01-01

    Humans and mice detect pain, itch, temperature, pressure, stretch and limb position via signaling from peripheral sensory neurons. These neurons are divided into three functional classes (nociceptors/pruritoceptors, mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors) that are distinguished by their selective expression of TrkA, TrkB or TrkC receptors, respectively. We found that transiently coexpressing Brn3a with either Ngn1 or Ngn2 selectively reprogrammed human and mouse fibroblasts to acquire key properties of these three classes of sensory neurons. These induced sensory neurons (iSNs) were electrically active, exhibited distinct sensory neuron morphologies and matched the characteristic gene expression patterns of endogenous sensory neurons, including selective expression of Trk receptors. In addition, we found that calcium-imaging assays could identify subsets of iSNs that selectively responded to diverse ligands known to activate itch- and pain-sensing neurons. These results offer a simple and rapid means for producing genetically diverse human sensory neurons suitable for drug screening and mechanistic studies.

  16. Transcriptional and Epigenetic Regulation in Injury-Mediated Neuronal Dendritic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Wen-Yuan; Li, Zhi-Gang; Guan, Li-Xin; Deng, Ling-Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning. Mounting evidence supports a crucial role for epigenetic modifications via histone deacetylases, histone acetyltransferases, and DNA methyltransferases that modify gene expression in neuronal injury and repair processes. Gene regulation through epigenetic modification is of great interest in neurotrauma research, and an early picture is beginning to emerge concerning how injury triggers intracellular events that modulate such responses. This review provides an overview of injury-mediated influences on transcriptional regulation through epigenetic modification, the intracellular processes involved in the morphological consequences of such changes, and potential approaches to the therapeutic manipulation of neuronal epigenetics for regulating gene expression to facilitate growth and signaling through dendritic arborization following injury.

  17. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  18. Regulation of mineralocorticoid receptor expression during neuronal differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Meduri, Geri; Viengchareun, Say; Leclerc, Philippe; Le Menuet, Damien; Lombès, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays a critical role in brain function. However, the regulatory mechanisms controlling neuronal MR expression that constitutes a key element of the hormonal response are currently unknown. Two alternative P1 and P2 promoters drive human MR gene transcription. To examine promoter activities and their regulation during neuronal differentiation and in mature neurons, we generated stably transfected recombinant murine embryonic stem cell (ES) lines, namely P1-GFP and P2-GFP, in which each promoter drove the expression of the reporter gene green fluorescent protein (GFP). An optimized protocol, using embryoid bodies and retinoic acid, permitted us to obtain a reproducible neuronal differentiation as revealed by the decrease in phosphatase alkaline activity, the concomitant appearance of morphological changes (neurites), and the increase in the expression of neuronal markers (nestin, beta-tubulin III, and microtubule-associated protein-2) as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and quantitative PCR. Using these cell-based models, we showed that MR expression increased by 5-fold during neuronal differentiation, MR being preferentially if not exclusively expressed in mature neurons. Although the P2 promoter was always weaker than the P1 promoter during neuronal differentiation, their activities increased by 7- and 5-fold, respectively, and correlated with MR expression. Finally, although progesterone and dexamethasone were ineffective, aldosterone stimulated both P1 and P2 activity and MR expression, an effect that was abrogated by knockdown of MR by small interfering RNA. In conclusion, we provide evidence for a tight transcriptional control of MR expression during neuronal differentiation. Given the neuroprotective and antiapoptotic role proposed for MR, the neuronal differentiation of ES cell lines opens potential therapeutic perspectives in neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  19. Pacemaker neuron and network oscillations depend on a neuromodulator-regulated linear current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunbing Zhao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linear leak currents have been implicated in the regulation of neuronal excitability, generation of neuronal and network oscillations, and network state transitions. Yet, few studies have directly tested the dependence of network oscillations on leak currents or explored the role of leak currents on network activity. In the oscillatory pyloric network of decapod crustaceans neuromodulatory inputs are necessary for pacemaker activity. A large subset of neuromodulators is known to activate a single voltage-gated inward current IMI, which has been shown to regulate the rhythmic activity of the network and its pacemaker neurons. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we show that the crucial component of IMI for the generation of oscillatory activity is only a close-to-linear portion of the current-voltage relationship. The nature of this conductance is such that the presence or the absence of neuromodulators effectively regulates the amount of leak current and the input resistance in the pacemaker neurons. When deprived of neuromodulatory inputs, pyloric oscillations are disrupted; yet, a linear reduction of the total conductance in a single neuron within the pacemaker group recovers not only the pacemaker activity in that neuron, but also leads to a recovery of oscillations in the entire pyloric network. The recovered activity produces proper frequency and phasing that is similar to that induced by neuromodulators. These results show that the passive properties of pacemaker neurons can significantly affect their capacity to generate and regulate the oscillatory activity of an entire network, and that this feature is exploited by neuromodulatory inputs.

  20. Gene co-regulation by Fezf2 selects neurotransmitter identity and connectivity of corticospinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Simona; Molyneaux, Bradley J; Zuccaro, Emanuela; Goff, Loyal A; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Yuan, Wen; Meleski, Alyssa; Takahashi, Emi; Mahony, Shaun; Rinn, John L; Gifford, David K; Arlotta, Paola

    2014-08-01

    The neocortex contains an unparalleled diversity of neuronal subtypes, each defined by distinct traits that are developmentally acquired under the control of subtype-specific and pan-neuronal genes. The regulatory logic that orchestrates the expression of these unique combinations of genes is unknown for any class of cortical neuron. Here, we report that Fezf2 is a selector gene able to regulate the expression of gene sets that collectively define mouse corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN). We find that Fezf2 directly induces the glutamatergic identity of CSMN via activation of Vglut1 (Slc17a7) and inhibits a GABAergic fate by repressing transcription of Gad1. In addition, we identify the axon guidance receptor EphB1 as a target of Fezf2 necessary to execute the ipsilateral extension of the corticospinal tract. Our data indicate that co-regulated expression of neuron subtype-specific and pan-neuronal gene batteries by a single transcription factor is one component of the regulatory logic responsible for the establishment of CSMN identity.

  1. A pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons regulates caffeine-dependent ingestion in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaekyun Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal gustatory receptor neurons have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food.

  2. Accumulation of nuclear ADAR2 regulates adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing during neuronal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mikaela; Wahlstedt, Helene; Widmark, Albin; Eriksson, Maria; Öhman, Marie

    2017-02-15

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is important for a functional brain, and most known sites that are subject to selective RNA editing have been found to result in diversified protein isoforms that are involved in neurotransmission. In the absence of the active editing enzymes ADAR1 or ADAR2 (also known as ADAR and ADARB1, respectively), mice fail to survive until adulthood. Nuclear A-to-I editing of neuronal transcripts is regulated during brain development, with low levels of editing in the embryo and a dramatic increase after birth. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate editing during development. Here, we demonstrate lower levels of ADAR2 in the nucleus of immature neurons than in mature neurons. We show that importin-α4 (encoded by Kpna3), which increases during neuronal maturation, interacts with ADAR2 and contributes to the editing efficiency by bringing it into the nucleus. Moreover, we detect an increased number of interactions between ADAR2 and the nuclear isomerase Pin1 as neurons mature, which contribute to ADAR2 protein stability. Together, these findings explain how the nuclear editing of substrates that are important for neuronal function can increase as the brain develops. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Regulation of Physical Microglia-Neuron Interactions by Fractalkine Signaling after Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyo, Ukpong B; Peng, Jiyun; Murugan, Madhuvika; Mo, Mingshu; Lalani, Almin; Xie, Ping; Xu, Pingyi; Margolis, David J; Wu, Long-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia-neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo, we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid- or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice. Interestingly, a deficiency of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) decreased MPCs, whereas fractalkine (CX3CL1) treatment increased MPCs, suggesting that fractalkine signaling is a critical regulator of these microglia-neuron interactions. Furthermore, we found that interleukin-1β was necessary and sufficient to trigger CX3CR1-dependent MPCs. Finally, we show that a deficiency in fractalkine signaling corresponds with increased seizure phenotypes. Together, our results identify the neuroglial CX3CL1-CX3CR1 communication axis as a modulator of potentially neuroprotective microglia-neuron physical interactions during conditions of neuronal hyperactivity.

  4. Regulation of Physical Microglia–Neuron Interactions by Fractalkine Signaling after Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Almin; Xie, Ping; Xu, Pingyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, perform elaborate surveillance in which they physically interact with neuronal elements. A novel form of microglia–neuron interaction named microglial process convergence (MPC) toward neuronal axons and dendrites has recently been described. However, the molecular regulators and pathological relevance of MPC have not been explored. Here, using high-resolution two-photon imaging in vivo and ex vivo, we observed a dramatic increase in MPCs after kainic acid– or pilocarpine-induced experimental seizures that was reconstituted after glutamate treatment in slices from mice. Interestingly, a deficiency of the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) decreased MPCs, whereas fractalkine (CX3CL1) treatment increased MPCs, suggesting that fractalkine signaling is a critical regulator of these microglia–neuron interactions. Furthermore, we found that interleukin-1β was necessary and sufficient to trigger CX3CR1-dependent MPCs. Finally, we show that a deficiency in fractalkine signaling corresponds with increased seizure phenotypes. Together, our results identify the neuroglial CX3CL1–CX3CR1 communication axis as a modulator of potentially neuroprotective microglia–neuron physical interactions during conditions of neuronal hyperactivity. PMID:28101527

  5. Disruption of Dopamine Neuron Activity Pattern Regulation through Selective Expression of a Human KCNN3 Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soden, Marta E.; Jones, Graham L.; Sanford, Christina A.; Chung, Amanda S.; Güler, Ali D.; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel, SK3, plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior. PMID:24206670

  6. Regulation of neuronal excitability by release of proteins from glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igelhorst, Birte A.; Niederkinkhaus, Vanessa; Karus, Claudia; Lange, Maren D.; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of glial cells on electrical isolation and shaping of synaptic transmission between neurons have been extensively studied. Here we present evidence that the release of proteins from astrocytes as well as microglia may regulate voltage-activated Na+ currents in neurons, thereby increasing excitability and speed of transmission in neurons kept at distance from each other by specialized glial cells. As a first example, we show that basic fibroblast growth factor and neurotrophin-3, which are released from astrocytes by exposure to thyroid hormone, influence each other to enhance Na+ current density in cultured hippocampal neurons. As a second example, we show that the presence of microglia in hippocampal cultures can upregulate Na+ current density. The effect can be boosted by lipopolysaccharides, bacterial membrane-derived stimulators of microglial activation. Comparable effects are induced by the exposure of neuron-enriched hippocampal cultures to tumour necrosis factor-α, which is released from stimulated microglia. Taken together, our findings suggest that release of proteins from various types of glial cells can alter neuronal excitability over a time course of several days. This explains changes in neuronal excitability occurring in states of thyroid hormone imbalance and possibly also in seizures triggered by infectious diseases. PMID:26009773

  7. Nictation, a dispersal behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, is regulated by IL2 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harksun; Choi, Myung-kyu; Lee, Daehan; Kim, Hye-sung; Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Heekyeong; Park, Sungsu; Paik, Young-ki; Lee, Junho

    2011-11-13

    Many nematodes show a stage-specific behavior called nictation in which a worm stands on its tail and waves its head in three dimensions. Here we show that nictation is a dispersal behavior regulated by a specific set of neurons, the IL2 cells, in C. elegans. We established assays for nictation and showed that cholinergic transmission was required for nictation. Cell type-specific rescue experiments and genetic ablation experiments revealed that the IL2 ciliated head neurons were essential for nictation. Intact cilia in IL2 neurons, but not in other ciliated head neurons, were essential, as the restoration of the corresponding wild-type gene activity in IL2 neurons alone in cilia-defective mutants was sufficient to restore nictation. Optogenetic activation of IL2 neurons induced nictation, suggesting that signals from IL2 neurons are sufficient for nictation. Finally, we demonstrated that nictation is required for transmission of C. elegans to a new niche using flies as artificial carriers, suggesting a role of nictation as a dispersal and survival strategy under harsh conditions.

  8. The NIMA-family kinase Nek3 regulates microtubule acetylation in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jufang; Baloh, Robert H; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2009-07-01

    NIMA-related kinases (Neks) belong to a large family of Ser/Thr kinases that have critical roles in coordinating microtubule dynamics during ciliogenesis and mitotic progression. The Nek kinases are also expressed in neurons, whose axonal projections are, similarly to cilia, microtubule-abundant structures that extend from the cell body. We therefore investigated whether Nek kinases have additional, non-mitotic roles in neurons. We found that Nek3 influences neuronal morphogenesis and polarity through effects on microtubules. Nek3 is expressed in the cytoplasm and axons of neurons and is phosphorylated at Thr475 located in the C-terminal PEST domain, which regulates its catalytic activity. Although exogenous expression of wild-type or phosphomimic (T475D) Nek3 in cultured neurons has no discernible impact, expression of a phospho-defective mutant (T475A) or PEST-truncated Nek3 leads to distorted neuronal morphology with disturbed polarity and deacetylation of microtubules via HDAC6 in its kinase-dependent manner. Thus, the phosphorylation at Thr475 serves as a regulatory switch that alters Nek3 function. The deacetylation of microtubules in neurons by unphosphorylated Nek3 raises the possibility that it could have a role in disorders where axonal degeneration is an important component.

  9. Lycopene inhibits regulator of calcineurin 1-mediated apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and down-regulating Nucling in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seiyoung; Hwang, Sinwoo; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-05-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located on the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) locus in human chromosome 21. Oxidative stress and overexpression of RCAN1 are implicated in neuronal impairment in Down's syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum level of lycopene, an antioxidant pigment, is low in DS and AD patients, which may be related to neuronal damage. The present study is to investigate whether lycopene inhibits apoptosis by reducing ROS levels, NF-κB activation, expression of the apoptosis regulator Nucling, cell viability, and indices of apoptosis (cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation) in RCAN1-overexpressing neuronal cells. Cells transfected with either pcDNA or RCAN1 were treated with or without lycopene. Lycopene decreased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, NF-κB activity, and Nucling expression while it reversed decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and glycolytic function in RCAN1-overexpressing cells. Lycopene inhibited cell death, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release in RCAN1-overexpressing cells. Lycopene inhibits RCAN1-mediated apoptosis by reducing ROS levels and by inhibiting NF-κB activation, Nucling induction, and the increase in apoptotic indices in neuronal cells. Consumption of lycopene-rich foods may prevent oxidative stress-associated neuronal damage in some pathologic conditions such as DS or AD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dopamine regulates two classes of primate prefrontal neurons that represent sensory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Simon N; Ott, Torben; Nieder, Andreas

    2013-08-21

    The lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), a hub of higher-level cognitive processing, is strongly modulated by midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. The cellular mechanisms have been comprehensively studied in the context of short-term memory, but little is known about how DA regulates sensory inputs to PFC that precede and give rise to such memory activity. By preparing recipient cortical circuits for incoming signals, DA could be a powerful determinant of downstream cognitive processing. Here, we tested the hypothesis that prefrontal DA regulates the representation of sensory signals that are required for perceptual decisions. In rhesus monkeys trained to report the presence or absence of visual stimuli at varying levels of contrast, we simultaneously recorded extracellular single-unit activity and applied DA to the immediate vicinity of the neurons by micro-iontophoresis. We found that DA modulation of prefrontal neurons is not uniform but tailored to specialized neuronal classes. In one population of neurons, DA suppressed activity with high temporal precision but preserved signal/noise ratio. Neurons in this group had short visual response latencies and comprised all recorded narrow-spiking, putative interneurons. In a distinct population, DA increased excitability and enhanced signal/noise ratio by reducing response variability. These neurons had longer visual response latencies and were composed exclusively of broad-spiking, putative pyramidal neurons. By gating sensory inputs to PFC and subsequently strengthening the representation of sensory signals, DA might play an important role in shaping how the PFC initiates appropriate behavior in response to changes in the sensory environment.

  11. Pituitary Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide orchestrates neuronal regulation of the astrocytic glutamate-releasing mechanism system xc (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghai; Albano, Rebecca; Madayag, Aric; Raddatz, Nicholas; Mantsch, John R; Choi, SuJean; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate signaling is achieved by an elaborate network involving neurons and astrocytes. Hence, it is critical to better understand how neurons and astrocytes interact to coordinate the cellular regulation of glutamate signaling. In these studies, we used rat cortical cell cultures to examine whether neurons or releasable neuronal factors were capable of regulating system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate-releasing mechanism that is expressed primarily by astrocytes and has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission. We found that astrocytes cultured with neurons or exposed to neuronal-conditioned media displayed significantly higher levels of Sxc activity. Next, we demonstrated that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) may be a neuronal factor capable of regulating astrocytes. In support, we found that PACAP expression was restricted to neurons, and that PACAP receptors were expressed in astrocytes. Interestingly, blockade of PACAP receptors in cultures comprised of astrocytes and neurons significantly decreased Sxc activity to the level observed in purified astrocytes, whereas application of PACAP to purified astrocytes increased Sxc activity to the level observed in cultures comprised of neurons and astrocytes. Collectively, these data reveal that neurons coordinate the actions of glutamate-related mechanisms expressed by astrocytes, such as Sxc, a process that likely involves PACAP. A critical gap in modeling excitatory signaling is how distinct components of the glutamate system expressed by neurons and astrocytes are coordinated. In these studies, we found that system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate release mechanism expressed by astrocytes, is regulated by releasable neuronal factors including PACAP. This represents a novel form of neuron-astrocyte communication, and highlights the possibility that pathological changes involving astrocytic Sxc may stem from altered neuronal activity. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Protein Kinase Pathways That Regulate Neuronal Survival and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    intracellular T. gondii replication. International Congress on Toxoplasmosis . Freising, Germany, 2001. 13. Linseman, DA, T Laessig, MK Meintzer, M...University of Colo- role in the regulation of metabolic pathways as well as preven- rado Cancer Center core facility. tion of cell death by insulin and

  13. Neuronal activity-induced regulation of Lingo-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovski, Alexandra; Josephson, Anna; Ringman, Andreas; Brené, Stefan; Spenger, Christian; Olson, Lars

    2004-10-25

    Axonal regeneration after injury can be limited in the adult CNS by the presence of inhibitory proteins such as Nogo. Nogo binds to a receptor complex that consists of Nogo receptor (NgR), p75NTR, and Lingo-1. Nogo binding activates RhoA, which inhibits axonal outgrowth. Here we assessed Lingo-1 and NgR mRNA levels after delivery of BDNF into the rat hippocampal formation, Lingo-1 mRNA levels in rats subjected to kainic acid (KA) and running in running wheels. Lingo-1 mRNA was not changed by running. However, we found that Lingo-1 mRNA was strongly up-regulated while NgR mRNA was down-regulated in the dentate gyrus in both the BDNF and the KA experiments. Our data demonstrate inverse regulation of NgR and Lingo-1 in these situations, suggesting that Lingo-1 up-regulation is one characteristic of activity-induced neural plasticity responses.

  14. Astrocyte control of fetal cortical neuron glutathione homeostasis: up-regulation by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Mary Latha; Watts, Lora Talley; Stark, Avishay A; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Stewart, Jennifer; Schenker, Steven; Henderson, George I

    2006-03-01

    Ethanol increases apoptotic neuron death in the developing brain and at least part of this may be mediated by oxidative stress. In cultured fetal rat cortical neurons, Ethanol increases levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within minutes of exposure and reduces total cellular glutathione (GSH) shortly thereafter. This is followed by onset of apoptotic cell death. These responses to Ethanol can be blocked by elevating neuron GSH with N-acetylcysteine or by co-culturing neurons with neonatal cortical astrocytes. We describe here mechanisms by which the astrocyte-neuron gamma-glutamyl cycle is up-regulated by Ethanol, enhancing control of neuron GSH in response to the pro-oxidant, Ethanol. Up to 6 days of Ethanol exposure had no consistent effects on activities of gamma-glutamyl cysteine ligase or glutathione synthetase, and GSH content remained unchanged (p glutathione reductase was increased with 1 and 2 day Ethanol exposures, 25% and 39% for 2.5 and 4.0 mg/mL Ethanol by 1 day, and 11% and 16% for 2.5 and 4.0 mg/mL at 2 days, respectively (p Ethanol increased GSH efflux from astrocyte up to 517% (p Ethanol increased both gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase expression and activity on astrocyte within 24 h of exposure (40%, p = 0.05 with 4.0 mg/mL) and this continued for at least 4 days of Ethanol treatment. Aminopeptidase N activity on neurons increased by 62% and 55% within 1 h of Ethanol for 2.5 and 4.0 mg/mL concentration, respectively (p Ethanol, the net effect being to enhance neuron GSH homeostasis, thereby protecting neurons from Ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and apoptotic death.

  15. Pheromone-sensing neurons regulate peripheral lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Hussey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism. In this study, we now identify a role for a pair of pheromone-sensing neurons in regulating fat metabolism in C. elegans, which has emerged as a tractable and highly informative model to study the neurobiology of metabolism. A genetic screen revealed that GPA-3, a member of the Gα family of G proteins, regulates body fat content in the intestine, the major metabolic organ for C. elegans. Genetic and reconstitution studies revealed that the potent body fat phenotype of gpa-3 null mutants is controlled from a pair of neurons called ADL(L/R. We show that cAMP functions as the second messenger in the ADL neurons, and regulates body fat stores via the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, from downstream neurons. We find that the pheromone ascr#3, which is detected by the ADL neurons, regulates body fat stores in a GPA-3-dependent manner. We define here a third sensory modality, pheromone sensing, as a major regulator of body fat metabolism. The pheromone ascr#3 is an indicator of population density, thus we hypothesize that pheromone sensing provides a salient 'denominator' to evaluate the amount of food available within a population and to accordingly adjust metabolic rate and body fat levels.

  16. Pheromone-sensing neurons regulate peripheral lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Rosalind; Stieglitz, Jon; Mesgarzadeh, Jaleh; Locke, Tiffany T; Zhang, Ying K; Schroeder, Frank C; Srinivasan, Supriya

    2017-05-01

    It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism. In this study, we now identify a role for a pair of pheromone-sensing neurons in regulating fat metabolism in C. elegans, which has emerged as a tractable and highly informative model to study the neurobiology of metabolism. A genetic screen revealed that GPA-3, a member of the Gα family of G proteins, regulates body fat content in the intestine, the major metabolic organ for C. elegans. Genetic and reconstitution studies revealed that the potent body fat phenotype of gpa-3 null mutants is controlled from a pair of neurons called ADL(L/R). We show that cAMP functions as the second messenger in the ADL neurons, and regulates body fat stores via the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, from downstream neurons. We find that the pheromone ascr#3, which is detected by the ADL neurons, regulates body fat stores in a GPA-3-dependent manner. We define here a third sensory modality, pheromone sensing, as a major regulator of body fat metabolism. The pheromone ascr#3 is an indicator of population density, thus we hypothesize that pheromone sensing provides a salient 'denominator' to evaluate the amount of food available within a population and to accordingly adjust metabolic rate and body fat levels.

  17. Redox and Nitric Oxide-Mediated Regulation of Sensory Neuron Ion Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) can intimately control neuronal excitability and synaptic strength by regulating the function of many ion channels. In peripheral sensory neurons, such regulation contributes towards the control of somatosensory processing; therefore, understanding the mechanisms of such regulation is necessary for the development of new therapeutic strategies and for the treatment of sensory dysfunctions, such as chronic pain. Recent Advances: Tremendous progress in deciphering nitric oxide (NO) and ROS signaling in the nervous system has been made in recent decades. This includes the recognition of these molecules as important second messengers and the elucidation of their metabolic pathways and cellular targets. Mounting evidence suggests that these targets include many ion channels which can be directly or indirectly modulated by ROS and NO. However, the mechanisms specific to sensory neurons are still poorly understood. This review will therefore summarize recent findings that highlight the complex nature of the signaling pathways involved in redox/NO regulation of sensory neuron ion channels and excitability; references to redox mechanisms described in other neuron types will be made where necessary. Critical Issues: The complexity and interplay within the redox, NO, and other gasotransmitter modulation of protein function are still largely unresolved. Issues of specificity and intracellular localization of these signaling cascades will also be addressed. Future Directions: Since our understanding of ROS and RNS signaling in sensory neurons is limited, there is a multitude of future directions; one of the most important issues for further study is the establishment of the exact roles that these signaling pathways play in pain processing and the translation of this understanding into new therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 486–504. PMID:24735331

  18. Serotonin 2c receptors in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons regulate energy and glucose homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy and glucose homeostasis are regulated by central serotonin 2C receptors. These receptors are attractive pharmacological targets for the treatment of obesity; however, the identity of the serotonin 2C receptor-expressing neurons that mediate the effects of serotonin and serotonin 2C receptor a...

  19. Estrogen receptor-a in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogen receptor–a (ERa) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERa-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels ...

  20. Transient Expression of Fez Family Zinc Finger 2 Protein Regulates the Brn3b Gene in Developing Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunsheng; Bian, Dandan; Li, Xue; Xiao, Jian; Wu, Chunping; Li, Yue; Jiang, Tian; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Chen, Jie-Guang

    2016-04-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are projection neurons in the neural retina that relay visual information from the environment to the central nervous system. The early expression of MATH5 endows the post-mitotic precursors with RGC competence and leads to the activation ofBrn3bthat marks committed RGCs. Nevertheless, this fate commitment process and, specifically, regulation ofBrn3bremain elusive. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying RGC generation in the mouse retina, we analyzed the expression and function of Fez family zinc finger 2 (FEZF2), a transcription factor critical for the development of projection neurons in the cerebral cortex.Fezf2mRNA and protein were transiently expressed at embryonic day 16.5 in the inner neuroblast layer and the prospective ganglion cell layer of the retina, respectively. Knockout ofFezf2in the developing retina reduced BRN3B+ cells and increased apoptotic cell markers.Fezf2knockdown by retinalin uteroelectroporation diminished BRN3B but not the coexpressed ISLET1 and BRN3A, indicating that the BRN3B decrease was the cause, not the result, of the overall reduction of BRN3B+ RGCs in theFezf2knockout retina. Moreover, the mRNA and promoter activity ofBrn3bwere increasedin vitroby FEZF2, which bound to a 5' regulatory fragment in theBrn3bgenomic locus. These results indicate that transient expression ofFezf2in the retina modulates the transcription ofBrn3band the survival of RGCs. This study improves our understanding of the transcriptional cascade required for the specification of RGCs and provides novel insights into the molecular basis of retinal development. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K; Petkov, Christopher I

    2015-01-06

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally imprecise but highly selective responses to communication signals. To address this, we exploited naturally occurring face- and voice-onset asynchronies in primate vocalizations. Using these as stimuli we recorded cortical oscillations and neuronal spiking responses from functional MRI (fMRI)-localized voice-sensitive cortex in the anterior temporal lobe of macaques. We show that the onset of the visual face stimulus resets the phase of low-frequency oscillations, and that the face-voice asynchrony affects the prominence of two key types of neuronal multisensory responses: enhancement or suppression. Our findings show a three-way association between temporal delays in audiovisual communication signals, phase-resetting of ongoing oscillations, and the sign of multisensory responses. The results reveal how natural onset asynchronies in cross-sensory inputs regulate network oscillations and neuronal excitability in the voice-sensitive cortex of macaques, a suggested animal model for human voice areas. These findings also advance predictions on the impact of multisensory input on neuronal processes in face areas and other brain regions.

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates the [Ca2+]i Level in the Primary Medullary Neurons

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    Xiaoni Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we attempted to elucidate mechanisms for the regulation of intracellular calcium levels by H2S in primary rat medullary neurons. Our results showed that NaHS significantly increased the level of Ca2+i in rat medullary neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. L-Cysteine and SAM significantly raised the level of Ca2+i in the medullary neurons while HA and/or AOAA produced a reversal effect. In addition, L-cysteine and SAM significantly increased but HA and/or AOAA decreased the production of H2S in the cultured neurons. The Ca2+i elevation induced by H2S was significantly diminished by EGTA-Ca2+-free solutions, and this elevation was also reduced by nifedipine or nimodipine and mibefradil, suggesting the role of L-type and/or T-type Ca2+ channels. Moreover, the effect of H2S on Ca2+i level in neurons was significantly attenuated by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin, suggesting the source of Ca2+. Therefore, we concluded that both exogenous and endogenous H2S elevates Ca2+i level in primarily cultured rat medullary neurons via both increasing calcium influx and mobilizing intracellular Ca2+ stores from ER.

  3. VPS35 regulates developing mouse hippocampal neuronal morphogenesis by promoting retrograde trafficking of BACE1

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    Chun-Lei Wang

    2012-10-01

    VPS35, a major component of the retromer, plays an important role in the selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but its function in developing mouse brain remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for VPS35 promoting dendritic growth and maturation, and axonal protein transport in developing mouse hippocampal neurons. Embryonic hippocampal CA1 neurons suppressing Vps35 expression by in utero electroporation of its micro RNAs displayed shortened apical dendrites, reduced dendritic spines, and swollen commissural axons in the neonatal stage, those deficits reflecting a defective protein transport/trafficking in developing mouse neurons. Further mechanistic studies showed that Vps35 depletion in neurons resulted in an impaired retrograde trafficking of BACE1 (β1-secretase and altered BACE1 distribution. Suppression of BACE1 expression in CA1 neurons partially rescued both dendritic and axonal deficits induced by Vps35-deficiency. These results thus demonstrate that BACE1 acts as a critical cargo of retromer in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VPS35 plays an essential role in regulating apical dendritic maturation and in preventing axonal spheroid formation in developing hippocampal neurons.

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate astrocyte GDNF and BDNF gene transcription and protect dopaminergic neurons

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    Wu, Xuefei; Chen, Po See; Dallas, Shannon; Wilson, Belinda; Block, Michelle L.; Wang, Chao-Chuan; Kinyamu, Harriet; Lu, Nick; Gao, Xi; Leng, Yan; Chuang, De-Maw; Zhang, Wanqin; Lu, Ru Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain substantia nigra. Currently, available treatment is unable to alter PD progression. Previously, we demonstrated that valproic acid (VPA), a mood stabilizer, anticonvulsant and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in astrocytes to protect DA neurons in midbrain neuron-glia cultures. The present study investigated whether these effects are due to HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. Here, we show that two additional HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate (SB) and trichostatin A (TSA), mimic the survival-promoting and protective effects of VPA on DA neurons in neuron-glia cultures. Similar to VPA, both SB and TSA increased GDNF and BDNF transcripts in astrocytes in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, marked increases in GDNF promoter activity and promoter-associated histone H3 acetylation were noted in astrocytes treated with all three compounds, where the time-course for acetylation was similar to that for gene transcription. Taken together, our results indicate that HDAC inhibitors up-regulate GDNF and BDNF expression in astrocytes and protect DA neurons, at least in part, through HDAC inhibition. This study indicates that astrocytes may be a critical neuroprotective mechanism of HDAC inhibitors, revealing a novel target for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:18611290

  5. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

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    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  6. A PI3-kinase-mediated negative feedback regulates neuronal excitability.

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    Howlett, Eric; Lin, Curtis Chun-Jen; Lavery, William; Stern, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Use-dependent downregulation of neuronal activity (negative feedback) can act as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain neuronal activity at a particular specified value. Disruption of this negative feedback might lead to neurological pathologies, such as epilepsy, but the precise mechanisms by which this feedback can occur remain incompletely understood. At one glutamatergic synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, a mutation in the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor gene (DmGluRA) increased motor neuron excitability by disrupting an autocrine, glutamate-mediated negative feedback. We show that DmGluRA mutations increase neuronal excitability by preventing PI3 kinase (PI3K) activation and consequently hyperactivating the transcription factor Foxo. Furthermore, glutamate application increases levels of phospho-Akt, a product of PI3K signaling, within motor nerve terminals in a DmGluRA-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PI3K increases both axon diameter and synapse number via the Tor/S6 kinase pathway, but not Foxo. In humans, PI3K and group II mGluRs are implicated in epilepsy, neurofibromatosis, autism, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders; however, neither the link between group II mGluRs and PI3K, nor the role of PI3K-dependent regulation of Foxo in the control of neuronal excitability, had been previously reported. Our work suggests that some of the deficits in these neurological disorders might result from disruption of glutamate-mediated homeostasis of neuronal excitability.

  7. A PI3-kinase-mediated negative feedback regulates neuronal excitability.

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    Eric Howlett

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Use-dependent downregulation of neuronal activity (negative feedback can act as a homeostatic mechanism to maintain neuronal activity at a particular specified value. Disruption of this negative feedback might lead to neurological pathologies, such as epilepsy, but the precise mechanisms by which this feedback can occur remain incompletely understood. At one glutamatergic synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, a mutation in the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor gene (DmGluRA increased motor neuron excitability by disrupting an autocrine, glutamate-mediated negative feedback. We show that DmGluRA mutations increase neuronal excitability by preventing PI3 kinase (PI3K activation and consequently hyperactivating the transcription factor Foxo. Furthermore, glutamate application increases levels of phospho-Akt, a product of PI3K signaling, within motor nerve terminals in a DmGluRA-dependent manner. Finally, we show that PI3K increases both axon diameter and synapse number via the Tor/S6 kinase pathway, but not Foxo. In humans, PI3K and group II mGluRs are implicated in epilepsy, neurofibromatosis, autism, schizophrenia, and other neurological disorders; however, neither the link between group II mGluRs and PI3K, nor the role of PI3K-dependent regulation of Foxo in the control of neuronal excitability, had been previously reported. Our work suggests that some of the deficits in these neurological disorders might result from disruption of glutamate-mediated homeostasis of neuronal excitability.

  8. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) Facilitates Neuronal Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activation*

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    Sun, Xiulian; Wu, Yili; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Tong, Yigang; Yuan, Junying; Xia, Kun; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Flavell, Richard A.; Song, Weihong

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will inevitably develop Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology sometime after middle age, which may be attributable to genes triplicated in individuals with DS. The characteristics of AD neuropathology include neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in various brain regions. The mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in AD and DS remains elusive. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DS. Our data show that RCAN1 expression is elevated in the cortex of DS and AD patients. RCAN1 expression can be activated by the stress hormone dexamethasone. A functional glucocorticoid response element was identified in the RCAN1 isoform 1 (RCAN1-1) promoter region, which is able to mediate the up-regulation of RCAN1 expression. Here we show that overexpression of RCAN1-1 in primary neurons activates caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induces neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the neurotoxicity of RCAN1-1 is inhibited by knock-out of caspase-3 in caspase-3−/− neurons. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which RCAN1 functions as a mediator of stress- and Aβ-induced neuronal death, and overexpression of RCAN1 due to an extra copy of the RCAN1 gene on chromosome 21 contributes to AD pathogenesis in DS. PMID:21216952

  9. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) facilitates neuronal apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

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    Sun, Xiulian; Wu, Yili; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Tong, Yigang; Yuan, Junying; Xia, Kun; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Flavell, Richard A; Song, Weihong

    2011-03-18

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will inevitably develop Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology sometime after middle age, which may be attributable to genes triplicated in individuals with DS. The characteristics of AD neuropathology include neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in various brain regions. The mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in AD and DS remains elusive. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DS. Our data show that RCAN1 expression is elevated in the cortex of DS and AD patients. RCAN1 expression can be activated by the stress hormone dexamethasone. A functional glucocorticoid response element was identified in the RCAN1 isoform 1 (RCAN1-1) promoter region, which is able to mediate the up-regulation of RCAN1 expression. Here we show that overexpression of RCAN1-1 in primary neurons activates caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induces neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the neurotoxicity of RCAN1-1 is inhibited by knock-out of caspase-3 in caspase-3(-/-) neurons. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which RCAN1 functions as a mediator of stress- and Aβ-induced neuronal death, and overexpression of RCAN1 due to an extra copy of the RCAN1 gene on chromosome 21 contributes to AD pathogenesis in DS.

  10. Sensory deprivation regulates the development of the hyperpolarization-activated current in auditory brainstem neurons.

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    Hassfurth, Benjamin; Magnusson, Anna K; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the superior olivary complex, the primary locus for binaural information processing. This hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) regulates the excitability of neurons and enhances the temporally precise analysis of the binaural acoustic cues. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the properties of I(h) current in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) before and after hearing onset. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that I(h) currents are actively regulated by sensory input activity by performing bilateral and unilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, resulting in a chronic auditory deprivation. The results show that after hearing onset, I(h) currents are rapidly upregulated in LSO neurons, but change only marginally in neurons of the MNTB. We also found a striking difference in maximal current density, voltage dependence and activation time constant between the LSO and the MNTB in mature-like animals. Following bilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, the I(h) currents were scaled up in the LSO and scaled down in the MNTB. Consequently, in the LSO this resulted in a depolarized resting membrane potential and a lower input resistance of these neurons. This type of activity-dependent homeostatic change could thus result in an augmented response to the remaining inputs.

  11. FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Khanh V.; Kinyua, Ann W.; Yang, Dong Joo; Ko, Chang Mann; Moh, Sang Hyun; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Inki; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Yoon, Seul Gi; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ki Woo

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KODAT) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KODAT mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:27681312

  12. Evidence for regulatory diversity and auto-regulation at the TAC1 locus in sensory neurones

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    Ross Ruth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neuropeptide substance-P (SP is expressed from the TAC1 gene in sensory neurones where it acts as a key modulator of neurogenic inflammation. The promoter of TAC1 (TAC1prom plays a central role in the regulation of the TAC1 gene but requires the presence of a second regulatory element; ECR2, to support TAC1 expression in sensory neurones and to respond appropriately to signalling pathways such as MAPkinases and noxious induction by capsaicin. We examined whether the effect of capsaicin on ECR2-TAC1prom activity in larger diameter neurones was cell autonomous or non- cell autonomous. We demonstrate that TRPV1 is not expressed in all the same cells as SP following capsaicin induction suggesting the presence of a non-cell autonomous mechanism for TAC1 up-regulation following capsaicin induction. In addition, we demonstrate that induction of SP and ECR1-TAC1prom activity in these larger diameter neurones can be induced by potassium depolarisation suggesting that, in addition to capsaicin induction, transgene activity may be modulated by voltage gated calcium channels. Furthermore, we show that NK1 is expressed in all SP- expressing cells after capsaicin induction and that an agonist of NK1 can activate both SP and the transgene in larger diameter neurones. These observations suggest the presence of an autocrine loop that controls the expression of the TAC1 promoter in sensory neurones. In contrast, induction of the TAC1 promoter by LPS was not dependent on ECR2 and did not occur in large diameter neurones. These studies demonstrate the diversity of mechanisms modulating the activity of the TAC1 promoter and provide novel directions for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapies.

  13. Regulation of Piezo2 Mechanotransduction by Static Plasma Membrane Tension in Primary Afferent Neurons.

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    Jia, Zhanfeng; Ikeda, Ryo; Ling, Jennifer; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Viacheslav; Gu, Jianguo G

    2016-04-22

    The Piezo2 channel is a newly identified mammalian mechanical transducer that confers rapidly adapting mechanically activated (RA-MA) currents in primary afferent neurons. The Piezo2 channels sense rapid membrane displacement, but it is not clear whether they are sensitive to osmotic swelling, which slowly increases static plasma membrane tension (SPMT). Here, we show that SPMT exerts a profound impact on the mechanical sensitivity of RA-MA channels in primary afferent neurons. RA-MA currents are greatly enhanced, and the mechanical threshold was reduced in both primary afferent neurons of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing Piezo2 when these cells undergo osmotic swelling to increase SPMT. Osmotic swelling switches the kinetics of RA-MA currents to the slowly adapting type in both cultured DRG neurons and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing Piezo2. The potentiation of RA-MA currents is abolished when cultured DRG neurons are treated with cytochalasin D, an actin filament disruptor that prevents SPMT of cultured DRG neurons from an increase by osmotic swelling. Osmotic swelling significantly increases DRG neuron mechano-excitability such that a subthreshold mechanical stimulus can result in action potential firing. Behaviorally, the mechanical hind paw withdrawal threshold in rats is reduced following the injection of a hypotonic solution, but this osmotic effect is abolished when cytochalasin D or Gd(3+) is co-administered with the hypo-osmotic solution. Taken together, our findings suggest that Piezo2-mediated mechanotransduction is regulated by SPMT in primary afferent neurons. Because SPMT can be changed by multiple biological factors, our findings may have broad implications in mechanical sensitivity under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 promotes subcerebral projection neuron identity in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, William L; Ortiz-Londono, Christian F; Mathew, Thomas K; Hoang, Kendy; Katzman, Sol; Chen, Bin

    2015-09-15

    Generation of distinct cortical projection neuron subtypes during development relies in part on repression of alternative neuron identities. It was reported that the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is required for proper development of callosal neuron identity and represses expression of genes that are essential for subcerebral axon development. Surprisingly, Satb2 has recently been shown to be necessary for subcerebral axon development. Here, we unravel a previously unidentified mechanism underlying this paradox. We show that SATB2 directly activates transcription of forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (Fezf2) and SRY-box 5 (Sox5), genes essential for subcerebral neuron development. We find that the mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 enables Satb2 to promote subcerebral neuron identity in layer 5 neurons, and to repress subcerebral characters in callosal neurons. Thus, Satb2 promotes the development of callosal and subcerebral neurons in a cell context-dependent manner.

  15. Bi-directional astrocytic regulation of neuronal activity within a network

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    Gordleeva, S. Yu; Stasenko, S. V.; Semyanov, A. V.; Dityatev, A. E.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a tripartite synapse holds that astrocytes can affect both the pre- and post-synaptic compartments through the Ca2+-dependent release of gliotransmitters. Because astrocytic Ca2+ transients usually last for a few seconds, we assumed that astrocytic regulation of synaptic transmission may also occur on the scale of seconds. Here, we considered the basic physiological functions of tripartite synapses and investigated astrocytic regulation at the level of neural network activity. The firing dynamics of individual neurons in a spontaneous firing network was described by the Hodgkin–Huxley model. The neurons received excitatory synaptic input driven by the Poisson spike train with variable frequency. The mean field concentration of the released neurotransmitter was used to describe the presynaptic dynamics. The amplitudes of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (PSCs) obeyed the gamma distribution law. In our model, astrocytes depressed the presynaptic release and enhanced the PSCs. As a result, low frequency synaptic input was suppressed while high frequency input was amplified. The analysis of the neuron spiking frequency as an indicator of network activity revealed that tripartite synaptic transmission dramatically changed the local network operation compared to bipartite synapses. Specifically, the astrocytes supported homeostatic regulation of the network activity by increasing or decreasing firing of the neurons. Thus, the astrocyte activation may modulate a transition of neural network into bistable regime of activity with two stable firing levels and spontaneous transitions between them. PMID:23129997

  16. MicroRNAs regulate neuronal plasticity and are involved in pain mechanisms.

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    Sara eElramah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs(miRNAs are emerging as master regulators of gene expression in the nervous system where they contribute not only to brain development but also to neuronal network homeostasis and plasticity. Their function is the result of a cascade of events including miRNA biogenesis, target recognition and translation inhibition. It has been suggested that miRNAs are major switches of the genome owing to their ability to regulate multiple genes at the same time. This regulation is essential for normal neuronal activity and, when affected, can lead to drastic pathological conditions. As an example, we illustrate how deregulation of miRNAs can affect neuronal plasticity leading to chronic pain.The origin of pain and its dual role as a key physiological function and a debilitating disease has been highly debated until now. The incidence of chronic pain is estimated to be 20-25% worldwide, thus making it a public health problem. Chronic pain can be considered as a form of maladaptive plasticity. Long-lasting modifications develop as a result of global changes in gene expression, and are thus likely to be controlled by miRNAs. Here, we review the literature on miRNAs and their targets responsible for maladaptive plasticity in chronic pain conditions. In addition, we conduct a retrospective analysis of miRNA expression data published for different pain models, taking into account recent progress in our understanding of the role of miRNAs in neuronal plasticity.

  17. Regulation of Autocrine Signaling in Subsets of Sympathetic Neurons Has Regional Effects on Tissue Innervation

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    Thomas G. McWilliams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of innervation by target-derived factors like nerve growth factor (NGF is the cornerstone of neurotrophic theory. Whereas autocrine signaling in neurons affecting survival and axon growth has been described, it is difficult to reconcile autocrine signaling with the idea that targets control their innervation. Here, we report that an autocrine signaling loop in developing mouse sympathetic neurons involving CD40L (TNFSF5 and CD40 (TNFRSF5 selectively enhances NGF-promoted axon growth and branching, but not survival, via CD40L reverse signaling. Because NGF negatively regulates CD40L and CD40 expression, this signaling loop operates only in neurons exposed to low levels of NGF. Consequently, the sympathetic innervation density of tissues expressing low NGF is significantly reduced in CD40-deficient mice, whereas the innervation density of tissues expressing high levels of NGF is unaffected. Our findings reveal how differential regulation of autocrine signaling in neurons has region-specific effects on axon growth and tissue innervation.

  18. Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Bryony L; Gregoriou, Gabrielle C; Kissiwaa, Sarah A; Wells, Oliver A; Medagoda, Danashi I; Hermes, Sam M; Burford, Neil T; Alt, Andrew; Aicher, Sue A; Bagley, Elena E

    2017-03-22

    Fear and emotional learning are modulated by endogenous opioids but the cellular basis for this is unknown. The intercalated cells (ITCs) gate amygdala output and thus regulate the fear response. Here we find endogenous opioids are released by synaptic stimulation to act via two distinct mechanisms within the main ITC cluster. Endogenously released opioids inhibit glutamate release through the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), an effect potentiated by a DOR-positive allosteric modulator. Postsynaptically, the opioids activate a potassium conductance through the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), suggesting for the first time that endogenously released opioids directly regulate neuronal excitability. Ultrastructural localization of endogenous ligands support these functional findings. This study demonstrates a new role for endogenously released opioids as neuromodulators engaged by synaptic activity to regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability. These distinct actions through MOR and DOR may underlie the opposing effect of these receptor systems on anxiety and fear.

  19. Melanocortin neurons: Multiple routes to regulation of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Jie; Yao, Ting; Kong, Xingxing; Williams, Kevin W; Liu, Tiemin

    2017-10-01

    The burden of disability, premature death, escalating health care costs and lost economic productivity due to obesity and its associated complications including hypertension, stroke, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes is staggering [1,2]. A better understanding of metabolic homeostatic pathways will provide us with insights into the biological mechanisms of obesity and how to fundamentally address this epidemic [3-6]. In mammals, energy balance is maintained via a homeostatic system involving both peripheral and central melanocortin systems; changes in body weight reflect an unbalance of the energetic state [7-9]. Although the primary cause of obesity is unknown, there is significant effort to understand the role of the central melanocortin pathway in the brain as it has been shown that deficiency of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) [10,11] and melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) [12-15] in both rodents and humans results in severe hyperphagia and obesity [16-23]. In this review, we will summarize how the central melanocortin pathway helps regulate body mass and adiposity within a 'healthy' range through the 'nutrient sensing' network [24-28]. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Melanocortin Receptors - edited by Ya-Xiong Tao. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Glial Regulation of the Neuronal Connectome through Local and Long-Distant Communication.

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    Fields, R Douglas; Woo, Dong Ho; Basser, Peter J

    2015-04-22

    If "the connectome" represents a complete map of anatomical and functional connectivity in the brain, it should also include glia. Glia define and regulate both the brain's anatomical and functional connectivity over a broad range of length scales, spanning the whole brain to subcellular domains of synaptic interactions. This Perspective article examines glial interactions with the neuronal connectome (including long-range networks, local circuits, and individual synaptic connections) and highlights opportunities for future research. Our understanding of the structure and function of the neuronal connectome would be incomplete without an understanding of how all types of glia contribute to neuronal connectivity and function, from single synapses to circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuronal RING finger protein 11 (RNF11 regulates canonical NF-κB signaling

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    Pranski Elaine L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RING domain-containing protein RING finger protein 11 (RNF11 is a member of the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex and modulates peripheral NF-κB signaling. RNF11 is robustly expressed in neurons and colocalizes with a population of α-synuclein-positive Lewy bodies and neurites in Parkinson disease patients. The NF-κB pathway has an important role in the vertebrate nervous system, where the absence of NF-κB activity during development can result in learning and memory deficits, whereas chronic NF-κB activation is associated with persistent neuroinflammation. We examined the functional role of RNF11 with respect to canonical NF-κB signaling in neurons to gain understanding of the tight association of inflammatory pathways, including NF-κB, with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Methods and results Luciferase assays were employed to assess NF-κB activity under targeted short hairpin RNA (shRNA knockdown of RNF11 in human neuroblastoma cells and murine primary neurons, which suggested that RNF11 acts as a negative regulator of canonical neuronal NF-κB signaling. These results were further supported by analyses of p65 translocation to the nucleus following depletion of RNF11. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RNF11 associates with members of the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex in neurons. Site-directed mutagenesis of the myristoylation domain, which is necessary for endosomal targeting of RNF11, altered the impact of RNF11 on NF-κB signaling and abrogated RNF11’s association with the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex. A partial effect on canonical NF-κB signaling and an association with the A20 ubiquitin-editing protein complex was observed with mutagenesis of the PPxY motif, a proline-rich region involved in Nedd4-like protein interactions. Last, shRNA-mediated reduction of RNF11 in neurons and neuronal cell lines elevated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and

  2. 5-HT6 receptor blockade regulates primary cilia morphology in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Matthew; Lesiak, Adam J; Croicu, Alex; Cohenca, Nathalie; Sullivan, Jane M; Neumaier, John F

    2017-04-01

    The 5-HT6 receptor has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including habitual behaviors, learning, and memory. It is found almost exclusively in the brain, is expressed abundantly in striatum, and localizes to neuronal primary cilia. Primary cilia are antenna-like, sensory organelles found on most neurons that receive both chemical and mechanical signals from other cells and the surrounding environment; however, the effect of 5-HT6 receptor function on cellular morphology has not been examined. We confirmed that 5-HT6 receptors were localized to primary cilia in wild-type (WT) but not 5-HT6 knockout (5-HT6KO) in both native mouse brain tissue and primary cultured striatal neurons then used primary neurons cultured from WT or 5-HT6KO mice to study the function of these receptors. Selective 5-HT6 antagonists reduced cilia length in neurons cultured from wild-type mice in a concentration and time-dependent manner without altering dendrites, but had no effect on cilia length in 5-HT6KO cultured neurons. Varying the expression levels of heterologously expressed 5-HT6 receptors affected the fidelity of ciliary localization in both WT and 5-HT6KO neurons; overexpression lead to increasing amounts of 5-HT6 localization outside of the cilia but did not alter cilia morphology. Introducing discrete mutations into the third cytoplasmic loop of the 5-HT6 receptor greatly reduced, but did not entirely eliminate, trafficking of the 5-HT6 receptor to primary cilia. These data suggest that blocking 5-HT6 receptor activity reduces the length of primary cilia and that mechanisms that regulate trafficking of 5-HT6 receptors to cilia are more complex than previously thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The homeobox transcription factor Even-skipped regulates acquisition of electrical properties in Drosophila neurons

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    Brand Andrea H

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While developmental processes such as axon pathfinding and synapse formation have been characterized in detail, comparatively less is known of the intrinsic developmental mechanisms that regulate transcription of ion channel genes in embryonic neurons. Early decisions, including motoneuron axon targeting, are orchestrated by a cohort of transcription factors that act together in a combinatorial manner. These transcription factors include Even-skipped (Eve, islet and Lim3. The perdurance of these factors in late embryonic neurons is, however, indicative that they might also regulate additional aspects of neuron development, including the acquisition of electrical properties. Results To test the hypothesis that a combinatorial code transcription factor is also able to influence the acquisition of electrical properties in embryonic neurons we utilized the molecular genetics of Drosophila to manipulate the expression of Eve in identified motoneurons. We show that increasing expression of this transcription factor, in two Eve-positive motoneurons (aCC and RP2, is indeed sufficient to affect the electrical properties of these neurons in early first instar larvae. Specifically, we observed a decrease in both the fast K+ conductance (IKfast and amplitude of quantal cholinergic synaptic input. We used charybdotoxin to pharmacologically separate the individual components of IKfast to show that increased Eve specifically down regulates the Slowpoke (a BK Ca2+-gated potassium channel, but not Shal, component of this current. Identification of target genes for Eve, using DNA adenine methyltransferase identification, revealed strong binding sites in slowpoke and nAcRα-96Aa (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. Verification using real-time PCR shows that pan-neuronal expression of eve is sufficient to repress transcripts for both slo and nAcRα-96Aa. Conclusion Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that Eve

  4. Estrogen receptor–α in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor–α (ERα) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERα-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ERα. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ERα (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight–lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ERα in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ERα agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug–mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ERα signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212

  5. Orexin affects dorsal root ganglion neurons: a mechanism for regulating the spinal nociceptive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J-A; Ge, L; Huang, W; Song, B; Chen, X-W; Yu, Z-P

    2008-01-01

    Orexins (orexin A and B) are initially known to be a hypothalamic peptide critical for feeding and normal wakefulness. In addition, emerging evidence from behavioral tests suggests that orexins are also involved in the regulation of nociceptive processing, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic approach for pain treatment. Both spinal and supraspinal mechanisms appear to contribute to the role of orexin in nociception. In the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are primary afferent neurons that transmit peripheral stimuli to the pain-processing areas. Morphological results show that both orexin A and orexin-1 receptor are distributed in DRG neurons. Moreover, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging measurements we found that orexin A induced excitability and intracellular calcium concentration elevation in the isolated rat DRG neurons, which was mainly dependent on the activation of spinal orexin-1 receptor. Based on these findings, we propose a hypothesis that the direct effect of orexin A on DRG neurons would represent a possible mechanism for the orexinergic modulation of spinal nociceptive transmission.

  6. Evidence for cell autonomous AP1 function in regulation of Drosophila motor-neuron plasticity

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    Consoulas Christos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor AP1 mediates long-term plasticity in vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems. Recent studies of activity-induced synaptic change indicate that AP1 can function upstream of CREB to regulate both CREB-dependent enhancement of synaptic strength as well as CREB-independent increase in bouton number at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ. However, it is not clear from this study if AP1 functions autonomously in motor neurons to directly modulate plasticity. Results Here, we show that Fos and Jun, the two components of AP1, are abundantly expressed in motor neurons. We further combine immunohistochemical and electrophysiological analyses with use of a collection of enhancers that tightly restrict AP1 transgene expression within the nervous system to show that AP1 induction or inhibition in, but not outside of, motor neurons is necessary and sufficient for its modulation of NMJ size and strength. Conclusion By arguing against the possibility that AP1 effects at the NMJ occur via a polysynaptic mechanism, these observations support a model in which AP1 directly modulates NMJ plasticity processes through a cell autonomous pathway in the motor neuron. The approach described here may serve as a useful experimental paradigm for analyzing cell autonomy of genes found to influence structure and function of Drosophila motor neurons.

  7. PRMT1 and PRMT8 regulate retinoic acid-dependent neuronal differentiation with implications to neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandi, Zoltan; Czipa, Erik; Horvath, Attila; Koszeghy, Aron; Bordas, Csilla; Póliska, Szilárd; Juhász, István; Imre, László; Szabó, Gábor; Dezso, Balazs; Barta, Endre; Sauer, Sascha; Karolyi, Katalin; Kovacs, Ilona; Hutóczki, Gábor; Bognár, László; Klekner, Álmos; Szucs, Peter; Bálint, Bálint L; Nagy, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    Retinoids are morphogens and have been implicated in cell fate commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to neurons. Their effects are mediated by RAR and RXR nuclear receptors. However, transcriptional cofactors required for cell and gene-specific retinoid signaling are not known. Here we show that protein arginine methyl transferase (PRMT) 1 and 8 have key roles in determining retinoid regulated gene expression and cellular specification in a multistage neuronal differentiation model of murine ESCs. PRMT1 acts as a selective modulator, providing the cells with a mechanism to reduce the potency of retinoid signals on regulatory "hotspots." PRMT8 is a retinoid receptor target gene itself and acts as a cell type specific transcriptional coactivator of retinoid signaling at later stages of differentiation. Lack of either of them leads to reduced nuclear arginine methylation, dysregulated neuronal gene expression, and altered neuronal activity. Importantly, depletion of PRMT8 results in altered expression of a distinct set of genes, including markers of gliomagenesis. PRMT8 is almost entirely absent in human glioblastoma tissues. We propose that PRMT1 and PRMT8 serve as a rheostat of retinoid signaling to determine neuronal cell specification in a context-dependent manner and might also be relevant in the development of human brain malignancy. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Developmental Wiring of Specific Neurons Is Regulated by RET-1/Nogo-A in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpe, Nanna; Nørgaard, Steffen; Høye, Anette M; Pocock, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Nogo-A is a membrane-bound protein that functions to inhibit neuronal migration, adhesion, and neurite outgrowth during development. In the mature nervous system, Nogo-A stabilizes neuronal wiring to inhibit neuronal plasticity and regeneration after injury. Here, we show that RET-1, the sole Nogo-A homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, is required to control developmental wiring of a specific subset of neurons. In ret-1 deletion mutant animals, specific ventral nerve cord axons are misguided where they fail to respect the ventral midline boundary. We found that ret-1 is expressed in multiple neurons during development, and, through mosaic analysis, showed that ret-1 controls axon guidance in a cell-autonomous manner. Finally, as in mammals, ret-1 regulates ephrin expression, and dysregulation of the ephrin ligand VAB-2 is partially responsible for the ret-1 mutant axonal defects. Together, our data present a previously unidentified function for RET-1 in the nervous system of C. elegans. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2

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    Ioannis Grammatikakis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2 mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7 of Trf2 pre-mRNA. HNRNPH proteins prevent the production of the short isoform of Trf2 mRNA, as HNRNPH silencing selectively elevates TRF2-S levels. Accordingly, HNRNPH levels decline while TRF2-S levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of hnRNPH2 selectively accelerates the NGF-triggered differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells into neurons. In sum, HNRNPH is a splicing regulator of Trf2 pre-mRNA that prevents the expression of TRF2-S, a factor implicated in neuronal differentiation.

  10. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-05-03

    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of Trf2 pre-mRNA. HNRNPH proteins prevent the production of the short isoform of Trf2 mRNA, as HNRNPH silencing selectively elevates TRF2-S levels. Accordingly, HNRNPH levels decline while TRF2-S levels increase during neuronal differentiation. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of hnRNPH2 selectively accelerates the NGF-triggered differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma cells into neurons. In sum, HNRNPH is a splicing regulator of Trf2 pre-mRNA that prevents the expression of TRF2-S, a factor implicated in neuronal differentiation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep-deprivation regulates α-2 adrenergic responses of rat hypocretin/orexin neurons.

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    Aaron Uschakov

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated, in rat brain slices, that the usual excitation by noradrenaline (NA of hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx neurons was changed to an inhibition following sleep deprivation (SD. Here we describe that in control condition (CC, i.e. following 2 hours of natural sleep in the morning, the α(2-adrenergic receptor (α(2-AR agonist, clonidine, had no effect on hcrt/orx neurons, whereas following 2 hours of SD (SDC, it hyperpolarized the neurons by activating G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK channels. Since concentrations of clonidine up to a thousand times (100 µM higher than those effective in SDC (100 nM, were completely ineffective in CC, a change in the availability of G-proteins is unlikely to explain the difference between the two conditions. To test whether the absence of effect of clonidine in CC could be due to a down-regulation of GIRK channels, we applied baclofen, a GABA(B agonist known to also activate GIRK channels, and found that it hyperpolarized hcrt/orx neurons in that condition. Moreover, baclofen occluded the response to clonidine in SDC, indicating that absence of effect of clonidine in CC could not be attributed to down-regulation of GIRK channels. We finally tested whether α(2-ARs were still available at the membrane in CC and found that clonidine could reduce calcium currents, indicating that α(2-ARs associated with calcium channels remain available in that condition. Taken together, these results suggest that a pool of α(2-ARs associated with GIRK channels is normally down-regulated (or desensitized in hcrt/orx neurons to only become available for their inhibition following sleep deprivation.

  12. DCC Expression by Neurons Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in the Adult Brain

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    Katherine E. Horn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC and its ligand, netrin-1, regulate synaptogenesis during development, but their function in the mature central nervous system is unknown. Given that DCC promotes cell-cell adhesion, is expressed by neurons, and activates proteins that signal at synapses, we hypothesized that DCC expression by neurons regulates synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. We report that DCC is enriched in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice, and we demonstrate that selective deletion of DCC from neurons in the adult forebrain results in the loss of long-term potentiation (LTP, intact long-term depression, shorter dendritic spines, and impaired spatial and recognition memory. LTP induction requires Src activation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR function. DCC deletion severely reduced Src activation. We demonstrate that enhancing NMDAR function or activating Src rescues LTP in the absence of DCC. We conclude that DCC activation of Src is required for NMDAR-dependent LTP and certain forms of learning and memory.

  13. Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain

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    Michalina Respondek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC, which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  14. [Regulation of neurogenesis: factors affecting of new neurons formation in adult mammals brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respondek, Michalina; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-31

    Neurogenesis is a complex and multi-step process of generating completely functional neurons. This process in adult brain is based on pluripotentional neuronal stem cells (NSC), which are able to proliferation and differentiation into mature neurons or glial cells. NSC are located in subgranular zone inside hippocampus and in subventricular zone. The new neurons formation depends on many endo- and exogenous factors which modulate each step of neurogenesis. This article describes the most important regulators of adult neurogenesis, mainly: neurotrophins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and microenvironment of NSC. Some drugs, especially antipsychotics, antidepressants and normothymics may affect the neurogenic properties of adult brain. Moreover pathological processes such as neuroinflammation, stroke or epilepsy are able to induce proliferation of NSC. The proneurogenic effects of psychotropic drugs and pathological processes are associated with their ability to increase some hormones and neurotrophins level, as well as with rising the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and metalloproteinase MMP-2. Additionaly, some drugs, for example haloperidol, are able to block prolactin and dopaminergic neuroblasts receptors. Down-regulation of adult neurogenesis is associated with alcohol abuse and high stress level. Negative effect of many drugs, such as cytostatics, COX-2 inhibitors and opioides was also observed. The proneurogenic effect of described factors suggest their broad therapeutic potential and gives a new perspective on an effective and modern treatment of many neuropsychiatric disorders. This effect can also help to clarify the pathogenesis of disorders associated with proliferation and degeneration of adult brain cells.

  15. TRPM8 is a neuronal osmosensor that regulates eye blinking in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quallo, Talisia; Vastani, Nisha; Horridge, Elisabeth; Gentry, Clive; Parra, Andres; Moss, Sian; Viana, Felix; Belmonte, Carlos; Andersson, David A.; Bevan, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Specific peripheral sensory neurons respond to increases in extracellular osmolality but the mechanism responsible for excitation is unknown. Here we show that small increases in osmolality excite isolated mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons expressing the cold-sensitive TRPM8 channel (transient receptor potential channel, subfamily M, member 8). Hyperosmotic responses were abolished by TRPM8 antagonists, and were absent in DRG and TG neurons isolated from Trpm8−/− mice. Heterologously expressed TRPM8 was activated by increased osmolality around physiological levels and inhibited by reduced osmolality. Electrophysiological studies in a mouse corneal preparation demonstrated that osmolality regulated the electrical activity of TRPM8-expressing corneal afferent neurons. Finally, the frequency of eye blinks was reduced in Trpm8−/− compared with wild-type mice and topical administration of a TRPM8 antagonist reduced blinking in wild-type mice. Our findings identify TRPM8 as a peripheral osmosensor responsible for the regulation of normal eye-blinking in mice. PMID:25998021

  16. miR-153 Regulates SNAP-25, Synaptic Transmission, and Neuronal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olena, Abigail F.; Cha, Diana J.; Perdigoto, Ana L.; Marshall, Andrew F.; Carter, Bruce D.; Broadie, Kendal; Patton, James G.

    2013-01-01

    SNAP-25 is a core component of the trimeric SNARE complex mediating vesicle exocytosis during membrane addition for neuronal growth, neuropeptide/growth factor secretion, and neurotransmitter release during synaptic transmission. Here, we report a novel microRNA mechanism of SNAP-25 regulation controlling motor neuron development, neurosecretion, synaptic activity, and movement in zebrafish. Loss of miR-153 causes overexpression of SNAP-25 and consequent hyperactive movement in early zebrafish embryos. Conversely, overexpression of miR-153 causes SNAP-25 down regulation resulting in near complete paralysis, mimicking the effects of treatment with Botulinum neurotoxin. miR-153-dependent changes in synaptic activity at the neuromuscular junction are consistent with the observed movement defects. Underlying the movement defects, perturbation of miR-153 function causes dramatic developmental changes in motor neuron patterning and branching. Together, our results indicate that precise control of SNAP-25 expression by miR-153 is critically important for proper neuronal patterning as well as neurotransmission. PMID:23451149

  17. Differential regulation of the zebrafish orthopedia1 gene during fate determination of diencephalic neurons

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    Tarallo Raffaella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The homeodomain transcription factor Orthopedia (Otp is essential in restricting the fate of multiple classes of secreting neurons in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus of vertebrates. However, there is little information on the intercellular factors that regulate Otp expression during development. Results Here, we identified two otp orthologues in zebrafish (otp1 and otp2 and explored otp1 in the context of the morphogenetic pathways that specify neuroectodermal regions. During forebrain development, otp1 is expressed in anterior groups of diencephalic cells, positioned in the preoptic area (PO (anterior alar plate and the posterior tuberculum (PT (posterior basal plate. The latter structure is characterized by Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH-positive cells, suggesting a role for otp1 in the lineage restriction of catecholaminergic (CA neurons. Disruptions of Hedgehog (HH and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF pathways point to the ability of SHH protein to trigger otp1 expression in PO presumptive neuroblasts, with the attenuating effect of Dzip1 and FGF8. In addition, our data disclose otp1 as a determinant of CA neurons in the PT, where otp1 activity is strictly dependent on Nodal signaling and it is not responsive to SHH and FGF. Conclusion In this study, we pinpoint the evolutionary importance of otp1 transcription factor in cell states of the diencephalon anlage and early neuronal progenitors. Furthermore, our data indicate that morphogenetic mechanisms differentially regulate otp1 expression in alar and basal plates.

  18. Nerve growth factor scales endocannabinoid signaling by regulating monoacylglycerol lipase turnover in developing cholinergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keimpema, Erik; Tortoriello, Giuseppe; Alpár, Alán; Capsoni, Simona; Arisi, Ivan; Calvigioni, Daniela; Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Cattaneo, Antonino; Doherty, Patrick; Mackie, Kenneth; Harkany, Tibor

    2013-01-29

    Endocannabinoid, particularly 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), signaling has recently emerged as a molecular determinant of neuronal migration and synapse formation during cortical development. However, the cell type specificity and molecular regulation of spatially and temporally confined morphogenic 2-AG signals remain unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that genetic and pharmacological manipulation of CB(1) cannabinoid receptors permanently alters cholinergic projection neuron identity and hippocampal innervation. We show that nerve growth factor (NGF), implicated in the morphogenesis and survival of cholinergic projection neurons, dose-dependently and coordinately regulates the molecular machinery for 2-AG signaling via tropomyosine kinase A receptors in vitro. In doing so, NGF limits the sorting of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), rate limiting 2-AG bioavailability, to proximal neurites, allowing cell-autonomous 2-AG signaling at CB(1) cannabinoid receptors to persist at atypical locations to induce superfluous neurite extension. We find that NGF controls MGL degradation in vitro and in vivo and identify the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) as a candidate facilitating MGL's elimination from motile neurite segments, including growth cones. BRCA1 inactivation by cisplatin or genetically can rescue and reposition MGL, arresting NGF-induced growth responses. These data indicate that NGF can orchestrate endocannabinoid signaling to promote cholinergic differentiation and implicate BRCA1 in determining neuronal morphology.

  19. Unique aspects of transcriptional regulation in neurons – nuances in NFκB and Sp1-related factors

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    Chen Yuzhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The unique physiology and function of neurons create differences in their cellular physiology, including their regulation of gene expression. We began several years ago exploring the relationships between the NFκB transcription factor, neuronal survival, and glutamate receptor activation in telencephalic neurons. These studies led us to conclude that this population of cells is nearly incapable of activating the NFκB that is nonetheless expressed at reasonable levels. A subset of the κB cis elements are instead bound by members of the Sp1 family in neurons. Also surprising was our discovery that Sp1 itself, typically described as ubiquitous, is severely restricted in expression within forebrain neurons; Sp4 seems to be substituted during neuronal differentiation. These findings and their implications for neuronal differentiation – as well as potential dedifferentiation during degenerative processes – are discussed here.

  20. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) Facilitates Neuronal Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activation*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun,, Xiucong; Wu, De; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Tong,; Yuan, Junying; Xia, Kun; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Flavell, Richard A.; Song

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will inevitably develop Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology sometime after middle age, which may be attributable to genes triplicated in individuals with DS. The characteristics of AD neuropathology include neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in various brain regions. The mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in AD and DS remains elusive. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DS. Our data s...

  1. A Subset of Autism-associated Genes Regulate the Structural Stability of Neurons

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    Yu-Chih Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals’ ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity. These mechanisms together regulate the structural stability of neurons and are vulnerable targets in ASD. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of those autism risk genes that affect the structural connectivity of neurons. We sub-categorize them into 1 cytoskeletal regulators, e.g. motors and small RhoGTPase regulators; 2 adhesion molecules, e.g. cadherins, NCAM, and neurexin superfamily; 3 cell surface receptors, e.g. glutamatergic receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases; 4 signaling molecules, e.g. protein kinases and phosphatases; and 5 synaptic proteins, e.g. vesicle and scaffolding proteins. Although the roles of some of these genes in maintaining neuronal structural stability are well studied, how mutations contribute to the autism phenotype is still largely unknown. Investigating whether and how the neuronal structure and function are affected when these genes are mutated will provide insights toward developing effective interventions aimed at improving the lives of people with autism and their families.

  2. Regulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus by SIRT1

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    Yanyan eJiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV play a critical role in the regulation of autonomic functions. Previous studies indicated that central activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 has beneficial effects on homeostasis, most likely via modulation of the autonomic output. Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent deacetylases and have been associated with longevity. SIRT1 is one of the best-characterized sirtuins expressed in mammals, and may be involved in the regulation of metabolism. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator reduced hyperglycemia likely through activation of vagal output; however, the cellular mechanisms of action have not been determined. In this study, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology on acute brainstem slices was used to test the hypothesis that activation of SIRT1 with resveratrol enhances neurotransmission in DMV neurons. Application of resveratrol increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC. This effect was KATP channel-dependent and was prevented with pre-application of SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527. Resveratrol also increased miniature EPSC (mEPSC frequency without change in amplitude. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that resveratrol regulates excitatory neurotransmission in a PI3 kinase-dependent manner, since wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor prevented the increase of mEPSC frequency caused by resveratrol. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that resveratrol via SIRT1 increases excitatory neurotransmission to DMV neurons. These observations suggest that activation of SIRT1 may regulate the function of subdiaphragmatic organs through controlling the activity of parasympathetic DMV neurons.

  3. A Subset of Autism-Associated Genes Regulate the Structural Stability of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Frei, Jeannine A.; Kilander, Michaela B. C.; Shen, Wenjuan; Blatt, Gene J.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals’ ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity. These mechanisms together regulate the structural stability of neurons and are vulnerable targets in ASD. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of those autism risk genes that affect the structural connectivity of neurons. We sub-categorize them into (1) cytoskeletal regulators, e.g., motors and small RhoGTPase regulators; (2) adhesion molecules, e.g., cadherins, NCAM, and neurexin superfamily; (3) cell surface receptors, e.g., glutamatergic receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases; (4) signaling molecules, e.g., protein kinases and phosphatases; and (5) synaptic proteins, e.g., vesicle and scaffolding proteins. Although the roles of some of these genes in maintaining neuronal structural stability are well studied, how mutations contribute to the autism phenotype is still largely unknown. Investigating whether and how the neuronal structure and function are affected when these genes are mutated will provide insights toward developing effective interventions aimed at improving the lives of people with autism and their families. PMID:27909399

  4. Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Receptor Endocytosis in Neuronal Dendrites Revealed by Imaging of Single Vesicle Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosendale, Morgane; Jullié, Damien; Choquet, Daniel; Perrais, David

    2017-01-01

    Endocytosis in neuronal dendrites is known to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD). However, the inability to detect endocytosis directly in living neurons has hampered studies of its dynamics and regulation. Here, we visualized the formation of individual endocytic vesicles containing pHluorin-tagged receptors with high temporal resolution in the dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. We show that transferrin receptors (TfRs) are...

  5. Spatio-temporal and dynamic regulation of neurofascin alternative splicing in mouse cerebellar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Ayukawa, Noriko; Okada, Chisa; Tanaka, Masami; Takekoshi, Susumu; Iijima, Yoko; Iijima, Takatoshi

    2017-09-12

    Alternative splicing is crucial for molecular diversification, which greatly contributes to the complexity and specificity of neural functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurofascin (NF) is a polymorphic cell surface protein that has a number of splicing isoforms. As the alternative splicing of the neurofascin gene (Nfasc) is developmentally regulated, NF isoforms have distinct functions in immature and mature brains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the alternative splicing of Nfasc in neurons are not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that, alongside developmental regulation, Nfasc alternative splicing is spatially controlled in the mouse brain. We then identified distinct Nfasc splicing patterns at the cell-type level in the cerebellum, with Nfasc186 being expressed in Purkinje cells and absent from granule cells (GCs). Furthermore, we show that high K+-induced depolarization triggers a shift in splicing from Nfasc140 to Nfasc186 in cerebellar GCs. Finally, we identified a neural RNA-binding protein, Rbfox, as a key player in neural NF isoform selection, specifically controlling splicing at exons 26-29. Together, our results show that Nfasc alternative splicing is spatio-temporally and dynamically regulated in cerebellar neurons. Our findings provide profound insight into the mechanisms underlying the functional diversity of neuronal cell-adhesive proteins in the mammalian CNS.

  6. Allicin protects rat cortical neurons against mechanical trauma injury by regulating nitric oxide synthase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue-fei; Li, Wen-tao; Han, Hong-cheng; Gao, Da-kuan; He, Xiao-sheng; Li, Liang; Song, Jin-ning; Fei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Allicin, a small molecule that is responsible for the typical smell and most of the functions of garlic, possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have therapeutic potential in many pathologic conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effect of allicin in an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) using primary cultured rat cortical neurons. We found that allicin treatment significantly reduced mechanical trauma-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and inhibited apoptotic neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. These protective effects were observed even if allicin treatment was delayed to 2h after injury. Allicin significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased the phosphorylation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) but had no effect on neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression. Allicin-induced protection in cortical neurons was augmented by iNOS and nNOS antagonists and was partly reversed by blocking eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, allicin treatment inhibited the TBI-induced activation of ERK and further enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt in TBI-injured neurons. The Akt inhibitor LY294002 attenuated the allicin-induced increase in eNOS expression and phosphorylation, whereas the ERK inhibitor PD98059 had opposite effects on the expression of iNOS and eNOS. Pretreatment with LY294002 or PD98059 partly prevented or further enhanced allicin-induced neuroprotection, respectively. Collectively, these data demonstrate that allicin treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for traumatic neuronal injury and that the potential underlying mechanism involves Akt- and ERK-mediated regulation of NOS pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium regulation in long-term changes of neuronal excitability in the hippocampal formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, I.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) was examined during long-term changes of neuronal excitability in the mammalian CNS. The preparations under investigation included the kindling model of epilepsy, a genetic form of epilepsy and long-term potentiation (LTP) of neuronal activity. The study also includes a discussion of the possible roles of a neuron-specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP). The findings are summarized as follows: (1) CaBP was found to have an unequal distribution in various cortical areas of the rat with higher levels in ventral structures. (2) The decline in CaBP was correlated to the number of evoked afterdischarges (AD's) during kindling-induced epilepsy. (3) Marked changes in CaBP levels were also found in the brains of the epileptic strain of mice (El). The induction of seizures further decreased the levels of CaBP in the El mice, indicating a possible genetic impairment of neuronal Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis in the El strain. (4) The levels of total hippocampal Ca/sup 2 +/ and Zn/sup 2 +/ were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in control and commissural-kindled animals. (5) To measure Ca/sup 2 +/-homeostasis, the kinetic analysis of /sup 45/Ca uptake curves was undertaken in the in vitro hippocampus. (6) The kinetic analysis of /sup 45/Ca uptake curves revealed that Ca/sup 2 +/-regulation of the hippocampus is impaired following amygdala- and commissural kindling. (7). A novel form of long-term potentiation (LTP) of neuronal activity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is described. The findings raise the possibility that the Ca/sup 2 +/ necessary for induction of LTP may be derived from an intraneuronal storage site.

  8. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal “clock” gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbesi, Marta; Yildiz, Sevim; Arslan, Ahmet Dirim; Sharma, Rajiv; Manev, Hari; Uz, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Using transgenic mice model (i.e., “clock” knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulate the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e., D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2, and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e., D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e., rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the DA receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e., intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  9. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargent, B.; Couraud, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille (France))

    1990-08-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, the authors investigated the effect of Na{sup +}-channel activators (scorpion {alpha} toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na{sup +} channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t{sub 1/2}, 15 min) disappearance of surface Na{sup +} channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)saxitoxin and {sup 125}I-labeled scorpion {beta} toxin and a decrease in specific {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na{sup +} channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na{sup +} channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na{sup +} concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li{sup +} (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na{sup +}. Amphotericin B, a Na{sup +} ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na{sup +}-channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na{sup +}-channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na{sup +} concentration, whether elicited by Na{sup +}-channel activators or mediated by a Na{sup +} ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na{sup +} channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na{sup +}-channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro.

  10. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study...

  11. Cell surface area regulation in neurons in hippocampal slice cultures is resistant to oxygen-glucose deprivation

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    Natalya Shulyakova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Natalya Shulyakova1,2, Jamie Fong2, Diana Diec2, Adrian Nahirny1,2, Linda R Mills1,21Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 2S8; 2Toronto Western Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, 11-430, 399 Bathurst St, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 2S8Background: Neurons swell in response to a variety of insults. The capacity to recover, ie, to shrink, is critical for neuronal function and survival. Studies on dissociated neurons have shown that during swelling and shrinking, neurons reorganize their plasma membrane; as neurons swell, in response to hypo-osmotic media, the bilayer area increases. Upon restoration of normo-osmotic media, neurons shrink, forming transient invaginations of the plasma membrane known as vacuole-like dilations (VLDs, to accommodate the decrease in the bilayer.Methods: Here we used confocal microscopy to monitor neuronal swelling and shrinking in the three-dimensional (3D environment of post-natal rat hippocampal slice cultures. To label neurons, we used biolistic transfection, to introduce enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP targeted to the cytoplasm; and a membrane targeted GFP (lckGFP, targeted to the plasma membrane.Results: Neurons in slice cultures swelled and shrank in response to hypo-osmotic to normo-osmotic media changes. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD caused sustained neuronal swelling; after reperfusion, some neurons recovered but in others, VLD recovery was stalled. OGD did not impair neuronal capacity to recover from a subsequent osmotic challenge.Conclusion: These results suggest cell surface area regulation (SAR is an intrinsic property of neurons, and that neuronal capacity for SAR may play an important role in the brain’s response to ischemic insults.Keywords: neurons, swelling, ischemia, cell surface area, hippocampal slice culture

  12. Nurr1 regulates Top IIβ and functions in axon genesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

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    Heng Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NURR1 (also named as NR4A2 is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, which can bind to DNA and modulate expression of target genes. Previous studies have shown that NURR1 is essential for the nigral dopaminergic neuron phenotype and function maintenance, and the defects of the gene are possibly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD. Results In this study, we used new born Nurr1 knock-out mice combined with Affymetrix genechip technology and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify Nurr1 regulated genes, which led to the discovery of several transcripts differentially expressed in the nigro-striatal pathway of Nurr1 knock-out mice. We found that an axon genesis gene called Topoisomerase IIβ (Top IIβ was down-regulated in Nurr1 knock-out mice and we identified two functional NURR1 binding sites in the proximal Top IIβ promoter. While in Top IIβ null mice, we saw a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra and lack of neurites along the nigro-striatal pathway. Using specific TOP II antagonist ICRF-193 or Top IIβ siRNA in the primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM neurons, we documented that suppression of TOP IIβ expression resulted in VM neurites shortening and growth cones collapsing. Furthermore, microinjection of ICRF-193 into the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB led to the loss of nigro-striatal projection. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that Top IIβ might be a down-stream target of Nurr1, which might influence the processes of axon genesis in dopaminergic neurons via the regulation of TOP IIβ expression. The Nurr1-Top IIβ interaction may shed light on the pathologic role of Nurr1 defect in the nigro-striatal pathway deficiency associated with PD.

  13. Non-muscle myosin II regulates neuronal actin dynamics by interacting with guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

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    Eun-Young Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-muscle myosin II (NM II regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including neuronal differentiation, which requires precise spatio-temporal activation of Rho GTPases. The molecular mechanism underlying the NM II-mediated activation of Rho GTPases is poorly understood. The present study explored the possibility that NM II regulates neuronal differentiation, particularly morphological changes in growth cones and the distal axon, through guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs of the Dbl family. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NM II colocalized with GEFs, such as βPIX, kalirin and intersectin, in growth cones. Inactivation of NM II by blebbistatin (BBS led to the increased formation of short and thick filopodial actin structures at the periphery of growth cones. In line with these observations, FRET analysis revealed enhanced Cdc42 activity in BBS-treated growth cones. BBS treatment also induced aberrant targeting of various GEFs to the distal axon where GEFs were seldom observed under physiological conditions. As a result, numerous protrusions and branches were generated on the shaft of the distal axon. The disruption of the NM II-GEF interactions by overexpression of the DH domains of βPIX or Tiam1, or by βPIX depletion with specific siRNAs inhibited growth cone formation and induced slender axons concomitant with multiple branches in cultured hippocampal neurons. Finally, stimulation with nerve growth factor induced transient dissociation of the NM II-GEF complex, which was closely correlated with the kinetics of Cdc42 and Rac1 activation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that NM II maintains proper morphology of neuronal growth cones and the distal axon by regulating actin dynamics through the GEF-Rho GTPase signaling pathway.

  14. Dynamics of peptidergic secretory granule transport are regulated by neuronal stimulation

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    Cowan Ann E

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidergic neurons store and secrete the contents of large dense core vesicles (LDCVs from axon terminals and from dendrites. Secretion of peptides requires a highly regulated exocytotic mechanism, plus coordinated synthesis and transport of LDCVs to their sites of release. Although these trafficking events are critical to function, little is known regarding the dynamic behavior of LDCVs and the mechanisms by which their transport is regulated. Sensory neurons also package opiate receptors in peptide-containing LDCVs, which is thought to be important in pain sensation. Since peptide granules cannot be refilled locally after their contents are secreted, it is particularly important to understand how neurons support regulated release of peptides. Results A vector encoding soluble peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase fused to green fluorescent protein was constructed to address these questions in cultured primary peptidergic neurons of the trigeminal ganglion using time lapse confocal microscopy. The time course of release differs with secretagogue; the secretory response to depolarization with K+ is rapid and terminates within 15 minutes, while phorbol ester stimulation of secretion is maintained over a longer period. The data demonstrate fundamental differences between LDCV dynamics in axons and growth cones under basal conditions. Conclusions Under basal conditions, LDCVs move faster away from the soma than toward the soma, but fewer LDCVs travel anterograde than retrograde. Stimulation decreased average anterograde velocity and increases granule pausing. Data from antibody uptake, quantification of enzyme secretion and appearance of pHluorin fluorescence demonstrate distributed release of peptides all along the axon, not just at terminals.

  15. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Vernon A; Salameh, Ahlam I; Boron, Walter F; Parker, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (J L) and extrusion (J E). The balance between J E and J L determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to J L (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and J E (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na(+)- coupled HCO3 (-) transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions.

  16. Intracellular pH regulation by acid/base transporters in mammalian neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon A. Ruffin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular pH (pHi regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: [1] The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. [2] pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL and extrusion (JE. The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g. metabolic acidosis. [3] The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3 and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3 and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3- transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. [4] The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions.

  17. The broad spectrum of signaling pathways regulated by unfolded protein response in neuronal homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2017-06-28

    The protein folding capabilities in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are disturbed by alternations in the cellular homeostasis such as the disruption of calcium ion homeostasis, the expression of mutated proteins and oxidative stress. In response to these ER dysfunctions, eukaryotic cells activate canonical branches of signal transduction cascades to restore the protein folding capacity and avoid irreversible damages, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Prolonged ER dysfunctions and the downregulation of UPR signaling pathways have been accepted as a crucial trigger for the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that the UPR has a wide spectrum of signaling pathways for unique physiological roles in the diverse developmental, differential and lipidomic processes. A developed and intricate ER network exists in the neurites of neurons. Neuronal ER functions and ER-derived signaling mediate efficient communication between cell soma and distal sites through local protein synthesis, sorting and lipogenesis. However, relevant of ER-derived UPR signaling pathways in the elaborate mechanisms regulating neuronal activities, synaptic functions and protective responses against injury is not fully elucidated. In this review, we summarized our current understanding of how the UPR functions provide the appropriate signals for neuronal capabilities. We also reviewed how UPR dysfunctions lead to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the possibilities ameliorating their toxic effects by targeting UPR components. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Boron, Walter F.; Parker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) regulation in the brain is important in both physiological and physiopathological conditions because changes in pHi generally result in altered neuronal excitability. In this review, we will cover 4 major areas: (1) The effect of pHi on cellular processes in the brain, including channel activity and neuronal excitability. (2) pHi homeostasis and how it is determined by the balance between rates of acid loading (JL) and extrusion (JE). The balance between JE and JL determine steady-state pHi, as well as the ability of the cell to defend pHi in the face of extracellular acid-base disturbances (e.g., metabolic acidosis). (3) The properties and importance of members of the SLC4 and SLC9 families of acid-base transporters expressed in the brain that contribute to JL (namely the Cl-HCO3 exchanger AE3) and JE (the Na-H exchangers NHE1, NHE3, and NHE5 as well as the Na+- coupled HCO3− transporters NBCe1, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2). (4) The effect of acid-base disturbances on neuronal function and the roles of acid-base transporters in defending neuronal pHi under physiopathologic conditions. PMID:24592239

  19. Topoisomerase 1 Regulates Gene Expression in Neurons through Cleavage Complex-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Mabb

    Full Text Available Topoisomerase 1 (TOP1 inhibitors, including camptothecin and topotecan, covalently trap TOP1 on DNA, creating cleavage complexes (cc's that must be resolved before gene transcription and DNA replication can proceed. We previously found that topotecan reduces the expression of long (>100 kb genes and unsilences the paternal allele of Ube3a in neurons. Here, we sought to evaluate overlap between TOP1cc-dependent and -independent gene regulation in neurons. To do this, we utilized Top1 conditional knockout mice, Top1 knockdown, the CRISPR-Cas9 system to delete Top1, TOP1 catalytic inhibitors that do not generate TOP1cc's, and a TOP1 mutation (T718A that stabilizes TOP1cc's. We found that topotecan treatment significantly alters the expression of many more genes, including long neuronal genes, immediate early genes, and paternal Ube3a, when compared to Top1 deletion. Our data show that topotecan has a stronger effect on neuronal transcription than Top1 deletion, and identifies TOP1cc-dependent and -independent contributions to gene expression.

  20. FoxO1 target Gpr17 activates AgRP neurons to regulate food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongxia; Orozco, Ian J; Su, Ya; Suyama, Shigetomo; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger; Horvath, Tamas L; Wardlaw, Sharon L; Plum, Leona; Arancio, Ottavio; Accili, Domenico

    2012-06-08

    Hypothalamic neurons expressing Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) are critical for initiating food intake, but druggable biochemical pathways that control this response remain elusive. Thus, genetic ablation of insulin or leptin signaling in AgRP neurons is predicted to reduce satiety but fails to do so. FoxO1 is a shared mediator of both pathways, and its inhibition is required to induce satiety. Accordingly, FoxO1 ablation in AgRP neurons of mice results in reduced food intake, leanness, improved glucose homeostasis, and increased sensitivity to insulin and leptin. Expression profiling of flow-sorted FoxO1-deficient AgRP neurons identifies G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr17 as a FoxO1 target whose expression is regulated by nutritional status. Intracerebroventricular injection of Gpr17 agonists induces food intake, whereas Gpr17 antagonist cangrelor curtails it. These effects are absent in Agrp-Foxo1 knockouts, suggesting that pharmacological modulation of this pathway has therapeutic potential to treat obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hedgehog-PKA signaling and gnrh3 regulate the development of zebrafish gnrh3 neurons.

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    Ming-Wei Kuo

    Full Text Available GnRH neurons secrete GnRH that controls the development of the reproduction system. Despite many studies, the signals controlling the development of GnRH neurons from its progenitors have not been fully established. To understand the development of GnRH neurons, we examined the development of gnrh3-expressing cells using a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP and LacZ driven by the gnrh3 promoter. GFP and LacZ expression recapitulated that of gnrh3 in the olfactory region, olfactory bulb and telencephalon. Depletion of gnrh3 by morpholinos led to a reduction of GFP- and gnrh3-expressing cells, while over-expression of gnrh3 mRNA increased the number of these cells. This result indicates a positive feed-forward regulation of gnrh3 cells by gnrh3. The gnrh3 cells were absent in embryos that lack Hedgehog signaling, but their numbers were increased in embryos overexpressing shhb. We manipulated the amounts of kinase that antagonizes the Hedgehog signaling pathway, protein kinase A (PKA, by treating embryos with PKA activator forskolin or by injecting mRNAs encoding its constitutively active catalytic subunit (PKA* and dominant negative regulatory subunit (PKI into zebrafish embryos. PKA* misexpression or forskolin treatment decreased GFP cell numbers, while PKI misexpression led to ectopic production of GFP cells. Our data indicate that the Hedgehog-PKA pathway participates in the development of gnrh3-expressing neurons during embryogenesis.

  2. Trafficking regulates the subcellular distribution of voltage-gated sodium channels in primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lan

    2015-09-30

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) comprise at least nine pore-forming α subunits. Of these, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are the most frequently studied in primary sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglion and are mainly localized to the cytoplasm. A large pool of intracellular Navs raises the possibility that changes in Nav trafficking could alter channel function. The molecular mediators of Nav trafficking mainly consist of signals within the Navs themselves, interacting proteins and extracellular factors. The surface expression of Navs is achieved by escape from the endoplasmic reticulum and proteasome degradation, forward trafficking and plasma membrane anchoring, and it is also regulated by channel phosphorylation and ubiquitination in primary sensory neurons. Axonal transport and localization of Navs in afferent fibers involves the motor protein KIF5B and scaffold proteins, including contactin and PDZ domain containing 2. Localization of Nav1.6 to the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated fibers of primary sensory neurons requires node formation and the submembrane cytoskeletal protein complex. These findings inform our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying Nav trafficking in primary sensory neurons.

  3. A sodium leak current regulates pacemaker activity of adult central pattern generator neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis.

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    Tom Z Lu

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential of the pacemaker neurons is one of the essential mechanisms underlying rhythm generation. In this study, we described the biophysical properties of an uncharacterized channel (U-type channel and investigated the role of the channel in the rhythmic activity of a respiratory pacemaker neuron and the respiratory behaviour in adult freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Our results show that the channel conducts an inward leak current carried by Na(+ (I(Leak-Na. The I(Leak-Na contributed to the resting membrane potential and was required for maintaining rhythmic action potential bursting activity of the identified pacemaker RPeD1 neurons. Partial knockdown of the U-type channel suppressed the aerial respiratory behaviour of the adult snail in vivo. These findings identified the Na(+ leak conductance via the U-type channel, likely a NALCN-like channel, as one of the fundamental mechanisms regulating rhythm activity of pacemaker neurons and respiratory behaviour in adult animals.

  4. Neuronal influence behind the central nervous system regulation of the immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANAHI eCHAVARRIA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system has a highly specialized microenvironment, and despite being initially considered an immune privileged site, this immune status is far from absolute because it varies with age and brain topography. The brain monitors immune responses by several means that act in parallel; one pathway involves afferent nerves (vagal nerve and the other resident cells (neurons and glia. These cell populations exert a strong role in the regulation of the immune system, favoring an immune-modulatory environment in the CNS. Neurons control glial cell and infiltrated T-cells by contact-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Contact-dependent mechanisms are provided by several membrane immune modulating molecules such as Sema-7A, CD95L, CD22, CD200, CD47, NCAM, ICAM-5 and cadherins; which can inhibit the expression of microglial inflammatory cytokines, induce apoptosis or inactivate infiltrated T-cells. On the other hand, soluble neuronal factors like Sema-3A, cytokines, neurotrophins, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters attenuate microglial and/or T-cell activation. In this review, we focused on all known mechanism driven only by neurons in order to control the local immune cells.

  5. Volume regulated anion channel currents of rat hippocampal neurons and their contribution to oxygen-and-glucose deprivation induced neuronal death.

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    Huaqiu Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are widely expressed chloride channels that are critical for the cell volume regulation. In the mammalian central nervous system, the physiological expression of neuronal VRAC and its role in cerebral ischemia are issues largely unknown. We show that hypoosmotic medium induce an outwardly rectifying chloride conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The induced chloride conductance was sensitive to some of the VRAC inhibitors, namely, IAA-94 (300 µM and NPPB (100 µM, but not to tamoxifen (10 µM. Using oxygen-and-glucose deprivation (OGD to simulate ischemic conditions in slices, VRAC activation appeared after OGD induced anoxic depolarization (AD that showed a progressive increase in current amplitude over the period of post-OGD reperfusion. The OGD induced VRAC currents were significantly inhibited by inhibitors for glutamate AMPA (30 µM NBQX and NMDA (40 µM AP-5 receptors in the OGD solution, supporting the view that induction of AD requires an excessive Na(+-loading via these receptors that in turn to activate neuronal VRAC. In the presence of NPPB and DCPIB in the post-OGD reperfusion solution, the OGD induced CA1 pyramidal neuron death, as measured by TO-PRO-3-I staining, was significantly reduced, although DCPIB did not appear to be an effective neuronal VRAC blocker. Altogether, we show that rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons express functional VRAC, and ischemic conditions can initial neuronal VRAC activation that may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage.

  6. APP regulates NGF receptor trafficking and NGF-mediated neuronal differentiation and survival.

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    Yun-wu Zhang

    Full Text Available β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP is a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD but its physiological function is largely undetermined. APP has been found to regulate retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF, which plays a crucial role in mediating neuronal survival and differentiation. Herein, we reveal the mechanism underlying APP-mediated NGF trafficking, by demonstrating a direct interaction between APP and the two NGF receptors, TrkA and p75NTR. Downregulation of APP leads to reduced cell surface levels of TrkA/p75NTR and increased endocytosis of TrkA/p75NTR and NGF. In addition, APP-deficient cells manifest defects in neurite outgrowth and are more susceptible to Aβ-induced neuronal death at physiological levels of NGF. However, APP-deficient cells show better responses to NGF-stimulated differentiation and survival than control cells. This may be attributed to increased receptor endocytosis and enhanced activation of Akt and MAPK upon NGF stimulation in APP-deficient cells. Together, our results suggest that APP mediates endocytosis of NGF receptors through direct interaction, thereby regulating endocytosis of NGF and NGF-induced downstream signaling pathways for neuronal survival and differentiation.

  7. The Caenorhabditis elegans Elongator complex regulates neuronal alpha-tubulin acetylation.

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    Jachen A Solinger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although acetylated alpha-tubulin is known to be a marker of stable microtubules in neurons, precise factors that regulate alpha-tubulin acetylation are, to date, largely unknown. Therefore, a genetic screen was employed in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that identified the Elongator complex as a possible regulator of alpha-tubulin acetylation. Detailed characterization of mutant animals revealed that the acetyltransferase activity of the Elongator is indeed required for correct acetylation of microtubules and for neuronal development. Moreover, the velocity of vesicles on microtubules was affected by mutations in Elongator. Elongator mutants also displayed defects in neurotransmitter levels. Furthermore, acetylation of alpha-tubulin was shown to act as a novel signal for the fine-tuning of microtubules dynamics by modulating alpha-tubulin turnover, which in turn affected neuronal shape. Given that mutations in the acetyltransferase subunit of the Elongator (Elp3 and in a scaffold subunit (Elp1 have previously been linked to human neurodegenerative diseases, namely Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Familial Dysautonomia respectively highlights the importance of this work and offers new insights to understand their etiology.

  8. Regulation and Function of RFRP-3 (GnIH neurons during postnatal development

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    Matthew C Poling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3; mammalian ortholog to GnIH potently inhibits gonadotropin secretion in mammals. Studies of RFRP-3 immunoreactivity and Rfrp expression (the gene encoding RFRP-3 in mammalian brains have uncovered several possible pathways regulating RFRP-3 neurons, shedding light on their potential role in reproduction and other processes, and pharmacological studies have probed the target sites of RFRP-3 action. Despite this, there is currently no major consensus on RFRP-3’s specific endogenous role(s in reproductive physiology. Here we discuss the latest evidence relating to RFRP-3 neuron regulation and function during development and sexual maturation, focusing on rodents. We highlight significant changes in RFRP-3 and Rfrp expression, as well as RFRP-3 neuronal activation, during key stages of postnatal and pubertal development and also discuss recent evidence testing the requisite role of RFRP-3 receptors for normal pubertal timing and developmental LH secretion. Interestingly, some findings suggest that endogenous RFRP-3 signaling may not be necessary for the puberty timing, at least in some species, forcing new hypotheses to be generated regarding this peptide’s functional significance to sexual maturation and development.

  9. TGF-β Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons Regulates Dendritic Growth, Excitatory-Inhibitory Synaptic Balance, and Reversal Learning

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    Sarah X. Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits involving midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons regulate reward and goal-directed behaviors. Although local GABAergic input is known to modulate DA circuits, the mechanism that controls excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in DA neurons remains unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons use autocrine transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling to promote the growth of axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, removing TGF-β type II receptor in DA neurons also disrupts the balance in TGF-β1 expression in DA neurons and neighboring GABAergic neurons, which increases inhibitory input, reduces excitatory synaptic input, and alters phasic firing patterns in DA neurons. Mice lacking TGF-β signaling in DA neurons are hyperactive and exhibit inflexibility in relinquishing learned behaviors and re-establishing new stimulus-reward associations. These results support a role for TGF-β in regulating the delicate balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic input in local microcircuits involving DA and GABAergic neurons and its potential contributions to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Convergent Transcriptional Programs Regulate cAMP Levels in C. elegans GABAergic Motor Neurons.

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    Yu, Bin; Wang, Xiaolin; Wei, Shuai; Fu, Tao; Dzakah, Emmanuel Enoch; Waqas, Ahmed; Walthall, Walter W; Shan, Ge

    2017-10-23

    Both transcriptional regulation and signaling pathways play crucial roles in neuronal differentiation and plasticity. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses 19 GABAergic motor neurons (MNs) called D MNs, which are divided into two subgroups: DD and VD. DD, but not VD, MNs reverse their cellular polarity in a developmental process called respecification. UNC-30 and UNC-55 are two critical transcription factors in D MNs. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation with CRISPR/Cas9 knockin of GFP fusion, we uncovered the global targets of UNC-30 and UNC-55. UNC-30 and UNC-55 are largely converged to regulate over 1,300 noncoding and coding genes, and genes in multiple biological processes, including cAMP metabolism, are co-regulated. Increase in cAMP levels may serve as a timing signal for respecification, whereas UNC-55 regulates genes such as pde-4 to keep the cAMP levels low in VD. Other genes modulating DD respecification such as lin-14, irx-1, and oig-1 are also found to affect cAMP levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of inner ear afferent connections: forming primary neurons and connecting them to the developing sensory epithelia

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    Fritzsch, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The molecular and cellular origin of the primary neurons of the inner ear, the vestibular and spiral neurons, is reviewed including how they connect to the specific sensory epithelia and what the molecular nature of their survival is. Primary neurons of the ear depend on a single basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) protein for their formation, neurogenin 1 (ngn1). An immediate downstream gene is the bHLH gene neuronal differentiation (NeuroD). Targeted null mutations of ngn1 results in absence of primary neuron formation; targeted null mutation of NeuroD results in loss of almost all spiral and many vestibular neurons. NeuroD and a later expressed gene, Brn3a, play a role in pathfinding to and within sensory epithelia. The molecular nature of this pathfinding property is unknown. Reduction of hair cells in ngn1 null mutations suggests a clonal relationship with primary neurons. This relationship may play some role in specifying the identity of hair cells and the primary neurons that connect with them. Primary neuron neurites growth to sensory epithelia is initially independent of trophic factors released from developing sensory epithelia, but becomes rapidly dependent on those factors. Null mutations of specific neurotrophic factors lose distinct primary neuron populations which undergo rapid embryonic cell death.

  12. JIP3 regulates neuronal radial migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport in the developing cerebral cortex.

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    Ma, Huixian; Yu, Hui; Li, Ting; Zhao, Yan; Hou, Ming; Chen, Zheyu; Wang, Yue; Sun, Tao

    2017-04-15

    Radial migration is essential for the precise lamination and the coordinated function of the cerebral cortex. However, the molecular mechanisms for neuronal radial migration are not clear. Here, we report that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-3 (JIP3) is highly expressed in the brain of embryonic mice and essential for radial migration. Knocking down JIP3 by in utero electroporation specifically perturbs the radial migration of cortical neurons but has no effect on neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we illustrate that JIP3 knockdown delays but does not block the migration of cortical neurons by investigating the distribution of neurons with JIP3 knocked down in the embryo and postnatal mouse. Finally, we find that JIP3 regulates cortical neuronal migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport during brain development. These findings deepen our understanding of the regulation of neuronal development by JIP3 and provide us a novel view on the regulating mechanisms of neuronal radial migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Axial level-specific regulation of neuronal development: lessons from PITX2.

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    Waite, Mindy R; Martin, Donna M

    2015-02-01

    Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is vital for proper control of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of developing neurons. Pitx2 encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is highly expressed in the developing and adult mammalian brain. In humans, mutations in PITX2 result in Rieger syndrome, characterized by defects in the development of the eyes, umbilicus, and teeth and variable abnormalities in the brain, including hydrocephalus and cerebellar hypoplasia. Alternative splicing of Pitx2 in the mouse results in three isoforms, Pitx2a, Pitx2b, and Pitx2c, each of which is expressed symmetrically along the left-right axis of the brain throughout development. Here, we review recent evidence for axial and brain region-specific requirements for Pitx2 during neuronal migration and differentiation, highlighting known isoform contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

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    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I.; MacDermott, Amy B.; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  15. Propofol up-regulates Mas receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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    Cao, Lijun; Xun, Junmei; Jiang, Xinghua; Tan, Rong

    2013-08-01

    Mas is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a critical component of the renin-angiotensin system that is involved in processing nociceptive information. A recent study reported the localization of Mas in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) produced a dose-dependent peripheral antinociceptive effect in rats through the Mas receptor by an opioid-independent mechanism. In the present study, we for the first time examined the effect of propofol on Mas expression in cultured DRG neurons. We treated rat DRG neurons with propofol at different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 or 10 microM) for different length of time (0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h) with or without transcription inhibitor actinomycin D or different kinase inhibitors. Propofol increased the Mas receptormRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4 h, which led to dose-dependent up-regulation of the Mas receptor protein level as well as Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD169316 (25 microM) completely abolished the effect of propofol on Mas receptor expression in DRG neurons. In conclusion, we demonstrate that propofol markedly up-regulates Mas receptor expression at the transcription level in DRG neurons by a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism. This study provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of propofol in peripheral antinociception, and suggests a new regulatory mechanism on the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in the peripheral nervous system.

  16. Multifaceted effects of oligodendroglial exosomes on neurons: impact on neuronal firing rate, signal transduction and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Kuo, Wen Ping; Frühbeis, Carsten; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J; Pinto, Sheena; Toedling, Joern; Trotter, Jacqueline; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2014-09-26

    Exosomes are small membranous vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by almost every cell type. They exert versatile functions in intercellular communication important for many physiological and pathological processes. Recently, exosomes attracted interest with regard to their role in cell-cell communication in the nervous system. We have shown that exosomes released from oligodendrocytes upon stimulation with the neurotransmitter glutamate are internalized by neurons and enhance the neuronal stress tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that oligodendroglial exosomes also promote neuronal survival during oxygen-glucose deprivation, a model of cerebral ischaemia. We show the transfer from oligodendrocytes to neurons of superoxide dismutase and catalase, enzymes which are known to help cells to resist oxidative stress. Additionally, we identify various effects of oligodendroglial exosomes on neuronal physiology. Electrophysiological analysis using in vitro multi-electrode arrays revealed an increased firing rate of neurons exposed to oligodendroglial exosomes. Moreover, gene expression analysis and phosphorylation arrays uncovered differentially expressed genes and altered signal transduction pathways in neurons after exosome treatment. Our study thus provides new insight into the broad spectrum of action of oligodendroglial exosomes and their effects on neuronal physiology. The exchange of extracellular vesicles between neural cells may exhibit remarkable potential to impact brain performance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. miR-134 regulates ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced neuronal cell death by regulating CREB signaling.

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    Huang, Weidong; Liu, Xiaobin; Cao, Jie; Meng, Facai; Li, Min; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    microRNA-134 (miR-134) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and is differently expressed in brain tissues subjected to ischemic injury. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury remains poorly understood. The current study was designed to delineate the molecular basis of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury. Using the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model of hippocampal neuron ischemia in vitro, we found that the overexpression of miR-134 mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector infection significantly promoted neuron death induced by OGD/reoxygenation, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 provided protective effects against OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Moreover, cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) as a putative target of miR-134 was downregulated and upregulated by miR-134 overexpression or inhibition, respectively. The direct interaction between miR-134 and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of CREB mRNA was further confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-134 also inhibited the expression of the downstream gene of CREB, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 upregulated the expression of BDNF and Bcl-2 in neurons after OGD/reoxygenation. Notably, the knockdown of CREB by CREB siRNA apparently abrogated the protective effect of anti-miR-134 on OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Taken together, our study suggests that downregulation of miR-134 alleviates ischemic injury through enhancing CREB expression and downstream genes, providing a promising and potential therapeutic target for cerebral ischemic injury.

  18. microRNA as a new agent for regulating neuronal glutathione synthesis and metabolism

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    Chisato Kinoshita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available microRNA (miRNA is a small non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Recent evidence shows that miRNAs are involved in various diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases (NDs such as: Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisand multiple system atrophy (MSA. The initiation and progression of NDs is generally considered to be induced by oxidative stress arising from an imbalance of oxidants and antioxidants. One of the most important antioxidants against oxidative stress is glutathione (GSH, which is a tripeptide composed of cysteine, glutamate and glycine. Among these precursor amino acids, cysteine is the determinant of neuronal GSH synthesis. Cysteine uptake in the neurons is mostly mediated by excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1, a member of the sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters. Interestingly, it has been reported that one miRNA, miR-96-5p, regulates the neuroprotective effect of GSH by directly regulating EAAC1 expression. Furthermore, the expressions of miR-96-5p and its target EAAC1 are specifically deregulated in the brains of patients with MSA, suggesting that deregulated miR-96-5p induces MSA via EAAC1 down-regulation. Since miR-96-5p regulation of EAAC1 expression and GSH level is indicated to be under circadian control, a greater understanding of rhythmic miRNA regulation could lead to the use of miRNA in chronotherapy for ND. In this review, we focus on the role of miRNA in the mechanism of GSH synthesis and metabolism; particularly with respect to a critical transport system of its rate-limiting substrate via EAAC1, as well as on the implications and chronotherapeutic potential of miRNA for NDs.

  19. Subcellular targeting and dynamic regulation of PTEN: Implications for neuronal cells and neurological disorders

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    Patricia eKreis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available PTEN is a lipid and protein phosphatase that regulates a diverse range of cellular mechanisms. PTEN is mainly present in the cytosol and transiently associates with the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate PI(3,4,5P3, thereby antagonizing the PI3-Kinase signaling pathway. Recently, PTEN has been shown to associate also with organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria or the nucleus, and to be secreted outside of the cell. In addition, PTEN dynamically localizes to specialized sub-cellular compartments such as the neuronal growth cone or dendritic spines. The diverse localizations of PTEN imply a tight temporal and spatial regulation, orchestrated by mechanisms such as posttranslational modifications, formation of distinct protein-protein interactions or the activation/recruitment of PTEN downstream of external cues. The regulation of PTEN function is thus not only important at the enzymatic activity level, but is also associated to its spatial distribution. In this review we will summarize (i recent findings that highlight mechanisms controlling PTEN movement and sub-cellular localization, and (ii current understanding of how PTEN localization is achieved by mechanisms controlling posttranslational modification, by association with binding partners and by PTEN structural or activity requirements. Finally, we will discuss the possible roles of compartmentalized PTEN in developing and mature neurons in health and disease.

  20. Subcellular targeting and dynamic regulation of PTEN: implications for neuronal cells and neurological disorders.

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    Kreis, Patricia; Leondaritis, George; Lieberam, Ivo; Eickholt, Britta J

    2014-01-01

    PTEN is a lipid and protein phosphatase that regulates a diverse range of cellular mechanisms. PTEN is mainly present in the cytosol and transiently associates with the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate PI(3,4,5)P3, thereby antagonizing the PI3-Kinase signaling pathway. Recently, PTEN has been shown to associate also with organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria, or the nucleus, and to be secreted outside of the cell. In addition, PTEN dynamically localizes to specialized sub-cellular compartments such as the neuronal growth cone or dendritic spines. The diverse localizations of PTEN imply a tight temporal and spatial regulation, orchestrated by mechanisms such as posttranslational modifications, formation of distinct protein-protein interactions, or the activation/recruitment of PTEN downstream of external cues. The regulation of PTEN function is thus not only important at the enzymatic activity level, but is also associated to its spatial distribution. In this review we will summarize (i) recent findings that highlight mechanisms controlling PTEN movement and sub-cellular localization, and (ii) current understanding of how PTEN localization is achieved by mechanisms controlling posttranslational modification, by association with binding partners and by PTEN structural or activity requirements. Finally, we will discuss the possible roles of compartmentalized PTEN in developing and mature neurons in health and disease.

  1. Regulation of energy stores and feeding by neuronal and peripheral CREB activity in Drosophila.

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    Koichi Iijima

    Full Text Available The cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB functions in adipose tissue and liver to regulate glycogen and lipid metabolism in mammals. While Drosophila has a homolog of mammalian CREB, dCREB2, its role in energy metabolism is not fully understood. Using tissue-specific expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (DN-CREB, we have examined the effect of blocking CREB activity in neurons and in the fat body, the primary energy storage depot with functions of adipose tissue and the liver in flies, on energy balance, stress resistance and feeding behavior. We found that disruption of CREB function in neurons reduced glycogen and lipid stores and increased sensitivity to starvation. Expression of DN-CREB in the fat body also reduced glycogen levels, while it did not affect starvation sensitivity, presumably due to increased lipid levels in these flies. Interestingly, blocking CREB activity in the fat body increased food intake. These flies did not show a significant change in overall body size, suggesting that disruption of CREB activity in the fat body caused an obese-like phenotype. Using a transgenic CRE-luciferase reporter, we further demonstrated that disruption of the adipokinetic hormone receptor, which is functionally related to mammalian glucagon and beta-adrenergic signaling, in the fat body reduced CRE-mediated transcription in flies. This study demonstrates that CREB activity in either neuronal or peripheral tissues regulates energy balance in Drosophila, and that the key signaling pathway regulating CREB activity in peripheral tissue is evolutionarily conserved.

  2. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

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    Niurka Trujillo-Paredes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs, but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+. These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons.

  3. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT by SERT function in 5-HT-absorbing neurons underscores adaptation behavior in C. elegans

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    Jafarau, Gholamali; Xie, Yusu; Kullyev, Andrey; Liang, Bin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake serotonin (5-HT) from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. While 5-HT-absorbing neurons have been identified in diverse organisms from C. elegans to humans, their function has not been elucidated. Here, we show that SERT in 5-HT-absorbing neurons controls behavioral response to food deprivation in C. elegans. The AIM and RIH interneurons uptake 5-HT released from chemosensory neurons and secretory neurons. Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. Loss of mod-5/SERT function blocks the 5-HT absorption. mod-5/SERT mutants have been shown to exhibit exaggerated locomotor response to food deprivation. We found that transgenic expression of MOD-5/SERT in the 5-HT-absorbing neurons fully corrected the exaggerated behavior. Experiments of cell-specific inhibition of synaptic transmission suggest that the synaptic release of 5-HT from the 5-HT-absorbing neurons is not required for this behavioral modulation. Our data point to the role of 5-HT-absorbing neurons as temporal-spatial regulators of extrasynaptic 5-HT. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT levels by 5-HT-absorbing neurons may represent a fundamental mechanism of 5-HT homeostasis, integrating the activity of 5-HT-producing neurons with distant targets in the neural circuits, and could be relevant to some actions of SSRIs in human. PMID:21677178

  4. Regulation of TRH neurons and energy homeostasis-related signals under stress.

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    Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2015-03-01

    Energy homeostasis relies on a concerted response of the nervous and endocrine systems to signals evoked by intake, storage, and expenditure of fuels. Glucocorticoids (GCs) and thyroid hormones are involved in meeting immediate energy demands, thus placing the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axes at a central interface. This review describes the mode of regulation of hypophysiotropic TRHergic neurons and the evidence supporting the concept that they act as metabolic integrators. Emphasis has been be placed on i) the effects of GCs on the modulation of transcription of Trh in vivo and in vitro, ii) the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which acute or chronic situations of stress and energy demands affect the activity of TRHergic neurons and the HPT axis, and iii) the less explored role of non-hypophysiotropic hypothalamic TRH neurons. The partial evidence gathered so far is indicative of a contrasting involvement of distinct TRH cell types, manifested through variability in cellular phenotype and physiology, including rapid responses to energy demands for thermogenesis or physical activity and nutritional status that may be modified according to stress history. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Regulation of the longevity response to temperature by thermosensory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2009-05-12

    Many ectotherms, including C. elegans, have shorter life spans at high temperature than at low temperature. High temperature is generally thought to increase the "rate of living" simply by increasing chemical reaction rates. In this study, we questioned this view and asked whether the temperature dependence of life span is subject to active regulation. We show that thermosensory neurons play a regulatory role in the temperature dependence of life span. Surprisingly, inhibiting the function of thermosensory neurons by mutation or laser ablation causes animals to have even shorter life spans at warm temperature. Thermosensory mutations shorten life span by decreasing expression of daf-9, a gene required for the synthesis of ligands that inhibit the DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor. The short life span of thermosensory mutants at warm temperature is completely suppressed by a daf-12(-) mutation. Our data suggest that thermosensory neurons affect life span at warm temperature by changing the activity of a steroid-signaling pathway that affects longevity. We propose that this thermosensory system allows C. elegans to reduce the effect that warm temperature would otherwise have on processes that affect aging, something that warm-blooded animals do by controlling temperature itself.

  6. A novel pathway regulates thyroid hormone availability in rat and human hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons.

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    Imre Kalló

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurosecretory systems are fundamental regulatory circuits influenced by thyroid hormone. Monocarboxylate-transporter-8 (MCT8-mediated uptake of thyroid hormone followed by type 3 deiodinase (D3-catalyzed inactivation represent limiting regulatory factors of neuronal T3 availability. In the present study we addressed the localization and subcellular distribution of D3 and MCT8 in neurosecretory neurons and addressed D3 function in their axons. Intense D3-immunoreactivity was observed in axon varicosities in the external zone of the rat median eminence and the neurohaemal zone of the human infundibulum containing axon terminals of hypophysiotropic parvocellular neurons. Immuno-electronmicroscopy localized D3 to dense-core vesicles in hypophysiotropic axon varicosities. N-STORM-superresolution-microscopy detected the active center containing C-terminus of D3 at the outer surface of these organelles. Double-labeling immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed that D3 is present in the majority of GnRH, CRH and GHRH axons but only in a minority of TRH axons, while absent from somatostatin-containing neurons. Bimolecular-Fluorescence-Complementation identified D3 homodimers, a prerequisite for D3 activity, in processes of GT1-7 cells. Furthermore, T3-inducible D3 catalytic activity was detected in the rat median eminence. Triple-labeling immunofluorescence and immuno-electronmicroscopy revealed the presence of MCT8 on the surface of the vast majority of all types of hypophysiotropic terminals. The presence of MCT8 was also demonstrated on the axon terminals in the neurohaemal zone of the human infundibulum. The unexpected role of hypophysiotropic axons in fine-tuned regulation of T3 availability in these cells via MCT8-mediated transport and D3-catalyzed inactivation may represent a novel regulatory core mechanism for metabolism, growth, stress and reproduction in rodents and humans.

  7. In vivo analysis of MEF2 transcription factors in synapse regulation and neuronal survival.

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    M Waseem Akhtar

    Full Text Available MEF2 (A-D transcription factors govern development, differentiation and maintenance of various cell types including neurons. The role of MEF2 isoforms in the brain has been studied using in vitro manipulations with only MEF2C examined in vivo. In order to understand specific as well as redundant roles of the MEF2 isoforms, we generated brain-specific deletion of MEF2A and found that Mef2aKO mice show normal behavior in a range of paradigms including learning and memory. We next generated Mef2a and Mef2d brain-specific double KO (Mef2a/dDKO mice and observed deficits in motor coordination and enhanced hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity, however there were no alterations in learning and memory, Schaffer collateral pathway long-term potentiation, or the number of dendritic spines. Since previous work has established a critical role for MEF2C in hippocampal plasticity, we generated a Mef2a, Mef2c and Mef2d brain-specific triple KO (Mef2a/c/dTKO. Mef2a/c/d TKO mice have early postnatal lethality with increased neuronal apoptosis, indicative of a redundant role for the MEF2 factors in neuronal survival. We examined synaptic plasticity in the intact neurons in the Mef2a/c/d TKO mice and found significant impairments in short-term synaptic plasticity suggesting that MEF2C is the major isoform involved in hippocampal synaptic function. Collectively, these data highlight the key in vivo role of MEF2C isoform in the brain and suggest that MEF2A and MEF2D have only subtle roles in regulating hippocampal synaptic function.

  8. Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Collateral Inhibition between Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

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    van der Goes, Marie-Sophie; Partridge, John G.; Vicini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The principle neurons of the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), whose collateral synapses onto neighboring neurons play critical roles in striatal function. MSNs can be divided by dopamine receptor expression into D1-class and D2-class MSNs, and alterations in D2 MSNs are associated with various pathological states. Despite overwhelming evidence for D2 receptors (D2Rs) in maintaining proper striatal function, it remains unclear how MSN collaterals are specifically altered by D2R activation. Here, we report that chronic D2R stimulation regulates MSN collaterals in vitro by presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. We used corticostriatal cultures from mice in which MSN subtypes were distinguished by fluorophore expression. Quinpirole, an agonist for D2/3 receptors, was used to chronically activate D2Rs. Quinpirole increased the rate and strength of collateral formation onto D2R-containing MSNs as measured by dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Additionally, these neurons were more sensitive to low concentrations of GABA and exhibited an increase in gephyrin puncta density, suggesting increased postsynaptic GABAA receptors. Last, quinpirole treatment increased presynaptic GABA release sites, as shown by increased frequency of sIPSCs and mIPSCs, correlating with increased VGAT (vesicular GABA transporter) puncta. Combined with the observation that there were no detectable differences in sensitivity to specific GABAA receptor modulators, we provide evidence that D2R activation powerfully transforms MSN collaterals via coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations. As the D2 class of MSNs is highly implicated in Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders, our findings may contribute to understanding and treating the changes that occur in these pathological states. PMID:23986243

  9. Abelson tyrosine kinase links PDGFbeta receptor activation to cytoskeletal regulation of NMDA receptors in CA1 hippocampal neurons

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    Beazely Michael A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that PDGF receptor activation indirectly inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA currents by modifying the cytoskeleton. PDGF receptor ligand is also neuroprotective in hippocampal slices and cultured neurons. PDGF receptors are tyrosine kinases that control a variety of signal transduction pathways including those mediated by PLCγ. In fibroblasts Src and another non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Abelson kinase (Abl, control PDGF receptor regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. The mechanism whereby PDGF receptor regulates cytoskeletal dynamics in central neurons remains poorly understood. Results Intracellular applications of active Abl, but not heat-inactivated Abl, decreased NMDA-evoked currents in isolated hippocampal neurons. This mimics the effects of PDGF receptor activation in these neurons. The Abl kinase inhibitor, STI571, blocked the inhibition of NMDA currents by Abl. We demonstrate that PDGF receptors can activate Abl kinase in hippocampal neurons via mechanisms similar to those observed previously in fibroblasts. Furthermore, PDGFβ receptor activation alters the subcellular localization of Abl. Abl kinase is linked to actin cytoskeletal dynamics in many systems. We show that the inhibition of NMDA receptor currents by Abl kinase is blocked by the inclusion of the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and that activation of Abl correlates with an increase in ROCK tyrosine phosphorylation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that PDGFβ receptors act via an interaction with Abl kinase and Rho kinase to regulated cytoskeletal regulation of NMDA receptor channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  10. δ-Catenin Regulates Spine and Synapse Morphogenesis and Function in Hippocampal Neurons during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikkath, Jyothi; Peng, I-Feng; Ng, Yu Gie; Israely, Inbal; Liu, Xin; Ullian, Erik M.; Reichardt, Louis F.

    2009-01-01

    The maintenance of spine and synapse number during development is critical for neuronal circuit formation and function. Here we show that δ-catenin, a component of the cadherin-catenin cell adhesion complex, regulates spine and synapse morphogenesis during development. Genetic ablation or acute knockdown of δ-catenin leads to increases in spine and synapse density, accompanied by a decrease in tetrodotoxin induced spine plasticity. Our results indicate that δ-catenin may mediate conversion of activity-dependent signals to morphological spine plasticity. The functional role of δ-catenin in regulating spine density does not require binding to cadherins, but does require interactions with PDZ domain-containing proteins. We propose that the perturbations in spine and synaptic structure and function observed after depletion of δ-catenin during development may contribute to functional alterations in neural circuitry, the cognitive deficits observed in mutant mice, and the mental retardation pathology of Cri-du-chat syndrome. PMID:19403811

  11. Neuronal exosomal miRNA-dependent translational regulation of astroglial glutamate transporter GLT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Lydie; Regan, Melissa; Higashimori, Haruki; Ng, Seng Kah; Esau, Christine; Vidensky, Svetlana; Rothstein, Jeffrey; Yang, Yongjie

    2013-03-08

    Perisynaptic astrocytes express important glutamate transporters, especially excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2, rodent analog GLT1) to regulate extracellular glutamate levels and modulate synaptic activation. In this study, we investigated an exciting new pathway, the exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA (in particular, miR-124a), in neuron-to-astrocyte signaling. Exosomes isolated from neuron-conditioned medium contain abundant microRNAs and small RNAs. These exosomes can be directly internalized into astrocytes and increase astrocyte miR-124a and GLT1 protein levels. Direct miR-124a transfection also significantly and selectively increases protein (but not mRNA) expression levels of GLT1 in cultured astrocytes. Consistent with our in vitro findings, intrastriatal injection of specific antisense against miR-124a into adult mice dramatically reduces GLT1 protein expression and glutamate uptake levels in striatum without reducing GLT1 mRNA levels. MiR-124a-mediated regulation of GLT1 expression appears to be indirect and is not mediated by its suppression of the putative GLT1 inhibitory ligand ephrinA3. Moreover, miR-124a is selectively reduced in the spinal cord tissue of end-stage SOD1 G93A mice, the mouse model of ALS. Subsequent exogenous delivery of miR-124a in vivo through stereotaxic injection significantly prevents further pathological loss of GLT1 proteins, as determined by GLT1 immunoreactivity in SOD1 G93A mice. Together, our study characterized a new neuron-to-astrocyte communication pathway and identified miRNAs that modulate GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Post-translational Regulation of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase: Implications for sympatho-excitatory states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neeru M; Patel, Kaushik P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized via neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) plays a significant role in regulation/modulation of autonomic control of circulation. Various pathological states are associated with diminished nNOS expression and blunted autonomic effects of NO in the central nervous system (CNS) including heart failure, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure etc. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanism/s involved in dysregulation of nNOS is essential to understand the pathogenesis of increased sympathoexcitation in these diseased states. Areas Covered nNOS is a highly regulated enzyme, being regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels via protein-protein interactions and modifications viz. phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The enzyme activity of nNOS also depends on the optimal concentration of substrate, cofactors and association with regulatory proteins. This review focuses on the posttranslational regulation of nNOS in the context of normal and diseased states within the CNS. Expert Opinion Gaining insight into the mechanism/s involved in the regulation of nNOS would provide novel strategies for manipulating nNOS directed therapeutic modalities in the future, including catalytically active dimer stabilization and protein-protein interactions with intracellular protein effectors. Ultimately, this is expected to provide tools to improve autonomic dysregulation in various diseases such as heart failure, hypertension, and diabetes. PMID:27885874

  13. Studies of Neuronal Gene Regulation Controlling the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Neural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of the development and function of the nervous system is not preprogramed but responds to environmental stimuli to change neural development and function flexibly. This neural plasticity is a characteristic property of the nervous system. For example, strong synaptic activation evoked by environmental stimuli leads to changes in synaptic functions (known as synaptic plasticity). Long-lasting synaptic plasticity is one of the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term learning and memory. Since discovering the role of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein in learning and memory, it has been widely accepted that gene regulation in neurons contributes to long-lasting changes in neural functions. However, it remains unclear how synaptic activation is converted into gene regulation that results in long-lasting neural functions like long-term memory. We continue to address this question. This review introduces our recent findings on the gene regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and discusses how regulation of the gene participates in long-lasting changes in neural functions.

  14. KV7 Channels Regulate Firing during Synaptic Integration in GABAergic Striatal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belén Pérez-Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projection neurons (SPNs process motor and cognitive information. Their activity is affected by Parkinson’s disease, in which dopamine concentration is decreased and acetylcholine concentration is increased. Acetylcholine activates muscarinic receptors in SPNs. Its main source is the cholinergic interneuron that responds with a briefer latency than SPNs during a cortical command. Therefore, an important question is whether muscarinic G-protein coupled receptors and their signaling cascades are fast enough to intervene during synaptic responses to regulate synaptic integration and firing. One of the most known voltage dependent channels regulated by muscarinic receptors is the KV7/KCNQ channel. It is not known whether these channels regulate the integration of suprathreshold corticostriatal responses. Here, we study the impact of cholinergic muscarinic modulation on the synaptic response of SPNs by regulating KV7 channels. We found that KV7 channels regulate corticostriatal synaptic integration and that this modulation occurs in the dendritic/spines compartment. In contrast, it is negligible in the somatic compartment. This modulation occurs on sub- and suprathreshold responses and lasts during the whole duration of the responses, hundreds of milliseconds, greatly altering SPNs firing properties. This modulation affected the behavior of the striatal microcircuit.

  15. Regulation of Neuron-Astrocyte Metabolic Coupling across the Sleep-Wake Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-12-17

    Over the last thirty years, a growing number of studies showed that astrocytes play a pivotal role in the energy support to synapses. More precisely, astrocytes adjust the energy production to the neuronal energy needs through different mechanisms grouped under the term “neurometabolic coupling” (NMC). In this review we describe these mechanisms of coupling and how they involve astrocytes. From a physiological point of view, these mechanisms of coupling are particularly important to ensure normal synaptic functioning when neurons undergo rapid and repetitive changes in firing rate such as during the sleep/wake transitions. Investigations on brain energy metabolism during the sleep/wake cycle have been mainly focused on glucose consumption and on glycogen metabolism. However, the recent development of substrate-specific biosensors allowed measurements of the variation in extracellular levels of glutamate, glucose and lactate with a time resolution compatible with sleep stage duration. Together with gene expression data these experiments allowed to better define the variations of energy metabolites regulation across the sleep/wake cycle. The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and neurometabolic coupling in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the “local and use dependent” sleep hypothesis.

  16. PPAR{gamma} transcriptionally regulates the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in primary neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jing; Zhang, Lang; Liu, Shubo; Zhang, Chi [Protein Science Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Xiuqing; Li, Jian [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Ministry of Health, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Nanming [Protein Science Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Protein Science Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-06-12

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a protease that has been demonstrated to play a key role in degrading both A{beta} and insulin and deficient in IDE function is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) pathology. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular regulation of IDE expression. Here we show IDE levels are markedly decreased in DM2 patients and positively correlated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) levels. Further studies show that PPAR{gamma} plays an important role in regulating IDE expression in rat primary neurons through binding to a functional peroxisome proliferator-response element (PPRE) in IDE promoter and promoting IDE gene transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that PPAR{gamma} participates in the insulin-induced IDE expression in neurons. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} transcriptionally induces IDE expression which provides a novel mechanism for the use of PPAR{gamma} agonists in both DM2 and AD therapies.

  17. Regulation of action potential waveforms by axonal GABAA receptors in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors distributed in somatodendritic compartments play critical roles in regulating neuronal activities, including spike timing and firing pattern; however, the properties and functions of GABAA receptors at the axon are still poorly understood. By recording from the cut end (bleb of the main axon trunk of layer -5 pyramidal neurons in prefrontal cortical slices, we found that currents evoked by GABA iontophoresis could be blocked by picrotoxin, indicating the expression of GABAA receptors in axons. Stationary noise analysis revealed that single-channel properties of axonal GABAA receptors were similar to those of somatic receptors. Perforated patch recording with gramicidin revealed that the reversal potential of the GABA response was more negative than the resting membrane potential at the axon trunk, suggesting that GABA may hyperpolarize the axonal membrane potential. Further experiments demonstrated that the activation of axonal GABAA receptors regulated the amplitude and duration of action potentials (APs and decreased the AP-induced Ca2+ transients at the axon. Together, our results indicate that the waveform of axonal APs and the downstream Ca2+ signals are modulated by axonal GABAA receptors.

  18. Innate immunity in Caenorhabditis elegans is regulated by neurons expressing NPR-1/GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Katie L; Singh, Varsha; Macosko, Evan; Steele, Sarah E; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Aballay, Alejandro

    2008-10-17

    A large body of evidence indicates that metazoan innate immunity is regulated by the nervous system, but the mechanisms involved in the process and the biological importance of such control remain unclear. We show that a neural circuit involving npr-1, which encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) related to mammalian neuropeptide Y receptors, functions to suppress innate immune responses. The immune inhibitory function requires a guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-gated ion channel encoded by tax-2 and tax-4 as well as the soluble guanylate cyclase GCY-35. Furthermore, we show that npr-1- and gcy-35-expressing sensory neurons actively suppress immune responses of nonneuronal tissues. A full-genome microarray analysis on animals with altered neural function due to mutation in npr-1 shows an enrichment in genes that are markers of innate immune responses, including those regulated by a conserved PMK-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. These results present evidence that neurons directly control innate immunity in C. elegans, suggesting that GPCRs may participate in neural circuits that receive inputs from either pathogens or infected sites and integrate them to coordinate appropriate immune responses.

  19. Systematic identification of genes that regulate neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Berger

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Forward genetic screens in model organisms are an attractive means to identify those genes involved in any complex biological process, including neural circuit assembly. Although mutagenesis screens are readily performed to saturation, gene identification rarely is, being limited by the considerable effort generally required for positional cloning. Here, we apply a systematic positional cloning strategy to identify many of the genes required for neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system. From a large-scale forward genetic screen selecting for visual system wiring defects with a normal retinal pattern, we recovered 122 mutations in 42 genetic loci. For 6 of these loci, the underlying genetic lesions were previously identified using traditional methods. Using SNP-based mapping approaches, we have now identified 30 additional genes. Neuronal phenotypes have not previously been reported for 20 of these genes, and no mutant phenotype has been previously described for 5 genes. The genes encode a variety of proteins implicated in cellular processes such as gene regulation, cytoskeletal dynamics, axonal transport, and cell signalling. We conducted a comprehensive phenotypic analysis of 35 genes, scoring wiring defects according to 33 criteria. This work demonstrates the feasibility of combining large-scale gene identification with large-scale mutagenesis in Drosophila, and provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular mechanisms that regulate visual system wiring.

  20. Regulation of neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling across the sleep-wake cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J-M; Magistretti, P J

    2016-05-26

    Over the last thirty years, a growing number of studies showed that astrocytes play a pivotal role in the energy support to synapses. More precisely, astrocytes adjust energy production to neuronal energy needs through different mechanisms grouped under the term "neurometabolic coupling" (NMC). In this review we describe these mechanisms of coupling and how they involve astrocytes. From a physiological point of view, these mechanisms of coupling are particularly important to ensure normal synaptic functioning when neurons undergo rapid and repetitive changes in the firing rate such as during the sleep/wake transitions. Investigations into brain energy metabolism during the sleep/wake cycle have been mainly focused on glucose (Gluc) consumption and on glycogen metabolism. However, the recent development of substrate-specific biosensors allowed measurements of the variation in extracellular levels of glutamate, Gluc and lactate (Lac) with a time resolution compatible with sleep stage duration. Together with gene expression data these experiments allowed to better define the variations of energy metabolite regulation across the sleep/wake cycle. The aim of this review is to bring into perspective the role of astrocytes and NMC in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle. The data reviewed also suggest an important role of the astrocytic network. In addition, the role of astrocytes in NMC mechanisms is consistent with the "local and use dependent" sleep hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuronal Chemosensation and Osmotic Stress Response Converge in the Regulation of aqp-8 in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igual Gil, Carla; Jarius, Mirko; von Kries, Jens P; Rohlfing, Anne-Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins occupy an essential role in sustaining the salt/water balance in various cells types and tissues. Here, we present new insights into aqp-8 expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show, that upon exposure to osmotic stress, aqp-8 exhibits a distinct expression pattern within the excretory cell compared to other C. elegans aquaporins expressed. This expression is correlated to the osmolarity of the surrounding medium and can be activated physiologically by osmotic stress or genetically in mutants with constitutively active osmotic stress response. In addition, we found aqp-8 expression to be constitutively active in the TRPV channel mutant osm-9(ok1677). In a genome-wide RNAi screen we identified additional regulators of aqp-8. Many of these regulators are connected to chemosensation by the amphid neurons, e.g., odr-10 and gpa-6, and act as suppressors of aqp-8 expression. We postulate from our results, that aqp-8 plays an important role in sustaining the salt/water balance during a secondary response to hyper-osmotic stress. Upon its activation aqp-8 promotes vesicle docking to the lumen of the excretory cell and thereby enhances the ability to secrete water and transport osmotic active substances or waste products caused by protein damage. In summary, aqp-8 expression and function is tightly regulated by a network consisting of the osmotic stress response, neuronal chemosensation as well as the response to protein damage. These new insights in maintaining the salt/water balance in C. elegans will help to reveal the complex homeostasis network preserved throughout species.

  2. Regulation of the neuronal norepinephrine transporter by endothelin-1 and -3 in the rat anterior and posterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Sandra I; Schmipp, Josefina; Rossi, Andres H; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2008-12-01

    We previously reported that endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 modulate norepinephrine neuronal release and tyrosine hydroxylase activity and expression in the hypothalamus. In the present study we sought to establish the role of endothelin-1 and -3 in the regulation of norepinephrine uptake in the anterior and posterior hypothalamus. Results showed that in the anterior hypothalamus endothelin-3 increased neuronal norepinephrine uptake whereas endothelin-1 decreased it. Conversely, in the posterior hypothalamic region both endothelins diminished the neuronal uptake of the amine. Endothelins response was concentration dependent and maintained at all studied times. Endothelins also modified the kinetic and internalization of the NE neuronal transporter. In the anterior hypothalamic region endothelin-3 increased the V(max) and the B(max) whereas endothelin-1 decreased them. However, in the posterior hypothalamic region both endothelins diminished the V(max) as well as B(max). Neither endothelin-1 nor endothelin-3 modified neuronal norepinephrine transporter K(d) in the studied hypothalamic regions. These findings support that in the posterior hypothalamic region both endothelins diminished neuronal norepinephrine transporter activity by reducing the amine transporter expression on the plasmatic membrane. Conversely, in the anterior hypothalamic region endothelin-3 enhanced neuronal norepinephrine transporter activity by increasing the expression of the transporter on the presynaptic membrane, whereas endothelin-1 induced the opposite effect. Present results permit us to conclude that both endothelins play an important role in the regulation of norepinephrine neurotransmission at the presynaptic nerve endings in the hypothalamus.

  3. Disease modeling using embryonic stem cells: MeCP2 regulates nuclear size and RNA synthesis in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Morteza; Deogracias, Rubén; Guy, Jacky; Poot, Raymond A; Bird, Adrian; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2012-10-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein MECP2 are the major cause of Rett syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder mainly affecting young females. MeCP2 is an abundant chromatin-associated protein, but how and when its absence begins to alter brain function is still far from clear. Using a stem cell-based system allowing the synchronous differentiation of neuronal progenitors, we found that in the absence of MeCP2, the size of neuronal nuclei fails to increase at normal rates during differentiation. This is accompanied by a marked decrease in the rate of ribonucleotide incorporation, indicating an early role of MeCP2 in regulating total gene transcription, not restricted to selected mRNAs. We also found that the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were decreased in mutant neurons, while those of the presynaptic protein synaptophysin increased at similar rates in wild-type and mutant neurons. By contrast, nuclear size, transcription rates, and BDNF levels remained unchanged in astrocytes lacking MeCP2. Re-expressing MeCP2 in mutant neurons rescued the nuclear size phenotype as well as BDNF levels. These results reveal a new role of MeCP2 in regulating overall RNA synthesis in neurons during the course of their maturation, in line with recent findings indicating a reduced nucleolar size in neurons of the developing brain of mice lacking Mecp2. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  4. MAP Kinase Pathway–dependent Phosphorylation of the L1-CAM Ankyrin Binding Site Regulates Neuronal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Whittard, John D.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Cassella, Melanie R.; Gazdoiu, Mihaela; Felsenfeld, Dan P.

    2006-01-01

    The growth of neuronal processes depends critically on the function of adhesion proteins that link extracellular ligands to the cytoskeleton. The neuronal adhesion protein L1-CAM serves as a receptor for nerve growth–promoting proteins, a process that is inhibited by the interaction between L1-CAM and the cytoskeleton adaptor ankyrin. Using a novel reporter based on intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have determined that the MAP kinase pathway regulates the phosphory...

  5. Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Jacob T.; Evins, Caitlin E.; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J.; Woodward, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Toluene is a volatile solvent that is intentionally inhaled by children, adolescents and adults for its intoxicating effects. While voluntary use of toluene suggests that it possesses rewarding properties and abuse potential, it is unknown whether toluene alters excitatory synaptic transmission in reward sensitive dopamine neurons like other drugs of abuse. Here, using a combination of retrograde labeling and slice electrophysiology, we show that a brief in vivo exposure of rats to a behaviorally relevant concentration of toluene vapor enhances glutamatergic synaptic strength of dopamine (DA) neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens core and medial shell neurons. This effect persisted for up to 3 days in mesoaccumbens core DA neurons and for at least 21 days in those projecting to the medial shell. In contrast, toluene vapor exposure had no effect on synaptic strength of DA neurons that project to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Furthermore, infusion of GABAergic modulators into the mPFC prior to vapor exposure to pharmacologically manipulate output, inhibited or potentiated toluene's action on mesoaccumbens DA neurons. Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that toluene induces a target-selective increase in mesolimbic DA neuron synaptic transmission and strongly implicates the mPFC as an important regulator of drug-induced plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. PMID:23303956

  6. Roles of Integrins and Intracellular Molecules in the Migration and Neuritogenesis of Fetal Cortical Neurons: MEK Regulates Only the Neuritogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwal K. Rout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of integrin subunits and intracellular molecules in regulating the migration and neuritogenesis of neurons isolated from 16.5 gestation days rat fetal cortices were examined using in vitro assays. Results showed that laminin supported the migration of fetal cortical neurons better than fibronectin and that the fetal cortical neurons migrated on laminin using β1 and α3 integrin subunits which make up the α3β1 integrin receptor. On fibronectin, the migration was mediated by β1 integrin subunit. Perturbation of src kinase, phospholipase C, or protein kinase C activity, inhibition of IP3 receptor mediated calcium release, or chelation of intracellular calcium inhibited both migration and neuritogenesis, whereas inhibition of growth factor signaling via MEK inhibited only the neuritogenesis. The detection of α1 and α9 transcripts suggested that the migration of fetal cortical neurons may also be mediated by α1β1 and α9β1 integrin receptors. Results showed that calcium may regulate migration and neuritogenesis by maintaining optimum levels of microtubules in the fetal cortical neurons. It is concluded that the fetal cortical neurons are fully equipped with the integrin signaling cascade required for their migration and neuritogenesis, whereas crosstalk between the integrin and growth-factor signaling regulate only the neuritogenesis.

  7. CaMK II γ down regulation protects dorsal root ganglion neurons from ropivacaine hydrochloride neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Jie; Li, Xiao-Hong; Li, Heng; Liang, Hua; Yang, Chen-Xiang; Wang, Han-Bing

    2017-07-12

    T-type calcium channels are intimately involved in the local anesthetics neurotoxicity. Does CaMKIIγ regulate T-type calcium currents in local anesthetics neurotoxicity? This study generated pAd-CaMKIIγ and pAd-shRNA adenovirus vectors to up- and down-regulate CaMKIIγ mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG). Normal DRG (Normal group), empty vector DRG (Empty vector group), pAd-CaMKIIγ DRG (pAd-CaMKIIγ group) and pAd-shRNA DRG (pAd-shRNA group) were treated or untreated with 3 mM ropivacaine hydrochloride for 4 h. Cell viability, apoptosis rate, CaMKIIγ, pCaMKIIγ, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3 expression were detected. Ultrastructural changes in DRG were observed under a transmission electron microscope. The results demonstrated that the cell viability of DRG treated with ropivacaine hydrochloride decreased markedly, the apoptosis rate, CaMKIIγ, pCaMKIIγ, Cav3.2, Cav3.3 expression increased significantly. CaMKIIγ up-regulation aggravated ropivacaine hydrochloride-induced cell damage and increased Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 expression. In conclusion, CaMKIIγ regulated Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 expression in DRG, which was involved with ropivacaine hydrochloride-induced cell injury.

  8. CASK regulates CaMKII autophosphorylation in neuronal growth, calcium signalling and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michael Gillespie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII activity plays a fundamental role in learning and memory. A key feature of CaMKII in memory formation is its ability to be regulated by autophosphorylation, which switches its activity on and off during synaptic plasticity. The synaptic scaffolding protein CASK (calcium (Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM associated serine kinase is also important for learning and memory, as mutations in CASK result in intellectual disability and neurological defects in humans. We show that in Drosophila larvae, CASK interacts with CaMKII to control neuronal growth and calcium signalling. Furthermore, deletion of the CaMK-like and L27 domains of CASK (CASK β null or expression of overactive CaMKII (T287D produced similar effects on synaptic growth and Ca2+ signalling. CASK overexpression rescues the effects of CaMKII overactivity, consistent with the notion that CASK and CaMKII act in a common pathway that controls these neuronal processes. The reduction in Ca2+ signalling observed in the CASK β null mutant caused a decrease in vesicle trafficking at synapses. In addition, the decrease in Ca2+ signalling in CASK mutants was associated with an increase in Ether-à-go-go (EAG potassium (K+ channel localisation to synapses. Reducing EAG restored the decrease in Ca2+ signalling observed in CASK mutants to the level of wildtype, suggesting that CASK regulates Ca2+ signalling via EAG. CASK knockdown reduced both appetitive associative learning and odour evoked Ca2+ responses in Drosophila mushroom bodies, which are the learning centres of Drosophila. Expression of human CASK in Drosophila rescued the effect of CASK deletion on the activity state of CaMKII, suggesting that human CASK may also regulate CaMKII autophosphorylation.

  9. CASK regulates CaMKII autophosphorylation in neuronal growth, calcium signaling, and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, John M.; Hodge, James J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity plays a fundamental role in learning and memory. A key feature of CaMKII in memory formation is its ability to be regulated by autophosphorylation, which switches its activity on and off during synaptic plasticity. The synaptic scaffolding protein CASK (calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) associated serine kinase) is also important for learning and memory, as mutations in CASK result in intellectual disability and neurological defects in humans. We show that in Drosophila larvae, CASK interacts with CaMKII to control neuronal growth and calcium signaling. Furthermore, deletion of the CaMK-like and L27 domains of CASK (CASK β null) or expression of overactive CaMKII (T287D) produced similar effects on synaptic growth and Ca2+ signaling. CASK overexpression rescues the effects of CaMKII overactivity, consistent with the notion that CASK and CaMKII act in a common pathway that controls these neuronal processes. The reduction in Ca2+ signaling observed in the CASK β null mutant caused a decrease in vesicle trafficking at synapses. In addition, the decrease in Ca2+ signaling in CASK mutants was associated with an increase in Ether-à-go-go (EAG) potassium (K+) channel localization to synapses. Reducing EAG restored the decrease in Ca2+ signaling observed in CASK mutants to the level of wildtype, suggesting that CASK regulates Ca2+ signaling via EAG. CASK knockdown reduced both appetitive associative learning and odor evoked Ca2+ responses in Drosophila mushroom bodies, which are the learning centers of Drosophila. Expression of human CASK in Drosophila rescued the effect of CASK deletion on the activity state of CaMKII, suggesting that human CASK may also regulate CaMKII autophosphorylation. PMID:24062638

  10. Tet1 oxidase regulates neuronal gene transcription, active DNA hydroxymethylation, object location memory, and threat recognition memory

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic equilibrium between DNA methylation and demethylation of neuronal activity-regulated genes is crucial for memory processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this equilibrium remain elusive. Tet1 oxidase has been shown to play a key role in the active DNA demethylation in the central nervous system. In this study, we used Tet1 gene knockout (Tet1KO mice to examine the involvement of Tet1 in memory consolidation and storage in the adult brain. We found that Tet1 ablation leads to altered expression of numerous neuronal activity-regulated genes, compensatory upregulation of active demethylation pathway genes, and upregulation of various epigenetic modifiers. Moreover, Tet1KO mice showed an enhancement in the consolidation and storage of threat recognition (cued and contextual fear conditioning and object location memories. We conclude that Tet1 plays a critical role in regulating neuronal transcription and in maintaining the epigenetic state of the brain associated with memory consolidation and storage.

  11. Neuronal Splicing Regulator RBFOX3 (NeuN Regulates Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis.

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    Yi-Sian Lin

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of RBFOX3 has been identified in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, cognitive impairments and epilepsy and a causal relationship with these diseases has been previously demonstrated with Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice. Despite the importance of RBFOX3 during neurodevelopment, the function of RBFOX3 regarding neurogenesis and synaptogenesis remains unclear. To address this critical question, we profiled the developmental expression pattern of Rbfox3 in the brain of wild-type mice and analyzed brain volume, disease-relevant behaviors, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and synaptogenesis in Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice and their corresponding wild-type counterparts. Here we report that expression of Rbfox3 differs developmentally for distinct brain regions. Moreover, Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice exhibited cold hyperalgesia and impaired cognitive abilities. Focusing on hippocampal phenotypes, we found Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice displayed deficits in neurogenesis, which was correlated with cognitive impairments. Furthermore, RBFOX3 regulates the exons of genes with synapse-related function. Synaptic plasticity and density, which are related to cognitive behaviors, were altered in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice; synaptic plasticity decreased and the density of synapses increased. Taken together, our results demonstrate the important role of RBFOX3 during neural development and maturation. In addition, abnormalities in synaptic structure and function occur in Rbfox3 homozygous knockout mice. Our findings may offer mechanistic explanations for human brain diseases associated with dysfunctional RBFOX3.

  12. Neuronal K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) transgenes lacking neurone restrictive silencer element recapitulate CNS neurone-specific expression and developmental up-regulation of endogenous KCC2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Pavel; Pruunsild, Priit; Timmusk, Tõnis; Airaksinen, Matti S

    2005-11-01

    The K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2 maintains the low intracellular chloride concentration required for fast synaptic inhibition and is exclusively expressed in neurones of the CNS. Here, we show that the KCC2 gene (alias SLC12a5) has multiple transcription start sites and characterize the activity of 6.8 kb of mouse KCC2 gene regulatory sequence (spanning 1.4 kb upstream from exon 1 to exon 2) using luciferase reporters. Overexpression of neurone-restrictive silencer factor repressed the reporter activity in vitro, apparently via a neurone restrictive silencer element (NRSE(KCC2)) within intron 1 of the mouse KCC2 gene. In transgenic mice, however, KCC2 reporters with or without deletion of the NRSE(KCC2) were expressed exclusively in neurones and predominantly in the CNS with a similar pattern and developmental up-regulation as endogenous KCC2. Moreover, a third transgene with just a 1.4-kb KCC2 promoter region lacking the NRSE(KCC2)-bearing intron 1 was still expressed predominantly in neural tissues. Thus, developmental up-regulation of the KCC2 gene does not require NRSE(KCC2) and the 1.4-kb KCC2 promoter is largely sufficient for neurone-specific expression of KCC2.

  13. Mmp1 processing of the PDF neuropeptide regulates circadian structural plasticity of pacemaker neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Agata; Gorostiza, E Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M; Ceriani, M Fernanda

    2014-10-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior.

  14. Molecular Basis for Specific Regulation of Neuronal Kinesin-3 Motors by Doublecortin Family Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Judy S.; Schubert, Christian R.; Fu, Xiaoqin; Fourniol, Franck J.; Jaiswal, Jyoti K.; Houdusse, Anne; Stultz, Collin M.; Moores, Carolyn A.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Doublecortin (Dcx) defines a growing family of microtubule (MT)-associated proteins (MAPs) involved in neuronal migration and process outgrowth. We show that Dcx is essential for the function of Kif1a, a kinesin-3 motor protein that traffics synaptic vesicles. Neurons lacking Dcx and/or its structurally conserved paralogue, doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1), show impaired Kif1a-mediated transport of Vamp2, a cargo of Kif1a, with decreased run length. Human disease-associated mutations in Dcx's linker sequence (e.g., W146C, K174E) alter Kif1a/Vamp2 transport by disrupting Dcx/Kif1a interactions without affecting Dcx MT binding. Dcx specifically enhances binding of the ADP-bound Kif1a motor domain to MTs. Cryo-electron microscopy and subnanometer-resolution image reconstruction reveal the kinesin-dependent conformational variability of MT-bound Dcx and suggest a model for MAP-motor crosstalk on MTs. Alteration of kinesin run length by MAPs represents a previously undiscovered mode of control of kinesin transport and provides a mechanism for regulation of MT-based transport by local signals. PMID:22857951

  15. Respiratory and sympathetic chemoreflex regulation by Kölliker-Fuse neurons in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Rosélia S; Takakura, Ana C; Moreira, Thiago S

    2015-02-01

    Chemoreceptor activation increases phrenic nerve activity (PNA) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). The dorsolateral pontine neurons, including the parabrachial nucleus and the Kölliker-Fuse (KF) region project to several brainstem areas involved in autonomic and respiratory regulation. Here the objective was to further test the hypothesis that the KF region could contribute to central and peripheral sympathetic chemoreflex activation. In urethane-anesthetized sino-aortic denervated or intact and vagotomized male Wistar rats (N = 7-8/group), hypercapnia (end-expiratory CO2 from 5 to 10 %) or KCN increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), splanchnic SNA, and PNA frequency and amplitude. Bilateral injection of muscimol (GABA-A agonist; 2 mM-50 nl) into the KF region increased resting PNA amplitude and reduced resting PNA frequency, without significant changes in resting MAP and SNA. Bilateral blockade of the KF region reduced the rise in MAP, sSNA, and PNA frequency and amplitude produced by hypercapnia or hypoxia. Our data suggest that the KF neurons could integrate and modulate breathing and sympathetic outflow during chemoreceptor activation.

  16. Reciprocal Regulation of Epileptiform Neuronal Oscillations and Electrical Synapses in the Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Erika R.; Higa, Guilherme S. V.; Morya, Edgard; Valle, Angela C.; Kihara, Alexandre H.; Britto, Luiz R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction (GJ) channels have been recognized as an important mechanism for synchronizing neuronal networks. Herein, we investigated the participation of GJ channels in the pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) by analyzing electrophysiological activity following the blockade of connexins (Cx)-mediated communication. In addition, we examined the regulation of gene expression, protein levels, phosphorylation profile and distribution of neuronal Cx36, Cx45 and glial Cx43 in the rat hippocampus during the acute and latent periods. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the GJ blockade anticipates the occurrence of low voltage oscillations and promotes a marked reduction of power in all analyzed frequencies.Cx36 gene expression and protein levels remained stable in acute and latent periods, whereas upregulation of Cx45 gene expression and protein redistribution were detected in the latent period. We also observed upregulation of Cx43 mRNA levels followed by changes in the phosphorylation profile and protein accumulation. Taken together, our results indisputably revealed that GJ communication participates in the epileptiform activity induced by pilocarpine. Moreover, considering that specific Cxs undergo alterations through acute and latent periods, this study indicates that the control of GJ communication may represent a focus in reliable anti-epileptogenic strategies. PMID:25299405

  17. Retinoblastoma (Rb) regulates laminar dendritic arbor reorganization in retinal horizontal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Zhang, Jiakun [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Bayazitov, Ildar [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Hiler, Daniel [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Frase, Sharon [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Zakharenko, Stanislav S [ORNL; Johnson, Dianna [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal differentiation with respect to the acquisition of synaptic competence needs to be regulated precisely during neurogenesis to ensure proper formation of circuits at the right place and time in development.This regulation is particularly important for synaptic triads among photoreceptors, horizontal cells (HCs), and bipolar cells in the retina, because HCs are among the rst cell types produced during development, and bipolar cells are among thel ast.HCs undergo a dramatic transition from vertically oriented neurites that form columnar arbors to overlapping laminar dendritic arbors with differentiation.However, how this process is regulated and coordinated with differentiation of photoreceptors and bipolar cells remains unknown. Previous studies have suggested that there tino-blastoma(Rb) tumor suppressor gene may play a role in horizontal cell differentiation and synaptogenesis. By combining genetic mosaic analysis of individual synaptictriads with neuroanatomic analyses and multiphoton live imaging of developing HCs, we found that Rb plays a cell-autonomous role in there organization of horizontal cell neurites as they differentiate. Aberrant vertical processes in Rb-de cient HCs form ectopic synapses with rods in the outer nuclear layer but lack bipolar dendrites. Although previous reports indicate that photoreceptor abnormalities can trigger formation of ectopic synapses, our studies now demonstrate that defects in a post synaptic partner contribute to the formation of ectopic photoreceptor synapses in the mammalian retina.

  18. The release of glutamate from cortical neurons regulated by BDNF via the TrkB/Src/PLC-γ1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zitao; Fan, Jin; Ren, Yongxin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Guoyong

    2013-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the regulation of cortical neurons by influencing the release of glutamate. However, the specific mechanisms are unclear. Hence, we isolated and cultured the cortical neurons of Sprague Dawley rats. Specific inhibitors of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ1, Akt, and MEK1/2 (i.e., K252a, PP2, U73122, LY294002, and PD98059, respectively) were used to treat cortical neurons and to detect the glutamate release from cortical neurons stimulated with BDNF. BDNF significantly increased glutamate release, and simultaneously enhanced phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ, Akt, and Erk1/2. For BDNF-stimulated cortical neurons, K252a inhibited glutamate release and inhibited the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ, Erk1/2, and Akt (P PLC-γ1 (P 0.05). U73122 inhibited the glutamate release from BDNF-stimulated cortical neurons, but had no influence on the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, Erk1/2, or Akt (P > 0.05). LY294002 and PD98059 did not affect the BDNF-stimulated glutamate release and did not inhibit the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, or PLC-γ1. In summary, BDNF stimulated the glutamate release from cortical neurons via the TrkB/Src/PLC-γ1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Neuron-specific regulation of associative learning and memory by MAGI-1 in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Stetak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identifying the molecular mechanisms and neural circuits that control learning and memory are major challenges in neuroscience. Mammalian MAGI/S-SCAM is a multi-PDZ domain synaptic scaffolding protein that interacts with a number of postsynaptic signaling proteins and is thereby thought to regulate synaptic plasticity [1], [2], [3]. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: While investigating the behavioral defects of C. elegans nematodes carrying a mutation in the single MAGI ortholog magi-1, we have identified specific neurons that require MAGI-1 function for different aspects of associative learning and memory. Various sensory stimuli and a food deprivation signal are associated in RIA interneurons during learning, while additional expression of MAGI-1 in glutamatergic AVA, AVD and possibly AVE interneurons is required for efficient memory consolidation, i.e. the ability to retain the conditioned changes in behavior over time. During associative learning, MAGI-1 in RIA neurons controls in a cell non-autonomous fashion the dynamic remodeling of AVA, AVD and AVE synapses containing the ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR GLR-1 [4]. During memory consolidation, however, MAGI-1 controls GLR-1 clustering in AVA and AVD interneurons cell-autonomously and depends on the ability to interact with the beta-catenin HMP-2. SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these results indicate that different aspects of associative learning and memory in C. elegans are likely carried out by distinct subsets of interneurons. The synaptic scaffolding protein MAGI-1 plays a critical role in these processes in part by regulating the clustering of iGluRs at synapses.

  20. Bmal1 is an essential regulator for circadian cytosolic Ca²⁺ rhythms in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Ikeda, Masaaki

    2014-09-03

    The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) plays a pivotal role in the mammalian circadian clock system. Bmal1 is a clock gene that drives transcriptional-translational feedback loops (TTFLs) for itself and other genes, and is expressed in nearly all SCN neurons. Despite strong evidence that Bmal1-null mutant mice display arrhythmic behavior under constant darkness, the function of Bmal1 in neuronal activity is unknown. Recently, periodic changes in the levels of intracellular signaling messengers, such as cytosolic Ca(2+) and cAMP, were suggested to regulate TTFLs. However, the opposite aspect of how clock gene TTFLs regulate cytosolic signaling remains unclear. To investigate intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics under Bmal1 perturbations, we cotransfected some SCN neurons with yellow cameleon together with wild-type or dominant-negative Bmal1 using a gene-gun applied for mouse organotypic cultures. Immunofluorescence staining for a tag protein linked to BMAL1 showed nuclear expression of wild-type BMAL1 and its degradation within 1 week after transfection in SCN neurons. However, dominant-negative BMAL1 did not translocate into the nucleus and the cytosolic signals persisted beyond 1 week. Consistently, circadian Ca(2+) rhythms in SCN neurons were inhibited for longer periods by dominant-negative Bmal1 overexpression. Furthermore, SCN neurons transfected with a Bmal1 shRNA lengthened, whereas those overexpressing wild-type Bmal1 shortened, the periods of Ca(2+) rhythms, with a significant reduction in their amplitude. BMAL1 expression was intact in the majority of neighboring neurons in organotypic cultures. Therefore, we conclude that proper intrinsic Bmal1 expression, but not passive signaling via cell-to-cell interactions, is the determinant of circadian Ca(2+) rhythms in SCN neurons. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412029-10$15.00/0.

  1. Genetic feedback regulation of frontal cortical neuronal ensembles through activity-dependent Arc expression and dopaminergic input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Mastwal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3.1 as a cellular marker to identify neuronal ensembles and a molecular probe to modulate circuit functions. These studies have demonstrated that the transcription of Arc is activated in selective groups of frontal cortical neurons in response to specific behavioral tasks. Arc expression regulates the persistent firing of individual neurons and predicts the consolidation of neuronal ensembles during repeated learning. Therefore, the Arc pathway represents a prototypical example of activity-dependent genetic feedback regulation of neuronal ensembles. The activation of this pathway in the frontal cortex starts during early postnatal development and requires dopaminergic input. Conversely, genetic disruption of Arc leads to a hypoactive mesofrontal dopamine circuit and its related cognitive deficit. This mutual interaction suggests an auto-regulatory mechanism to amplify the impact of neuromodulators and activity-regulated genes during postnatal development. Such a mechanism may contribute to the association of mutations in dopamine and Arc pathways with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. As the mesofrontal dopamine circuit shows extensive activity-dependent developmental plasticity, activity-guided modulation of dopaminergic projections or Arc ensembles during development may help to repair circuit deficits related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Changes in neuronal excitability by activated microglia: Differential Na+ current up-regulation in pyramid-shaped and bipolar neurons by TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars eKlapal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 µg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS to hippocampal cultures up-regulates Na+ current densities (INavD of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a major cytokine released by activated microglia, up-regulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells the up-regulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the up-regulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18, are released from activated microglia we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5-10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose-response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines microglial cells up-regulate Na+ current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger up-regulation of

  3. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase attenuates 3-hydroxykynurenine-induced neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Chae, Hee-Sun; Lee, Sang Hyung; Joo, Wan Seok; Choi, Se Hoon; Kim, Kyung Yong; Lee, Won Bok; Kim, Sung Su

    2004-02-01

    3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite, is known to have toxic effects in brain. However, the molecular mechanism of the toxicity has not been well identified. In this study, we investigated the involvement of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the 3-HK-induced neuronal cell damage. Our results showed that 3-HK induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and ERK phosphorylation occurred during cell death. Inhibition of ERK activation using PD98059 considerably increased cell death. Furthermore, cell death was preceded by mitochondrial malfunction including collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK dramatically increased mitochondrial malfunction, and enhanced caspase activation, resulting in enhanced neuronal cell death. Thus, our results show that ERK plays a protective role by maintaining mitochondrial function and regulating caspase activity under conditions of cellular stress.

  4. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin R

    2014-04-14

    Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal proteins involved in neuronal process extension and maintenance are both more heavily modified and more frequently regulated at a PTM level. This suggests a clear role not only for PTMs in these processes, but possibly also for heavy protein modification in general. This study provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed on protein-level events, this study also provides significant insight into detailed roles for individual modified proteins in the developing brain, helping to advance the understanding of the complex protein-driven processes that underlie development. Finally, the use of a novel bioinformatic analytical tool provides information regarding aspects of the PTMome which are not normally examined, and illuminates the role of PTMs on a more detailed, protein-centric and site-specific level in a biological context. The widespread yet uneven distributions observed will be relevant to those readers with an interest in the mechanisms of distribution of PTMS and their functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate mouse brown adipose tissue metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: DMH cholinergic neurons directly send efferent signals to sympathetic premotor neurons in the Rpa. Elevated cholinergic input to this area reduces BAT activity through activation of M2 mAChRs on serotonergic neurons. Therefore, the direct DMHACh–Rpa5-HT pathway may mediate physiological heat-defense responses to elevated environmental temperature.

  6. 3-Hydroxybutyrate regulates energy metabolism and induces BDNF expression in cerebral cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marosi, Krisztina; Kim, Sang Woo; Moehl, Keelin

    2016-01-01

    During fasting and vigorous exercise, a shift of brain cell energy substrate utilization from glucose to the ketone 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) occurs. Studies have shown that 3OHB can protect neurons against excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Neurons ...... suggest cellular signaling mechanisms by which 3OHB may mediate adaptive responses of neurons to fasting, exercise, and ketogenic diets....

  7. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  8. StearoylCoA desaturase-5: a novel regulator of neuronal cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora I Sinner

    lipogenic pathways and transduction signaling cascades, SCD5 participates in the regulation of neuronal cell growth and differentiation.

  9. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  10. A consensus CaMK IV-responsive RNA sequence mediates regulation of alternative exons in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiuyong; Jan, Calvin; Stoilov, Peter; Park, Jennifer; Black, Douglas L

    2005-12-01

    Neurons make extensive use of alternative pre-mRNA splicing to regulate gene expression and diversify physiological responses. We showed previously in a pituitary cell line that the Ca(++)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CaMK IV specifically repressed splicing of the BK channel STREX exon. This repression is dependent on a CaMK IV-responsive RNA element (CaRRE) within the STREX 3' splice site. Here, we report that similar Ca(++) regulation of splicing, mediated by L-type calcium channels and CaM kinase IV, occurs in cultured neurons and in the brain. We identify a critical CaRRE motif (CACATNRTTAT) that is essential for conferring CaMK IV repression on an otherwise constitutive exon. Additional Ca(++)-regulated exons that carry this consensus sequence are also identified in the human genome. Thus, the Ca(++)/CaMK IV pathway in neurons controls the alternative splicing of a group of exons through this short CaRRE consensus sequence. The functions of some of these exons imply that splicing control through the CaMK IV pathway will alter neuronal activity.

  11. (R1441C) LRRK2 induces the degeneration of SN dopaminergic neurons and alters the expression of genes regulating neuronal survival in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Chu-Yu; Lin, Kun-Jun; Chen, Ying-Ling; Yeh, Tu-Hsueh; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Chen, Ing-Jou; Lu, Chin-Song; Wang, Hung-Li

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the most common genetic cause of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. Several mutations in LRRK2 gene were reported in PD patients. R1441 is the second most frequent site of LRRK2 mutation. We generated (R1441C) LRRK2 transgenic mice that displayed motor deficits at the age of 16 months. Compared with wild-type mice, 16-month-old (R1441C) LRRK2 mice exhibited a significant reduction in the number of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons. To elucidate molecular pathogenic pathways involved in (R1441C) LRRK2-induced death of SN dopaminergic neurons, we performed microarray analysis to visualize altered mRNA expressions in the SN of (R1441C) LRRK2 mouse. In the SN of (R1441C) LRRK2 transgenic mouse, the mRNA expression of three genes that promote cell death was upregulated, while the mRNA expression of seven genes that contribute to neurogenesis/neuroprotection was significantly downregulated. Our results suggest that altered expression of these genes involved in regulating neuronal survival may contribute to the pathogenesis of (R1441C) LRRK2-induced PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of Dopamine D1 Receptors Regulates Dendritic Morphogenesis Through Rac1 and RhoA in Prefrontal Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Gu, Jingjing; Wang, Bin; Xie, Minjuan; Huang, Lu; Liu, Yutong; Zhang, Lei; Xue, Jinhua; Guo, Fukun; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important regulator of neuronal plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and plays a critical role in addiction-related neuroadaptation. The Rho GTPases, including Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42, are key regulators of actin cytoskeleton rearrangement that play important roles in dendritic morphogenesis. The goal of the current study was to use cultures of primary PFC neurons to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying DA-induced dendritic morphogenesis, a phenomenon that mimics the increase in DA synaptic transmission observed in the PFC of in vivo cocaine administration. We investigated the effects of repeated DA treatments on dendritic morphology changes in PFC neurons, and identified Rac1 and RhoA as downstream effectors of D1 receptors during the regulation of dendritic morphogenesis. Importantly, we found that D1 receptor-regulated Rac1 and RhoA have distinct roles in the regulation of dendritic morphogenesis after repeated DA treatments. Our data provide the first evidence that Rac1 and RhoA are effectors of D1 receptor signaling during dendritic morphogenesis and represent new signaling molecules involved in long-lasting neuroadaptation in the PFC.

  13. Role of TRH/UCN3 neurons of the perifornical area/bed nucleus of stria terminalis region in the regulation of the anorexigenic POMC neurons of the arcuate nucleus in male mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péterfi, Zoltán; Farkas, Erzsébet; Nagyunyomi-Sényi, Kata; Kádár, Andrea; Ottó, Szenci; Horváth, András; Füzesi, Tamás; Lechan, Ronald M; Fekete, Csaba

    2017-11-09

    Two anorexigenic peptides, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and urocortin 3 (UCN3), are co-expressed in a continuous neuronal group that extends from the perifornical area to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, raising the possibility that this cell group may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. In this study, therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the TRH/UCN3 neurons regulate food intake by influencing feeding-related neuropeptide Y (NPY) and/or proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Triple-labeled immunofluorescent preparations demonstrated that only very few NPY neurons (4.3 ± 1.3%) were contacted by double-labeled TRH/UCN3 axons in the ARC. In contrast, more than half of the POMC neurons (52.4 ± 8.5%) were contacted by double-labeled axons. Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrated that the UCN3 axons established asymmetric synapses with POMC neurons, indicating the excitatory nature of these synaptic specializations. Patch clamp electrophysiology revealed that TRH and UCN3 have antagonistic effects on the POMC neurons. While UCN3 depolarizes and increases the firing rate of POMC neurons, TRH prevents these effects of UCN3. These data demonstrate that TRH/UCN3 neurons in the perifornical/BNST region establish abundant synaptic associations with the POMC neurons in the ARC and suggest a potentially important role for these neurons in the regulation of food intake through an antagonistic interaction between TRH and UCN3 on the electrophysiological properties of POMC neurons.

  14. The DCR protein TTC3 affects differentiation and Golgi compactness in neurons through specific actin-regulating pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Elena Berto

    Full Text Available In neuronal cells, actin remodeling plays a well known role in neurite extension but is also deeply involved in the organization of intracellular structures, such as the Golgi apparatus. However, it is still not very clear which mechanisms may regulate actin dynamics at the different sites. In this report we show that high levels of the TTC3 protein, encoded by one of the genes of the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DCR, prevent neurite extension and disrupt Golgi compactness in differentiating primary neurons. These effects largely depend on the capability of TTC3 to promote actin polymerization through signaling pathways involving RhoA, ROCK, CIT-N and PIIa. However, the functional relationships between these molecules differ significantly if considering the TTC3 activity on neurite extension or on Golgi organization. Finally, our results reveal an unexpected stage-dependent requirement for F-actin in Golgi organization at different stages of neuronal differentiation.

  15. Increased motor neuron resilience by small molecule compounds that regulate IGF-II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Teresia M; Beagan, Jonathan; Isacson, Ole

    2018-02-01

    The selective vulnerability of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is evident by sparing of a few subpopulations during this fast progressing and debilitating degenerative disease. By studying the gene expression profile of resilient vs. vulnerable motor neuron populations we can gain insight in what biomolecules and pathways may contribute to the resilience and vulnerability. Several genes have been found to be differentially expressed in the vulnerable motor neurons of the cervical spinal cord as compared to the spared motor neurons in CNIII/IV. One gene that is differentially expressed and present at higher levels in less vulnerable motor neurons is insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The motor neuron protective effect of IGF-II has been demonstrated both in vitro and in SOD1 transgenic mice. Here, we have screened a library of small molecule compounds and identified inducers of IGF-II mRNA and protein expression. Several identified compounds significantly protected motor neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro. One of the compounds, vardenafil, resulted in a complete motor neuron protection, an effect that was reversed by blocking receptors of IGF-II. When administered to naïve rats vardenafil was present in the cerebrospinal fluid and increased IGF-II mRNA expression in the spinal cord. When administered to SOD1 transgenic mice, there was a significant delay in motor symptom onset and prolonged survival. Vardenafil also increased IGF-II mRNA and protein levels in motor neurons derived from healthy subject and ALS patient iPSCs, activated a human IGF-II promoter and improved survival of ALS-patient derived motor neurons in culture. Our findings suggest that modulation of genes differentially expressed in vulnerable and resilient motor neurons may be a useful therapeutic approach for motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coordinated Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity at Striatopallidal and Striatonigral Neurons Orchestrates Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Trusel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in shaping motor behavior. For this function, the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the striatonigral and striatopallidal pathways must be integrated. It remains unclear whether the activity of the two pathways is primarily coordinated by synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Using a model of Parkinson’s disease, we determined the circuit and behavioral effects of concurrently regulating cell-type-specific forms of corticostriatal long-term synaptic depression (LTD by inhibiting small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SKs of the dorsolateral striatum. At striatopallidal synapses, SK channel inhibition rescued the disease-linked deficits in endocannabinoid (eCB-dependent LTD. At striatonigral cells, inhibition of these channels counteracted a form of adenosine-mediated LTD by activating the ERK cascade. Interfering with eCB-, adenosine-, and ERK signaling in vivo alleviated motor abnormalities, which supports that synaptic modulation of striatal pathways affects behavior. Thus, our results establish a central role of coordinated synaptic plasticity at MSN subpopulations in motor control.

  17. Modification of bursting in a Helix neuron by drugs influencing intracellular regulation of calcium level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salánki, J; Budai, D; Véró, M

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ruthenium red, caffein and EGTA (ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid) influencing intracellular Ca2+ level as well as that of pH-lowering was investigated on identified RPal neuron of Helix pomatia characterized by bimodal pacemaker (bursting) activity. Drugs were applied both extracellularly and intracellularly. Intracellular injection was performed from micropipettes by pressure. It was found that intracellular injection of ruthenium red, caffein, EGTA and pH-lowering caused immediate short hyperpolarization and suspension of bursting. The effect of caffein and lowering of pH was biphasic, hyperpolarization was followed by an increase of spiking. Following EGTA injection the amplitudes of interburst hyperpolarizing waves decreased, and prolongation of spikes occurred. Extracellular application of ruthenium red caused slight depolarization, while caffein produced mainly effects that were similar to those of the intracellular injection. Adding EGTA into the bath resulted in cessation of bursting, and later on also spike generation was blocked. All these effects could be eliminated by washing. It is concluded that Ca-influx during spiking cannot be considered as a single factor in maintaining bursting activity, nevertheless, intracellular binding and liberation of Ca depending on the cell metabolism should also be taken into consideration as a possible mechanism of burst regulation.

  18. Neuronal Rap1 Regulates Energy Balance, Glucose Homeostasis, and Leptin Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kaneko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The CNS contributes to obesity and metabolic disease; however, the underlying neurobiological pathways remain to be fully established. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei that control whole-body metabolism and is activated in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. Genetic ablation of CNS Rap1 protects mice from dietary obesity, glucose imbalance, and insulin resistance in the periphery and from HFD-induced neuropathological changes in the hypothalamus, including diminished cellular leptin sensitivity and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammation. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of CNS Rap1 signaling normalizes hypothalamic ER stress and inflammation, improves cellular leptin sensitivity, and reduces body weight in mice with dietary obesity. We also demonstrate that Rap1 mediates leptin resistance via interplay with ER stress. Thus, neuronal Rap1 critically regulates leptin sensitivity and mediates HFD-induced obesity and hypothalamic pathology and may represent a potential therapeutic target for obesity treatment.

  19. Neuronal Rap1 Regulates Energy Balance, Glucose Homeostasis, and Leptin Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Xu, Pingwen; Cordonier, Elizabeth L; Chen, Siyu S; Ng, Amy; Xu, Yong; Morozov, Alexei; Fukuda, Makoto

    2016-09-13

    The CNS contributes to obesity and metabolic disease; however, the underlying neurobiological pathways remain to be fully established. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1 is expressed in multiple hypothalamic nuclei that control whole-body metabolism and is activated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Genetic ablation of CNS Rap1 protects mice from dietary obesity, glucose imbalance, and insulin resistance in the periphery and from HFD-induced neuropathological changes in the hypothalamus, including diminished cellular leptin sensitivity and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of CNS Rap1 signaling normalizes hypothalamic ER stress and inflammation, improves cellular leptin sensitivity, and reduces body weight in mice with dietary obesity. We also demonstrate that Rap1 mediates leptin resistance via interplay with ER stress. Thus, neuronal Rap1 critically regulates leptin sensitivity and mediates HFD-induced obesity and hypothalamic pathology and may represent a potential therapeutic target for obesity treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Yuriy V; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A; Ache, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel.

  1. Differential regulation of Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenner Andrea J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expression of C1q, an early component of the classical complement pathway, has been shown to be induced in neurons in hippocampal slices, following accumulation of exogenous Aβ42. Microglial activation was also detected by surface marker expression and cytokine production. To determine whether C1q induction was correlated with intraneuronal Aβ and/or microglial activation, D-(--2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, an NMDA receptor antagonist and glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-proline peptide (RGD, an integrin receptor antagonist, which blocks and enhances Aβ42 uptake, respectively, were assessed for their effect on neuronal C1q synthesis and microglial activation. APV inhibited, and RGD enhanced, microglial activation and neuronal C1q expression. However, addition of Aβ10–20 to slice cultures significantly reduced Aβ42 uptake and microglial activation, but did not alter the Aβ42-induced neuronal C1q expression. Furthermore, Aβ10–20 alone triggered C1q production in neurons, demonstrating that neither neuronal Aβ42 accumulation, nor microglial activation is required for neuronal C1q upregulation. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that multiple receptors are involved in Aβ injury and signaling in neurons. Some lead to neuronal C1q induction, whereas other(s lead to intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and/or stimulation of microglia.

  2. CREB regulates spine density of lateral amygdala neurons: implications for memory allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Derya; Mercaldo, Valentina; Yiu, Adelaide P; Higgs, Gemma; Han, Jin-Hee; Frankland, Paul W; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2013-01-01

    Neurons may compete against one another for integration into a memory trace. Specifically, neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala with relatively higher levels of cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB) seem to be preferentially allocated to a fear memory trace, while neurons with relatively decreased CREB function seem to be excluded from a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that modulates many diverse cellular processes, raising the question as to which of these CREB-mediated processes underlie memory allocation. CREB is implicated in modulating dendritic spine number and morphology. As dendritic spines are intimately involved in memory formation, we investigated whether manipulations of CREB function alter spine number or morphology of neurons at the time of fear conditioning. We used viral vectors to manipulate CREB function in the lateral amygdala (LA) principal neurons in mice maintained in their homecages. At the time that fear conditioning normally occurs, we observed that neurons with high levels of CREB had more dendritic spines, while neurons with low CREB function had relatively fewer spines compared to control neurons. These results suggest that the modulation of spine density provides a potential mechanism for preferential allocation of a subset of neurons to the memory trace.

  3. Regulation of neuronal morphogenesis and positioning by ubiquitin-specific proteases in the cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Anckar

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin signaling mechanisms play fundamental roles in the cell-intrinsic control of neuronal morphogenesis and connectivity in the brain. However, whereas specific ubiquitin ligases have been implicated in key steps of neural circuit assembly, the roles of ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs in the establishment of neuronal connectivity have remained unexplored. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of USP family members in granule neuron morphogenesis and positioning in the rodent cerebellum. We identify a set of 32 USPs that are expressed in granule neurons. We also characterize the subcellular localization of the 32 USPs in granule neurons using a library of expression plasmids encoding GFP-USPs. In RNAi screens of the 32 neuronally expressed USPs, we uncover novel functions for USP1, USP4, and USP20 in the morphogenesis of granule neuron dendrites and axons and we identify a requirement for USP30 and USP33 in granule neuron migration in the rodent cerebellar cortex in vivo. These studies reveal that specific USPs with distinct spatial localizations harbor key functions in the control of neuronal morphogenesis and positioning in the mammalian cerebellum, with important implications for our understanding of the cell-intrinsic mechanisms that govern neural circuit assembly in the brain.

  4. CREB regulates spine density of lateral amygdala neurons: implications for memory allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya eSargin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons may compete against one another for integration into a memory trace. Specifically, neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala with relatively higher levels of CREB seem to be preferentially allocated to a fear memory trace, while neurons with relatively decreased CREB function seem to be excluded from a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that modulates many diverse cellular processes, raising the question as to which of these CREB-mediated processes underlie memory allocation. CREB is implicated in modulating dendritic spine number and morphology. As dendritic spines are intimately involved in memory formation, we investigated whether manipulations of CREB function alter spine number or morphology of neurons at the time of fear conditioning. We used viral vectors to manipulate CREB function in the lateral amygdala principal neurons in mice maintained in their homecages. At the time that fear conditioning normally occurs, we observed that neurons with high levels of CREB had more dendritic spines, while neurons with low CREB function had relatively fewer spines compared to control neurons. These results suggest that the modulation of spine density provides a potential mechanism for preferential allocation of a subset of neurons to the memory trace.

  5. RPM-1 uses both ubiquitin ligase and phosphatase-based mechanisms to regulate DLK-1 during neuronal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T Baker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development that function in axon extension and guidance, termination of axon outgrowth, and synapse formation. Outside of development, the PHR proteins also regulate axon regeneration and Wallerian degeneration. The PHR proteins function in part by acting as ubiquitin ligases that degrade the Dual Leucine zipper-bearing Kinase (DLK. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans PHR protein, Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology 1 (RPM-1, also utilizes a phosphatase-based mechanism to regulate DLK-1. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Protein Phosphatase Magnesium/Manganese dependent 2 (PPM-2 as a novel RPM-1 binding protein. Genetic, transgenic, and biochemical studies indicated that PPM-2 functions coordinately with the ubiquitin ligase activity of RPM-1 and the F-box protein FSN-1 to negatively regulate DLK-1. PPM-2 acts on S874 of DLK-1, a residue implicated in regulation of DLK-1 binding to a short, inhibitory isoform of DLK-1 (DLK-1S. Our study demonstrates that PHR proteins function through both phosphatase and ubiquitin ligase mechanisms to inhibit DLK. Thus, PHR proteins are potentially more accurate and sensitive regulators of DLK than originally thought. Our results also highlight an important and expanding role for the PP2C phosphatase family in neuronal development.

  6. NPY neuron-specific Y2 receptors regulate adipose tissue and trabecular bone but not cortical bone homeostasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Y2 receptor signalling is known to be important in neuropeptide Y (NPY-mediated effects on energy homeostasis and bone physiology. Y2 receptors are located post-synaptically as well as acting as auto receptors on NPY-expressing neurons, and the different roles of these two populations of Y2 receptors in the regulation of energy homeostasis and body composition are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus generated two conditional knockout mouse models, Y2(lox/lox and NPYCre/+;Y2(lox/lox, in which Y2 receptors can be selectively ablated either in the hypothalamus or specifically in hypothalamic NPY-producing neurons of adult mice. Specific deletion of hypothalamic Y2 receptors increases food intake and body weight compared to controls. Importantly, specific ablation of hypothalamic Y2 receptors on NPY-containing neurons results in a significantly greater adiposity in female but not male mice, accompanied by increased hepatic triglyceride levels, decreased expression of liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1 and increased expression of muscle phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC. While food intake, body weight, femur length, bone mineral content, density and cortical bone volume and thickness are not significantly altered, trabecular bone volume and number were significantly increased by hypothalamic Y2 deletion on NPY-expressing neurons. Interestingly, in situ hybridisation reveals increased NPY and decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus of mice with hypothalamus-specific deletion of Y2 receptors in NPY neurons, consistent with a negative feedback mechanism between NPY expression and Y2 receptors on NPY-ergic neurons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together these data demonstrate the anti-obesogenic role of Y2 receptors in the brain, notably on NPY-ergic neurons, possibly via inhibition of NPY neurons and concomitant stimulation of POMC-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of

  7. APAF1 is a key transcriptional target for p53 in the regulation of neuronal cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, A; Cregan, S P; MacLaurin, J G

    2001-01-01

    cell death, Apaf1 protein levels were increased. We addressed whether p53 directly regulates Apaf1 transcription via the two p53 consensus binding sites in the Apaf1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated p53-DNA binding activity at both p53 consensus binding sequences in extracts...... of this process have not been identified. In the present study, we demonstrate that p53 directly upregulates Apaf1 transcription as a critical step in the induction of neuronal cell death. Using DNA microarray analysis of total RNA isolated from neurons undergoing p53-induced apoptosis a 5-6-fold upregulation...... of Apaf1 mRNA was detected. Induction of neuronal cell death by camptothecin, a DNA-damaging agent that functions through a p53-dependent mechanism, resulted in increased Apaf1 mRNA in p53-positive, but not p53-deficient neurons. In both in vitro and in vivo neuronal cell death processes of p53-induced...

  8. I(2)(PP2A) regulates p53 and Akt correlatively and leads the neurons to abort apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gong-Ping; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Yao; Shi, Hai-Hong; Yin, Jun; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Peng, Cai-Xia; Hu, Juan; Wang, Qun; Li, Hong-Lian; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2012-02-01

    A chronic neuron loss is the cardinal pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD), but it is still not understood why most neurons in AD brain do not accomplish apoptosis even though they are actually exposed to an environment with enriched proapoptotic factors. Protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor-2 (I(2)(PP2A)), an endogenous PP2A inhibitor, is significantly increased in AD brain, but the role of I(2)(PP2A) in AD-like neuron loss is elusive. Here, we show that I(2)(PP2A) regulates p53 and Akt correlatively. The mechanisms involve activated transcription and p38 MAPK activities. More importantly, we demonstrate that the simultaneous activation of Akt induced by I(2)(PP2A) counteracts the hyperactivated p53-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, I(2)(PP2A), p53 and Akt are all elevated in the brain of mouse model and AD patients. Our results suggest that the increased I(2)(PP2A) may trigger apoptosis by p53 upregulation, but due to simultaneous activation of Akt, the neurons are aborted from the apoptotic pathway. This finding contributes to the understanding of why most neurons in AD brain do not undergo apoptosis. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Leptin Elongates Hypothalamic Neuronal Cilia via Transcriptional Regulation and Actin Destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gil Myoung; Han, Yu Mi; Ko, Hyuk Whan; Kim, Joon; Oh, Byung Chul; Kwon, Ijoo; Kim, Min-Seon

    2015-07-17

    Terminally differentiated neurons have a single, primary cilium. The primary cilia of hypothalamic neurons play a critical role in sensing metabolic signals. We recently showed that mice with leptin deficiency or resistance have shorter cilia in the hypothalamic neurons, and leptin treatment elongates cilia in hypothalamic neurons. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which leptin controls ciliary length in hypothalamic neurons. In N1 hypothalamic neuronal cells, leptin treatment increased the expression of intraflagellar transport proteins. These effects occurred via phosphatase and tensin homolog/glycogen synthase kinase-3β-mediated inhibition of the transcriptional factor RFX1. Actin filament dynamics were also involved in leptin-promoted ciliary elongation. Both leptin and cytochalasin-D treatment induced F-actin disruption and cilium elongation in hypothalamic neurons that was completely abrogated by co-treatment with the F-actin polymerizer phalloidin. Our findings suggest that leptin elongates hypothalamic neuronal cilia by stimulating the production of intraflagellar transport proteins and destabilizing actin filaments. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Modulators of calcium influx regulate membrane excitability in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, Philipp; Poroli, Mark; Rigaud, Marcel; Fuchs, Andreas; Fillip, Patrick; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Ljubkovic, Marko; Sapunar, Damir; Hogan, Quinn

    2008-01-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain resulting from neuronal damage remains difficult to treat, in part, because of incomplete understanding of underlying cellular mechanisms. We have previously shown that inward Ca2+ flux (I(Ca)) across the sensory neuron plasmalemma is decreased in a rodent model of chronic

  11. Neurodegeneration in Autoimmune Optic Neuritis Is Associated with Altered APP Cleavage in Neurons and Up-Regulation of p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Herold

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Histopathological and radiological analysis revealed that neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course. However, the pathological mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in Brown Norway rats (BN-rats is a well-established animal model, especially of the neurodegenerative aspects of MS. Previous studies in this animal model indicated that loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, the neurons that form the axons of the optic nerve, occurs in the preclinical phase of the disease and is in part independent of overt histopathological changes of the optic nerve. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genes which are involved in neuronal cell loss at different disease stages of EAE. Furthermore, genes that are highly specific for autoimmune-driven neurodegeneration were compared to those regulated in RGCs after optic nerve axotomy at corresponding time points. Using laser capture micro dissection we isolated RNA from unfixed RGCs and performed global transcriptome analysis of retinal neurons. In total, we detected 582 genes sequentially expressed in the preclinical phase and 1150 genes in the clinical manifest EAE (P 1.5. Furthermore, using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA, we identified amyloid precursor protein (APP as a potential upstream regulator of changes in gene expression in the preclinical EAE but neither in clinical EAE, nor at any time point after optic nerve transection. Therefore, the gene pathway analysis lead to the hypothesis that altered cleavage of APP in neurons in the preclinical phase of EAE leads to the enhanced production of APP intracellular domain (AICD, which in turn acts as a transcriptional regulator and thereby initiates an apoptotic signaling cascade via up-regulation of the target gene p

  12. Cux1 and Cux2 regulate dendritic branching, spine morphology and synapses of the upper layer neurons of the cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelos, Beatriz; Sebastián-Serrano, Alvaro; Beccari, Leonardo; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Cisneros, Elsa; Kim, Seonhee; Dopazo, Ana; Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Bovolenta, Paola; Walsh, Christopher A.; Nieto, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dendrite branching and spine formation determines the function of morphologically distinct and specialized neuronal subclasses. However, little is known about the programs instructing specific branching patterns in vertebrate neurons and whether such programs influence dendritic spines and synapses. Using knockout and knockdown studies combined with morphological, molecular and electrophysiological analysis we show that the homeobox Cux1 and Cux2 are intrinsic and complementary regulators of dendrite branching, spine development and synapse formation in layer II–III neurons of the cerebral cortex. Cux genes control the number and maturation of dendritic spines partly through direct regulation of the expression of Xlr3b and Xlr4b, chromatin remodeling genes previously implicated in cognitive defects. Accordingly, abnormal dendrites and synapses in Cux2−/− mice correlate with reduced synaptic function and defects in working memory. These demonstrate critical roles of Cux in dendritogenesis and highlight novel subclass-specific mechanisms of synapse regulation that contribute to the establishment of cognitive circuits. PMID:20510857

  13. Neuronal LRP1 regulates glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Hu, Jin; Tsai, Chih-Wei; Yue, Mei; Melrose, Heather L; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Bu, Guojun

    2015-04-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological disorder characterized by profound memory loss and progressive dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, significantly increases the risk for developing AD. Whereas amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition and neurofibrillary tangles are major histological hallmarks of AD, impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism precedes these pathological changes during the early stage of AD and likely triggers or exacerbates AD pathology. However, the mechanisms linking disturbed insulin signaling/glucose metabolism and AD pathogenesis remain unclear. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a major apolipoprotein E receptor, plays critical roles in lipoprotein metabolism, synaptic maintenance, and clearance of Aβ in the brain. Here, we demonstrate that LRP1 interacts with the insulin receptor β in the brain and regulates insulin signaling and glucose uptake. LRP1 deficiency in neurons leads to impaired insulin signaling as well as reduced levels of glucose transporters GLUT3 and GLUT4. Consequently, glucose uptake is reduced. By using an in vivo microdialysis technique sampling brain glucose concentration in freely moving mice, we further show that LRP1 deficiency in conditional knock-out mice resulted in glucose intolerance in the brain. We also found that hyperglycemia suppresses LRP1 expression, which further exacerbates insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and AD pathology. As loss of LRP1 expression is seen in AD brains, our study provides novel insights into insulin resistance in AD. Our work also establishes new targets that can be explored for AD prevention or therapy. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355851-09$15.00/0.

  14. APE1, the DNA base excision repair protein, regulates the removal of platinum adducts in sensory neuronal cultures by NER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Suk [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Guo, Chunlu; Thompson, Eric L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Jiang, Yanlin [Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Kelley, Mark R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Department of Pediatrics and Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Vasko, Michael R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lee, Suk-Hee, E-mail: slee@iu.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of treatment with the anticancer drug, cisplatin. One proposed mechanism for this neurotoxicity is the formation of platinum adducts in sensory neurons that could contribute to DNA damage. Although this damage is largely repaired by nuclear excision repair (NER), our previous findings suggest that augmenting the base excision repair pathway (BER) by overexpressing the repair protein APE1 protects sensory neurons from cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. The question remains whether APE1 contributes to the ability of the NER pathway to repair platinum-damage in neuronal cells. To examine this, we manipulated APE1 expression in sensory neuronal cultures and measured Pt-removal after exposure to cisplatin. When neuronal cultures were treated with increasing concentrations of cisplatin for two or three hours, there was a concentration-dependent increase in Pt-damage that peaked at four hours and returned to near baseline levels after 24 h. In cultures where APE1 expression was reduced by ∼80% using siRNA directed at APE1, there was a significant inhibition of Pt-removal over eight hours which was reversed by overexpressing APE1 using a lentiviral construct for human wtAPE1. Overexpressing a mutant APE1 (C65 APE1), which only has DNA repair activity, but not its other significant redox-signaling function, mimicked the effects of wtAPE1. Overexpressing DNA repair activity mutant APE1 (226 + 177APE1), with only redox activity was ineffective suggesting it is the DNA repair function of APE1 and not its redox-signaling, that restores the Pt-damage removal. Together, these data provide the first evidence that a critical BER enzyme, APE1, helps regulate the NER pathway in the repair of cisplatin damage in sensory neurons.

  15. Cholesterol up-regulates neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel activity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Durdagi, Serdar; Noskov, Sergei; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia

    2017-04-14

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters. As a result, loss of GIRK function can enhance neuron excitability, whereas gain of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity. Here we show that in rats on a high-cholesterol diet, cholesterol levels in hippocampal neurons are increased. We also demonstrate that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating neuronal GIRK currents. Specifically, cholesterol enrichment of rat hippocampal neurons resulted in enhanced channel activity. In accordance, elevated currents upon cholesterol enrichment were also observed in Xenopus oocytes expressing GIRK2 channels, the primary GIRK subunit expressed in the brain. Furthermore, using planar lipid bilayers, we show that although cholesterol did not affect the unitary conductance of GIRK2, it significantly enhanced the frequency of channel openings. Last, combining computational and functional approaches, we identified two putative cholesterol-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of GIRK2. These findings establish that cholesterol plays a critical role in modulating GIRK activity in the brain. Because up-regulation of GIRK function can reduce neuronal activity, our findings may lead to novel approaches for prevention and therapy of cholesterol-driven neurodegenerative disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Unravelling the differential functions and regulation of striatal neuron sub-populations in motor control, reward and motivational processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eEna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum, the major input structure of the basal ganglia, is critically involved in motor control and learning of habits and skills, and is also involved in motivational and reward processes. The dorsal striatum, caudate-putamen, is primarily implicated in motor functions whereas the ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens, is essential for motivation and drug reinforcement. Severe basal ganglia dysfunction occurs in movement disorders as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, and in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. The striatum is essentially composed of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs that are output neurons giving rise to the so-called direct and indirect pathways and are targets of the cerebral cortex and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Although the involvement of striatal sub-areas in motor control and motivation has been thoroughly characterized, major issues remained concerning the specific and respective functions of the two MSNs sub-populations, D2R-striatopallidal (dopamine D2 receptor-positive and D1R-striatonigral (dopamine D1 receptor-positive neurons, as well as their specific regulation. Here, we review recent advances that gave new insight in the understanding of the differential roles of striatopallidal and striatonigral neurons in the basal ganglia circuit. We discuss innovative techniques developed in the last decade which allowed a much precise evaluation of molecular pathways implicated in motivational processes and functional roles of striatopallidal and striatonigral neurons in motor control and in the establishment of reward-associated behaviour.

  17. Regulation of autophagy by AMP-activated protein kinase/ sirtuin 1 pathway reduces spinal cord neurons damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: AMP-activated protein kinase/sirtuin 1 (AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway has been proved to be involved in the regulation of autophagy in various models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway on autophagy after spinal cord injury (SCI. Materials and Methods:The SCI model was established in rats in vivo and the primary spinal cord neurons were subjected to mechanical injury (MI in vitro. The apoptosis in spinal cord tissue and neurons was assessed by TUNEL staining and Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. The autophagy-related proteins levels were detected by Western blot. The activation of AMPK/SIRT1 pathway was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that the apoptosis of spinal cord tissue and cell damage of spinal cord neurons was obvious after the trauma. The ratio of LC3II/LC3I and level of p62 were first increased significantly and then decreased after the trauma in vivo and in vitro, indicating the defect in autophagy. The levels of p-AMPK and SIRT1 were increased obviously after the trauma in vivo and in vitro. Further activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway by pretreatment with resveratrol, a confirmed activator of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway, alleviated the cell damage and promoted the autophagy flux via downregulation of p62 in spinal cord neurons at 24 hr after MI. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that regulation of autophagy by AMPK/SIRT1 pathway can restrain spinal cord neurons damage, which may be a potential intervention of SCI.

  18. HeyL Regulates the Number of TrkC Neurons in Dorsal Root Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Abhishek; Jarrett, Jennifer; Chlon, Timothy; Kessler, John A

    2009-01-01

    The basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor HeyL is expressed at high levels by neural crest progenitor cells (NCPs) that give rise to neurons and glia in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Since HeyL expression was observed in these NCPs during the period of neurogenesis, we generated HeyL null mutants to help examine the factor’s role in ganglion neuronal specification. Homozygous null mutation of HeyL reduced the number of TrkC+ neurons in DRG at birth including the subpopulation that expresse...

  19. A consensus CaMK IV-responsive RNA sequence mediates regulation of alternative exons in neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, J. Y.; Jan, C.; Stoilov, P; Park, J.; Black, D L

    2005-01-01

    Neurons make extensive use of alternative pre-mRNA splicing to regulate gene expression and diversify physiological responses. We showed previously in a pituitary cell line that the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CaMK IV specifically repressed splicing of the BK channel STREX exon. This repression is dependent on a CaMK IV-responsive RNA element (CaRRE) within the STREX 3′ splice site. Here, we report that similar Ca++ regulation of splicing, mediated by L-type calcium channels and ...

  20. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    .... A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions...

  1. Natural asynchronies in audiovisual communication signals regulate neuronal multisensory interactions in voice-sensitive cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Perrodin, Catherine; Kayser, Christoph; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    When social animals communicate, the onset of informative content in one modality varies considerably relative to the other, such as when visual orofacial movements precede a vocalization. These naturally occurring asynchronies do not disrupt intelligibility or perceptual coherence. However, they occur on time scales where they likely affect integrative neuronal activity in ways that have remained unclear, especially for hierarchically downstream regions in which neurons exhibit temporally im...

  2. Role of proopiomelanocortin neuron Stat3 in regulating arterial pressure and mediating the chronic effects of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinion, John H; do Carmo, Jussara M; Adi, Ahmad; Hamza, Shereen; da Silva, Alexandre A; Hall, John E

    2013-05-01

    Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a key second messenger by which leptin regulates appetite and body weight, its role in specific neuronal populations in metabolic regulation and in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure is unknown. The current study tested the hypothesis that Stat3 signaling in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons mediates the chronic effects of leptin on mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as on glucose regulation, energy expenditure, and food intake. Stat3(flox/flox) mice were crossed with POMC-Cre mice to generate mice with Stat3 deletion specifically in POMC neurons (Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre). Oxygen consumption (Vo2), carbon dioxide respiration (Vco2), motor activity, heat production, food intake, and MAP were measured 24 hours/d. After baseline measurements, leptin was infused (4 μg/kg per min, IP) for 7 days. Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice were hyperphagic, heavier, and had increased respiratory quotients compared with control Stat3(flox/flox) mice. Baseline MAP was not different between the groups, and chronic leptin infusion reduced food intake similarly in both groups (27 versus 29%). Vo2, Vco2, and heat production responses to leptin were not significantly different in control and Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. However, leptin-mediated increases in MAP were completely abolished, and blood pressure responses to acute air-jet stress were attenuated in male Stat3(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. These results indicate that Stat3 signaling in POMC neurons is essential for leptin-mediated increases in MAP, but not for anorexic or thermogenic effects of leptin.

  3. Synaptic dynamics regulation in response to high frequency stimulation in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Wang, Jiang; Li, Huiyan; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    High frequency stimulation (HFS) has confirmed its ability in modulating the pathological neural activities. However its detailed mechanism is unclear. This study aims to explore the effects of HFS on neuronal networks dynamics. First, the two-neuron FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) networks with static coupling strength and the small-world FHN networks with spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP) modulated synaptic coupling strength are constructed. Then, the multi-scale method is used to transform the network models into equivalent averaged models, where the HFS intensity is modeled as the ratio between stimulation amplitude and frequency. Results show that in static two-neuron networks, there is still synaptic current projected to the postsynaptic neuron even if the presynaptic neuron is blocked by the HFS. In the small-world networks, the effects of the STDP adjusting rate parameter on the inactivation ratio and synchrony degree increase with the increase of HFS intensity. However, only when the HFS intensity becomes very large can the STDP time window parameter affect the inactivation ratio and synchrony index. Both simulation and numerical analysis demonstrate that the effects of HFS on neuronal network dynamics are realized through the adjustment of synaptic variable and conductance.

  4. Phosphorylation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 Regulates Dendritic Spine Development of Cortical Neuron in the Mouse Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper density and morphology of dendritic spines are important for higher brain functions such as learning and memory. However, our knowledge about molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and maintenance of dendritic spines is limited. We recently reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is required for the development and maintenance of dendritic spines of cortical neurons in the mouse brain. Previous in vitro studies have suggested the involvement of Cdk5 substrates in the formation of dendritic spines; however, their role in spine development has not been tested in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2 in the dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons and in vivo in the mouse brain. When we eliminated CRMP2 phosphorylation in CRMP2KI/KI mice, the densities of dendritic spines significantly decreased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the mouse brain. These results indicate that phosphorylation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 is important for dendritic spine development in cortical neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

  5. The expression of MC4Rs in D1R neurons regulates food intake and locomotor sensitization to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H; Lutter, M

    2013-08-01

    While it is known that mice lacking melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) expression develop hyperphagia resulting in early-onset obesity, the specific neural circuits that mediate this process remain unclear. Here, we report that selective restoration of MC4R expression within dopamine-1 receptor-expressing neurons [MC4R/dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) mice] partially blunts the severe obesity seen in MC4R-null mice by decreasing meal size, but not meal frequency, in the dark cycle. We also report that both acute cocaine-induced anorexia and the development of locomotor sensitization to repeated administration of cocaine are blunted in MC4R-null mice and normalized in MC4R/D1R mice. Neuronal retrograde tracing identifies the lateral hypothalamic area as the primary target of MC4R-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens. Biochemical studies in the ventral striatum show that phosphorylation of DARPP-32(Thr) (-34) and GluR1(Ser) (-845) is diminished in MC4R-null mice after chronic cocaine administration but rescued in MC4R/D1R mice. These findings highlight a physiological role of MC4R-mediated signaling within D1R neurons in the long-term regulation of energy balance and behavioral responses to cocaine. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. NR2B-NMDA receptor mediated modulation of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP regulates glutamate induced neuronal cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Ranjana; Deb, Ishani; Mukherjee, Saibal; Paul, Surojit

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the role of a neuron-specific tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in excitotoxic cell death. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK, a stress-activated kinase that is known to play a role in the etiology of excitotoxic cell death is a substrate of STEP. Glutamate-mediated NMDA receptor stimulation leads to rapid but transient activation of p38 MAPK, which is primarily dependent on NR2A-NMDA receptor activation. Conversely, activation of NR2B-NMDA receptors leads to dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of STEP, which in turn leads to inactivation of p38 MAPK. Thus during transient NMDA receptor stimulation, increases in STEP activity appears to limit the duration of activation of p38 MAPK and improves neuronal survival. However, if NR2B-NMDA receptor stimulation is sustained, protective effects of STEP activation are lost, as these stimuli cause significant degradation of active STEP, leading to secondary activation of p38 MAP kinase. Consistent with this observation, a cell transducible TAT-STEP peptide that constitutively binds to p38 MAPK attenuated neuronal cell death caused by sustained NMDA receptor stimulation. The findings imply that the activation and levels of STEP are dependent on the duration and magnitude of NR2B-NMDA receptor stimulation and STEP serves as a modulator of NMDA receptor dependent neuronal injury, through its regulation of p38 MAPK. PMID:21029094

  7. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Receptor Endocytosis in Neuronal Dendrites Revealed by Imaging of Single Vesicle Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Rosendale

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocytosis in neuronal dendrites is known to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD. However, the inability to detect endocytosis directly in living neurons has hampered studies of its dynamics and regulation. Here, we visualized the formation of individual endocytic vesicles containing pHluorin-tagged receptors with high temporal resolution in the dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. We show that transferrin receptors (TfRs are constitutively internalized at optically static clathrin-coated structures. These structures are slightly enriched near synapses that represent preferential sites for the endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPA-type receptors (AMPARs, but not for non-synaptic TfRs. Moreover, the frequency of AMPAR endocytosis events increases after the induction of NMDAR-dependent chemical LTD, but the activity of perisynaptic endocytic zones is not differentially regulated. We conclude that endocytosis is a highly dynamic and stereotyped process that internalizes receptors in precisely localized endocytic zones.

  9. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; Hermes, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH) and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc.) and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc.) in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation) and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking) in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological, behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:26539086

  10. Bmi1 is down-regulated in the aging brain and displays antioxidant and protective activities in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdouh

    Full Text Available Aging increases the risk to develop several neurodegenerative diseases, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Inactivation of the Polycomb group gene Bmi1 in mice results in growth retardation, cerebellar degeneration, and development of a premature aging-like phenotype. This progeroid phenotype is characterized by formation of lens cataracts, apoptosis of cortical neurons, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, owing to p53-mediated repression of antioxidant response (AOR genes. Herein we report that Bmi1 expression progressively declines in the neurons of aging mouse and human brains. In old brains, p53 accumulates at the promoter of AOR genes, correlating with a repressed chromatin state, down-regulation of AOR genes, and increased oxidative damages to lipids and DNA. Comparative gene expression analysis further revealed that aging brains display an up-regulation of the senescence-associated genes IL-6, p19(Arf and p16(Ink4a, along with the pro-apoptotic gene Noxa, as seen in Bmi1-null mice. Increasing Bmi1 expression in cortical neurons conferred robust protection against DNA damage-induced cell death or mitochondrial poisoning, and resulted in suppression of ROS through activation of AOR genes. These observations unveil that Bmi1 genetic deficiency recapitulates aspects of physiological brain aging and that Bmi1 over-expression is a potential therapeutic modality against neurodegeneration.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Receptor Endocytosis in Neuronal Dendrites Revealed by Imaging of Single Vesicle Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendale, Morgane; Jullié, Damien; Choquet, Daniel; Perrais, David

    2017-02-21

    Endocytosis in neuronal dendrites is known to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD). However, the inability to detect endocytosis directly in living neurons has hampered studies of its dynamics and regulation. Here, we visualized the formation of individual endocytic vesicles containing pHluorin-tagged receptors with high temporal resolution in the dendrites of cultured hippocampal neurons. We show that transferrin receptors (TfRs) are constitutively internalized at optically static clathrin-coated structures. These structures are slightly enriched near synapses that represent preferential sites for the endocytosis of postsynaptic AMPA-type receptors (AMPARs), but not for non-synaptic TfRs. Moreover, the frequency of AMPAR endocytosis events increases after the induction of NMDAR-dependent chemical LTD, but the activity of perisynaptic endocytic zones is not differentially regulated. We conclude that endocytosis is a highly dynamic and stereotyped process that internalizes receptors in precisely localized endocytic zones. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuron-specific methylome analysis reveals epigenetic regulation and tau-related dysfunction of BRCA1 in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Tatsuo; Nagata, Kenichi; Nonaka, Takashi; Tarutani, Airi; Imamura, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Bannai, Taro; Koshi-Mano, Kagari; Tsuchida, Takeyuki; Ohtomo, Ryo; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Yamashita, Satoshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Yamasaki, Ryo; Tsuji, Shoji; Tamaoka, Akira; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Saido, Takaomi C; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Murayama, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Masato; Iwata, Atsushi

    2017-10-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by pathology of accumulated amyloid β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau proteins in the brain. Postmortem degradation and cellular complexity within the brain have limited approaches to molecularly define the causal relationship between pathological features and neuronal dysfunction in AD. To overcome these limitations, we analyzed the neuron-specific DNA methylome of postmortem brain samples from AD patients, which allowed differentially hypomethylated region of the BRCA1 promoter to be identified. Expression of BRCA1 was significantly up-regulated in AD brains, consistent with its hypomethylation. BRCA1 protein levels were also elevated in response to DNA damage induced by Aβ. BRCA1 became mislocalized to the cytoplasm and highly insoluble in a tau-dependent manner, resulting in DNA fragmentation in both in vitro cellular and in vivo mouse models. BRCA1 dysfunction under Aβ burden is consistent with concomitant deterioration of genomic integrity and synaptic plasticity. The Brca1 promoter region of AD model mice brain was similarly hypomethylated, indicating an epigenetic mechanism underlying BRCA1 regulation in AD. Our results suggest deterioration of DNA integrity as a central contributing factor in AD pathogenesis. Moreover, these data demonstrate the technical feasibility of using neuron-specific DNA methylome analysis to facilitate discovery of etiological candidates in sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Roles and Regulation of Ketogenesis in Cultured Astroglia and Neurons Under Hypoxia and Hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Takahashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ketone bodies (KBs, acetoacetate (AA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB act as alternative energy substrates in neural cells under starvation. The present study examined the endogenous ketogenic capacity of astroglia under hypoxia with/without glucose and the possible roles of KBs in neuronal energy metabolism. Cultured neurons and astroglia were prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats. Palmitic acid (PAL and l-carnitine (LC were added to the assay medium. The 4- to 24-hr production of AA and BHB was measured using the cyclic thio-NADH method. 14C-labeled acid-soluble products (KBs and 14CO2 produced from [1-14C]PAL were also measured. l-[U-14C]lactic acid ([14C]LAC, [1-14C]pyruvic acid ([14C]PYR, or β-[1-14C]hydroxybutyric acid ([14C]BHB was used to compare the oxidative metabolism of the glycolysis end products with that of the KBs. Some cells were placed in a hypoxic chamber (1% O2. PAL and LC induced a higher production of KBs in astroglia than in neurons, while the CO2 production from PAL was less than 5% of the KB production in both astroglia and neurons. KB production in astroglia was augmented by the AMP-activated protein kinase activators, AICAR and metformin, as well as hypoxia with/without glucose. Neuronal KB production increased under hypoxia in the absence of PAL and LC. In neurons, [14C]LAC and [14C]PYR oxidation decreased after 24 hr of hypoxia, while [14C]BHB oxidation was preserved. Astroglia responds to ischemia in vitro by enhancing KB production, and astroglia-produced KBs derived from fatty acid might serve as a neuronal energy substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle instead of lactate, as pyruvate dehydrogenase is susceptible to ischemia.

  14. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Smith

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and agouti-related protein (AgRP neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons.

  15. Ribosomal S6K1 in POMC and AgRP Neurons Regulates Glucose Homeostasis but Not Feeding Behavior in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Katsouri, Loukia; Irvine, Elaine E; Hankir, Mohammed K; Pedroni, Silvia M A; Voshol, Peter J; Gordon, Matthew W; Choudhury, Agharul I; Woods, Angela; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Carling, David; Withers, Dominic J

    2015-04-21

    Hypothalamic ribosomal S6K1 has been suggested as a point of convergence for hormonal and nutrient signals in the regulation of feeding behavior, bodyweight, and glucose metabolism. However, the long-term effects of manipulating hypothalamic S6K1 signaling on energy homeostasis and the cellular mechanisms underlying these roles are unclear. We therefore inactivated S6K1 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons, key regulators of energy homeostasis, but in contrast to the current view, we found no evidence that S6K1 regulates food intake and bodyweight. In contrast, S6K1 signaling in POMC neurons regulated hepatic glucose production and peripheral lipid metabolism and modulated neuronal excitability. S6K1 signaling in AgRP neurons regulated skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and was required for glucose sensing by these neurons. Our findings suggest that S6K1 signaling is not a general integrator of energy homeostasis in the mediobasal hypothalamus but has distinct roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis by POMC and AgRP neurons. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Na; Liu, Xian-Dong; Zhuang, Hanyi; Henkemeyer, Mark; Yang, Jing-Yu; Xu, Nan-Jie

    2016-09-28

    The amygdala serves as emotional center to mediate innate fear behaviors that are reflected through neuronal responses to environmental aversive cues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the initial neuron responses is poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the innate defensive responses to aversive stimuli of either elevated plus maze or predator odor in juvenile mice and found that glutamatergic neurons were activated in amygdala. Loss of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in amygdala neurons, suppressed the reactions and led to defects in spine morphogenesis and fear behaviors. We further found a coupling of spinogenesis with these threat cues induced neuron activation in developing amygdala that was controlled by EphB2. A constitutively active form of EphB2 was sufficient to rescue the behavioral and morphological defects caused by ablation of ephrin-B3, a brain-enriched ligand to EphB2. These data suggest that kinase-dependent EphB2 intracellular signaling plays a major role for innate fear responses during the critical developing period, in which spinogenesis in amygdala glutamatergic neurons was involved. Generation of innate fear responses to threat as an evolutionally conserved brain feature relies on development of functional neural circuit in amygdala, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We here identify that EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is specifically expressed in glutamatergic neurons, is required for the innate fear responses in the neonatal brain. We further reveal that EphB2 mediates coordination of spinogenesis and neuron activation in amygdala during the critical period for the innate fear. EphB2 catalytic activity plays a major role for the behavior upon EphB-ephrin-B3 binding and transnucleus neuronal connections. Our work thus indicates an essential synaptic molecular signaling within amygdala that controls synapse development and helps bring about innate fear emotions in the postnatal

  17. Beclin 1 is required for neuron viability and regulates endosome pathways via the UVRAG-VPS34 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C McKnight

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of autophagy protein beclin 1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and neurodegenerative diseases, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Previous studies showed that Beclin 1 coordinates the assembly of multiple VPS34 complexes whose distinct phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase III (PI3K-III lipid kinase activities regulate autophagy at different steps. Recent evidence suggests a function of beclin 1 in regulating multiple VPS34-mediated trafficking pathways beyond autophagy; however, the precise role of beclin 1 in autophagy-independent cellular functions remains poorly understood. Herein we report that beclin 1 regulates endocytosis, in addition to autophagy, and is required for neuron viability in vivo. We find that neuronal beclin 1 associates with endosomes and regulates EEA1/early endosome localization and late endosome formation. Beclin 1 maintains proper cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3P distribution and total levels, and loss of beclin 1 causes a disruption of active Rab5 GTPase-associated endosome formation and impairment of endosome maturation, likely due to a failure of Rab5 to recruit VPS34. Furthermore, we find that Beclin 1 deficiency causes complete loss of the UVRAG-VPS34 complex and associated lipid kinase activity. Interestingly, beclin 1 deficiency impairs p40phox-linked endosome formation, which is rescued by overexpressed UVRAG or beclin 1, but not by a coiled-coil domain-truncated beclin 1 (a UVRAG-binding mutant, Atg14L or RUBICON. Thus, our study reveals the essential role for beclin 1 in neuron survival involving multiple membrane trafficking pathways including endocytosis and autophagy, and suggests that the UVRAG-beclin 1 interaction underlies beclin 1's function in endocytosis.

  18. Slimming down fat makes neuropathic hippo: the Fat/Hippo tumor suppressor pathway protects adult neurons through regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Piera; Fanto, Manolis

    2011-08-01

    Polyglutamine diseases are accompanied by large-scale alterations of transcription that may be responsible for neurodegeneration. We have monitored early transcriptional alterations in a Drosophila model for dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) and reported the critical downregulation of the fat tumor suppressor gene. We show that, besides partially mediating neurodegeneration in the Drosophila model for DRPLA, fat and the downstream hippo pathway are essential for adult neuronal homeostasis. This function of the Fat/Hippo pathway is independent of the well-established actions on proliferation and cell polarity; rather it has an impact upon autophagy, which is blocked and ineffective in fat/hippo mutants. These findings reveal the unexpected role in postmitotic neuronal homeostasis of a tumor suppressor pathway and hint at a new player involved directly or indirectly in the regulation of autophagy.

  19. Brain innate immunity regulates hypothalamic arcuate neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H; Stern, Javier E

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexigenic agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons, whereas it increased the activity of the majority of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons. Lipopolysaccharide effects in agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y (but not in proopiomelanocortin) neurons were occluded by inhibiting microglia function or by blocking TLR4 receptors. Finally, we report that inhibition of hypothalamic microglia altered basal food intake, also preventing central orexigenic responses to ghrelin. Our studies support a major role for a TLR4-mediated microglia signaling pathway in the control of ARC neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

  20. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  1. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (∼20 cells), medium (∼100 cells), and large (∼400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  2. The adaptor protein SH2B3 (Lnk negatively regulates neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available SH2B adaptor protein family members (SH2B1-3 regulate various physiological responses through affecting signaling, gene expression, and cell adhesion. SH2B1 and SH2B2 were reported to enhance nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells, a well-established neuronal model system. In contrast, SH2B3 was reported to inhibit cell proliferation during the development of immune system. No study so far addresses the role of SH2B3 in the nervous system. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that SH2B3 is expressed in the cortex of embryonic rat brain. Overexpression of SH2B3 not only inhibits NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells but also reduces neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons. SH2B3 does so by repressing NGF-induced activation of PLCγ, MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways and the expression of Egr-1. SH2B3 is capable of binding to phosphorylated NGF receptor, TrkA, as well as SH2B1β. Our data further demonstrate that overexpression of SH2B3 reduces the interaction between SH2B1β and TrkA. Consistent with this finding, overexpressing the SH2 domain of SH2B3 is sufficient to inhibit NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Together, our data demonstrate that SH2B3, unlike the other two family members, inhibits neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons. Its inhibitory mechanism is likely through the competition of TrkA binding with the positive-acting SH2B1 and SH2B2.

  3. Transcriptional coupling of synaptic transmission and energy metabolism: role of nuclear respiratory factor 1 in co-regulating neuronal nitric oxide synthase and cytochrome c oxidase genes in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Shilpa S; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2009-10-01

    Neuronal activity is highly dependent on energy metabolism; yet, the two processes have traditionally been regarded as independently regulated at the transcriptional level. Recently, we found that the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) co-regulates an important energy-generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase, as well as critical subunits of glutamatergic receptors. The present study tests our hypothesis that the co-regulation extends to the next level of glutamatergic synapses, namely, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide as a downstream signaling molecule. Using in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, and NRF-1 silencing, we documented that NRF-1 functionally bound to Nos1, but not Nos2 (inducible) and Nos3 (endothelial) gene promoters. Both COX and Nos1 transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl treatment and down-regulated by TTX-mediated impulse blockade in neurons. However, NRF-1 silencing blocked the up-regulation of both Nos1 and COX induced by KCl depolarization, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued both Nos1 and COX transcripts down-regulated by TTX. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that synaptic neuronal transmission and energy metabolism are tightly coupled at the molecular level.

  4. Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H2O2 via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and KATP Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christian R.; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) GABAergic neurons are key output neurons of the basal ganglia. Given the role of these neurons in motor control, it is important to understand factors that regulate their firing rate and pattern. One potential regulator is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species that is increasingly recognized as a neuromodulator. We used whole-cell current clamp recordings of SNr GABAergic neurons in guinea-pig midbrain slices to determine how H2O2 affects the activity of these neurons and to explore the classes of ion channels underlying those effects. Elevation of H2O2 levels caused an increase in the spontaneous firing rate of SNr GABAergic neurons, whether by application of exogenous H2O2 or amplification of endogenous H2O2 through inhibition of glutathione peroxidase with mercaptosuccinate. This effect was reversed by flufenamic acid (FFA), implicating transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Conversely, depletion of endogenous H2O2 by catalase, a peroxidase enzyme, decreased spontaneous firing rate and firing precision of SNr neurons, demonstrating tonic control of firing rate by H2O2. Elevation of H2O2 in the presence of FFA revealed an inhibition of tonic firing that was prevented by blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels with glibenclamide. In contrast to guinea-pig SNr neurons, the dominant effect of H2O2 elevation in mouse SNr GABAergic neurons was hyperpolarization, indicating a species difference in H2O2-dependent regulation. Thus, H2O2 is an endogenous modulator of SNr GABAergic neurons, acting primarily through presumed TRP channels in guinea-pig SNr, with additional modulation via KATP channels to regulate SNr output. PMID:21503158

  5. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression clusters in motor neurons following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryge, J.; Winther, Ole; Wienecke, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord injury leads to neurological dysfunctions affecting the motor, sensory as well as the autonomic systems. Increased excitability of motor neurons has been implicated in injury-induced spasticity, where the reappearance of self-sustained plateau potentials in the absence...... of modulatory inputs from the brain correlates with the development of spasticity. Results: Here we examine the dynamic transcriptional response of motor neurons to spinal cord injury as it evolves over time to unravel common gene expression patterns and their underlying regulatory mechanisms. For this we use...... a rat-tail-model with complete spinal cord transection causing injury-induced spasticity, where gene expression profiles are obtained from labeled motor neurons extracted with laser microdissection 0, 2, 7, 21 and 60 days post injury. Consensus clustering identifies 12 gene clusters with distinct time...

  6. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID genes and promotes neuronal survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yan-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein is the prototypical signal-regulated transcription factor. In neurons, it is the target of the synaptic activity-induced nuclear calcium-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK IV signaling pathway that controls the expression of genes important for acquired neuroprotection as well as other long-lasting adaptive processes in the nervous system. The function of CREB as a transcriptional activator is controlled by its phosphorylation on serine 133, which can be catalyzed by CaMKIV and leads to the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB binding protein (CBP. Activation of CBP function by nuclear calcium-CaMKIV signaling is a second regulatory step required for CREB/CBP-mediated transcription. Results Here we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV to increase the levels of wild type CREB or to overexpress a mutant version of CREB (mCREB containing a serine to alanine mutation at position amino acid 133 in mouse hippocampal neurons. Increasing the levels of CREB was sufficient to boost neuroprotective activity even under basal conditions (i.e., in the absence of stimulation of synaptic activity. In contrast, overexpression of mCREB increased cell death. The ratio of phospho(serine 133CREB to CREB immunoreactivity in unstimulated hippocampal neurons was similar for endogenous CREB and overexpressed wild type CREB and, as expected, dramatically reduced for overexpressed mCREB. A gene expression analysis revealed that increased expression of CREB but not that of mCREB in hippocampal neurons led to elevated expression levels of bdnf as well as that of several members of a previously characterized set of Activity-regulated Inhibitor of Death (AID genes, which include atf3, btg2, gadd45β, and gadd45γ. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the expression levels of wild type CREB are a critical determinant of the ability of hippocampal neurons to survive harmful conditions

  7. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  8. Association between tetrodotoxin resistant channels and lipid rafts regulates sensory neuron excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pristerà

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs play a key role in the initiation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. Na(V1.8 is a tetrodotoxin (TTX resistant VGSC expressed in nociceptors, peripheral small-diameter neurons able to detect noxious stimuli. Na(V1.8 underlies the vast majority of sodium currents during action potentials. Many studies have highlighted a key role for Na(V1.8 in inflammatory and chronic pain models. Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane highly enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts tune the spatial and temporal organisation of proteins and lipids on the plasma membrane. They are thought to act as platforms on the membrane where proteins and lipids can be trafficked, compartmentalised and functionally clustered. In the present study we investigated Na(V1.8 sub-cellular localisation and explored the idea that it is associated with lipid rafts in nociceptors. We found that Na(V1.8 is distributed in clusters along the axons of DRG neurons in vitro and ex vivo. We also demonstrated, by biochemical and imaging studies, that Na(V1.8 is associated with lipid rafts along the sciatic nerve ex vivo and in DRG neurons in vitro. Moreover, treatments with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD and 7-ketocholesterol (7KC led to the dissociation between rafts and Na(V1.8. By calcium imaging we demonstrated that the lack of association between rafts and Na(V1.8 correlated with impaired neuronal excitability, highlighted by a reduction in the number of neurons able to conduct mechanically- and chemically-evoked depolarisations. These findings reveal the sub-cellular localisation of Na(V1.8 in nociceptors and highlight the importance of the association between Na(V1.8 and lipid rafts in the control of nociceptor excitability.

  9. Alternative splicing of neuronal differentiation factor TRF2 regulated by HNRNPH1/H2

    OpenAIRE

    Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Zhang, Peisu; Panda, Amaresh C.; Kim, Jiyoung; Maudsley, Stuart; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yang, Xiaoling; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Motiño, Omar; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.; Gorospe, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    During neuronal differentiation, use of an alternative splice site on the rat telomere repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA generates a short TRF2 protein isoform (TRF2-S) capable of derepressing neuronal genes. However, the RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) controlling this splicing event are unknown. Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of T...

  10. Neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is not involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis or insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gustavsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin secretion is a complex and highly regulated process. It is well established that cytoplasmic calcium is a key regulator of insulin secretion, but how elevated intracellular calcium triggers insulin granule exocytosis remains unclear, and we have only begun to define the identities of proteins that are responsible for sensing calcium changes and for transmitting the calcium signal to release machineries. Synaptotagmins are primarily expressed in brain and endocrine cells and exhibit diverse calcium binding properties. Synaptotagmin-1, -2 and -9 are calcium sensors for fast neurotransmitter release in respective brain regions, while synaptotagmin-7 is a positive regulator of calcium-dependent insulin release. Unlike the three neuronal calcium sensors, whose deletion abolished fast neurotransmitter release, synaptotagmin-7 deletion resulted in only partial loss of calcium-dependent insulin secretion, thus suggesting that other calcium-sensors must participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Of the other synaptotagmin isoforms that are present in pancreatic islets, the neuronal calcium sensor synaptotagmin-9 is expressed at the highest level after synaptotagmin-7. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we tested whether synaptotagmin-9 participates in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release by using pancreas-specific synaptotagmin-9 knockout (p-S9X mice. Deletion of synaptotagmin-9 in the pancreas resulted in no changes in glucose homeostasis or body weight. Glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo and from isolated islets were not affected in the p-S9X mice. Single-cell capacitance measurements showed no difference in insulin granule exocytosis between p-S9X and control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, synaptotagmin-9, although a major calcium sensor in the brain, is not involved in the regulation of glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells.

  11. Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange protein 3 is localized in lysosomes and regulates GABA signaling in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Hongyu; Hong, Wanjin; Han, Weiping

    2016-12-01

    ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of guanine-nucleotide-binding (G) proteins regulates organelle biogenesis, structure and trafficking. The functions of ARF proteins are tightly controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a conserved SEC7 domain. Based on sequence similarity to brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange protein (BIG)/GBF of the Arf-GEF family, we recently identified BIG3 as a novel ARF GEF protein with a non-functional catalytic motif in the SEC7 domain. BIG3 is mainly expressed in pancreatic islets and brain. In the islets, depletion of BIG3 increases insulin and glucagon secretion because of enhanced biogenesis of insulin and glucagon granules in the absence of BIG3. Here, we investigate BIG3 functions in the brain, in particular its regulation of neurotransmitter release in hippocampal neurons from wild-type and BIG3 knockout mice. In hippocampal neurons, BIG3 is mainly localized in lysosomes, and its depletion selectively impairs inhibitory synaptic transmission. Our finding provides novel insights for a cell-specific function of BIG3 in regulating neurotransmission. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Input-dependent regulation of excitability controls dendritic maturation in somatosensory thalamocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangeul, Laura; Kehayas, Vassilis; Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Fièvre, Sabine; Krishna-K, K; Pouchelon, Gabrielle; Telley, Ludovic; Bellone, Camilla; Holtmaat, Anthony; Gräff, Johannes; Macklis, Jeffrey D; Jabaudon, Denis

    2017-12-08

    Input from the sensory organs is required to pattern neurons into topographical maps during development. Dendritic complexity critically determines this patterning process; yet, how signals from the periphery act to control dendritic maturation is unclear. Here, using genetic and surgical manipulations of sensory input in mouse somatosensory thalamocortical neurons, we show that membrane excitability is a critical component of dendritic development. Using a combination of genetic approaches, we find that ablation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors during postnatal development leads to epigenetic repression of Kv1.1-type potassium channels, increased excitability, and impaired dendritic maturation. Lesions to whisker input pathways had similar effects. Overexpression of Kv1.1 was sufficient to enable dendritic maturation in the absence of sensory input. Thus, Kv1.1 acts to tune neuronal excitability and maintain it within a physiological range, allowing dendritic maturation to proceed. Together, these results reveal an input-dependent control over neuronal excitability and dendritic complexity in the development and plasticity of sensory pathways.

  13. Role of extracellular sialic acid in regulation of neuronal and network excitability in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, Dmytro; Isaeva, Elena; Shatskih, Tatiana; Zhao, Qian; Smits, Nicole C; Shworak, Nicholas W; Khazipov, Rustem; Holmes, Gregory L

    2007-10-24

    The extracellular membrane surface contains a substantial amount of negatively charged sialic acid residues. Some of the sialic acids are located close to the pore of voltage-gated channel, substantially influencing their gating properties. However, the role of sialylation of the extracellular membrane in modulation of neuronal and network activity remains primarily unknown. The level of sialylation is controlled by neuraminidase (NEU), the key enzyme that cleaves sialic acids. Here we show that NEU treatment causes a large depolarizing shift of voltage-gated sodium channel activation/inactivation and action potential (AP) threshold without any change in the resting membrane potential of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Cleavage of sialic acids by NEU also reduced sensitivity of sodium channel gating and AP threshold to extracellular calcium. At the network level, exogenous NEU exerted powerful anticonvulsive action both in vitro and in acute and chronic in vivo models of epilepsy. In contrast, a NEU blocker (N-acetyl-2,3-dehydro-2-deoxyneuraminic acid) dramatically reduced seizure threshold and aggravated hippocampal seizures. Thus, sialylation appears to be a powerful mechanism to control neuronal and network excitability. We propose that decreasing the amount of extracellular sialic acid residues can be a useful approach to reduce neuronal excitability and serve as a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of seizures.

  14. The N-terminal region of reelin regulates postnatal dendritic maturation of cortical pyramidal neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chameau, P.; Inta, D.; Vitalis, T.; Monyer, H.; Wadman, W.J.; van Hooft, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cajal-Retzius cells, located in layer I of the cortex, synthesize and secrete the glycoprotein reelin, which plays a pivotal role in neuronal migration during embryonic development. Cajal-Retzius cells persist after birth, but their postnatal role is unknown. Here we show that Cajal-Retzius cells

  15. Regulation of Cerebral Cortical Size and Neuron Number by Fibroblast Growth Factors: Implications for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Flora M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Smith, Karen Muller; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2009-01-01

    Increased brain size is common in children with autism spectrum disorders. Here we propose that an increased number of cortical excitatory neurons may underlie the increased brain volume, minicolumn pathology and excessive network excitability, leading to sensory hyper-reactivity and seizures, which are often found in autism. We suggest that…

  16. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC) Regulates Neuronal Polarization through Rap1B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Llancao, Pablo; Henriquez, Daniel R.; Wilson, Carlos; Bodaleo, Felipe; Boddeke, Erik W.; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Schmidt, Martina; Gonzalez-Billault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of neuronal polarity is a complex process involving cellular and molecular events. The second messenger cAMP is involved in axonal specification through activation of protein kinase A. However, an alternative cAMP-dependent mechanism involves the exchange protein directly activated by

  17. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and up-regulation of LINGO-1 are involved in LINGO-1 antagonist regulated survival of cerebellar granular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Jin, Wei-Lin; Wu, Jiang; Mi, Sha; Ju, Gong

    2008-08-01

    LINGO-1 has been critically implicated in the central regulation of CNS axon regeneration and oligodendrocyte maturation. We have recently demonstrated that pretreatment with LINGO-1 antagonist (LINGO-1-Fc) inhibited low potassium-induced cerebellar granular neurons (CGNs) apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective mechanism of LINGO-1-Fc by Western blot and in situ GST pull-down assay. CGN cultures were preincubated in medium with LINGO-1-Fc or control protein at the concentration of 10 mug/ml for 2 h and then switched to low potassium medium in the presence of corresponding proteins. Cultures were harvested at indicated time intervals for successive analysis. Several apoptosis-associated signaling factors, GSK-3beta, ERK1/2, and Rho GTPases, were observed to be activated in response to potassium deprivation and the activation/dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta was suppressed by LINGO-1-Fc pretreatment compared with control group. Besides, the endogenous LINGO-1 expression level of CGN cultures was augmented by low potassium stimuli and restrained by LINGO-1 antagonist treatment. Although the protein level of p75(NTR) and Nogo-A were down-regulated in different patterns during apoptosis, neither of them was affected by LINGO-1-Fc application. Taken together, these results suggest a new mechanism of LINGO-1 antagonist regulated neuronal survival involving protein synthesis of LINGO-1 and inactivation of GSK-3 pathway.

  18. Drosophila caspases involved in developmentally regulated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons during early metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyunghee; Wang, Zixing; Sehgal, Ritika; Chen, Chun-Hong; Kikuno, Keiko; Hay, Bruce; Park, Jae H

    2011-01-01

    A great number of obsolete larval neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system are eliminated by developmentally programmed cell death (PCD) during early metamorphosis. To elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal PCD occurring during this period, we undertook genetic dissection of seven currently known Drosophila caspases in the PCD of a group of interneurons (vCrz) that produce corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide in the ventral nerve cord. The molecular death program in the vCrz neurons initiates within 1 hour after pupariation, as demonstrated by the cytological signs of cell death and caspase activation. PCD was significantly suppressed in dronc-null mutants, but not in null mutants of either dredd or strica. A double mutation lacking both dronc and strica impaired PCD phenotype more severely than did a dronc mutation alone, but comparably to a triple dredd/strica/dronc mutation, indicating that dronc is a main initiator caspase, while strica plays a minor role that overlaps with dronc's. As for effector caspases, vCrz PCD requires both ice and dcp-1 functions, as they work cooperatively for a timely removal of the vCrz neurons. Interestingly, the activation of the Ice and Dcp-1 is not solely dependent on Dronc and Strica, implying an alternative pathway to activate the effectors. Two remaining effector caspase genes, decay and damm, found no apparent functions in the neuronal PCD, at least during early metamorphosis. Overall, our work revealed that vCrz PCD utilizes dronc, strica, dcp-1, and ice wherein the activation of Ice and Dcp-1 requires a novel pathway in addition to the initiator caspases.

  19. NPY Neuron-Specific Y2 Receptors Regulate Adipose Tissue and Trabecular Bone but Not Cortical Bone Homeostasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Chuan Shi; Shu Lin; Wong, Iris P. L.; Baldock, Paul A.; Aygul Aljanova; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lesley Castillo; Natalie F Mitchell; Ji-Ming Ye; Lei Zhang; Laurence Macia; Ernie Yulyaningsih; Amy D Nguyen; Riepler, Sabrina J.; Herbert Herzog

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Y2 receptor signalling is known to be important in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated effects on energy homeostasis and bone physiology. Y2 receptors are located post-synaptically as well as acting as auto receptors on NPY-expressing neurons, and the different roles of these two populations of Y2 receptors in the regulation of energy homeostasis and body composition are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We thus generated two conditional knockout mouse models, Y2(lox/lox) and NPY...

  20. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT by serotonin reuptake transporter function in 5-HT-absorbing neurons underscores adaptation behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Gholamali; Xie, Yusu; Kullyev, Andrey; Liang, Bin; Sze, Ji Ying

    2011-06-15

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake 5-HT from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. While 5-HT-absorbing neurons have been identified in diverse organisms from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans, their function has not been elucidated. Here, we show that SERT in 5-HT-absorbing neurons controls behavioral response to food deprivation in C. elegans. The AIM and RIH interneurons uptake 5-HT released from chemosensory neurons and secretory neurons. Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. Loss of mod-5/SERT function blocks the 5-HT absorption. mod-5/SERT mutants have been shown to exhibit exaggerated locomotor response to food deprivation. We found that transgenic expression of MOD-5/SERT in the 5-HT-absorbing neurons fully corrected the exaggerated behavior. Experiments of cell-specific inhibition of synaptic transmission suggest that the synaptic release of 5-HT from the 5-HT-absorbing neurons is not required for this behavioral modulation. Our data point to the role of 5-HT-absorbing neurons as temporal-spatial regulators of extrasynaptic 5-HT. Regulation of extrasynaptic 5-HT levels by 5-HT-absorbing neurons may represent a fundamental mechanism of 5-HT homeostasis, integrating the activity of 5-HT-producing neurons with distant targets in the neural circuits, and could be relevant to some actions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in humans.

  1. Functional and Developmental Identification of a Molecular Subtype of Brain Serotonergic Neuron Specialized to Regulate Breathing Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Brust

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. By manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one by one chemogenetically, we find that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Furthermore, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections—increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory but not motor centers, respectively. These findings show that serotonergic regulation of the respiratory chemoreflex is mediated by a specialized molecular subtype of 5HT neuron harboring unique physiological, biophysical, and hodological properties specified developmentally and demonstrate that the serotonergic system contains specialized modules contributing to its collective functional breadth.

  2. Regulation of ASIC channels by a stomatin/STOML3 complex located in a mobile vesicle pool in sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapatsina, Liudmila; Jira, Julia A; Smith, Ewan St J; Poole, Kate; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Bilbao, Daniel; Lewin, Gary R; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2012-06-01

    A complex of stomatin-family proteins and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel (ASIC) family members participate in sensory transduction in invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we have examined the role of the stomatin-family protein stomatin-like protein-3 (STOML3) in this process. We demonstrate that STOML3 interacts with stomatin and ASIC subunits and that this occurs in a highly mobile vesicle pool in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and Chinese hamster ovary cells. We identify a hydrophobic region in the N-terminus of STOML3 that is required for vesicular localization of STOML3 and regulates physical and functional interaction with ASICs. We further characterize STOML3-containing vesicles in DRG neurons and show that they are Rab11-positive, but not part of the early-endosomal, lysosomal or Rab14-dependent biosynthetic compartment. Moreover, uncoupling of vesicles from microtubules leads to incorporation of STOML3 into the plasma membrane and increased acid-gated currents. Thus, STOML3 defines a vesicle pool in which it associates with molecules that have critical roles in sensory transduction. We suggest that the molecular features of this vesicular pool may be characteristic of a 'transducosome' in sensory neurons.

  3. Neuron-wide RNA transport combines with netrin-mediated local translation to spatially regulate the synaptic proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmok; Martin, Kelsey C

    2015-01-08

    The persistence of experience-dependent changes in brain connectivity requires RNA localization and protein synthesis. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for local translation in altering the structure and function of synapses during synapse formation and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. In this study, we ask whether in addition to promoting local translation, local stimulation also triggers directed trafficking of RNAs from nucleus to stimulated synapses. Imaging of RNA localization and translation in cultured Aplysia sensory-motor neurons revealed that RNAs were delivered throughout the arbor of the sensory neuron, but that translation was enriched only at sites of synaptic contact and/or synaptic stimulation. Investigation of the mechanisms that trigger local translation revealed a role for calcium-dependent retrograde netrin-1/DCC receptor signaling. Spatially restricting gene expression by regulating local translation rather than by directing the delivery of mRNAs from nucleus to stimulated synapses maximizes the readiness of the entire neuronal arbor to respond to local cues.

  4. Nerve Growth Factor Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling To Enhance Neurite Outgrowth in Developing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matthew R; Johnson, William M; Pilat, Jennifer M; Kiselar, Janna; DeFrancesco-Lisowitz, Alicia; Zigmond, Richard E; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y

    2015-12-01

    Neurite outgrowth is key to the formation of functional circuits during neuronal development. Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), increase neurite outgrowth in part by altering the function and expression of Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels. Here we report that transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is an intracellular Ca(2+)-permeable TRPV channel upregulated by NGF via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway to augment neurite outgrowth. TRPV2 colocalized with Rab7, a late endosome protein, in addition to TrkA and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in neurites, indicating that the channel is closely associated with signaling endosomes. In line with these results, we showed that TRPV2 acts as an ERK substrate and identified the motifs necessary for phosphorylation of TRPV2 by ERK. Furthermore, neurite length, TRPV2 expression, and TRPV2-mediated Ca(2+) signals were reduced by mutagenesis of these key ERK phosphorylation sites. Based on these findings, we identified a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ERK controls TRPV2-mediated Ca(2+) signals in developing neurons and further establish TRPV2 as a critical intracellular ion channel in neuronal function. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Down-Regulation of Lncrna MALAT1 Attenuates Neuronal Cell Death Through Suppressing Beclin1-Dependent Autophagy by Regulating Mir-30a in Cerebral Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: LncRNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1 was reported to be highly expressed in an in vitro mimic of ischemic stroke conditions. However, the exact biological role of MALAT1 and its underlying mechanism in ischemic stroke remain to be elucidated. Methods: The roles of MALAT1 and miR-30a on cell death and infarct volume and autophagy were evaluated in experimental ischemic stroke. The relationships between miR-30a and MALAT1, Beclin1 were confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyadenine (3-MA was used to examine the impact of autophagy on ischemic injury. Results: We found that MALAT1, along with the levels of conversion from autophagy-related protein microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-I (LC3-I to LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II, as well as Beclin1 were up-regulated and miR-30a was down-regulated in cerebral cortex neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD and mouse brain cortex after middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion (MCAO. Down-regulation of MALAT1 suppressed ischemic injury and autophagy in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, MALAT1 may serve as a molecular sponge for miR-30a and negatively regulate its expression. In addition, MALAT1 overturned the inhibitory effect of miR-30a on ischemic injury and autophagy in vitro and in vivo, which might be involved in the derepression of Beclin1, a direct target of miR-30a. Mechanistic analyses further revealed that autophagy inhibitor 3-methyadenine (3-MA markedly suppressed OGD-induced neuronal cell death and MCAO-induced ischemic brain infarction. Conclusion: Taken together, our study first revealed that down-regulation of MALAT1 attenuated neuronal cell death through suppressing Beclin1-dependent autophagy by regulating miR-30a expression in cerebral ischemic stroke. Besides, our study demonstrated a novel lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network that is MALAT1-miR-30a-Beclin1 in ischemic

  6. A map of terminal regulators of neuronal identity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Our present day understanding of nervous system development is an amalgam of insights gained from studying different aspects and stages of nervous system development in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate model systems, with each model system making its own distinctive set of contributions. One aspect of nervous system development that has been among the most extensively studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the nature of the gene regulatory programs that specify hardwired, terminal cellular identities. I first summarize a number of maps (anatomical, functional, and molecular) that describe the terminal identity of individual neurons in the C. elegans nervous system. I then provide a comprehensive summary of regulatory factors that specify terminal identities in the nervous system, synthesizing these past studies into a regulatory map of cellular identities in the C. elegans nervous system. This map shows that for three quarters of all neurons in the C. elegans nervous system, regulatory factors that control terminal identity features are known. In‐depth studies of specific neuron types have revealed that regulatory factors rarely act alone, but rather act cooperatively in neuron‐type specific combinations. In most cases examined so far, distinct, biochemically unlinked terminal identity features are coregulated via cooperatively acting transcription factors, termed terminal selectors, but there are also cases in which distinct identity features are controlled in a piecemeal fashion by independent regulatory inputs. The regulatory map also illustrates that identity‐defining transcription factors are reemployed in distinct combinations in different neuron types. However, the same transcription factor can drive terminal differentiation in neurons that are unrelated by lineage, unrelated by function, connectivity and neurotransmitter deployment. Lastly, the regulatory map illustrates the preponderance of homeodomain transcription factors in the

  7. The housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT regulates multiple developmental and metabolic pathways of murine embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyuk Kang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which mutations of the purinergic housekeeping gene hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT cause the severe neurodevelopmental Lesch Nyhan Disease (LND are poorly understood. The best recognized neural consequences of HPRT deficiency are defective basal ganglia expression of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA and aberrant DA neuronal function. We have reported that HPRT deficiency leads to dysregulated expression of multiple DA-related developmental functions and cellular signaling defects in a variety of HPRT-deficient cells, including human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. We now describe results of gene expression studies during neuronal differentiation of HPRT-deficient murine ESD3 embryonic stem cells and report that HPRT knockdown causes a marked switch from neuronal to glial gene expression and dysregulates expression of Sox2 and its regulator, genes vital for stem cell pluripotency and for the neuronal/glial cell fate decision. In addition, HPRT deficiency dysregulates many cellular functions controlling cell cycle and proliferation mechanisms, RNA metabolism, DNA replication and repair, replication stress, lysosome function, membrane trafficking, signaling pathway for platelet activation (SPPA multiple neurotransmission systems and sphingolipid, sulfur and glycan metabolism. We propose that the neural aberrations of HPRT deficiency result from combinatorial effects of these multi-system metabolic errors. Since some of these aberrations are also found in forms of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, we predict that some of these systems defects play similar neuropathogenic roles in diverse neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases in common and may therefore provide new experimental opportunities for clarifying pathogenesis and for devising new potential therapeutic targets in developmental and genetic disease.

  8. The ciliogenic transcription factor RFX3 regulates early midline distribution of guidepost neurons required for corpus callosum development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Benadiba

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum (CC is the major commissure that bridges the cerebral hemispheres. Agenesis of the CC is associated with human ciliopathies, but the origin of this default is unclear. Regulatory Factor X3 (RFX3 is a transcription factor involved in the control of ciliogenesis, and Rfx3-deficient mice show several hallmarks of ciliopathies including left-right asymmetry defects and hydrocephalus. Here we show that Rfx3-deficient mice suffer from CC agenesis associated with a marked disorganisation of guidepost neurons required for axon pathfinding across the midline. Using transplantation assays, we demonstrate that abnormalities of the mutant midline region are primarily responsible for the CC malformation. Conditional genetic inactivation shows that RFX3 is not required in guidepost cells for proper CC formation, but is required before E12.5 for proper patterning of the cortical septal boundary and hence accurate distribution of guidepost neurons at later stages. We observe focused but consistent ectopic expression of Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8 at the rostro commissural plate associated with a reduced ratio of GLIoma-associated oncogene family zinc finger 3 (GLI3 repressor to activator forms. We demonstrate on brain explant cultures that ectopic FGF8 reproduces the guidepost neuronal defects observed in Rfx3 mutants. This study unravels a crucial role of RFX3 during early brain development by indirectly regulating GLI3 activity, which leads to FGF8 upregulation and ultimately to disturbed distribution of guidepost neurons required for CC morphogenesis. Hence, the RFX3 mutant mouse model brings novel understandings of the mechanisms that underlie CC agenesis in ciliopathies.

  9. Gap Junction-Mediated Signaling from Motor Neurons Regulates Motor Generation in the Central Circuits of Larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Teruyuki; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Nose, Akinao

    2017-02-22

    In this study, we used the peristaltic crawling of Drosophila larvae as a model to study how motor patterns are regulated by central circuits. We built an experimental system that allows simultaneous application of optogenetics and calcium imaging to the isolated ventral nerve cord (VNC). We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres. Optical inhibition of MNs with halorhodopsin3 in a middle segment (A4, A5, or A6), but not other segments, dramatically decreased the frequency of the motor waves. Conversely, local activation of MNs with channelrhodopsin2 in a posterior segment (A6 or A7) increased the frequency of the motor waves. Since peripheral nerves mediating sensory feedback were severed in the VNC preparation, these results indicate that MNs send signals to the central circuits to regulate motor pattern generation. Our results also indicate segmental specificity in the roles of MNs in motor control. The effects of the local MN activity manipulation were lost in shaking-B2 (shakB2 ) or ogre2 , gap-junction mutations in Drosophila, or upon acute application of the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone, implicating electrical synapses in the signaling from MNs. Cell-type-specific RNAi suggested shakB and ogre function in MNs and interneurons, respectively, during the signaling. Our results not only reveal an unexpected role for MNs in motor pattern regulation, but also introduce a powerful experimental system that enables examination of the input-output relationship among the component neurons in this system.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motor neurons are generally considered passive players in motor pattern generation, simply relaying information from upstream interneuronal circuits to the target muscles. This study shows instead that MNs play active roles in the control of motor generation by conveying information via gap junctions to the central

  10. Identifying Molecular Regulators of Neuronal Functions Affected in the Movement Disorder Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    12. 56. Egner A, Hell SW. Aberrations in confocal and multi-photon fluorescence microscopy induced by refractive index mismatch. In: Pawley JB...editor. Handbook of biological confocal microscopy. New York: Springer; 2006. p 404–413. 57. Harata N, Iwasaki Y. Evidence for early blood-brain barrier ...Stevens, B., Chang, J., Milbrandt, J., Barres, B.A., & Hell , J.W. NS21: re-defined and modified supplement B27 for neuronal cultures. J. Neurosci

  11. The Role of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Regulation of Pituitary Beta-endorphin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    pars nervosa plus pars intermedia 6-hydroxydopamine picogram(s) pro-opiomelanocortin prolactin xix ~?!;~1f·>.’’:.·-- ·r;··· . .’ Abbreviation...endorphin in synthesis as well as in secretion and function. Krieger and coworkers (1979) found that lesioning the arcuate nucleus [which comprises...Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that lesioning brain dopaminergic neurons prevents B-endorphin from increasing circulating levels of

  12. Brain Innate Immunity Regulates Hypothalamic Arcuate Neuronal Activity and Feeding Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H.; Stern, Javier E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexige...

  13. An epidermal microRNA regulates neuronal migration through control of the cellular glycosylation state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael Egebjerg; Snieckute, Goda; Kagias, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    biosynthetic pathway: a chondroitin synthase (SQV-5; squashed vulva-5) and a uridine 5'-diphosphate-sugar transporter (SQV-7). Loss of mir-79 causes neurodevelopmental defects through SQV-5 and SQV-7 dysregulation in the epidermis. This results in a partial shutdown of heparan sulfate biosynthesis...... that impinges on a LON-2/glypican pathway and disrupts neuronal migration. Our results identify a regulatory axis controlled by a conserved microRNA that maintains proteoglycan homeostasis in cells....

  14. Systematic identification of genes that regulate neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Jürg Berger; Kirsten-André Senti; Gabriele Senti; Newsome, Timothy P.; Bengt Asling; Dickson, Barry J.; Takashi Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Forward genetic screens in model organisms are an attractive means to identify those genes involved in any complex biological process, including neural circuit assembly. Although mutagenesis screens are readily performed to saturation, gene identification rarely is, being limited by the considerable effort generally required for positional cloning. Here, we apply a systematic positional cloning strategy to identify many of the genes required for neuronal wiring in the Drosophila visual system...

  15. Kv2 Channel Regulation of Action Potential Repolarization and Firing Patterns in Superior Cervical Ganglion Neurons and Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin W.

    2014-01-01

    Kv2 family “delayed-rectifier” potassium channels are widely expressed in mammalian neurons. Kv2 channels activate relatively slowly and their contribution to action potential repolarization under physiological conditions has been unclear. We explored the function of Kv2 channels using a Kv2-selective blocker, Guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX-1E). Using acutely isolated neurons, mixed voltage-clamp and current-clamp experiments were done at 37°C to study the physiological kinetics of channel gating and action potentials. In both rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E produced near-saturating block of a component of current typically constituting ∼60–80% of the total delayed-rectifier current. GxTX-1E also reduced A-type potassium current (IA), but much more weakly. In SCG neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E broadened spikes and voltage clamp experiments using action potential waveforms showed that Kv2 channels carry ∼55% of the total outward current during action potential repolarization despite activating relatively late in the spike. In CA1 neurons, 100 nm GxTX-1E broadened spikes evoked from −70 mV, but not −80 mV, likely reflecting a greater role of Kv2 when other potassium channels were partially inactivated at −70 mV. In both CA1 and SCG neurons, inhibition of Kv2 channels produced dramatic depolarization of interspike voltages during repetitive firing. In CA1 neurons and some SCG neurons, this was associated with increased initial firing frequency. In all neurons, inhibition of Kv2 channels depressed maintained firing because neurons entered depolarization block more readily. Therefore, Kv2 channels can either decrease or increase neuronal excitability depending on the time scale of excitation. PMID:24695716

  16. Gene regulation by NMDA receptor activation in the SDN-POA neurons of male rats during sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Shao, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ke-Li; Shih, Huei-Chuan; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Hsu, Chin

    2005-04-01

    The present study was designed to identify possible signaling pathways, which may play a role in prevention of neuronal apoptosis in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) after physiological activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Gene response to the blockage of the NMDA receptor by an antagonist (dizocilpine hydrogen maleate; MK-801) was screened after suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). The results showed that differential screening after SSH detected the presence of some neurotrophic genes (RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3), alpha-tubulin) as well as apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, cytochrome oxidase subunit III) in the SDN-POA of male rats, which were down-regulated by blocking the NMDA receptor. The RT-PCR products of the aforementioned genes in MK-801-treated males were significantly less than that in untreated males. In particular, the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, including Bcl-2 protein, in male rats were significantly suppressed by MK-801 treatment. Moreover, the binding activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) was significantly higher in male rats than in females, but significantly diminished by blocking the NMDA receptor with MK-801 in male rats. No significant difference in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding activity was observed among untreated male, MK-801-treated male, untreated female and MK-801-treated female groups. These results suggest that genes regulated by NMDA receptor activation might participate in neuronal growth and/or anti-apoptosis, and support an important signaling pathway of NFkappaB activation and its target gene, Bcl-2, in preventing neuronal apoptosis in the SDN-POA of male rats during sexual development.

  17. Sialic acid metabolism is involved in the regulation of gene expression during neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontou, Maria; Bauer, Christian; Reutter, Werner; Horstkorte, Rüdiger

    2008-04-01

    Sialic acid precursors are mediators of the sialic acid pathway. In this manuscript we present evidence that the application of sialic acid a precursor modulates gene expression and cell differentiation. The concept that sugars are involved in cellular transcription was first proposed by Jacob and Monod nearly 40 years ago studying the regulation of the lac-operon in prokaryotes. Surprisingly, these findings have never been transferred to eukaryotic systems. For our studies we have chosen PC12 cells. PC12-cells differentiate after application of NGF into a neuron-like phenotype. It is shown that treatment of PC12 cells with two different sialic acid precursors N-acetyl- or N-propanoylmannosamine, without application of NGF also induces neurite outgrowth. Moreover, the PC12 cells show the same morphology as the NGF-treated cells. Surprisingly, after application of both sialic acid precursors the phosphorylation and translocation of erk1/2 into the nucleus are activated, thus influencing the expression of genes involved in the differentiation of cells, such as the transcription factor c-Jun or TOAD-64/Ulip/CRMP (Turned ON After Division, 64 kd/ unc-33-like phosphoprotein/Collapsin Response Mediator Protein). These are the first experimental data showing that the sialic acid metabolism is closely associated with signal transduction and regulation of neuronal differentiation.

  18. ARX regulates cortical intermediate progenitor cell expansion and upper layer neuron formation through repression of Cdkn1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasante, Gaia; Simonet, Jacqueline C; Calogero, Raffaele; Crispi, Stefania; Sessa, Alessandro; Cho, Ginam; Golden, Jeffrey A; Broccoli, Vania

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene are found in a spectrum of epilepsy and X-linked intellectual disability disorders. During development Arx is expressed in pallial ventricular zone (VZ) progenitor cells where the excitatory projection neurons of the cortex are born. Arx(-/Y) mice were shown to have decreased proliferation in the cortical VZ resulting in smaller brains; however, the basis for this reduced proliferation was not established. To determine the role of ARX on cell cycle dynamics in cortical progenitor cells, we generated cerebral cortex-specific Arx mouse mutants (cKO). The loss of pallial Arx resulted in the reduction of cortical progenitor cells, particularly the proliferation of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs) was affected. Later in development and postnatally cKO brains showed a reduction of upper layer but not deeper layer neurons consistent with the IPC defect. Transcriptional profile analysis of E14.5 Arx-ablated cortices compared with control revealed that CDKN1C, an inhibitor of cell cycle progression, is overexpressed in the cortical VZ and SVZ of Arx KOs throughout corticogenesis. We also identified ARX as a direct regulator of Cdkn1c transcription. Together these data support a model where ARX regulates the expansion of cortical progenitor cells through repression of Cdkn1c. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Defining Minimal Binding Regions in Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology 1 (RPM-1) Using Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons Reveals Differential Signaling Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Scott T; Grill, Brock

    2017-02-10

    The intracellular signaling protein regulator of presynaptic morphology 1 (RPM-1) is a conserved regulator of synapse formation and axon termination in Caenorhabditis elegans RPM-1 functions in a ubiquitin ligase complex with the F-box protein FSN-1 and functions through the microtubule binding protein RAE-1. Using a structure-function approach and positive selection for transgenic C. elegans, we explored the biochemical relationship between RPM-1, FSN-1, and RAE-1. This led to the identification of two new domains in RPM-1 that are sufficient for binding to FSN-1, called FSN-1 binding domain 2 (FBD2) and FBD3. Furthermore, we map the RAE-1 binding domain to a much smaller region of RPM-1. Point mutations in RPM-1 that reduce binding to RAE-1 did not affect FSN-1 binding, indicating that RPM-1 utilizes different biochemical mechanisms to bind these molecules. Analysis of RPM-1 protein complexes in the neurons of C. elegans elucidated two further discoveries: FSN-1 binds to RAE-1, and this interaction is not mediated by RPM-1, and RPM-1 binding to FSN-1 and RAE-1 reduces FSN-1·RAE-1 complex formation. These results indicate that RPM-1 uses different mechanisms to recruit FSN-1 and RAE-1 into independent signaling complexes in neurons. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Alpha2delta-1 in SF1+ Neurons of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Is an Essential Regulator of Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Felsted

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The central mechanisms controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis are inadequately understood. We show that α2δ-1 is an essential regulator of glucose and lipid balance, acting in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1 neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are body weight independent and involve regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity and sympathetic output to metabolic tissues. Accordingly, mice with α2δ-1 deletion in SF1 neurons exhibit glucose intolerance, altered lipolysis, and decreased cholesterol content in adipose tissue despite normal energy balance regulation. Profound reductions in the firing rate of SF1 neurons, decreased sympathetic output, and elevated circulating levels of serotonin are associated with these alterations. Normal calcium currents but reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents in mutant SF1 neurons implicate α2δ-1 in the promotion of excitatory synaptogenesis separate from its canonical role as a calcium channel subunit. Collectively, these findings identify an essential mechanism that regulates VMH neuronal activity and glycemic and lipid control and may be a target for tackling metabolic disease. : Felsted et al. show a required role of the calcium channel subunit and thrombospondin receptor α2δ-1 in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH. These effects are caused by regulation of SF1+ neuronal activity in the VMH through non-canonical mechanisms and concomitant influences on sympathetic output. Keywords: diabetes, VMH, hypothalamus, glucose, norepinephrine, serotonin, excitability, lipid, SF1

  1. Contactin regulates the current density and axonal expression of tetrodotoxin-resistant but not tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels in DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Anthony M; Craner, Matthew J; Kageyama, Takashi; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G; Ranscht, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    Contactin, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored predominantly neuronal cell surface glycoprotein, associates with sodium channels Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.9, and enhances the density of these channels on the plasma membrane in mammalian expression systems. However, a detailed functional analysis of these interactions and of untested putative interactions with other sodium channel isoforms in mammalian neuronal cells has not been carried out. We examined the expression and function of sodium channels in small-diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from contactin-deficient (CNTN-/-) mice, compared to CNTN+/+ litter mates. Nav1.9 is preferentially expressed in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons and thus we used this marker to subdivide small-diameter DRG neurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we observed a greater than two-fold reduction of tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 current densities in IB4+ DRG neurons cultured from CNTN-/- vs. CNTN+/+ mice. Current densities for TTX-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels were unaffected. Contactin's effect was selective for IB4+ neurons as current densities for both TTX-R and TTX-S channels were not significantly different in IB4- DRG neurons from the two genotypes. Consistent with these results, we have demonstrated a reduction in Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 immunostaining on peripherin-positive unmyelinated axons in sciatic nerves from CNTN-/- mice but detected no changes in the expression for the two major TTX-S channels Nav1.6 and Nav1.7. These data provide evidence of a role for contactin in selectively regulating the cell surface expression and current densities of TTX-R but not TTX-S Na+ channel isoforms in nociceptive DRG neurons; this regulation could modulate the membrane properties and excitability of these neurons.

  2. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by nuclear respiratory factor 1: implication in the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2012-11-23

    NRF-1 regulates mediators of neuronal activity and energy generation. NRF-1 transcriptionally regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits α1 and β1. NRF-1 functionally regulates mediators of energy consumption in neurons. NRF-1 mediates the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption at the molecular level. Energy generation and energy consumption are tightly coupled to neuronal activity at the cellular level. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a major energy-consuming enzyme, is well expressed in neurons rich in cytochrome c oxidase, an important enzyme of the energy-generating machinery, and glutamatergic receptors that are mediators of neuronal activity. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the molecular level, whereby Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits are regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), found recently by our laboratory to regulate all cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and some NMDA and AMPA receptor subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 genes but not of the Atp1a3 gene in neurons. The transcripts of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 subunit genes were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by tetrodotoxin. Atp1b1 is positively regulated by NRF-1, and silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Atp1b1 induced by KCl, whereas overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts from being suppressed by tetrodotoxin. On the other hand, Atp1a1 is negatively regulated by NRF-1. The binding sites of NRF-1 on Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 are conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 regulates key Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits and plays an important role in mediating the tight coupling between

  3. GABAergic Inhibition of Histaminergic Neurons Regulates Active Waking But Not the sleep–wake Switch or Propofol-Induced Loss of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecharia, Anna Y.; Yu, Xiao; Götz, Thomas; Ye, Zhiwen; Carr, David R.; Wulff, Peer; Bettler, Bernhard; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Franks, Nicholas P.; Wisden, William

    2012-01-01

    The activity of histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus correlates with an animal’s behavioral state and maintains arousal. We examined how GABAergic inputs onto histaminergic neurons regulate this behavior. A prominent hypothesis, the “flip-flop” model, predicts that increased and sustained GABAergic drive onto these cells promotes sleep. Similarly, because of the histaminergic neurons’ key hub-like place in the arousal circuitry, it has also been suggested that anesthetics such as propofol induce loss of consciousness by acting primarily at histaminergic neurons. We tested both these hypotheses in mice by genetically removing ionotropic GABAA or metabotropic GABAB receptors from histidine decarboxylase-expressing neurons. At the cellular level, histaminergic neurons deficient in synaptic GABAA receptors were significantly more excitable and were insensitive to the anesthetic propofol. At the behavioral level, EEG profiles were recorded in nontethered mice over 24 h. Surprisingly, GABAergic transmission onto histaminergic neurons had no effect in regulating the natural sleep–wake cycle and, in the case of GABAA receptors, for propofol-induced loss of righting reflex. The latter finding makes it unlikely that the histaminergic TMN has a central role in anesthesia. GABAB receptors on histaminergic neurons were dispensable for all behaviors examined. Synaptic inhibition of histaminergic cells by GABAA receptors, however, was essential for habituation to a novel environment. PMID:22993424

  4. Selected SNARE proteins are essential for the polarized membrane insertion of igf-1 receptor and the regulation of initial axonal outgrowth in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Diego; Plonka, Florentyna Bustos; Oksdath, Mariana; Guil, Alvaro Nieto; Sosa, Lucas J; Quiroga, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of polarity necessitates initial axonal outgrowth and, therefore, the addition of new membrane to the axon's plasmalemma. Axolemmal expansion occurs by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) primarily at the neuronal growth cone. Little is known about the SNAREs family proteins involved in the regulation of PPV fusion with the neuronal plasmalemma at early stages of differentiation. We show here that five SNARE proteins (VAMP2, VAMP4, VAMP7, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) were expressed by hippocampal pyramidal neurons before polarization. Expression silencing of three of these proteins (VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23) repressed axonal outgrowth and the establishment of neuronal polarity, by inhibiting IGF-1 receptor exocytotic polarized insertion, necessary for neuronal polarization. In addition, stimulation with IGF-1 triggered the association of VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 to vesicular structures carrying the IGF-1 receptor and overexpression of a negative dominant form of Syntaxin6 significantly inhibited exocytosis of IGF-1 receptor containing vesicles at the neuronal growth cone. Taken together, our results indicated that VAMP4, Syntaxin6 and SNAP23 functions are essential for regulation of PPV exocytosis and the polarized insertion of IGF-1 receptor and, therefore, required for initial axonal elongation and the establishment of neuronal polarity.

  5. Genes required for the functions of olfactory AWA neuron regulate the longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans in an insulin/IGF signaling-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu-Lu; Du, Min; Lin, Xing-Feng; Cai, Ting; Wang, Da-Yong

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the interaction between the genes required for the functions of AWA olfactory neuron and insulin/IGF signaling in regulating the longevity of nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The mutants that had loss-of-function mutation of the genes required for AWA, AWC, ASE, and AFD sensory neurons were employed. Lifespan, the speed of pharynx pumping, the intestinal autofluorescence, the dauer formation, and the brood size were examined. Rescue experiments were performed to confirm the role of the genes required for the functions of AWA neuron in regulating lifespan. Moreover, genetic interactions between genes required for the functions of AWA neuron and insulin/IGF signaling were investigated. Mutations of odr-7, odr-2, and odr-3 genes required for the functions of AWA neuron significantly increased the mean lifespan of nematodes and slowed the accumulation of intestinal autofluorescence. Besides, these mutations were closely associated with higher pumping rates during aging. However, mutation of odr-7, odr-2, or odr-3 did not obviously affect the brood size or the dauer formation, and the regulation of longevity by odr-7, odr-2, and odr-3 was temperature-independent. In contrast, mutations of genes required for the functions of ASE, AWC, and AFD sensory neurons did not influence the nematode lifespan. Moreover, expression of odr-7, odr-2 and odr-3 in AWA neuron could completely or largely restore the altered lifespan in odr-7, odr-2 and odr-3 mutants. Furthermore, genetic interaction assay demonstrated that the extended lifespan in odr-7 mutant could be suppressed by daf-16 mutation and enhanced by daf-2 or age-1 mutation, whereas mev-1 and pha-4 were not required for the long lifespan of odr-7 mutant. The genes required for the function of AWA sensory neuron could regulate the nematode longevity in an insulin/IGF signaling-dependent fashion in C. elegans.

  6. Rbfox proteins regulate alternative splicing of neuronal sodium channel SCN8A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Janelle E; Drews, Valerie L; Jones, Julie M; Dugas, Jason C; Barres, Ben A; Meisler, Miriam H

    2012-02-01

    The SCN8A gene encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(v)1.6, a major channel in neurons of the CNS and PNS. SCN8A contains two alternative exons,18N and 18A, that exhibit tissue specific splicing. In brain, the major SCN8A transcript contains exon 18A and encodes the full-length sodium channel. In other tissues, the major transcript contains exon 18N and encodes a truncated protein, due to the presence of an in-frame stop codon. Selection of exon 18A is therefore essential for generation of a functional channel protein, but the proteins involved in this selection have not been identified. Using a 2.6 kb Scn8a minigene containing exons 18N and 18A, we demonstrate that co-transfection with Fox-1 or Fox-2 initiates inclusion of exon 18A. This effect is dependent on the consensus Fox binding site located 28 bp downstream of exon 18A. We examined the alternative splicing of human SCN8A and found that the postnatal switch to exon 18A is completed later than 10 months of age. In purified cell populations, transcripts containing exon 18A predominate in neurons but are not present in oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Transcripts containing exon 18N appear to be degraded by nonsense-mediated decay in HEK cells. Our data indicate that RBFOX proteins contribute to the cell-specific expression of Na(v)1.6 channels in mature neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. GTPase activity and neuronal toxicity of Parkinson's disease-associated LRRK2 is regulated by ArfGAP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Stafa

    Full Text Available Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 encodes a large multi-domain protein with GTPase and kinase activity. Initial data indicates that an intact functional GTPase domain is critically required for LRRK2 kinase activity. PD-associated mutations in LRRK2, including the most common G2019S variant, have variable effects on enzymatic activity but commonly alter neuronal process morphology. The mechanisms underlying the intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of LRRK2 GTPase and kinase activity, and the pathogenic effects of familial mutations, are incompletely understood. Here, we identify a novel functional interaction between LRRK2 and ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 1 (ArfGAP1. LRRK2 and ArfGAP1 interact in vitro in mammalian cells and in vivo in brain, and co-localize in the cytoplasm and at Golgi membranes. PD-associated and functional mutations that alter the GTPase activity of LRRK2 modulate the interaction with ArfGAP1. The GTP hydrolysis activity of LRRK2 is markedly enhanced by ArfGAP1 supporting a role for ArfGAP1 as a GTPase-activating protein for LRRK2. Unexpectedly, ArfGAP1 promotes the kinase activity of LRRK2 suggesting a potential role for GTP hydrolysis in kinase activation. Furthermore, LRRK2 robustly and directly phosphorylates ArfGAP1 in vitro. Silencing of ArfGAP1 expression in primary cortical neurons rescues the neurite shortening phenotype induced by G2019S LRRK2 overexpression, whereas the co-expression of ArfGAP1 and LRRK2 synergistically promotes neurite shortening in a manner dependent upon LRRK2 GTPase activity. Neurite shortening induced by ArfGAP1 overexpression is also attenuated by silencing of LRRK2. Our data reveal a novel role for ArfGAP1 in regulating the GTPase activity and neuronal toxicity of LRRK2; reciprocally, LRRK2 phosphorylates ArfGAP1 and is

  8. Co-cultures with stem cell-derived human sensory neurons reveal regulators of peripheral myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex J; Kaller, Malte S; Galino, Jorge; Willison, Hugh J; Rinaldi, Simon; Bennett, David L H

    2017-04-01

    See Saporta and Shy (doi:10.1093/awx048) for a scientific commentary on this article.Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1.2) at the juxtaparanode. Expression of type III neuregulin-1 (TIIINRG1) in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons strongly enhances myelination, while conversely pharmacological blockade of the NRG1-ErbB pathway prevents myelination, providing direct evidence for the ability of this pathway to promote the myelination of human sensory axons. The β-secretase, BACE1 is a protease needed to generate active NRG1 from the full-length form. Due to the fact that it also cleaves amyloid precursor protein, BACE1 is a therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease, however, consistent with its role in NRG1 processing we find that BACE1 inhibition significantly impairs myelination in our co-culture system. In order to exploit co-cultures to address other clinically relevant problems, they were exposed to anti-disialosyl ganglioside antibodies, including those derived from a patient with a sensory predominant, inflammatory neuropathy with mixed axonal and demyelinating electrophysiology. The co-cultures reveal that both mouse and human disialosyl antibodies target the nodal axolemma, induce acute axonal degeneration in the presence of complement, and impair myelination. The human, neuropathy-associated IgM antibody is also shown to induce complement-independent demyelination

  9. Transcriptional Elongation Factor Elongin A Regulates Retinoic Acid-Induced Gene Expression during Neuronal Differentiation

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    Takashi Yasukawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Elongin A increases the rate of RNA polymerase II (pol II transcript elongation by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme. Elongin A also acts as a component of a cullin-RING ligase that can target stalled pol II for ubiquitylation and proteasome-dependent degradation. It is not known whether these activities of Elongin A are functionally interdependent in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Elongin A-deficient (Elongin A−/− embryos exhibit abnormalities in the formation of both cranial and spinal nerves and that Elongin A−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs show a markedly decreased capacity to differentiate into neurons. Moreover, we identify Elongin A mutations that selectively inactivate one or the other of the aforementioned activities and show that mutants that retain the elongation stimulatory, but not pol II ubiquitylation, activity of Elongin A rescue neuronal differentiation and support retinoic acid-induced upregulation of a subset of neurogenesis-related genes in Elongin A−/− ESCs.

  10. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Signaling Regulates Erection Recovery after Cavernous Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen, Sena F.; Lagoda, Gwen; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose NO is the major neuronal mediator of penile erection, but its role in EF status after CN injury is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the function of neuronal NO signaling in the pathobiology of EF recovery after partial CN injury using both genetic and pharmacologic mouse experimental paradigms. Materials and Methods EF was evaluated in WT and nNOS−/− mice (n=5–7/group) at 1, 3 and 7 days after UCI or sham injury and at day 7 in WT mice treated with the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME at baseline and for 6 days following UCI. Apoptosis in the penis was evaluated by Western blot analysis of p-Akt-S473, 3-NT, and caspase-3 expressions after BCI. Results ICP was significantly decreased at 1, 3 and 7 days in WT mice but only at day 1 in nNOS−/− mice after UCI compared with sham treatment values (ppenile tissue. Therapeutic strategies to improve EF recovery after RP may consider targeting pathogenic sites of NO neurobiology. PMID:22177198

  11. The N-terminal region of reelin regulates postnatal dendritic maturation of cortical pyramidal neurons.

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    Chameau, Pascal; Inta, Dragos; Vitalis, Tania; Monyer, Hannah; Wadman, Wytse J; van Hooft, Johannes A

    2009-04-28

    Cajal-Retzius cells, located in layer I of the cortex, synthesize and secrete the glycoprotein reelin, which plays a pivotal role in neuronal migration during embryonic development. Cajal-Retzius cells persist after birth, but their postnatal role is unknown. Here we show that Cajal-Retzius cells receive a major excitatory synaptic input via serotonin 5-HT(3) receptors. Blocking this input using pharmacological tools or neutralization of reelin signaling results in hypercomplexity of apical, but not basal, dendrites of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons. A similar hypercomplexity is observed in the cortex of the 5-HT(3A) receptor knockout mouse. The increased dendritic complexity can be rescued by application of recombinant full-length reelin or its N-terminal fragment, but not by the central fragment of reelin, and involves a signal transduction pathway independent of the activation of the canonical reelin receptors. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of serotonin, Cajal-Retzius cells, and reelin in the postnatal maturation of the cortex.

  12. Cdk5rap2 regulates centrosome function and chromosome segregation in neuronal progenitors

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    Lizarraga, Sofia B.; Margossian, Steven P.; Harris, Marian H.; Campagna, Dean R.; Han, An-Ping; Blevins, Sherika; Mudbhary, Raksha; Barker, Jane E.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Fleming, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Microcephaly affects ∼1% of the population and is associated with mental retardation, motor defects and, in some cases, seizures. We analyzed the mechanisms underlying brain size determination in a mouse model of human microcephaly. The Hertwig's anemia (an) mutant shows peripheral blood cytopenias, spontaneous aneuploidy and a predisposition to hematopoietic tumors. We found that the an mutation is a genomic inversion of exon 4 of Cdk5rap2, resulting in an in-frame deletion of exon 4 from the mRNA. The finding that CDK5RAP2 human mutations cause microcephaly prompted further analysis of Cdk5rap2an/an mice and we demonstrated that these mice exhibit microcephaly comparable to that of the human disease, resulting from striking neurogenic defects that include proliferative and survival defects in neuronal progenitors. Cdk5rap2an/an neuronal precursors exit the cell cycle prematurely and many undergo apoptosis. These defects are associated with impaired mitotic progression coupled with abnormal mitotic spindle pole number and mitotic orientation. Our findings suggest that the reduction in brain size observed in humans with mutations in CDK5RAP2 is associated with impaired centrosomal function and with changes in mitotic spindle orientation during progenitor proliferation. PMID:20460369

  13. Corticotrigeminal projections from the insular cortex to the trigeminal caudal subnucleus regulate orofacial pain after nerve injury via extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in insular cortex neurons

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    Jian eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc, especially the superficial laminae (I/II, received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These

  14. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  15. Sialidase NEU4 hydrolyzes polysialic acids of neural cell adhesion molecules and negatively regulates neurite formation by hippocampal neurons.

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    Takahashi, Kohta; Mitoma, Junya; Hosono, Masahiro; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Sato, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Kitajima, Ken; Higashi, Hideyoshi; Nitta, Kazuo; Shima, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Taeko

    2012-04-27

    Modulation of levels of polysialic acid (polySia), a sialic acid polymer, predominantly associated with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), influences neural functions, including synaptic plasticity, neurite growth, and cell migration. Biosynthesis of polySia depends on two polysialyltransferases ST8SiaII and ST8SiaIV in vertebrate. However, the enzyme involved in degradation of polySia in its physiological turnover remains uncertain. In the present study, we identified and characterized a murine sialidase NEU4 that catalytically degrades polySia. Murine NEU4, dominantly expressed in the brain, was found to efficiently hydrolyze oligoSia and polySia chains as substrates in sialidase in vitro assays, and also NCAM-Fc chimera as well as endogenous NCAM in tissue homogenates of postnatal mouse brain as assessed by immunoblotting with anti-polySia antibodies. Degradation of polySia by NEU4 was also evident in neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells that were co-transfected with Neu4 and ST8SiaIV genes. Furthermore, in mouse embryonic hippocampal primary neurons, the endogenously expressed NEU4 was found to decrease during the neuronal differentiation. Interestingly, GFP- or FLAG-tagged NEU4 was partially co-localized with polySia in neurites and significantly suppressed their outgrowth, whereas silencing of NEU4 showed the acceleration together with an increase in polySia expression. These results suggest that NEU4 is involved in regulation of neuronal function by polySia degradation in mammals.

  16. Ligand- and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels differentially regulate the mode of vesicular neuropeptide release in mammalian sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeshi; Wu, Qihui; Hu, Meiqin; Liu, Bin; Chai, Zuying; Huang, Rong; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Huadong; Zhou, Li; Zheng, Lianghong; Wang, Changhe; Zhou, Zhuan

    2017-06-20

    Neuropeptides released from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons play essential roles in the neurotransmission of sensory inputs, including those underlying nociception and pathological pain. Neuropeptides are released from intracellular vesicles through two modes: a partial release mode called "kiss-and-run" (KAR) and a full release mode called "full fusion-like" (FFL). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we traced the release of pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein-tagged neuropeptide Y (pHluorin-NPY) from individual dense-core vesicles in the soma and axon of single DRG neurons after Ca2+ influx through either voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) or ligand-gated transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels. We found that Ca2+ influx through VGCCs stimulated FFL and a greater single release of neuropeptides. In contrast, Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 channels stimulated KAR and a pulsed but prolonged release of neuropeptides that was partially mediated by Dynamin 1, which limits fusion pore expansion. Suppressing the Ca2+ gradient to an extent similar to that seen after TRPV1 activation abolished the VGCC preference for FFL. The findings suggest that by generating a steeper Ca2+ gradient, VGCCs promote a more robust fusion pore opening that facilitates FFL. Thus, KAR and FFL release modes are differentially regulated by the two principal types of Ca2+-permeable channels in DRG neurons. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunits 1 and 2 are down-regulated in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and spinal cord after peripheral axotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chuang; Mulder, Jan; Barde, Swapnali; Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Zeberg, Hugo; Nilsson, Johanna; Århem, Peter; Hökfelt, Tomas; Fried, Kaj; Shi, Tie-Jun Sten

    2015-07-22

    Increased nociceptive neuronal excitability underlies chronic pain conditions. Various ion channels, including sodium, calcium and potassium channels have pivotal roles in the control of neuronal excitability. The members of the family of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels, GIRK1-4, have been implicated in modulating excitability. Here, we investigated the expression and distribution of GIRK1 and GIRK2 in normal and injured dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and spinal cord of rats. We found that ~70% of the DRG neurons expressed GIRK1, while only <10% expressed GIRK2. The neurochemical profiles of GIRK1- and GIRK2-immunoreactive neurons were characterized using the neuronal markers calcitonin gene-related peptide, isolectin-B4 and neurofilament-200, and the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D28k, calretinin, parvalbumin and secretagogin. Both GIRK subunits were expressed in DRG neurons with nociceptive characteristics. However, while GIRK1 was widely expressed in several sensory neuronal subtypes, GIRK2 was detected mainly in a group of small C-fiber neurons. In the spinal dorsal horn, GIRK1- and -2-positive cell bodies and processes were mainly observed in lamina II, but also in superficial and deeper layers. Abundant GIRK1-, but not GIRK2-like immunoreactivity, was found in the ventral horn (laminae VI-X). Fourteen days after axotomy, GIRK1 and GIRK2 were down-regulated in DRG neurons at the mRNA and protein levels. Both after axotomy and rhizotomy there was a reduction of GIRK1- and -2-positive processes in the dorsal horn, suggesting a presynaptic localization of these potassium channels. Furthermore, nerve ligation caused accumulation of both subunits on both sides of the lesion, providing evidence for anterograde and retrograde fast axonal transport. Our data support the hypothesis that reduced GIRK function is associated with increased neuronal excitability and causes sensory disturbances in post-injury conditions, including neuropathic

  18. A molecular toolbox for rapid generation of viral vectors to up- or down-regulate in vivo neuronal gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D. White

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1 and Kir3.2 and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miR. We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miR produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miR with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience.

  19. Transfection of chicken cerebellar granule neurons used to study glucocorticoid receptor regulation by nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A).

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    Strøm, Bjørn O; Aden, Petra; Mathisen, Gro H; Lømo, Jon; Davanger, Svend; Paulsen, Ragnhild E

    2010-10-30

    Transfection is a useful tool for studying molecular signalling pathways. However, neurons have proven hard to transfect. In the present paper we have optimized a new electroporation procedure using the Cellaxess(®) system for transient transfection of adherent primary neurons from chicken (Gallus gallus) and compared it to a liposome based procedure using Metafectene(®) Pro. In order to evaluate the two methods, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function was chosen as a test. GRs are expressed in high amounts in the cerebellum. GR is regulated by another nuclear receptor (NGFI-B, the first member found in the NR4A family). We first showed that forskolin and phorbol ester activated an NR4A-dependent reporter gene indicating that members of the NR4A nuclear receptor family are present endogenously and upregulated by external stimuli. Then, transfected NGFI-B was shown to antagonize the dexamethasone-activated transcriptional activation by endogenous GR, leading to the conclusion that NR4A-family members are important modulators of GR mediated regulatory processes in the cerebellum, as in other cell types. Both transfection methods proved useful. While the electroporation technique yielded small rings with many transfected cells optimal for microscopy studies, the liposome based method resulted in transfected cells evenly distributed in the dish rendering this method well suited for biochemical studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuronal Cholesterol Accumulation Induced by Cyp46a1 Down-Regulation in Mouse Hippocampus Disrupts Brain Lipid Homeostasis

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    Sophie Ayciriex

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairment in cholesterol metabolism is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the lipid alterations underlying neurodegeneration and the connection between altered cholesterol levels and AD remains not fully understood. We recently showed that cholesterol accumulation in hippocampal neurons, induced by silencing Cyp46a1 gene expression, leads to neurodegeneration with a progressive neuronal loss associated with AD-like phenotype in wild-type mice. We used a targeted and non-targeted lipidomics approach by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry to further characterize lipid modifications associated to neurodegeneration and cholesterol accumulation induced by CYP46A1 inhibition. Hippocampus lipidome of normal mice was profiled 4 weeks after cholesterol accumulation due to Cyp46a1 gene expression down-regulation at the onset of neurodegeneration. We showed that major membrane lipids, sphingolipids and specific enzymes involved in phosphatidylcholine and sphingolipid metabolism, were rapidly increased in the hippocampus of AAV-shCYP46A1 injected mice. This lipid accumulation was associated with alterations in the lysosomal cargoe, accumulation of phagolysosomes and impairment of endosome-lysosome trafficking. Altogether, we demonstrated that inhibition of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, key enzyme of cholesterol metabolism leads to a complex dysregulation of lipid homeostasis. Our results contribute to dissect the potential role of lipids in severe neurodegenerative diseases like AD.

  1. Hypoxia-induced down-regulation of neprilysin by histone modification in mouse primary cortical and hippocampal neurons.

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    Zheng Wang

    Full Text Available Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ accumulation leads to neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aβ metabolism is a dynamic process in the Aβ production and clearance that requires neprilysin (NEP and other enzymes to degrade Aβ. It has been reported that NEP expression is significantly decreased in the brain of AD patients. Previously we have documented hypoxia is a risk factor for Aβ generation in vivo and in vitro through increasing Aβ generation by altering β-cleavage and γ-cleavage of APP and down-regulating NEP, and causing tau hyperphosphorylation. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia-induced down-regulation of NEP. We found a significant decrease in NEP expression at the mRNA and protein levels after hypoxic treatment in mouse primary cortical and hippocampal neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays and relative quantitative PCR (q-PCR revealed an increase of histone H3-lysine9 demethylation (H3K9me2 and a decrease of H3 acetylation (H3-Ace in the NEP promoter regions following hypoxia. In addition, we found that hypoxia caused up-regulation of histone methyl transferase (HMT G9a and histone deacetylases (HDACs HDAC-1. Decreased expression of NEP during hypoxia can be prevented by application with the epigenetic regulators 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza, HDACs inhibitor sodium valproate (VA, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of G9a or HDAC1. DNA methylation PCR data do not support that hypoxia affects the methylation of NEP promoters. This study suggests that hypoxia may down-regulate NEP by increasing H3K9me2 and decreasing H3-Ace modulation.

  2. Neuronal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity as marker and mediator of alcohol and opioid dependence

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    Eva R. Zamora-Martinez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Early pioneering work in the field of biochemistry identified phosphorylation as a crucial post-translational modification of proteins with the ability to both indicate and arbitrate complex physiological processes. More recent investigations have functionally linked phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK to a variety of neurophysiological mechanisms ranging from acute neurotransmitter action to long-term gene expression. ERK phosphorylation serves as an intracellular bridging mechanism that facilitates neuronal communication and plasticity. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol and opioids, act as artificial yet powerful rewards that impinge upon natural reinforcement processes critical for survival. The graded progression from initial exposure to addiction (or substance dependence is believed to result from drug- and drug context-induced adaptations in neuronal signaling processes across brain reward and stress circuits following excessive drug use. In this regard, commonly abused drugs as well as drug-associated experiences are capable of modifying the phosphorylation of ERK within central reinforcement systems. In addition, chronic drug and alcohol exposure may drive ERK-regulated epigenetic and structural alterations that underlie a long-term propensity for escalating drug use. Under the influence of such a neurobiological vulnerability, encountering drug-associated cues and contexts can produce subsequent alterations in ERK signaling that drive relapse to drug and alcohol seeking. Current studies are determining precisely which molecular and regional ERK phosphorylation-associated events contribute to the addiction process, as well as which neuroadaptations need to be targeted in order to return dependent individuals to a healthy state.

  3. A-type K+ channels encoded by Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and Kv1.4 differentially regulate intrinsic excitability of cortical pyramidal neurons

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    Carrasquillo, Yarimar; Burkhalter, Andreas; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly activating and rapidly inactivating voltage-gated A-type K+ currents, IA, are key determinants of neuronal excitability and several studies suggest a critical role for the Kv4.2 pore-forming α subunit in the generation of IA channels in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. The experiments here demonstrate that Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and Kv1.4 all contribute to the generation of IA channels in mature cortical pyramidal (CP) neurons and that Kv4.2-, Kv4.3- and Kv1.4-encoded IA channels play distinct roles in regulating the intrinsic excitability and the firing properties of mature CP neurons. In vivo loss of Kv4.2, for example, alters the input resistances, current thresholds for action potential generation and action potential repolarization of mature CP neurons. Elimination of Kv4.3 also prolongs action potential duration, whereas the input resistances and the current thresholds for action potential generation in Kv4.3−/− and WT CP neurons are indistinguishable. In addition, although increased repetitive firing was observed in both Kv4.2−/− and Kv4.3−/− CP neurons, the increases in Kv4.2−/− CP neurons were observed in response to small, but not large, amplitude depolarizing current injections, whereas firing rates were higher in Kv4.3−/− CP neurons only with large amplitude current injections. In vivo loss of Kv1.4, in contrast, had minimal effects on the intrinsic excitability and the firing properties of mature CP neurons. Comparison of the effects of pharmacological blockade of Kv4-encoded currents in Kv1.4−/− and WT CP neurons, however, revealed that Kv1.4-encoded IA channels do contribute to controlling resting membrane potentials, the regulation of current thresholds for action potential generation and repetitive firing rates in mature CP neurons. PMID:22615428

  4. Frizzled3a and Celsr2 function in the neuroepithelium to regulate migration of facial motor neurons in the developing zebrafish hindbrain.

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    Wada, Hironori; Tanaka, Hideomi; Nakayama, Satomi; Iwasaki, Miki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2006-12-01

    Migration of neurons from their birthplace to their final target area is a crucial step in brain development. Here, we show that expression of the off-limits/frizzled3a (olt/fz3a) and off-road/celsr2 (ord/celsr2) genes in neuroepithelial cells maintains the facial (nVII) motor neurons near the pial surface during their caudal migration in the zebrafish hindbrain. In the absence of olt/fz3a expression in the neuroepithelium, nVII motor neurons extended aberrant radial processes towards the ventricular surface and mismigrated radially to the dorsomedial part of the hindbrain. Our findings reveal a novel role for these genes, distinctive from their already known functions, in the regulation of the planar cell polarity (i.e. preventing integration of differentiated neurons into the neuroepithelial layer). This contrasts markedly with their reported role in reintegration of neuroepithelial daughter cells into the neuroepithelial layer after cell division.

  5. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels and matrix-bound vesicles differentially regulate central nervous system neuron viability and axon growth and branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Anne; Kandakatla, Apoorva; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Ren, Tanchen; Huleihel, Luai; Hussey, George; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Johnson, Scott; Badylak, Stephen; Steketee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Central nervous system neurons often degenerate after trauma due to the inflammatory innate immune response to injury, which can lead to neuronal cell death, scarring, and permanently lost neurologic function. Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds, derived by decellularizing healthy tissues, have been widely used in both preclinical and clinical studies to promote positive tissue remodeling, including neurogenesis, in numerous tissues, with extracellular matrix from homologous tissues often inducing more positive responses. Extracellular matrix hydrogels are liquid at room temperature and enable minimally invasive extracellular matrix injections into central nervous system tissues, before gelation at 37℃. However, few studies have analyzed how extracellular matrix hydrogels influence primary central nervous system neuron survival and growth, and whether central nervous system and non-central nervous system extracellular matrix specificity is critical to neuronal responses. Urinary bladder extracellular matrix hydrogels increase both primary hippocampal neuron survival and neurite growth to similar or even greater extents, suggesting extracellular matrix from non-homologous tissue sources, such as urinary bladder matrix-extracellular matrix, may be a more economical and safer alternative to developing central nervous system extracellular matrices for central nervous system applications. Additionally, we show matrix-bound vesicles derived from urinary bladder extracellular matrix are endocytosed by hippocampal neurons and positively regulate primary hippocampal neuron neurite growth. Matrix-bound vesicles carry protein and RNA cargos, including noncoding RNAs and miRNAs that map to the human genome and are known to regulate cellular processes. Thus, urinary bladder matrix-bound vesicles provide natural and transfectable cargoes which offer new experimental tools and therapeutic applications to study and treat central nervous system neuron injury.

  6. Neuronal regulation of ascaroside response during mate response behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-molecule signaling plays an important role in the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans. We have previously shown that ascarosides, glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose regulate both development and behavior in C. elegans The mating signal consists of a synergistic blend of three dauer-induc...

  7. Cutaneous tissue damage induces long-lasting nociceptive sensitization and regulation of cellular stress- and nerve injury-associated genes in sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Kristofer K; Hill, Caitlin E; Harrison, Benjamin J; Venkat, Gayathri; Koenig, Heidi M; Cook, Sarah B; Rabchevsky, Alexander G; Taylor, Bradley K; Hai, Tsonwin; Petruska, Jeffrey C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue damage is one of the major etiological factors in the emergence of chronic/persistent pain, although mechanisms remain enigmatic. Using incision of the back skin of adult rats as a model for tissue damage, we observed sensitization in a nociceptive reflex enduring to 28days post-incision (DPI). To determine if the enduring behavioral changes corresponded with a long-term impact of tissue damage on sensory neurons, we examined the temporal expression profile of injury-regulated genes and the electrophysiological properties of traced dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. The mRNA for the injury/stress-hub gene Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) was upregulated and peaked within 4 DPI, after which levels declined but remained significantly elevated out to 28 DPI, a time when the initial incision appears healed and tissue-inflammation largely resolved. Accordingly, stereological image analysis indicated that some neurons expressed ATF3 only transiently (mostly medium-large neurons), while in others it was sustained (mostly small neurons), suggesting cell-type-specific responses. In retrogradely-traced ATF3-expressing neurons, Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK4) protein levels and isolectin-B4 (IB4)-binding were suppressed whereas Growth Associated Protein-43 (GAP-43) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) protein levels were enhanced. Electrophysiological recordings from DiI-traced sensory neurons 28 DPI showed a significant sensitization limited to ATF3-expressing neurons. Thus, ATF3 expression is revealed as a strong predictor of single cells displaying enduring pain-related electrophysiological properties. The cellular injury/stress response induced in sensory neurons by tissue damage and indicated by ATF3 expression is positioned to contribute to pain which can occur after tissue damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. KIF5C S176 Phosphorylation Regulates Microtubule Binding and Transport Efficiency in Mammalian Neurons.

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    Artur ePadzik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased phosphorylation of the KIF5 anterograde motor is associated with impaired axonal transport and neurodegeneration, but paradoxically also with normal transport, though the details are not fully defined. JNK phosphorylates KIF5C on S176 in the motor domain; a site that we show is phosphorylated in brain. Microtubule pelleting assays demonstrate that phosphomimetic KIF5C(1-560S176D associates weakly with microtubules compared to KIF5C(1-560WT. Consistent with this, 50% of KIF5C(1-560S176D shows diffuse movement in neurons. However the remaining 50% remains microtubule bound and displays decreased pausing and increased bidirectional movement. The same directionality switching is observed with KIF5C(1-560WT in the presence of an active JNK chimera, MKK7-JNK. Yet, in cargo trafficking assays where peroxisome cargo is bound, KIF5C(1-560S176D-GFP-FRB transports normally to microtubule plus ends. We also find that JNK increases the ATP hydrolysis of KIF5C in vitro. These data suggest that phosphorylation of KIF5C-S176 primes the motor to either disengage entirely from microtubule tracks as previously observed in response to stress, or to display improved efficiency. The final outcome may depend on cargo load and motor ensembles.

  9. Defects in the COG complex and COG-related trafficking regulators affect neuronal Golgi function.

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    Leslie K Climer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG complex is an evolutionarily conserved hetero-octameric protein complex that has been proposed to organize vesicle tethering at the Golgi apparatus. Defects in seven of the eight COG subunits are linked to Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG-type II, a family of rare diseases involving misregulation of protein glycosylation, alterations in Golgi structure, variations in retrograde trafficking through the Golgi and system-wide clinical pathologies. A troublesome aspect of these diseases are the neurological pathologies such as low IQ, microcephaly and cerebellar atrophy. The essential function of the COG complex is dependent upon interactions with other components of trafficking machinery, such as Rab-GTPases and SNAREs. COG-interacting Rabs and SNAREs have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Defects in Golgi maintenance disrupts trafficking and processing of essential proteins, frequently associated with and contributing to compromised neuron function and human disease. Despite the recent advances in molecular neuroscience, the subcellular bases for most neurodegenerative diseases are poorly understood. This article gives an overview of the potential contributions of the COG complex and its Rab and SNARE partners in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Loss of Kdm5c Causes Spurious Transcription and Prevents the Fine-Tuning of Activity-Regulated Enhancers in Neurons

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    Marilyn Scandaglia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During development, chromatin-modifying enzymes regulate both the timely establishment of cell-type-specific gene programs and the coordinated repression of alternative cell fates. To dissect the role of one such enzyme, the intellectual-disability-linked lysine demethylase 5C (Kdm5c, in the developing and adult brain, we conducted parallel behavioral, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies in Kdm5c-null and forebrain-restricted inducible knockout mice. Together, genomic analyses and functional assays demonstrate that Kdm5c plays a critical role as a repressor responsible for the developmental silencing of germline genes during cellular differentiation and in fine-tuning activity-regulated enhancers during neuronal maturation. Although the importance of these functions declines after birth, Kdm5c retains an important genome surveillance role preventing the incorrect activation of non-neuronal and cryptic promoters in adult neurons.

  11. Stimulus-dependent regulation of nuclear Ca2+ signaling in cardiomyocytes: a role of neuronal calcium sensor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Shu; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomoe Y

    2015-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients are elicited by electrical and receptor stimulations, leading to muscle contraction and gene expression, respectively. Although such elevations of Ca2+levels ([Ca2+]) also occur in the nucleus, the precise mechanism of nuclear [Ca2+] regulation during different kinds of stimuli, and its relationship with cytoplasmic [Ca2+] regulation are not fully understood. To address these issues, we used a new region-specific fluorescent protein-based Ca2+ indicator, GECO, together with the conventional probe Fluo-4 AM. We confirmed that nuclear Ca2+ transients were elicited by both electrical and receptor stimulations in neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes. Kinetic analysis revealed that electrical stimulation-elicited nuclear Ca2+ transients are slower than cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients, and chelating cytoplasmic Ca2+ abolished nuclear Ca2+ transients, suggesting that nuclear Ca2+ are mainly derived from the cytoplasm during electrical stimulation. On the other hand, receptor stimulation such as with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) preferentially increased nuclear [Ca2+] compared to cytoplasmic [Ca2+]. Experiments using inhibitors revealed that electrical and receptor stimulation-elicited Ca2+ transients were mainly mediated by ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), respectively, suggesting different mechanisms for the two signals. Furthermore, IGF-1-elicited nuclear Ca2+ transient amplitude was significantly lower in myocytes lacking neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 (NCS-1), a Ca2+ binding protein implicated in IP3R-mediated pathway in the heart. Moreover, IGF-1 strengthened the interaction between NCS-1 and IP3R. These results suggest a novel mechanism for receptor stimulation-induced nuclear [Ca2+] regulation mediated by IP3R and NCS-1 that may further fine-tune cardiac Ca2+ signal regulation.

  12. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B via endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha regulates survival of axotomized adult sensory neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernyhough, P; Smith, DR; Schapansky, J; Van Der Ploeg, R; Gardiner, NJ; Tweed, CW; Kontos, A; Freeman, L; Purves-Tyson, TD; Glazner, GW

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons die after axonal damage in vivo, and cultured embryonic DRG neurons require exogenous neurotrophic factors that activate the neuroprotective transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB(NF-kappaB) for survival. In contrast, adult DRG neurons survive

  13. Reciprocal signals between microglia and neurons regulate alpha-synuclein secretion by exophagy through a neuronal cJU-N-Nterminal kinase-signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Ploug; Ejlerskov, Patrick; Rasmussen, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    or by passive transfer of nerve cell-conditioned medium. Conversely, inflammatory factors secreted from activated microglia increased JNK activation and alpha-SNC secretion several-fold in PC12 cells. While we do not identify these factors, we extend our observations by showing that exposure of neurons...... in monoculture to TNF alpha, a classical pro-inflammatory mediator of activated microglia, is sufficient to increase alpha-SNC secretion in a mechanism dependent on JNK2 or JNK3. In continuation hereof, we show that also IFN beta and TGF beta increase the release of alpha-SNC from PC12 neurons. Conclusions: We......Background: Secretion of proteopathic alpha-synuclein (alpha-SNC) species from neurons is a suspected driving force in the propagation of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously implicated exophagy, the exocytosis of autophagosomes, as a dominant mechanism of alpha-SNC secretion...

  14. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Negatively Regulates Zinc-Induced Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Ashish; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, Deepali; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Ray, Ratan Singh; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate the role of NO and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in Zn-induced neurodegeneration. Animals were treated with zinc sulfate (20 mg/kg), twice a week, for 2-12 weeks along with control. In a few sets, animals were also treated with/without a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), or S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) for 12 weeks. Moreover, human neuroblastoma (SH-SY-5Y) cells were also employed to investigate the role of nNOS in Zn-induced toxicity in in vitro in the presence/absence of nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI). Zn caused time-dependent reduction in nitrite content and total/nNOS activity/expression. SNP/SNAP discernibly alleviated Zn-induced neurobehavioral impairments, dopaminergic neurodegeneration, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, and striatal dopamine depletion. NO donors also salvage from Zn-induced increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. While Zn elevated LPO content, it attenuated nitrite content, nNOS activity, and glutathione level along with the expression of TH and nNOS in SH-SY-5Y cells. 7-NI further augmented Zn-induced changes in the cell viability, oxidative stress, and expression of TH and nNOS. The results obtained thus demonstrate that Zn inhibits nNOS that partially contributes to an increase in oxidative stress, which subsequently leads to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  15. Autonomous and nonautonomous regulation of Wnt-mediated neuronal polarity by the C. elegans Ror kinase CAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Chieh Jason; Gurling, Mark; Kim, Changsung; Craft, Teresa; Forrester, Wayne; Garriga, Gian

    2015-08-01

    Wnts are a conserved family of secreted glycoproteins that regulate various developmental processes in metazoans. Three of the five Caenorhabditis elegans Wnts, CWN-1, CWN-2 and EGL-20, and the sole Wnt receptor of the Ror kinase family, CAM-1, are known to regulate the anterior polarization of the mechanosensory neuron ALM. Here we show that CAM-1 and the Frizzled receptor MOM-5 act in parallel pathways to control ALM polarity. We also show that CAM-1 has two functions in this process: an autonomous signaling function that promotes anterior polarization and a nonautonomous Wnt-antagonistic function that inhibits anterior polarization. These antagonistic activities can account for the weak ALM phenotypes displayed by cam-1 mutants. Our observations suggest that CAM-1 could function as a Wnt receptor in many developmental processes, but the analysis of cam-1 mutants may fail to reveal CAM-1's role as a receptor in these processes because of its Wnt-antagonistic activity. In this model, loss of CAM-1 results in increased levels of Wnts that act through other Wnt receptors, masking CAM-1's autonomous role as a Wnt receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MicroRNA-431 Regulates Axon Regeneration in Mature Sensory Neurons by Targeting the Wnt Antagonist Kremen1.

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    Di eWu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that function as key post-transcriptional regulators in neural development, brain function and neurological diseases. Growing evidence indicates that microRNAs are also important mediators of nerve regeneration, however, the affected signaling mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we show that nerve injury-induced miR-431 stimulates regenerative axon growth by silencing Kremen1, an antagonist of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Both the gain-of-function of miR-431 and knockdown of Kremen1 significantly enhance axon outgrowth in murine dorsal root ganglion (DRG neuronal cultures. Using cross-linking with AGO-2 immunoprecipitation (CLIP, and 3′ untranslated region (UTR luciferase reporter assay we demonstrate miR-431 direct interaction on the 3’-UTR of Kremen1 mRNA. Together, our results identify miR-431 as an important regulator of axonal regeneration and a promising therapeutic target.

  17. Involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the regulation of migrating motor complex (MMC) in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M; Muñoz, J M; Arruebo, M P; Murillo, M D; Arnal, C; Bonafonte, J I; Plaza, M A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) synthase isoforms (nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS) in the regulation of the migrating motor complex (MMC) in sheep using electromyography and their expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry. Intravenous administration of L-NAME or the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) decreased the MMC interval. Myoelectric activity of intestinal phase II was increased, whereas antral activity was reduced. These effects were blocked by L-arginine. Inhibitors of either iNOS (aminoguanidine and S-methylisothiourea) or eNOS (L-NIO) were ineffective. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside decreased GI myoelectric activity, inhibited the MMC pattern, and prevented the effects induced by L-NAME and 7-NI in the intestine. Intracerebroventricular administration of these agents did not modify GI motility. In the rumen, abomasal antrum, duodenum, and jejunum, WB showed three bands at about 155, 145, and 135kDa corresponding to nNOS, and a 140-kDa band (eNOS); however iNOS was not detected. Positive nNOS immunostaining was observed in neurons of the myenteric and submucous plexus of all GI tissues, while eNOS was found in the endothelial cells, ruminal and intestinal epithelium, as well as in some enteric neurons and in endocrine-like cells of the duodenal Brunner's glands. In contrast, only weak iNOS immunoreactivity was found in ruminal epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that NO, synthesized at a peripheral level by nNOS, is tonically inhibiting the MMC pattern and intestinal motility in sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The neurotoxicant PCB-95 by increasing the neuronal transcriptional repressor REST down-regulates caspase-8 and increases Ripk1, Ripk3 and MLKL expression determining necroptotic neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Serani, Angelo; Mascolo, Luigi; Molinaro, Pasquale; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2017-10-15

    Our previous study showed that the environmental neurotoxicant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-95 increases RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, which is related to necrosis, but not apoptosis, of neurons. Meanwhile, necroptosis is a type of a programmed necrosis that is positively regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and negatively regulated by caspase-8. Here we evaluated whether necroptosis contributes to PCB-95-induced neuronal death through REST up-regulation. Our results demonstrated that in cortical neurons PCB-95 increased RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL expression and decreased caspase-8 at the gene and protein level. Furthermore, the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 or siRNA-mediated RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL expression knockdown significantly reduced PCB-95-induced neuronal death. Intriguingly, PCB-95-induced increases in RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL expression and decreases in caspase-8 expression were reversed by knockdown of REST expression with a REST-specific siRNA (siREST). Notably, in silico analysis of the rat genome identified a REST consensus sequence in the caspase-8 gene promoter (Casp8-RE1), but not the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL promoters. Interestingly, in PCB-95-treated neurons, REST binding to the Casp8-RE1 sequence increased in parallel with a reduction in its promoter activity, whereas under the same experimental conditions, transfection of siREST or mutation of the Casp8-RE1 sequence blocked PCB-95-induced caspase-8 reduction. Since RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL rat genes showed no putative REST binding site, we assessed whether the transcription factor cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB), which has a consensus sequence in all three genes, affected neuronal death. In neurons treated with PCB-95, CREB protein expression decreased in parallel with a reduction in binding to the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL gene promoter sequence. Furthermore, CREB overexpression was

  19. PROS-1/Prospero Is a Major Regulator of the Glia-Specific Secretome Controlling Sensory-Neuron Shape and Function in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sean W; Singhvi, Aakanksha; Liang, Yupu; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-04-19

    Sensory neurons are an animal's gateway to the world, and their receptive endings, the sites of sensory signal transduction, are often associated with glia. Although glia are known to promote sensory-neuron functions, the molecular bases of these interactions are poorly explored. Here, we describe a post-developmental glial role for the PROS-1/Prospero/PROX1 homeodomain protein in sensory-neuron function in C. elegans. Using glia expression profiling, we demonstrate that, unlike previously characterized cell fate roles, PROS-1 functions post-embryonically to control sense-organ glia-specific secretome expression. PROS-1 functions cell autonomously to regulate glial secretion and membrane structure, and non-cell autonomously to control the shape and function of the receptive endings of sensory neurons. Known glial genes controlling sensory-neuron function are PROS-1 targets, and we identify additional PROS-1-dependent genes required for neuron attributes. Drosophila Prospero and vertebrate PROX1 are expressed in post-mitotic sense-organ glia and astrocytes, suggesting conserved roles for this class of transcription factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PROS-1/Prospero Is a Major Regulator of the Glia-Specific Secretome Controlling Sensory-Neuron Shape and Function in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Wallace

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory neurons are an animal’s gateway to the world, and their receptive endings, the sites of sensory signal transduction, are often associated with glia. Although glia are known to promote sensory-neuron functions, the molecular bases of these interactions are poorly explored. Here, we describe a post-developmental glial role for the PROS-1/Prospero/PROX1 homeodomain protein in sensory-neuron function in C. elegans. Using glia expression profiling, we demonstrate that, unlike previously characterized cell fate roles, PROS-1 functions post-embryonically to control sense-organ glia-specific secretome expression. PROS-1 functions cell autonomously to regulate glial secretion and membrane structure, and non-cell autonomously to control the shape and function of the receptive endings of sensory neurons. Known glial genes controlling sensory-neuron function are PROS-1 targets, and we identify additional PROS-1-dependent genes required for neuron attributes. Drosophila Prospero and vertebrate PROX1 are expressed in post-mitotic sense-organ glia and astrocytes, suggesting conserved roles for this class of transcription factors.

  1. Type A and B monoamine oxidases distinctly modulate signal transduction pathway and gene expression to regulate brain function and survival of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Makoto; Maruyama, Wakako; Shamoto-Nagai, Masayo

    2017-12-26

    Type A and B monoamine oxidases (MAO-A, -B) mediate and modulate intracellular signal pathways for survival or death of neuronal cells. MAO-A is associated with development of neuronal architecture, synaptic activity, and onset of psychiatric disorders, including depression, and antisocial aggressive impulsive behaviors. MAO-B produces hydrogen peroxide and plays a vital role in neuronal loss of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review presents a novel role of MAO-A and B, their substrates and inhibitors, and hydrogen peroxide in brain function and neuronal survival and death. MAO-A activity is regulated not only by genetic factor, but also by environmental factors, including stress, hormonal deregulation, and food factors. MAO-A activity fluctuates by genetic-environmental factors, modulates the neuronal response to the stimuli, and affects behavior and emotional activities. MAO-B inhibitors selegiline and rasagiline protect neurons via increase expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-survival neurotrophic factors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma U118MG cell lines. MAO-A knockdown suppressed the rasagiline-induced gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells, whereas MAO-B silencing enhanced the basal- and selegiline-induced gene expression in U118MG cells. MAO-A and B were shown to function as a mediator or repressor of gene expression, respectively. Further study on cellular mechanism underlying regulation of signal pathways by MAO-A and B may bring us a new insight on the role of MAOs in decision of neuronal fate and the development of novel therapeutic strategy may be expected for neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PARAVENTRICULAR THALAMIC (PVT NEURONS IN RESPONSE TO CHRONIC COCAINE EXPOSURE: EFFECTS OF COCAINE- AND AMPHETAMINE-REGULATED TRANSCRIPT (CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann Wei eYeoh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established that the paraventricular thalamus (PVT is a central node in the brain reward-seeking pathway. This role is likely mediated in part through the dense projections to the PVT from hypothalamic peptide transmitter systems such as orexin, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART, both of which play key roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Consistent with this proposition, we previously found that inactivation of the PVT or infusions of CART into the PVT suppressed drug-seeking behaviour in an animal model of contingent cocaine self-administration. Despite this work, very few studies have assessed the basic physiological properties of PVT neurons and how these parameters are altered by exposure to drugs such as cocaine. We set out to address these questions by employing an electrophysiological approach to record from anterior PVT (aPVT neurons from cocaine-treated and control animals. First, we determined the excitability of aPVT neurons by injecting a series of depolarizing current steps and characterizing the resulting action potential (AP discharge properties. Second, we investigated the effects of CART on excitatory synaptic inputs to aPVT neurons. We found that the majority of aPVT neurons exhibited tonic firing (TF, and initial bursting (IB consistent with previous studies. However, we also identified PVT neurons that exhibited delayed firing (DF, single spiking (SS and reluctant firing (RF. Interestingly, cocaine exposure shifted the proportion of aPVT neurons that exhibited TF. Further, application of CART suppressed excitatory synaptic drive to PVT. This finding is consistent with our previous behavioural data, which showed that CART signaling in the PVT negatively regulates drug-seeking behaviour. Together, these studies support previous anatomical evidence that the PVT can integrate reward-relevant information and provides a putative mechanism through which drugs of abuse can dysregulate this system in

  3. Role of Shp2 in forebrain neurons in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular functions and responses to leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Sessums, Price O.; Ebaady, Sabira H.; Pace, Benjamin R.; Rushing, John S.; Davis, Mark T.; Hall, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether deficiency of Shp2 signaling in forebrain neurons alters metabolic and cardiovascular regulation under various conditions and if it attenuates the anorexic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. We also tested whether forebrain Shp2 deficiency alters blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to acute stress. Design Forebrain Shp2-/- mice were generated by crossing Shp2flox/flox mice with CamKIIα-cre mice. At 22 to 24 weeks of age, mice were instrumented for telemetry for measurement of BP, HR and body temperature (BT). Oxygen consumption (VO2), energy expenditure and motor activity were monitored by indirect calorimetry. Results Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice were heavier (46±3 vs 32±1 g), hyperglycemic, hyperleptinemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperphagic compared to Shp2flox/flox control mice. Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice exhibited reduced food intake responses to fasting/refeeding and impaired regulation of BT when exposed to 15°C and 30°C ambient temperatures. Despite being obese and having many features of metabolic syndrome, Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice had similar daily average BP and HR compared to Shp2flox/flox mice (112±2 vs 113±1 mmHg and 595±34 vs 650±40 bpm), but exhibited increased BP and HR responses to cold exposure and acute air-jet stress test. Leptin's ability to reduce food intake and to raise BP were markedly attenuated in Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice. Conclusion These results suggest that forebrain Shp2 signaling regulates food intake, appetite responses to caloric deprivation, and thermogenic control of body temperature during variations in ambient temperature. Deficiency of Shp2 signaling in the forebrain is associated with augmented cardiovascular responses to cold and acute stress but attenuated BP responses to leptin. PMID:24030516

  4. Dp71 is regulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitin-proteasome system in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji; Itoh, Kyoko

    2017-10-21

    The Dystrophin (Dp) gene is responsible for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is characterized by progressive muscular degeneration and variable degrees of cognitive impairment. Although Dp71 is the most abundant among the Dp isoforms in the brain, the regulatory mechanisms of the related expression levels have not been elucidated. In this study, we found that the constitutive expression levels of Dp71 in PC12 cells were sensitive to proteasomal inhibition. The ectopic expression of FLAG-tagged ubiquitin revealed that Dp71 was ubiquitinated intracellularly. Interestingly, proteasomal inhibition was accompanied by a posttranslational accumulation of modified Dp71, which was restored by protein phosphatase treatment in vitro, indicating that phosphorylation is responsible for the modification and affects the proteasome-dependent degradation of Dp71. Proteasomal activity-sensitive phosphorylated Dp71 is closely associated with syntrophin, a well-known binding partner of Dp71, and syntrophin is also regulated by proteasomal activity in a similar way to Dp71, suggesting that the posttranslational regulatory machinery for Dp71 level is coupled with Dp71-syntrophin molecular complex. Taken together, our results indicated that the expression levels of Dp71 are posttranslationally regulated by the phosphorylation-ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway, which may indicate the presence of regulatory mechanisms underlying the proteostasis of both Dp and its molecular complex, which may lead to better therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Dp-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of Energy Balance via BDNF Expressed in Nonparaventricular Hypothalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haili; An, Juan Ji; Sun, Chao; Xu, Baoji

    2016-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) has been shown to play a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure. BDNF is also expressed in other hypothalamic nuclei; however, the role in the control of energy balance for BDNF produced in these structures remains largely unknown. We found that deleting the Bdnf gene in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) during embryogenesis using the Sf1-Cre transgene had no effect on body weight in mice. In contrast, deleting the Bdnf gene in the adult VMH using Cre-expressing virus led to significant hyperphagia and obesity. These observations indicate that the lack of a hyperphagia phenotype in the Sf1-Cre/Bdnf mutant mice is likely due to developmental compensation. To investigate the role of BDNF expressed in other hypothalamic areas, we employed the hypothalamus-specific Nkx2.1-Cre transgene to delete the Bdnf gene. We found that the Nkx2.1-Cre transgene could abolish BDNF expression in many hypothalamic nuclei, but not in the PVH, and that the resulting mutant mice developed modest obesity due to reduced energy expenditure. Thus, BDNF produced in the VMH plays a role in regulating energy intake. Furthermore, BDNF expressed in hypothalamic areas other than PVH and VMH is also involved in the control of energy expenditure.

  6. T3 differentially regulates TRH expression in developing hypothalamic neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Charli, Jean-Louis; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor

    2009-12-11

    Triiodothyronine (T3) plays an important role during development of the central nervous system. T3 effects on gene expression are determined in part by the type of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) expressed in a given cell type. Previous studies have demonstrated that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) transcription in the adult hypothalamus is subjected to negative regulation by thyroid hormones. However, the role of T3 on the development of TRH expression is unknown. In this study we used primary cultures derived from 17-day-old fetal rat hypothalamus to analyze the effects of T3 on TRH gene expression during development. T3 increased TRH mRNA expression in immature cultures, but decreased it in mature cultures. In addition, T3 up-regulated TRalpha1 and TRbeta2 mRNA expression. TRalpha1 expression coincided chronologically with that of TRH in the rat hypothalamus in vivo. Maturation of TRH expression in the hypothalamus may involve T3 acting through TRalpha1.

  7. RTP801 immunoreactivity in retinal ganglion cells and its down-regulation in cultured cells protect them from light and cobalt chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Olmo-Aguado, Susana; Núñez-Álvarez, Claudia; Ji, Dan; Manso, Alberto García; Osborne, Neville N

    2013-09-01

    RTP801, a stress-related protein, is activated by adverse environmental conditions and inhibits the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in promoting oxidative stress-dependent cell death. RTP801 exists both in the mammalian retina and the lens of the eye. Here, we observed RTP801 immunoreactivity in some retinal ganglion cells. Intravitreal injection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to mimick hypoxia influenced retinal GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels, but did not affect RTP801 immunoreactivity or mRNA content relative to GAPDH. However, RTP801 mRNA was elevated when compared with Brn3a mRNA, suggesting that RTP801 is activated in stressed Brn3a retinal ganglion cells. In cultures of RGC-5 cells, RTP801 immunoreactivity was located in the cytoplasm and partly present in the mitochondria. An insult of blue light or CoCl2 increased RTP801 expression, which was accompanied by cell death. However, in cultures where RTP801 mRNA was down-regulated, the negative influence of blue light and CoCl2 was blunted. Rapamycin nullified the CoCl2-induced up-regulation of RTP801 and attenuated cell death. Moreover, rapamycin was non-toxic to RGC-5 cells, even at a high concentration (10μM). The protective effect of rapamycin on RGC-5 cells caused by the inhibition of RTP801 suggests that rapamycin might attenuate retinal ganglion cell death in situ, as in glaucoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autophagy Regulates the Post-Translational Cleavage of BCL-2 and Promotes Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available B-cell lymphoma 2 protein (BCL-2 is one of the more widely investigated anti-apoptotic protein in mammals, and its levels are critical for protecting from programmed cell death. We report here that the cellular content of BCL-2 is regulated at post-translational level along the autophagy/lysosome pathways in organotypic cultures of post-natal mouse cerebellar cortex. Specifically this mechanism appears to be effective in the cerebellar granule cells (CGCs that are known to undergo massive programmed cell death (apoptosis during post-natal maturation. By the use of specific agonists/antagonist of calcium channels at the endoplasmic reticulum it was possible to understand the pivotal role of calcium release from intracellular stores in CGC neuroprotection. The more general significance of these findings is supported by a very recent study Niemann-Pick transgenic mice.

  9. MicroRNAs: not ‘fine-tuners’ but key regulators of neuronal development and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory eDavis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs that operate as prominent post-transcriptional regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. miRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain of most animals and exert diverse roles. The anatomical and functional complexity of brain requires the precise coordination of multi-layered gene regulatory networks. The flexibility, speed and reversibility of miRNA function provide precise temporal and spatial gene regulatory capabilities that are crucial for the correct functioning of the brain. Studies have shown that the underlying molecular mechanisms controlled by miRNAs in the nervous systems of invertebrate and vertebrate models are remarkably conserved in humans. We endeavour to provide insight into the roles of miRNAs in the nervous systems of these model organisms and discuss how such information may be used to inform regarding diseases of the human brain.

  10. IMPACT is a developmentally regulated protein in neurons that opposes the eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase GCN2 in the modulation of neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N M; Azevedo, Hátylas F; Alves, Viviane S; Castilho, Beatriz A

    2013-04-12

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system.

  11. IMPACT Is a Developmentally Regulated Protein in Neurons That Opposes the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α Kinase GCN2 in the modulation of Neurite Outgrowth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffé, Martín; Hajj, Glaucia N. M.; Azevedo, Hátylas F.; Alves, Viviane S.; Castilho, Beatriz A.

    2013-01-01

    The product of the mouse Imprinted and Ancient gene, IMPACT, is preferentially expressed in neurons. We have previously shown that IMPACT overexpression inhibits the activation of the protein kinase GCN2, which signals amino acid starvation. GCN2 phosphorylates the α-subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in inhibition of general protein synthesis but increased translation of specific messages, such as ATF4. GCN2 is also involved in the regulation of neuronal functions, controlling synaptic plasticity, memory, and feeding behavior. We show here that IMPACT abundance increases during differentiation of neurons and neuron-like N2a cells, whereas GCN2 displays lowered activation levels. Upon differentiation, IMPACT associates with translating ribosomes, enhances translation initiation, and down-regulates the expression of ATF4. We further show that endogenous IMPACT promotes neurite outgrowth whereas GCN2 is a strong inhibitor of spontaneous neuritogenesis. Together, these results uncover the participation of the GCN2-IMPACT module of translational regulation in a highly controlled step in the development of the nervous system. PMID:23447528

  12. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor up-regulates GTP-cyclohydrolase I activity and tetrahydrobiopterin levels in primary dopaminergic neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, M; Suppmann, S; Meyer, M

    2002-01-01

    in tetrahydrobiopterin levels whereas tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity was not altered. Actinomycin D, asan inhibitor of de novo biosynthesis, abolished any GDNF-mediated up-regulation of GTPCH I activity. However, GTPCH I mRNA levels in primary dopaminergic neurones were not altered by GDNF treatment, suggesting...... that the mode of action for that up-regulation is not directly connected to the regulation of GTPCH I transcription. We conclude that GDNF, in addition to its action in structural differentiation, also promotes differentiation regarding expression and enzymatic activity of a crucial component...

  13. Blocking systemic nitric oxide production alters neuronal activation in brain structures involved in cardiovascular regulation during polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Fernando Henrique Pascoti; Corrêa, Pollyanna Barbosa Farias; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela Ravanelli; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2009-04-10

    In a previous study, we concluded that overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the late phase of sepsis prevents hypothalamic activation, blunts vasopressin secretion and contributes to hypotension, irreversible shock and death. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate if the same neuronal activation pattern happens in brain structures related to cardiovascular functions. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, or saline 30 min before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgeries. The animals were perfused 6 or 24h after the surgeries and the brains were removed and processed for Fos immunocytochemistry. We observed an increase (Pafter CLP in the area postrema (AP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), ventral lateral medulla (VLM), locus coeruleus (LC) and parabrachial nucleus (PB). At 24h after CLP, however, c-fos expression was strongly decreased in all these nuclei (Pafter CLP, but showed an opposite effect at 24h, with an increase in the AP, NTS, and also in the VLM. No such effect was observed in the LC and PB at 6 or 24h. In all control animals, c-fos expression was minimal or absent. We conclude that in the early phase of sepsis iNOS-derived NO may be partially responsible for the activation of brain structures related to cardiovascular regulation. During the late phase, however, this activation is reduced or abolished.

  14. Monorail/Foxa2 regulates floorplate differentiation and specification of oligodendrocytes, serotonergic raphé neurones and cranial motoneurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Will H.; Mangoli, Maryam; Lele, Zsolt; Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Diamond, Brianne; Mercurio, Sara; Russell, Claire; Teraoka, Hiroki; Stickney, Heather L.; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Houart, Corinne; Schilling, Thomas F.; Frohnhoefer, Hans-Georg; Rastegar, Sepand; Neumann, Carl J.; Gardiner, R. Mark; Strähle, Uwe; Geisler, Robert; Rees, Michelle; Talbot, William S.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In this study, we elucidate the roles of the winged-helix transcription factor Foxa2 in ventral CNS development in zebrafish. Through cloning of monorail (mol), which we find encodes the transcription factor Foxa2, and phenotypic analysis of mol-/- embryos, we show that floorplate is induced in the absence of Foxa2 function but fails to further differentiate. In mol-/- mutants, expression of Foxa and Hh family genes is not maintained in floorplate cells and lateral expansion of the floorplate fails to occur. Our results suggest that this is due to defects both in the regulation of Hh activity in medial floorplate cells as well as cell-autonomous requirements for Foxa2 in the prospective laterally positioned floorplate cells themselves. Foxa2 is also required for induction and/or patterning of several distinct cell types in the ventral CNS. Serotonergic neurones of the raphé nucleus and the trochlear motor nucleus are absent in mol-/- embryos, and oculomotor and facial motoneurones ectopically occupy ventral CNS midline positions in the midbrain and hindbrain. There is also a severe reduction of prospective oligodendrocytes in the midbrain and hindbrain. Finally, in the absence of Foxa2, at least two likely Hh pathway target genes are ectopically expressed in more dorsal regions of the midbrain and hindbrain ventricular neuroepithelium, raising the possibility that Foxa2 activity may normally be required to limit the range of action of secreted Hh proteins. PMID:15677724

  15. The Transcription Factor Sp3 Cooperates with HDAC2 to Regulate Synaptic Function and Plasticity in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Hidekuni; Cheng, Jemmie; Penney, Jay; Gao, Fan; Rueda, Richard; Wang, Jun; Yamakawa, Satoko; Kritskiy, Oleg; Gjoneska, Elizabeta; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2017-08-08

    The histone deacetylase HDAC2, which negatively regulates synaptic gene expression and neuronal plasticity, is upregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and mouse models. Therapeutics targeting HDAC2 hold promise for ameliorating AD-related cognitive impairment; however, attempts to generate HDAC2-specific inhibitors have failed. Here, we take an integrative genomics approach to identify proteins that mediate HDAC2 recruitment to synaptic plasticity genes. Functional screening revealed that knockdown of the transcription factor Sp3 phenocopied HDAC2 knockdown and that Sp3 facilitated recruitment of HDAC2 to synaptic genes. Importantly, like HDAC2, Sp3 expression was elevated in AD patients and mouse models, where Sp3 knockdown ameliorated synaptic dysfunction. Furthermore, exogenous expression of an HDAC2 fragment containing the Sp3-binding domain restored synaptic plasticity and memory in a mouse model with severe neurodegeneration. Our findings indicate that targeting the HDAC2-Sp3 complex could enhance cognitive function without affecting HDAC2 function in other processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ascl1 phospho-status regulates neuronal differentiation in a Xenopus developmental model of neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A. Wylie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB, although rare, accounts for 15% of all paediatric cancer mortality. Unusual among cancers, NBs lack a consistent set of gene mutations and, excluding large-scale chromosomal rearrangements, the genome seems to be largely intact. Indeed, many interesting features of NB suggest that it has little in common with adult solid tumours but instead has characteristics of a developmental disorder. NB arises overwhelmingly in infants under 2 years of age during a specific window of development and, histologically, NB bears striking similarity to undifferentiated neuroblasts of the sympathetic nervous system, its likely cells of origin. Hence, NB could be considered a disease of development arising when neuroblasts of the sympathetic nervous system fail to undergo proper differentiation, but instead are maintained precociously as progenitors with the potential for acquiring further mutations eventually resulting in tumour formation. To explore this possibility, we require a robust and flexible developmental model to investigate the differentiation of NB's presumptive cell of origin. Here, we use Xenopus frog embryos to characterise the differentiation of anteroventral noradrenergic (AVNA cells, cells derived from the neural crest. We find that these cells share many characteristics with their mammalian developmental counterparts, and also with NB cells. We find that the transcriptional regulator Ascl1 is expressed transiently in normal AVNA cell differentiation but its expression is aberrantly maintained in NB cells, where it is largely phosphorylated on multiple sites. We show that Ascl1's ability to induce differentiation of AVNA cells is inhibited by its multi-site phosphorylation at serine-proline motifs, whereas overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs and MYCN inhibit wild-type Ascl1-driven AVNA differentiation, but not differentiation driven by a phospho-mutant form of Ascl1. This suggests that the maintenance of ASCL1

  17. Modeling the impact of growth and leptin deficits on the neuronal regulation of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrekera, Baiba; Roghair, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The risk of hypertension is increased by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth. In the search for modifiable etiologies for this life-threatening cardiovascular morbidity, a number of pathways have been investigated, including excessive glucocorticoid exposure, nutritional deficiency and aberration in sex hormone levels. As a neurotrophic hormone that is intimately involved in the cardiovascular regulation and whose levels are influenced by glucocorticoids, nutritional status and sex hormones, leptin has emerged as a putative etiologic and thus a therapeutic agent. As a product of maternal and late fetal adipocytes and the placenta, circulating leptin typically surges late in gestation and declines after delivery until the infant consumes sufficient leptin-containing breast milk or accrues sufficient leptin-secreting adipose tissue to reestablish the circulating levels. The leptin deficiency seen in IUGR infants is a multifactorial manifestation of placental insufficiency, exaggerated glucocorticoid exposure and fetal adipose deficit. The preterm infant suffers from the same cascade of events, including separation from the placenta, antenatal steroid exposure and persistently underdeveloped adipose depots. Preterm infants remain leptin deficient beyond term gestation, rendering them susceptible to neurodevelopmental impairment and subsequent cardiovascular dysregulation. This pathologic pathway is efficiently modeled by placing neonatal mice into atypically large litters, thereby recapitulating the perinatal growth restriction-adult hypertension phenotype. In this model, neonatal leptin supplementation restores the physiologic leptin surge, attenuates the leptin-triggered sympathetic activation in adulthood and prevents leptin- or stress-evoked hypertension. Further pathway interrogation and clinical translation are needed to fully test the therapeutic potential of perinatal leptin supplementation. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Regulation of tyrosine kinase B activity by the Cyp46/cholesterol loss pathway in mature hippocampal neurons: relevance for neuronal survival under stress and in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodero, Alejandro O; Trovò, Laura; Iannilli, Francesca; Van Veldhoven, Paul; Dotti, Carlos G; Martin, Mauricio G

    2011-03-01

    It is well established that memory formation and retention involve the coordinated flow of information from the post-synaptic site of particular neuronal populations to the nucleus, where short and long-lasting modifications of gene expression occur. With age, mnemonic, motor and sensorial alterations occur, and it is believed that extra failures in the mechanisms used for memory formation and storage are the cause of neurodegenerative pathologies like Alzheimer's disease. A prime candidate responsible for damage and loss of function during aging is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, derived from normal oxidative metabolism. However, dysfunction in the aged brain is not paralleled by an increase in neuronal death, indicative that the brain is better suited to fight against the death signals generated from reactive oxygen species than against loss-of-function stimuli. A main aim of this laboratory is to understand how neurons perform and survive in the constitutive stress background represented by aging. In this report, we summarize our recent findings in relation to survival. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV transcription through calcium responsive elements in cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been studied as an important model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying numerous aspects of neuroplasticity. It has been extensively emphasized that Ca(2+ influx through different routes may have significantly different effects on BDNF transcription. Here, we examined the regulatory property of the major calcium responsive elements (CaRE in BDNF promoter IV in cultured rat cortical neurons. BDNF promoter IV, as well as CaRE1 and CaRE3, was significantly activated by Ca(2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC or NMDA receptor (NMDAR. However, the L-VGCC- and NMDAR-mediated activation of CaRE was differentially regulated by different Ca(2+-stimulated protein kinases. Specifically, PKA, CaMKI, and CaMKIV activity were required for L-VGCC-, but not NMDAR-mediated CaRE1 activation. CaMKI activity was required for NMDAR- but not L-VGCC-mediated CaRE3 activation. Surprisingly, the activation of CaRF, a previously identified transcription factor for CaRE1, was stimulated via L-VGCC but not NMDAR, and required MEK, PI3K and CaMKII activity. These results suggest a new working model that activity-dependent BDNF IV up-regulation may be coordinately mediated by CaRE1 and CaRE3 activity, which show different responses to Ca(2+-stimulated kinases. Our data also explain how the individual cis-element in BDNF promoter is distinctively coupled to different Ca(2+ routes.

  20. Intra-axonal synthesis of eukaryotic translation initiation factors regulates local protein synthesis and axon growth in rat sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Amar N; MacGibeny, Margaret A; Gervasi, Noreen M; Gioio, Anthony E; Kaplan, Barry B

    2013-04-24

    Axonal protein synthesis is a complex process involving selective mRNA localization and translational regulation. In this study, using in situ hybridization and metabolic labeling, we show that the mRNAs encoding eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 are present in the axons of rat sympathetic neurons and are locally translated. We also report that a noncoding microRNA, miR16, modulates the axonal expression of eIF2B2 and eIF4G2. Transfection of axons with precursor miR16 and anti-miR16 showed that local miR16 levels modulated axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as axon outgrowth. siRNA-mediated knock-down of axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 mRNA also resulted in a significant decrease in axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 protein. Moreover, results of metabolic labeling studies showed that downregulation of axonal eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 expression also inhibited local protein synthesis and axon growth. Together, these data provide evidence that miR16 mediates axonal growth, at least in part, by regulating the local protein synthesis of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF2B2 and eIF4G2 in the axon.

  1. Acidic fibroblast growth factor and catecholamines synergistically up-regulate tyrosine hydroxylase activity in developing and damaged dopamine neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, N D; Iacovitti, L

    1996-10-01

    Our previous studies indicate that, in certain non-catecholamine (CA) neurons, expression of the gene for the CA biosynthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) can be initiated by the obligatory interaction of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and a CA activator. In this study, we sought to determine whether these same differentiation factors also play a role in regulating existing TH expression in CA neurons. Thus, the effects of exogenous aFGF and CAs on TH were studied in developing or toxin-damaged dopamine (DA) neurons from the embryonic day 15 rat ventral midbrain, where it was likely to be at physiologically low levels. Cultures were incubated with various concentrations of aFGF, DA, or aFGF and DA. Some cultures were first damaged with 2.5 microM 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. In developing DA neurons, an 80% increase in TH activity was found only after co-treatment with aFGF (100 ng/ml) and DA (1 microM) or other monoamines. Likewise, in damaged DA neurons, aFGF and DA reversed the 50% loss in TH activity caused by toxin. This was observed within 4 h of treatment and was not associated with changes in the number or appearance of DA neurons, suggesting a biochemical rather than a trophic effect. Pretreatment with protein or RNA synthesis inhibitors eliminated the increase. In PC12 cells, where TH is highly expressed, activity was unaltered by treatment. We conclude that the aFGF and CAs may be involved in not only the initiation but also the regulation of TH.

  2. Kisspeptin-gpr54 signaling at the GnRH neuron is necessary for negative feedback regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Shel-Hwa; Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling is critical for regulating the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. Previous studies have shown that the negative feedback mechanism is disrupted in global Gpr54-null mutants. The present investigation aimed to determine (1) if a lack of cyclical estrogen exposure of the GnRH neuronal network in the life-long hypogonadotropic Gpr54-null mice contributed to their failed negative feedback mechanism and (2) the cellular location of disrupted kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were determined in individual adult female mice when intact, following ovariectomy (OVX) and in response to an acute injection of 17β-estradiol (E2). Control mice exhibited a characteristic rise in LH after OVX that was suppressed by acute E2. Global Gpr54-null mice failed to exhibit any post-OVX increase in LH or response to E2. Adult female global Gpr54-null mice given a cyclical regimen of estradiol for three cycles prior to OVX also failed to exhibit any post-OVX increase in LH or response to E2. To address whether Gpr54 signaling at the GnRH neuron itself was necessary for the failed response to OVX in global Gpr54-null animals, adult female mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of Gpr54 were examined. These mice also failed to exhibit any post-OVX increase in LH or response to E2. These experiments demonstrate defective negative feedback in global Gpr54-null mice that cannot be attributed to a lack of prior exposure of the GnRH neuronal network to cyclical estradiol. The absence of negative feedback in GnRH neuron-selective Gpr54-null mice demonstrates the necessity of direct kisspeptin signaling at the GnRH neuron for this mechanism to occur. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. FoxO3a negatively regulates nerve growth factor-induced neuronal differentiation through inhibiting the expression of neurochondrin in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Duan, Xiaolu; Ren, Yannan; Liu, Yizhi; Huang, Min; Liu, Peiqing; Wang, Rikang; Gao, Guoquan; Zhou, Lihua; Feng, Zhongping; Zheng, Wenhua

    2013-02-01

    Forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a) is a forkhead family transcription factor playing important roles in non-neuronal differentiation, metabolism, proliferation, and survival, but its role in neuronal differentiation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of FoxO3a in neuronal differentiation and its underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that overexpression of FoxO3a inhibited neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) while knockdown of FoxO3a by siRNA enhanced NGF-induced differentiation. DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the overexpression of FoxO3a significantly attenuated expression of neurochondrin (NCDN), a neurite outgrowth-related protein, in PC12 cells, while knocking down the expression of FoxO3a had the opposite effect. Bioinformatic studies found that the regulatory region of NCDN promoter contained multiple FoxO3a binding sites. Dual-luciferase reporter assay with report gene containing NCDN promoter showed that FoxO3a significantly decreased the transcription activity of NCDN promoter. These results indicate that NCDN is a direct downstream target of FoxO3a which negatively regulates the expression of NCDN. Interestingly, NGF-induced NCDN expression and cell differentiation was blocked by the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) signal pathway (activation of FoxO3a) and overexpression of FoxO3a. Moreover, knockdown of NCDN by siRNA blocked NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells while overexpression of NCDN significantly promoted neurite outgrowth. These results put together demonstrate that NCDN plays an important role in NGF-induced neuronal differentiation and suggest that FoxO3a inhibits NGF-induced neuronal differentiation, at least in part, by suppressing the expression of NCDN.

  4. Differential gene regulation of GHSR signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus and NPY neurons by fasting, diet-induced obesity, and 17β-estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasrebi, Ali; Hsieh, Anna; Mamounis, Kyle J.; Krumm, Elizabeth A.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Magby, Jason; Hu, Pu; Roepke, Troy A.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin’s receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Fasting, diet-induced obesity (DIO), and 17β-estradiol (E2) influence ARC Ghsr expression. It is unknown if these effects occur in NPY neurons. Therefore, we examined the expression of Npy, Agrp, and GHSR signaling pathway genes after fasting, DIO, and E2 replacement in ARC and pools of NPY neurons. In males, fasting increased ARC Ghsr and NPY Foxo1 but decreased NPY Ucp2. In males, DIO decreased ARC and NPY Ghsr and Cpt1c. In fed females, E2 increased Agrp, Ghsr, Cpt1c, and Foxo1 in ARC. In NPY pools, E2 decreased Foxo1 in fed females but increased Foxo1 in fasted females. DIO in females suppressed Agrp and augmented Cpt1c in NPY neurons. In summary, genes involved in GHSR signaling are differentially regulated between the ARC and NPY neurons in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:26577678

  5. Differential gene regulation of GHSR signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus and NPY neurons by fasting, diet-induced obesity, and 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasrebi, Ali; Hsieh, Anna; Mamounis, Kyle J; Krumm, Elizabeth A; Yang, Jennifer A; Magby, Jason; Hu, Pu; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-02-15

    Ghrelin's receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Fasting, diet-induced obesity (DIO), and 17β-estradiol (E2) influence ARC Ghsr expression. It is unknown if these effects occur in NPY neurons. Therefore, we examined the expression of Npy, Agrp, and GHSR signaling pathway genes after fasting, DIO, and E2 replacement in ARC and pools of NPY neurons. In males, fasting increased ARC Ghsr and NPY Foxo1 but decreased NPY Ucp2. In males, DIO decreased ARC and NPY Ghsr and Cpt1c. In fed females, E2 increased Agrp, Ghsr, Cpt1c, and Foxo1 in ARC. In NPY pools, E2 decreased Foxo1 in fed females but increased Foxo1 in fasted females. DIO in females suppressed Agrp and augmented Cpt1c in NPY neurons. In summary, genes involved in GHSR signaling are differentially regulated between the ARC and NPY neurons in a sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regeneration of Drosophila sensory neuron axons and dendrites is regulated by the Akt pathway involving Pten and microRNA bantam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanquan; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M.; Zheng, Yi; Han, Chun; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2012-01-01

    Both cell-intrinsic and extrinsic pathways govern axon regeneration, but only a limited number of factors have been identified and it is not clear to what extent axon regeneration is evolutionarily conserved. Whether dendrites also regenerate is unknown. Here we report that, like the axons of mammalian sensory neurons, the axons of certain Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons are capable of substantial regeneration in the periphery but not in the CNS, and activating the Akt pathway enhances axon regeneration in the CNS. Moreover, those da neurons capable of axon regeneration also display dendrite regeneration, which is cell type-specific, developmentally regulated, and associated with microtubule polarity reversal. Dendrite regeneration is restrained via inhibition of the Akt pathway in da neurons by the epithelial cell-derived microRNA bantam but is facilitated by cell-autonomous activation of the Akt pathway. Our study begins to reveal mechanisms for dendrite regeneration, which depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including the PTEN–Akt pathway that is also important for axon regeneration. We thus established an important new model system—the fly da neuron regeneration model that resembles the mammalian injury model—with which to study and gain novel insights into the regeneration machinery. PMID:22759636

  7. The protocadherins, PCDHB1 and PCDH7, are regulated by MeCP2 in neuronal cells and brain tissues: implication for pathogenesis of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kunio; Hirasawa, Takae; Soutome, Masaki; Itoh, Masayuki; Goto, Yu-ichi; Endoh, Kazushi; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Kudo, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yokoi, Sana; Taira, Takahiro; Inazawa, Johji; Kubota, Takeo

    2011-08-08

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental and autistic disease caused by mutations of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. MeCP2 protein is mainly expressed in neurons and binds to methylated gene promoters to suppress their expression, indicating that Rett syndrome is caused by the deregulation of target genes in neurons. However, it is likely that there are more unidentified neuronal MeCP2-targets associated with the neurological features of RTT. Using a genome-microarray approach, we found 22 genomic regions that contain sites potentially regulated by MeCP2 based on the features of MeCP2 binding, DNA methylation, and repressive histone modification in human cell lines. Within these regions, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that MeCP2 binds to the upstream regions of the protocadherin genes PCDHB1 and PCDH7 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. PCDHB1 and PCDH7 promoter activities were down-regulated by MeCP2, but not by MBD-deleted MeCP2. These gene expression were up-regulated following MeCP2 reduction with siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells and in the brains of Mecp2-null mice. Furthermore, PCDHB1 was up-regulated in postmortem brains from Rett syndrome patients. We identified MeCP2 target genes that encode neuronal adhesion molecules using ChIP-on-BAC array approach. Since these protocadherin genes are generally essential for brain development, aberrant regulation of these molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neurological features observed in Rett syndrome.

  8. The protocadherins, PCDHB1 and PCDH7, are regulated by MeCP2 in neuronal cells and brain tissues: implication for pathogenesis of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Takayuki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental and autistic disease caused by mutations of Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. MeCP2 protein is mainly expressed in neurons and binds to methylated gene promoters to suppress their expression, indicating that Rett syndrome is caused by the deregulation of target genes in neurons. However, it is likely that there are more unidentified neuronal MeCP2-targets associated with the neurological features of RTT. Results Using a genome-microarray approach, we found 22 genomic regions that contain sites potentially regulated by MeCP2 based on the features of MeCP2 binding, DNA methylation, and repressive histone modification in human cell lines. Within these regions, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis revealed that MeCP2 binds to the upstream regions of the protocadherin genes PCDHB1 and PCDH7 in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. PCDHB1 and PCDH7 promoter activities were down-regulated by MeCP2, but not by MBD-deleted MeCP2. These gene expression were up-regulated following MeCP2 reduction with siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells and in the brains of Mecp2-null mice. Furthermore, PCDHB1 was up-regulated in postmortem brains from Rett syndrome patients. Conclusions We identified MeCP2 target genes that encode neuronal adhesion molecules using ChIP-on-BAC array approach. Since these protocadherin genes are generally essential for brain development, aberrant regulation of these molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neurological features observed in Rett syndrome.

  9. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer in dual phenotype GABA/glutamate-coexpressing striatal medium spiny neurons: regulation of BDNF, GAD67 and VGLUT1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Perreault

    Full Text Available In basal ganglia a significant subset of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs coexpress D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R along with the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN and enkephalin (ENK. These coexpressing neurons have been recently shown to have a region-specific distribution throughout the mesolimbic and basal ganglia circuits. While the functional relevance of these MSNs remains relatively unexplored, they have been shown to exhibit the unique property of expressing the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, a novel receptor complex with distinct pharmacology and cell signaling properties. Here we showed that MSNs coexpressing the D1R and D2R also exhibited a dual GABA/glutamate phenotype. Activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in these neurons resulted in the simultaneous, but differential regulation of proteins involved in GABA and glutamate production or vesicular uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA, caudate putamen and substantia nigra (SN. Additionally, activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in NAc shell, but not NAc core, differentially altered protein expression in VTA and SN, regions rich in dopamine cell bodies. The identification of a MSN with dual inhibitory and excitatory intrinsic functions provides new insights into the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and demonstrates a novel source of glutamate in this circuit. Furthermore, the demonstration of a dopamine receptor complex with the potential to differentially regulate the expression of proteins directly involved in GABAergic inhibitory or glutamatergic excitatory activation in VTA and SN may potentially provide new insights into the regulation of dopamine neuron activity. This could have broad implications in understanding how dysregulation of neurotransmission within basal ganglia contributes to dopamine neuronal dysfunction.

  10. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Nan eHuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available T-brain-1 (TBR1 is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1–/– mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 gene have been found in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Human genetic studies have identified TBR1 as a high-confidence risk factor for ASDs. Because only one allele of the TBR1 gene is mutated in these patients, Tbr1+/– mice serve as a good genetic mouse model to explore the mechanism by which de novo TBR1 mutation leads to ASDs. Although neuronal migration and axonal projection defects of cerebral cortex are the most prominent phenotypes in Tbr1–/– mice, these features are not found in Tbr1+/– mice. Instead, inter- and intra-amygdalar axonal projections and NMDAR expression and activity in amygdala are particularly susceptible to Tbr1 haploinsufficiency. The studies indicated that both abnormal brain wiring (abnormal amygdalar connections and excitation/inhibition imbalance (NMDAR hypoactivity, two prominent models for ASD etiology, are present in Tbr1+/– mice. Moreover, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK was found to interact with TBR1. The CASK-TBR1 complex had been shown to directly bind the promoter of the Grin2b gene, which is also known as Nmdar2b, and upregulate Grin2b expression. This molecular function of TBR1 provides an explanation for NMDAR hypoactivity in Tbr1+/– mice. In addition to Grin2b, cell adhesion molecules-including Ntng1, Cdh8 and Cntn2-are also regulated by TBR1 to control axonal projections of amygdala. Taken together, the studies of Tbr1 provide an integrated picture of ASD

  11. Evidence for the involvement of histaminergic neurones in the regulation of the rat oxytocinergic system during pregnancy and parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, S M; Larsen, P J

    1997-06-15

    1. Previous studies have shown that histaminergic neurones of the tuberomammillary nucleus project directly to hypothalamic magnocellular nuclei and that intracerebroventricular administration of histamine increases the synthetic activity of magnocellular oxytocin neurones. 2. Histaminergic neurones of the dorsomedial tuberomammillary nucleus that project to the magnocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus are activated during late pregnancy and lactation, as measured by an increase in mRNA for the synthetic enzyme histidine decarboxylase. 3. There is a concomitant increase in oxytocin mRNA in magnocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus. This increase in mRNA contributes to an accumulation of oxytocin before birth and to continued oxytocin synthesis during lactation. 4. Intracerebroventricular administration of mepyramine, a specific antagonist of the H1 histamine receptor, causes a delay in the birth of subsequent pups if given to the mother during parturition. Vehicle or the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine has no effect. Thus, histamine acts centrally, via H1 receptors, during parturition and may have an excitatory effect on oxytocin release. 5. These results suggest that afferent histaminergic neurones show increased activity during pregnancy and may be responsible for the increase of synthesis in magnocellular oxytocin neurones at this time. If, as previously reported, these histamine neurones can reduce the electrical activity of oxytocin neurones via H2 receptors, then they may have a dual effect, increasing the synthesis of oxytocin while inhibiting its premature release. At term, any inhibitory effects of histamine are overcome to allow oxytocin secretion.

  12. Reciprocal regulation of very low density lipoprotein receptors (VLDLRs) in neurons by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Reelin: involvement of the E3 ligase Mylip/Idol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hai Thi; Bruelle, Céline; Tselykh, Timofey; Jalonen, Pilvi; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan

    2013-10-11

    BDNF positively influences various aspects of neuronal migration, maturation, and survival in the developing brain. Reelin in turn mediates inhibitory signals to migrating neuroblasts, which is crucial for brain development. The interplay between BDNF and Reelin signaling in neurodevelopment is not fully understood. We show here that BDNF increased the levels of the Reelin receptor (VLDL receptor (VLDLR)) in hippocampal neurons by increasing gene expression. In contrast, Reelin decreased VLDLRs, which was accompanied by an increase in the levels of the E3 ligase Mylip/Idol in neurons. Down-regulation of Mylip/Idol using shRNAs abrogated the decrease in VLDLRs induced by Reelin. These results show that VLDLRs are tightly regulated in hippocampal neurons by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. The regulation of VLDLR by BDNF and Reelin may affect the migration of neurons and contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders in the nervous system.

  13. Nicotine Modulates Multiple Regions in the Limbic Stress Network Regulating Activation of Hypophysiotrophic Neurons in Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Sharp, Burt M.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine intake affects CNS responses to stressors. We reported that nicotine self-administration (SA) augmented the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response, in part due to altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide expression within hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Limbic-PVN interactions involving medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) greatly impact the HPA stress response. Therefore, we investigated the effects of nicotine SA on stress-induced neuronal activation in limbic-PVN network, using c-Fos protein immunohistochemistry and retrograde tracing. Nicotine decreased stress-induced c-Fos in prelimbic cortex (PrL), anteroventral BST (avBST), and peri-PVN; but increased c-Fos induction in medial amygdala (MeA), locus coeruleus, and PVN. Fluoro-gold (FG) was injected into avBST or PVN, since GABAergic neurons in avBST projecting to PVN corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons relay information from both PrL glutamatergic and MeA GABAergic neurons. The stress-induced c-Fos expression in retrograde-labeled FG+ neurons was decreased in PrL by nicotine, but increased in MeA, and also reduced in avBST. Therefore, within limbic-PVN network, nicotine SA exerts selective regional effects on neuronal activation by stress. These findings expand the mechanistic framework by demonstrating altered limbic-BST-PVN interactions underlying the disinhibition of PVN CRF neurons, an essential component of the amplified HPA response to stress by nicotine. PMID:22578217

  14. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor drives corticospinal motor neuron differentiation through the Ctip2/Satb2 transcriptional regulation axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Aguado, Tania; Wu, Chia-Shan; Palazuelos, Javier; Hofmann, Clementine; Garcez, Patricia; Guillemot, Francois; Lu, Hui-Chen; Lutz, Beat; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The generation and specification of pyramidal neuron subpopulations during development relies on a complex network of transcription factors. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is the major molecular target of endocannabinoids and marijuana active compounds. This receptor has been shown to influence neural progenitor proliferation and axonal growth, but its involvement in neuronal differentiation and the functional impact in the adulthood caused by altering its signaling during brain development are not known. Here we show that the CB1 receptor, by preventing Satb2-mediated repression, increased Ctip2 promoter activity and Ctip2+ neuron generation. Unbalanced neurogenic fate determination found in complete CB1−/− mice and in glutamatergic neuron-specific Nex-CB1−/− mice induced overt alterations in corticospinal motor neuron generation and subcerebral connectivity, thereby resulting in an impairment of skilled motor function in adult mice. Likewise, genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in Thy1-YFP-H mice elicited alterations in corticospinal tract development. Altogether, these data demonstrate that the CB1 receptor contributes to the generation of deep-layer cortical neurons, by coupling endocannabinoid signals from the neurogenic niche to the intrinsic proneurogenic Ctip2/Satb2 axis, thus influencing appropriate subcerebral projection neuron specification and corticospinal motor function in the adulthood. PMID:23175820

  15. Receptor-interacting protein 140 as a co-repressor of Heat Shock Factor 1 regulates neuronal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Lung; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Liu, Pei-Yao; Benneyworth, Michael; Wei, Li-Na

    2017-12-12

    Heat shock response (HSR) is a highly conserved transcriptional program that protects organisms against various stressful conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms modulating HSR, especially the suppression of HSR, is poorly understood. Here, we found that RIP140, a wide-spectrum cofactor of nuclear hormone receptors, acts as a co-repressor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) to suppress HSR in healthy neurons. When neurons are stressed such as by heat shock or sodium arsenite (As), cells engage specific proteosome-mediated degradation to reduce RIP140 level, thereby relieving the suppression and activating HSR. RIP140 degradation requires specific Tyr-phosphorylation by Syk that is activated in stressful conditions. Lowering RIP140 level protects hippocampal neurons from As stress, significantly it increases neuron survival and improves spine density. Reducing hippocampal RIP140 in the mouse rescues chronic As-induced spatial learning deficits. This is the first study elucidating RIP140-mediated suppression of HSF1-activated HSR in neurons and brain. Importantly, degradation of RIP140 in stressed neurons relieves this suppression, allowing neurons to efficiently and timely engage HSR programs and recover. Therefore, stimulating RIP140 degradation to activate anti-stress program provides a potential preventive or therapeutic strategy for neurodegeneration diseases.

  16. Nicotine self-administration differentially regulates hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin mRNAs and facilitates stress-induced neuronal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoliang; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Wenyuan; Matta, Shannon G; Sharp, Burt M

    2008-03-12

    Acute nicotine is a potent stimulus for activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, while chronic nicotine self-administration (SA) desensitizes the ACTH response to self-administered nicotine but cross-sensitizes to mild footshock stress (mFSS). To identify underlying mechanisms, we investigated (1) the effects of chronic nicotine SA on the coexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNAs, the primary hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating ACTH release, in the parvocellular division of paraventricular nucleus (pcPVN), and (2) mFSS-induced activation of these neurons during nicotine SA. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were given 23 h/d unlimited access to self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg per injection, i.v.) for 19 d. Brains were double labeled with fluorescence in situ hybridization of CRF and AVP mRNAs and triple labeled after mFSS exposure for CRF and AVP mRNAs and c-Fos protein. Chronic nicotine SA significantly increased AVP mRNA signal and the number of pcPVN AVP-positive (AVP(+)) neurons (twofold to threefold), reduced the number of CRF-positive (CRF(+)) neurons by approximately 60%, but increased pcPVN CRF(+)/AVP(+) neuronal number fivefold. Significantly, although chronic nicotine SA did not affect total c-Fos expression induced by mFSS in pcPVN CRF(+) neurons, the majority of the new CRF(+)/AVP(+) population was activated by this heterotypic stressor. These phenotypic neuronal alterations may provide the pivotal mechanism underlying the capacity of chronically self-administered nicotine to cross-sensitize the HPA response to specific stressors, suggesting that nicotine may augment HPA responsiveness to specific stressors in human smokers.

  17. Glycosylation alters steady-state inactivation of sodium channel Nav1.9/NaN in dorsal root ganglion neurons and is developmentally regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, L; Renganathan, M; Dib-Hajj, S D; Waxman, S G

    2001-12-15

    Na channel NaN (Na(v)1.9) produces a persistent TTX-resistant (TTX-R) current in small-diameter neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia. Na(v)1.9-specific antibodies react in immunoblot assays with a 210 kDa protein from the membrane fractions of adult DRG and trigeminal ganglia. The size of the immunoreactive protein is in close agreement with the predicted Na(v)1.9 theoretical molecular weight of 201 kDa, suggesting limited glycosylation of this channel in adult tissues. Neonatal rat DRG membrane fractions, however, contain an additional higher molecular weight immunoreactive protein. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis did not show additional longer transcripts that could encode the larger protein. Enzymatic deglycosylation of the membrane preparations converted both immunoreactive proteins into a single faster migrating band, consistent with two states of glycosylation of Na(v)1.9. The developmental change in the glycosylation state of Na(v)1.9 is paralleled by a developmental change in the gating of the persistent TTX-R Na(+) current attributable to Na(v)1.9 in native DRG neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp analysis demonstrates that the midpoint of steady-state inactivation is shifted 7 mV in a hyperpolarized direction in neonatal (postnatal days 0-3) compared with adult DRG neurons, although there is no significant difference in activation. Pretreatment of neonatal DRG neurons with neuraminidase causes an 8 mV depolarizing shift in the midpoint of steady-state inactivation of Na(v)1.9, making it indistinguishable from that of adult DRG neurons. Our data show that extensive glycosylation of rat Na(v)1.9 is developmentally regulated and changes a critical property of this channel in native neurons.

  18. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in the mouse cerebral cortex follows similar characteristic of physiological apoptosis and can be regulated by neuronal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Feng-Yan; Zou, Rong; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2017-06-17

    The effects of general anesthetics on inducing neuronal apoptosis during early brain development are well-documented. However, since physiological apoptosis also occurs during this developmental window, it is important to determine whether anesthesia-induced apoptosis targets the same cell population as physiological apoptosis or different cell types altogether. To provide an adequate plane of surgery, ketamine was co-administered with dexmedetomidine. The apoptotic neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex (S1) were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. To explore the effect of neural activity on ketamine-induced apoptosis, the approaches of Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) and an environmental enrichment (EE) were performed. Ketamine-induced apoptosis in S1 is most prominent at postnatal days 5 and 7 (P5 - P7), and becomes insignificant by P12. Physiological and ketamine-induced apoptosis follow similar developmental patterns, mostly comprised of layer V pyramidal neurons at P5 and shifting to mostly layer II to IV GABAergic neurons by P9. Changes in neuronal activity induced by the DREADD system bidirectionally regulated the pattern of ketamine-induced apoptosis, with reduced activity inducing increased apoptosis and shifting the lamination pattern to a more immature form. Importantly, rearing mice in an EE significantly reduced the magnitude of ketamine-induced apoptosis and shifted its developmental pattern to a more mature form. Together, these results demonstrate that lamination pattern and cell-type dependent vulnerability to ketamine-induced apoptosis follow the physiological apoptosis pattern and are age- and activity-dependent. Naturally elevating neuronal activity is a possible method for reducing the adverse effects of general anesthesia.

  19. Androgens and estrogens synergistically regulate the expression of doublecortin and enhance neuronal recruitment in the song system of adult female canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Takashi; Barker, Jennifer M; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2011-06-29

    Vocal control nuclei in songbirds display seasonal changes in volume that are regulated by testosterone (T) and its androgenic (5α-dihydrotestosterone; DHT) or estrogenic (17β-estradiol; E(2)) metabolites. In male canaries, T regulates expression of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX), a marker of neurogenesis. We examined the effect of T and its two metabolites alone or in combination on DCX expression in adult female canaries. Treatment with T or with DHT+E(2) increased HVC volume and neuron numbers as well as the total numbers of fusiform (migrating) and round (differentiating) DCX neurons in the nucleus but generally not in adjacent areas. DHT or E(2) alone did not increase these measures but increased the density of fusiform DCX cells per section. Similar results were observed in area X, although some effects did not reach significance, presumably because plasticity in X is mediated transsynaptically and follows HVC changes with some delay. There was no effect of any treatment on the total number of neurons in area X, and no change in DCX cell densities was detected in the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium, nor in other parts of the nidopallium. DHT and E(2) by themselves thus increase density of DCX cells migrating through HVC but are not sufficient in isolation to induce the recruitment of these newborn neurons in the nucleus. These effects are generally not observed in the rest of the nidopallium, implying that steroids only act on the attraction and recruitment of new neurons in HVC without having any major effects on their production at the ventricle wall.

  20. Calcium-regulation of mitochondrial respiration maintains ATP homeostasis and requires ARALAR/AGC1-malate aspartate shuttle in intact cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Folch, Irene; Rueda, Carlos B; Amigo, Ignacio; del Arco, Araceli; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina

    2013-08-28

    Neuronal respiration is controlled by ATP demand and Ca2+ but the roles played by each are unknown, as any Ca2+ signal also impacts on ATP demand. Ca2+ can control mitochondrial function through Ca2+-regulated mitochondrial carriers, the aspartate-glutamate and ATP-Mg/Pi carriers, ARALAR/AGC1 and SCaMC-3, respectively, or in the matrix after Ca2+ transport through the Ca2+ uniporter. We have studied the role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in intact mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and in response to increased workload caused by increases in [Na+]cyt (veratridine, high-K+ depolarization) and/or [Ca2+]cyt (carbachol). Respiration in nonstimulated neurons on 2.5-5 mm glucose depends on ARALAR-malate aspartate shuttle (MAS), with a 46% drop in aralar KO neurons. All stimulation conditions induced increased OCR (oxygen consumption rate) in the presence of Ca2+, which was prevented by BAPTA-AM loading (to preserve the workload), or in Ca2+-free medium (which also lowers cell workload). SCaMC-3 limits respiration only in response to high workloads and robust Ca2+ signals. In every condition tested Ca2+ activation of ARALAR-MAS was required to fully stimulate coupled respiration by promoting pyruvate entry into mitochondria. In aralar KO neurons, respiration was stimulated by veratridine, but not by KCl or carbachol, indicating that the Ca2+ uniporter pathway played a role in the first, but not in the second condition, even though KCl caused an increase in [Ca2+]mit. The results suggest a requirement for ARALAR-MAS in priming pyruvate entry in mitochondria as a step needed to activate respiration by Ca2+ in response to moderate workloads.

  1. Central serotonergic neurons activate and recruit thermogenic brown and beige fat and regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGlashon, Jacob M; Gorecki, Michelle C; Kozlowski, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipocytes convert chemical energy to heat by metabolizing glucose and lipids. Serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the CNS are essential for thermoregulation and accordingly may control metabolic activity of thermogenic fat. To test this, we generated mice in which the human...... diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) was selectively expressed in central 5-HT neurons. Treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) eliminated 5-HT neurons and caused loss of thermoregulation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) steatosis, and a >50% decrease in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in BAT and inguinal white...

  2. Lactoferrin from bovine colostrum regulates prolyl hydroxylase 2 activity and prevents prion protein-mediated neuronal cell damage via cellular prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y-G; Moon, J-H; Park, S-Y

    2014-08-22

    Prion disorders are associated with the conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) to the abnormal scrapie isoform of prion protein (PrPsc). Recent studies have shown that expression of normal PrPc is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), and that lactoferrin increases full-length PrPc on the cell surface. Lactoferrin is an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein with various biological activities, including iron-chelating ability. HIF-1α and the associated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are regulated by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases 2 (PHD2). We hypothesized that lactoferrin regulates PHD2 expression and enzymatic activity, and the PHD2 regulation promotes HIF-1α stability and prevention of neuronal cell death mediated by prion protein (PrP) residues (106-126). Lactoferrin prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity by the induction of PrPc expression via promoting HIF-1α stability in neuronal cells. Our results demonstrated that lactoferrin prevented PrP (106-126)-induced neurotoxicity via the up-regulation of HIF-1α stability determined by PHD2 expression and enzymatic activity. These findings suggest that possible therapies such as PHD2 inhibition, or promotion of lactoferrin secretion, may have clinical benefits in neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Afferent-specific AMPA receptor subunit composition and regulation of synaptic plasticity in midbrain dopamine neurons by abused drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Cameron H.; Lupica, Carl R.

    2010-01-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons play a pivotal role in processing reward-related information and are involved in drug addiction and mental illness in humans. Information is conveyed to the VTA in large part by glutamatergic afferents that arise in various brain nuclei, including the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN). Using a unique rat brain slice preparation, we found that PPN stimulation activates afferents targeting GluR2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR) on VTA DA neurons,...

  4. Sleep homeostasis regulated by 5HT2b receptor in a small subset of neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body of drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yongjun; Cao, Yue; Deng, Bowen; Yang, Guang; Li, Jiayun; Xu, Rui; zhang, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying sleep homeostasis is limited. We have taken a systematic approach to study neural signaling by the transmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in drosophila. We have generated knockout and knockin lines for Trh, the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme and all five 5-HT receptors, making it possible for us to determine their expression patterns and to investigate their functional roles. Loss of the Trh, 5HT1a or 5HT2b gene decreased sleep time whereas loss of the Trh or 5HT2b gene diminished sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. 5HT2b expression in a small subset of, probably a single pair of, neurons in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) is functionally essential: elimination of the 5HT2b gene from these neurons led to loss of sleep homeostasis. Genetic ablation of 5HT2b neurons in the dFB decreased sleep and impaired sleep homeostasis. Our results have shown that serotonergic signaling in specific neurons is required for the regulation of sleep homeostasis. PMID:28984573

  5. The Neurogenic Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor NeuroD6 Concomitantly Increases Mitochondrial mass and Regulates Cytoskeletal Organization in the Early Stages of Neuronal Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kathleen Baxter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role during neurogenesis by providing energy in the form of ATP for cytoskeletal remodelling, outgrowth of neuronal processes, growth cone activity and synaptic activity. However, the fundamental question of how differentiating neurons control mitochondrial biogenesis remains vastly unexplored. Since our previous studies have shown that the neurogenic bHLH (basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 is sufficient to induce differentiation of the neuronal progenitor-like PC12 cells and that it triggers expression of mitochondrial-related genes, we investigated whether NeuroD6 could modulate the mitochondrial biomass using our PC12-ND6 cellular paradigm. Using a combination of flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation, we demonstrate that NeuroD6 stimulates maximal mitochondrial mass at the lamellipodia stage, thus preceding axonal growth. NeuroD6 triggers remodelling of the actin and microtubule networks in conjunction with increased expression of the motor protein KIF5B, thus promoting mitochondrial movement in developing neurites with accumulation in growth cones. Maintenance of the NeuroD6-induced mitochondrial mass requires an intact cytoskeletal network, as its disruption severely reduces mitochondrial mass. The present study provides the first evidence that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in co-ordinating increase in mitochondrial mass with cytoskeletal remodelling, suggestive of a role of this transcription factor as a co-regulator of neuronal differentiation and energy metabolism.

  6. CELF family RNA-binding protein UNC-75 regulates two sets of mutually exclusive exons of the unc-32 gene in neuron-specific manners in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehito Kuroyanagi

    Full Text Available An enormous number of alternative pre-mRNA splicing patterns in multicellular organisms are coordinately defined by a limited number of regulatory proteins and cis elements. Mutually exclusive alternative splicing should be strictly regulated and is a challenging model for elucidating regulation mechanisms. Here we provide models of the regulation of two sets of mutually exclusive exons, 4a-4c and 7a-7b, of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated (unc-32 gene, encoding the a subunit of V0 complex of vacuolar-type H(+-ATPases. We visualize selection patterns of exon 4 and exon 7 in vivo by utilizing a trio and a pair of symmetric fluorescence splicing reporter minigenes, respectively, to demonstrate that they are regulated in tissue-specific manners. Genetic analyses reveal that RBFOX family RNA-binding proteins ASD-1 and FOX-1 and a UGCAUG stretch in intron 7b are involved in the neuron-specific selection of exon 7a. Through further forward genetic screening, we identify UNC-75, a neuron-specific CELF family RNA-binding protein of unknown function, as an essential regulator for the exon 7a selection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays specify a short fragment in intron 7a as the recognition site for UNC-75 and demonstrate that UNC-75 specifically binds via its three RNA recognition motifs to the element including a UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch. The UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch in the reporter minigenes is actually required for the selection of exon 7a in the nervous system. We compare the amounts of partially spliced RNAs in the wild-type and unc-75 mutant backgrounds and raise a model for the mutually exclusive selection of unc-32 exon 7 by the RBFOX family and UNC-75. The neuron-specific selection of unc-32 exon 4b is also regulated by UNC-75 and the unc-75 mutation suppresses the Unc phenotype of the exon-4b-specific allele of unc-32 mutants. Taken together, UNC-75 is the neuron-specific splicing factor and regulates both sets of the mutually exclusive

  7. CELF Family RNA–Binding Protein UNC-75 Regulates Two Sets of Mutually Exclusive Exons of the unc-32 Gene in Neuron-Specific Manners in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Watanabe, Yohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    An enormous number of alternative pre–mRNA splicing patterns in multicellular organisms are coordinately defined by a limited number of regulatory proteins and cis elements. Mutually exclusive alternative splicing should be strictly regulated and is a challenging model for elucidating regulation mechanisms. Here we provide models of the regulation of two sets of mutually exclusive exons, 4a–4c and 7a–7b, of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated (unc)-32 gene, encoding the a subunit of V0 complex of vacuolar-type H+-ATPases. We visualize selection patterns of exon 4 and exon 7 in vivo by utilizing a trio and a pair of symmetric fluorescence splicing reporter minigenes, respectively, to demonstrate that they are regulated in tissue-specific manners. Genetic analyses reveal that RBFOX family RNA–binding proteins ASD-1 and FOX-1 and a UGCAUG stretch in intron 7b are involved in the neuron-specific selection of exon 7a. Through further forward genetic screening, we identify UNC-75, a neuron-specific CELF family RNA–binding protein of unknown function, as an essential regulator for the exon 7a selection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays specify a short fragment in intron 7a as the recognition site for UNC-75 and demonstrate that UNC-75 specifically binds via its three RNA recognition motifs to the element including a UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch. The UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch in the reporter minigenes is actually required for the selection of exon 7a in the nervous system. We compare the amounts of partially spliced RNAs in the wild-type and unc-75 mutant backgrounds and raise a model for the mutually exclusive selection of unc-32 exon 7 by the RBFOX family and UNC-75. The neuron-specific selection of unc-32 exon 4b is also regulated by UNC-75 and the unc-75 mutation suppresses the Unc phenotype of the exon-4b-specific allele of unc-32 mutants. Taken together, UNC-75 is the neuron-specific splicing factor and regulates both sets of the mutually exclusive exons of

  8. CELF family RNA-binding protein UNC-75 regulates two sets of mutually exclusive exons of the unc-32 gene in neuron-specific manners in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Hidehito; Watanabe, Yohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    An enormous number of alternative pre-mRNA splicing patterns in multicellular organisms are coordinately defined by a limited number of regulatory proteins and cis elements. Mutually exclusive alternative splicing should be strictly regulated and is a challenging model for elucidating regulation mechanisms. Here we provide models of the regulation of two sets of mutually exclusive exons, 4a-4c and 7a-7b, of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated (unc)-32 gene, encoding the a subunit of V0 complex of vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPases. We visualize selection patterns of exon 4 and exon 7 in vivo by utilizing a trio and a pair of symmetric fluorescence splicing reporter minigenes, respectively, to demonstrate that they are regulated in tissue-specific manners. Genetic analyses reveal that RBFOX family RNA-binding proteins ASD-1 and FOX-1 and a UGCAUG stretch in intron 7b are involved in the neuron-specific selection of exon 7a. Through further forward genetic screening, we identify UNC-75, a neuron-specific CELF family RNA-binding protein of unknown function, as an essential regulator for the exon 7a selection. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays specify a short fragment in intron 7a as the recognition site for UNC-75 and demonstrate that UNC-75 specifically binds via its three RNA recognition motifs to the element including a UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch. The UUGUUGUGUUGU stretch in the reporter minigenes is actually required for the selection of exon 7a in the nervous system. We compare the amounts of partially spliced RNAs in the wild-type and unc-75 mutant backgrounds and raise a model for the mutually exclusive selection of unc-32 exon 7 by the RBFOX family and UNC-75. The neuron-specific selection of unc-32 exon 4b is also regulated by UNC-75 and the unc-75 mutation suppresses the Unc phenotype of the exon-4b-specific allele of unc-32 mutants. Taken together, UNC-75 is the neuron-specific splicing factor and regulates both sets of the mutually exclusive exons of the unc-32

  9. Tcf7l2 plays crucial roles in forebrain development through regulation of thalamic and habenular neuron identity and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungsin; Yoon, Jiyeon; Song, Hobeom; Lee, Bumwhee; Lam, Duc Tri; Yoon, Jaeseung; Baek, Kwanghee; Clevers, Hans; Jeong, Yongsu

    2017-04-01

    The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear. In this study, we discovered a previously unrecognized role for Tcf7l2, a transcription factor known as the canonical Wnt nuclear effector and diabetes risk-conferring gene, in establishing neuronal identity and circuits of the caudal forebrain. Using genetic and chemical axon tracers, we showed that efferent axons of the thalamus, known as the thalamocortical axons (TCAs), failed to elongate normally and strayed from their normal course to inappropriate locations in the absence of Tcf7l2. Further experiments with thalamic explants revealed that the pathfinding defects of Tcf7l2-deficient TCAs were associated at least in part with downregulation of guidance receptors Robo1 and Robo2 expression. Moreover, the fasciculus retroflexus, the main habenular output tract, was missing in embryos lacking Tcf7l2. These axonal defects may result from dysregulation of Nrp2 guidance receptor. Strikingly, loss of Tcf7l2 caused a post-mitotic identity switch between thalamic and habenular neurons. Despite normal acquisition of progenitor identity in prosomere 2, Tcf7l2-deficient thalamic neurons adopted a molecular profile of a neighboring forebrain derivative, the habenula. Conversely, habenular neurons failed to maintain their normal post-mitotic neuronal identity and acquired a subset of thalamic neuronal features in the

  10. Six1 is a key regulator of the developmental and evolutionary architecture of sensory neurons in craniates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ochi, Haruki; Ikeda, Keiko; Sato, Shigeru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Ogino, Hajime; Ueno, Naoto; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-29

    Various senses and sensory nerve architectures of animals have evolved during adaptation to exploit diverse environments. In craniates, the trunk sensory system has evolved from simple mechanosensory neurons inside the spinal cord (intramedullary), called Rohon-Beard (RB) cells, to multimodal sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) outside the spinal cord (extramedullary). The fish and amphibian trunk sensory systems switch from RB cells to DRG during development, while amniotes rely exclusively on the DRG system. The mechanisms underlying the ontogenic switching and its link to phylogenetic transition remain unknown. In Xenopus, Six1 overexpression promoted precocious apoptosis of RB cells and emergence of extramedullary sensory neurons, whereas Six1 knockdown delayed the reduction in RB cell number. Genetic ablation of Six1 and Six4 in mice led to the appearance of intramedullary sensory neuron-like cells as a result of medial migration of neural crest cells into the spinal cord and production of immature DRG neurons and fused DRG. Restoration of SIX1 expression in the neural crest-linage partially rescued the phenotype, indicating the cell autonomous requirements of SIX1 for normal extramedullary sensory neurogenesis. Mouse Six1 enhancer that mediates the expression in DRG neurons activated transcription in Xenopus RB cells earlier than endogenous six1 expression, suggesting earlier onset of mouse SIX1 expression than Xenopus during sensory development. The results indicated the critical role of Six1 in transition of RB cells to DRG neurons during Xenopus development and establishment of exclusive DRG system of mice. The study provided evidence that early appearance of SIX1 expression, which correlated with mouse Six1 enhancer, is essential for the formation of DRG-dominant system in mice, suggesting that heterochronic changes in Six1 enhancer sequence play an important role in alteration of trunk sensory architecture and contribute to the evolution of the

  11. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene expression in primary frontal cortical neurons. Comparison with NMDA and AMPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mona; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) mRNA levels in primary neuronal cultures of rat frontal cortex was characterized pharmacologically and compared to the effect on expression of c-fos, bdnf, neuritin, cox-2 as examples...... and BDNF mRNA, but not COX-2 mRNA. The pharmacological profile of NMDA and AMPA-induced arc gene expression in frontal cortical neurons was compared to BDNF. NMDA and AMPA increased Arc mRNA but their maximal effect did not exceed 20-fold. The effect of AMPA was completely blocked by the NMDA receptor...... plasticity in the frontal cortex....

  12. Repetitive firing properties of putative dopamine-containing neurons in vitro: regulation by an apamin-sensitive Ca(2+)-activated K+ conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; Bunney, B S

    1991-01-01

    Intracellular recording techniques were used to study the effects of apamin (APA), a selective inhibitor of one type of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel, on the electroresponsive properties of dopamine (DA)-containing neurons within the zona compacta of the substantia nigra (SNc) in rat. Bath application of APA (1 microM) blocked the slow component of a complex post-spike afterhyperpolarization (AHPs) without affecting other characteristics of the action potential. Blockade of AHPs was accompanied by an increase in the number and frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. However, APA failed to affect the cellular mechanisms underlying spike frequency adaptation or post-stimulus inhibitory period. These data indicate that AHPs can exert a strong influence on the interspike interval but is probably not involved in regulating slower adaptive neuronal responses.

  13. Neurons efficiently repair glutamate-induced oxidative DNA damage by a process involving CREB-mediated up-regulation of apurinic endonuclease 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Tadokoro, Takashi; Keijzers, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, activates receptors coupled to membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) influx that mediates functional responses of neurons including processes such as learning and memory. Here we show that reversible nuclear oxidative DNA damage occurs...... in cerebral cortical neurons in response to transient glutamate receptor activation using non-toxic physiological levels of glutamate. This DNA damage was prevented by intracellular Ca(2+) chelation, the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP (Mn-5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H...... inhibitor (KN-93) blocked the ability of glutamate to induce CREB phosphorylation and APE1 expression. Selective depletion of CREB using RNA interference prevented glutamate-induced up-regulation of APE1. Thus, glutamate receptor stimulation triggers Ca(2+)- and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species...

  14. Zinc-finger gene Fez in the olfactory sensory neurons regulates development of the olfactory bulb non-cell-autonomously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Masato; Yoshihara, Sei-ichi; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Kitamura, Kunio; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    Fez is a zinc-finger gene encoding a transcriptional repressor that is expressed in the olfactory epithelium, hypothalamus, ventrolateral pallium and prethalamus at mid-gestation. To reveal its function, we generated Fez-deficient mice. The Fez-deficient mice showed several abnormalities in the olfactory system: (1) impaired axonal projection of the olfactory sensory neurons; (2) reduced size of the olfactory bulb; (3) abnormal layer formation in the olfactory bulb; and (4) aberrant rostral migration of the interneuron progenitors. Fez was not expressed in the projection neurons, interneurons or interneuron progenitors. Transgene-mediated expression of Fez in olfactory sensory neurons significantly rescued the abnormalities in olfactory axon projection and in the morphogenesis of the olfactory bulb in Fez-knockout mice. Thus, Fez is cell-autonomously required for the axon termination of olfactory sensory neurons, and Fez non-cell-autonomously controls layer formation and interneuron development in the olfactory bulb. These findings suggest that signals from olfactory sensory neurons contribute to the proper formation of the olfactory bulb.

  15. Tat-HSP22 inhibits oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death by regulation of the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyo Sang; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Son, Ora; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Yu, Yeon Hee; Lee, Keun Wook; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2017-01-04

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of various neuronal diseases including ischemia. Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22) is known to protect cells against oxidative stress. However, the protective effects and mechanisms of HSP22 in hippocampal neuronal cells under oxidative stress remain unknown. In this study, we determined whether HSP22 protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HT-22 using Tat-HSP22 fusion protein. We found that Tat-HSP22 transduced into HT-22 cells and that H2O2-induced cell death, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were significantly reduced by Tat-HSP22. In addition, Tat-HSP22 markedly inhibited H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax expression levels, while Bcl-2 expression levels were increased in HT-22 cells. Further, we showed that Tat-HSP22 transduced into animal brain and inhibited cleaved-caspase-3 expression levels as well as significantly inhibited hippocampal neuronal cell death in the CA1 region of animals in the ischemic animal model. In the present study, we demonstrated that transduced Tat-HSP22 attenuates oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal cell death through the mitochondrial signaling pathway and plays a crucial role in inhibiting neuronal cell death, suggesting that Tat-HSP22 protein may be used to prevent oxidative stress-related brain diseases including ischemia.

  16. CHCHD2 is down-regulated in neuronal cells differentiated from iPS cells derived from patients with lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Keiko; Okumura, Akihisa; Hayashi, Masaharu; Kondo, Takayuki; Inoue, Haruhisa; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-10-01

    The human cerebral cortex is peculiar for a six-layered cellular-sheet structure with convolution, which is a consequence of neuronal migration. Dysfunctions of the pathways contributing to this mechanism typically lead to lissencephaly manifesting smooth brain surfaces. To investigate the unknown mechanism underlying neuronal migration disorders, we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from two patients with lissencephaly. Whole gene expression study for iPS cells derived from a patient with a LIS1 deletion showed reduced expression of the coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 2 gene (CHCHD2), which was also confirmed in iPS cells derived from a patient with a TUBA1A mutation. CHCHD2 expression was detected in neuronal cells differentiated from normal iPS cells in a time-dependent manner, as well as in the brain of a fetus at 26-28 week gestational age, suggesting development-dependent expression. Migrating neuronal cells showed CHCHD2 expression, suggesting its functional relevance to neuronal migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ellagic acid protects against neuron damage in ischemic stroke through regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Deng, Ran; Li, Shuran; Li, Xu; Li, Keqin; Kebaituli, Gulibanumu; Li, Xueli; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation model in primary cultured rat cortical neurons was developed for this study to investigate the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a low-molecular-weight polyphenol, on neuron cells and their function, and to evaluate whether EA can be safely utilized by humans as a functional food or therapeutic agent. Administration of EA significantly decreased the volume of cerebrum infarction and the neurological deficit scores of the rats; EA treatment also increased the number of Bcl-2-positive cells and the ratio of Bcl-2-positive to Bax-positive neurons in the semidarkness zone near the brain ischemic focus in the photothrombotic cerebral ischemia model. Treatment of EA resulted in increased neuron viability, cell nuclear integrity, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression in the primary cultured neuron model; EA treatment also lead to a decrease in the number of apoptotic cells. Our results therefore suggest a specific mechanism for the beneficial effects of EA, providing new insights into how it provides neuroprotection. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent new insights on the mechanisms of the brain cell protective activity of EA. Thus, EA may be used in functional foods or medicines to help treat nerve dysfunction, neurodegenerative disease, and aging.

  18. Projections of nucleus accumbens adenosine A2A receptor neurons in the mouse brain and their implications in mediating sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Xu, Qi; Yuan, Xiang-Shan; Cherasse, Yoan; Schiffmann, Serge N; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, Alban; Qu, Wei-Min; Urade, Yoshihiro; Lazarus, Michael; Huang, Zhi-Li; Li, Rui-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) have been demonstrated to play an important role in the arousal effect of adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, and may be involved in physiological sleep. To better understand the functions of these receptors in sleep, projections of A2AR neurons were mapped utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) as a tracer for long axonal pathways. The Cre-dependent AAV was injected into the core (AcbC) and shell (AcbSh) of the Acb in A2AR-Cre mice. Immunohistochemistry was then used to visualize hrGFP, highlighting the perikarya of the A2AR neurons in the injection sites, and their axons in projection regions. The data revealed that A2AR neurons exhibit medium-sized and either round or elliptic perikarya with their processes within the Acb. Moreover, the projections from the Acb distributed to nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and brainstem. In the forebrain, A2AR neurons from all Acb sub-regions jointly projected to the ventral pallidum, the nucleus of the diagonal band, and the substantia innominata. Heavy projections from the AcbC and the ventral AcbSh, and weaker projections from the medial AcbSh, were observed in the lateral hypothalamus and lateral preoptic area. In the brainstem, the Acb projections were found in the ventral tegmental area, while AcbC and ventral AcbSh also projected to the median raphe nucleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. The results supply a solid base for understanding the roles of the A2AR and A2AR neurons in the Acb, especially in the regulation of sleep.

  19. Projections of nucleus accumbens adenosine A2A receptor neurons in the mouse brain and their implications in mediating sleep-wake regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping eZhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs in the nucleus accumbens (Acb have been demonstrated to play an important role in the arousal effect of adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, and may be involved in physiological sleep. To better understand the functions of these receptors in sleep, projections of A2AR neurons were mapped utilizing adeno-associated virus (AAV encoding humanized Renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP as a tracer for long axonal pathways. The Cre-dependent AAV was injected into the core (AcbC and shell (AcbSh of the Acb in A2AR-Cre mice. Immunohistochemistry was then used to visualize hrGFP, highlighting the perikarya of the A2AR neurons in the injection sites, and their axons in projection regions. The data revealed that A2AR neurons exhibit medium-sized and either round or elliptic perikarya with their processes within the Acb. Moreover, the projections from the Acb distributed to nuclei in the forebrain, diencephalon, and brainstem. In the forebrain, A2AR neurons from all Acb sub-regions jointly projected to the ventral pallidum, the nucleus of the diagonal band, and the substantia innominata. Heavy projections from the AcbC and the ventral AcbSh, and weaker projections from the medial AcbSh, were observed in the lateral hypothalamus and lateral preoptic area. In the brainstem, the Acb projections were found in the ventral tegmental area, while AcbC and ventral AcbSh also projected to the median raphe nucleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. The results supply a solid base for understanding the roles of the A2AR and A2AR neurons in the Acb, especially in the regulation of sleep.

  20. Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase immunoreactivity is abundantly present in human hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland, with reduced expression in paraventricular and suprachiasmatic neurons in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Müller, Susan; Dobrowolny, Hendrik; Wolke, Carmen; Lendeckel, Uwe; Bukowska, Alicja; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Becker, Axel; Trübner, Kurt; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localization of IRAP in normal human brain with special emphasis on the hypothalamus and determined numerical densities of IRAP-expressing cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei in schizophrenia patients and controls. By using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis, IRAP was immunolocalized in postmortem human brains. Cell countings were performed to estimate numbers and numerical densities of IRAP immunoreactive hypothalamic neurons in schizophrenia patients and control cases. Shape, size and regional distribution of IRAP-expressing cells, as well the lack of co-localization with the glia marker glutamine synthetase, show that IRAP is expressed in neurons. IRAP immunoreactive cells were observed in the hippocampal formation, cerebral cortex, thalamus, amygdala and, abundantly, hypothalamus. Double labeling experiments (IRAP and oxytocin/neurophysin 1, IRAP with vasopressin/neurophysin 2) revealed that IRAP is present in oxytocinergic and in vasopressinergic neurons. In schizophrenia patients, the numerical density of IRAP-expressing neurons in the paraventricular and the suprachiasmatic nuclei is significantly reduced, which might be associated with the reduction in neurophysin-containing neurons in these nuclei in schizophrenia. The pathophysiological role of lowered hypothalamic IRAP expression in schizophrenia remains to be established.