Sample records for british somaliland eritrea

  1. Somaliland: The Journey of Resistance, Reconciliation and Peace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the rise of the Somali National Movement (SNM), the trauma of resistance between northern, formerly British Somaliland, and the incumbent southern regime of General Mohammed Siad Barre, between 1984 and the collapse of that regime in 1991, and also revisits the Hargeisa, Somaliland, genocide ...

  2. Exodus Eritrea


    Smith-Simonsen, Christine


    The Eritrean liberation war (1961-1992) caused a massive migration from Eritrea, the majority of whom came to constitute the backbone of Eritrean economy and national support through strong Diaspora communities...

  3. Birthing support and breastfeeding initiation in Somaliland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Research was conducted at the Edna Adan Maternity Hospital in Hargeisa, Somaliland using the grounded theory method of qualitative research. Semi-structured interviews, direct observations and participant observations were conducted. A purposeful, non-statistical sample was chosen: ten women, five family ...

  4. Emergencies in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contraceptive supply chain can be improved as well. The demand for family planning is already low in Eritrea, but it will not be helped by a poor choice of methods at most peripheral health facilities. In addition, the review of historical data shows that available of skilled services such MRP and RRP is inconsistent. Zonal.

  5. War, Famine, and Environment in Eritrea. (United States)

    Horne, R. E.; Frost, S.


    Discusses the armed struggle in Eritrea between 1981 and 1991 and its contributions to environmental degradation and famine in this area. Examines the future prospects of Eritrea in the context of the African development experience. (22 references) (MDH)

  6. Mother Tongue Education in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjertmann, Kjeld

    A six months study of literacy education in primary school and teacher education in Eritrea, specifically in regard to the problem of lack of written language in the small ethnic groups. There is an urgent need of producing written materials outside school in local government practices....

  7. British Air Power in Peripheral Conflict, 1919-1976 (United States)


    the Somaliland cam - paign, however, was its effect on British internal security policy in a more recent imperial acquisition: the territory of...unquestionably a critical element in the successful prosecution of the counterinsurgency cam - paign. Air Vice-Marshal N. M. Maynard cites transport as...than a coffee planta - tion with a few tents pitched at the side of a 400-yard soil airstrip. Mweiga nevertheless became the nerve center of the

  8. Determinants of Maternal Mortality in Eritrea.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A checklist was prepared to assist the interviewers, to identify maternal deaths among all female deaths ... interpretation of the checklist, which was field-tested and accordingly amended during the training. ..... National Statistics and Evaluation Office, Asmara, Eritrea and. ORC Macro, Calverton, Maryland, USA. Eritrea ...

  9. Women's experiences of stillbirth in Somaliland: A phenomenological description. (United States)

    Osman, Hodan Mohamoud; Egal, Jama Ali; Kiruja, Jonah; Osman, Fatumo; Byrskog, Ulrika; Erlandsson, Kerstin


    Low- and middle-income countries in Africa have the highest rates of stillbirths in the world today: as such, the stories of the grief of these women who have had a stillbirth in these settings need to be told and the silence on stillbirth needs to be broken. In an attempt to fill this gap, the aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Muslim Somali mothers who have lost their babies at birth. Qualitative interviews with ten Somali women one to six months after they experienced a stillbirth. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's method of phenomenological description. In the analysis, four descriptive structures emerged: "a feeling of alienation"; "altered stability in life"; "immediate pain when the sight of the dead baby turns into a precious memory"; and "a wave of despair eases". Together, these supported the essence: "Balancing feelings of anxiety, fear and worries for one's own health and life by accepting Allah's will and putting one's trust in him". This study makes an important contribution to our knowledge about how stillbirth is experienced by women in Somaliland. This information can be useful when health care providers communicate the experiences of stillbirth to women of Muslim faith who have experienced an intrauterine fatal death (IUFD) resulting in a stillbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah


    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  11. Estimated Annual Maintenance Costs for Educational Facilities in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea.......Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea....

  12. Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intentional social engineering the society is mechanically bisected into twins. It is not to be denied that to a .... certain individuals or groups in search of job, farm land, grazing areas, etc. That is the different regions, ... Indonesia, Benedict Anderson, for instance, describes the effect of colonialism as follows: From all over the ...

  13. Youth in post-independence Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius


    , Faculty of Education. The data in the present study consists of interviews with students and drop-outs from secondary schools in Assab, Keren and Asmara and of informal meetings with parents, school directors and teachers. A limited number of students in grade 9 have written diaries focusing on school......This paper presents a study of young people?s perception and experiences on school and education in Eritrea. The study is one out of two that focuses on Youth and Education in different educational contexts in Eritrea. Another study has been carried out among students at the University of Asmara...

  14. A taxonomic survey of seaweeds from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.


    A survey of seaweeds was made in Eritrea in December 1995 and January 1996 on some islands of the Dahlak Archipelago and the surroundings of the port town of Massawa. During our study 101 specific and infraspecific taxa were identified, including 26 Chlorophyta, 20 Phaeophyta and 55 Rhodophyta. The

  15. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  16. Evaluating tuberculosis case detection in Eritrea. (United States)

    van der Werf, Marieke J; Sebhatu, Mineab; Borgdorff, Martien W


    We used results from a national tuberculosis prevalence survey in Eritrea to calculate case detection rate (CDR) and compared it with the published CDR. The CDR obtained from the survey was approximately 40%, whereas the CDR published by the World Health Organization was 3x lower (14%).

  17. Eritrea: Lessons for Australia's Language Policy. (United States)

    Andreoni, Helen


    Discusses language policy matters and the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in the area of education, with particular reference to Eritrea in East Africa and its application to Australia's language situation. The article presents examples of the impact of the tyrannical imposition of language usage, including the long-term…

  18. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...

  19. e Ethiopia-Eritrea Border Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siphamandla Zondi and Emmanuel Réjouis the ruling of the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC) as agreed at. Algiers, and Eritrea laments the disregard of agreements, especially by the inter- national community that witnessed them. The Boundary Commission, charged with adjudicating a ruling on the border ...

  20. Mapping areas invaded by Prosopis juliflora in Somaliland on Landsat 8 imagery (United States)

    Rembold, Felix; Leonardi, Ugo; Ng, Wai-Tim; Gadain, Hussein; Meroni, Michele; Atzberger, Clement


    Prosopis juliflora is a fast growing tree species originating from South and Central America with a high invasion potential in semi-arid areas around the globe. It was introduced to East Africa for the stabilization of dune systems and for providing fuel wood after prolonged droughts and deforestation in the 1970s and 1980s. In many dry lands in East Africa the species has expanded rapidly and has become challenging to control. The species generally starts its colonization on deep soils with high water availability while in later stages or on poorer soils, its thorny thickets expand into drier grasslands and rangelands. Abandoned or low input farmland is also highly susceptible for invasion as P. juliflora has competitive advantages to native species and is extremely drought tolerant. In this work we describe a rapid approach to detect and map P. juliflora invasion at country level for the whole of Somaliland. Field observations were used to delineate training sites for a supervised classification of Landsat 8 imagery collected during the driest period of the year (i.e., from late February to early April). The choice of such a period allowed to maximise the spectral differences between P. juliflora and other species present in the area, as P. juliflora tends to maintain a higher vigour and canopy water content than native vegetation, when exposed to water stress. The results of our classification map the current status of invasion of Prosopis in Somaliland showing where the plant is invading natural vegetation or agricultural areas. These results have been verified for two spatial subsets of the whole study area with very high resolution (VHR) imagery, proving that Landsat 8 imagery is highly adequate to map P. juliflora. The produced map represents a baseline for understanding spatial distribution of P. juliflora across Somaliland but also for change detection and monitoring of long term dynamics in support to P. juliflora management and control activities.

  1. The springboks in East Africa: the role of 1 SA Survey Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a member of the British Commonwealth, South Africa was part of Britain's war effort from September 1939 onward. When Italy entered the War on the side of Germany on 10 June 1940, the territories governed by Italy in East Africa comprised Abyssinia together with Eritrea, now part of Ethiopia, and Italian Somaliland, ...

  2. Student selection and retention at the University of Asmara, Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonida, Tekie Asehun


    Eritrea is a new and developing country in East Africa that was declared independent in May 1993. Since independence, Eritrea has been engaged in all-out efforts to rebuild its war-shattered social and economic infrastructure. One of the vital programs in the campaign for national rehabilitation has

  3. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.


    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  4. Origin and Development of Multilingual Education in Eritrea (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun


    In an attempt to describe the historical origins of multilingual education in Eritrea, Horn of Africa, this paper looks at how missionaries, European colonisers, successive Ethiopian rules in Eritrea and the independence movements that fought Ethiopia defined ethnic, religious and linguistic differences of communities in the country. These…

  5. Diversity between and within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato yields in Eritrea are low (15 Mg/ha) compared with 19 Mg/ha in Africa and 27 Mg/ha worldwide. This is partly caused by poor quality of varieties used. This study analysed the diversity among and heterogeneity within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea and compared these varieties with other African and Italian ...

  6. Integration of Pediatric Mental Health in General Pediatrics in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integration of Pediatric Mental Health in General Pediatrics in Eritrea: Improving Access and. Collaboration. Paramjit T. Joshi, MD; Solomon Haile MD; Fitsum Gebremichael, MD; Aumna Aden, BA; Margot Anderson, MD. Orotta National Referral Pediatric Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea. Abstract. Background: Recognition of mental ...

  7. Opportunities and constraints of tomato production in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asgedom, S.; Struik, P.C.; Heuvelink, E.; Araia, W.


    Tomato is an important vegetable in Eritrea, grown across the entire country. Yields in Eritrea are comparatively low, due to agronomic, institutional and market constraints. We carried out a survey throughout the country based on a participatory rural appraisal, discussion groups and interviews

  8. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are also strong indications that the tobacco industry sees Eritrea as a strategic gateway to east and northeast Africa. The industry may be planning to develop Eritrea as a distribution hub for its products. This will make the country even more vulnerable. This project will assess the impact of tobacco taxation, smuggling, ...

  9. The Challenges of Globalisation: Delivering an MBA Programme in Eritrea. (United States)

    Dence, Roger; O'Toole, John


    Describes the experiences of delivering an MBA (Master in Business Administration) program in Eritrea (North East Africa) through the United Kingdom's Open University. Discusses tutoring teams that travel to Eritrea, localizing case examples and assignments, sensitivity to local cultural contexts, writing assignments, student assessment, and…

  10. From Post-Colonial to Neoliberal Schooling in Somalia: The Need for Culturally Relevant School Leadership among Somaliland Principals (United States)

    Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Bashir-Ali, Khadar; Abdi, Nimo; Witherspoon Arnold, Noelle


    This article examines school leadership behaviors and understandings of Somaliland school principals. By using postcolonial theory and critical phenomenology, we explore culturally responsive leadership in Northern Somalia; we expound on the unique ways that school leaders enact school leadership, and interact with the students, families, and…

  11. Implementing joint tuberculosis projects in Somaliland and Sweden for mutual strengthening of programs and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Yassin


    Discussion and conclusions: Herein this study presents a planned TB project aiming at cooperation between healthcare staff from a low- and a high-endemic country. For such a project, several baseline data are required, e.g., the pattern of resistance of MTB and the treatment outcome in Somaliland, as well as among immigrants in Sweden. The social circumstances for any patient with TB, whether in Somaliland or Sweden, during disease and when recovered is a main issue for health from a holistic perspective. Further, the nutritional status is not satisfactory for TB patients in either country, and a dietary intervention may be of importance in both countries. Baseline data according to the above are necessary for assessment of the interventions and are part of ongoing pre-studies. For the Swedish party the exchange of clinical knowledge is beneficial since TB is rare in Sweden and access to TB research and clinical implantation of new methods will be facilitated and possible through the joint project. Ultimately, an expanded project could curb TB at the source and decrease TB in both countries.

  12. Women's autonomy and reproductive preferences in Eritrea. (United States)

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam


    Current research and policies on reproductive behaviours in many East African countries focus primarily on proxy indicators of women's autonomy, and very little emphasis is placed on direct indicators of women's autonomy. In this paper, data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) are used to address some of the most frequently raised questions about the link between women's autonomy and reproductive behaviour. The results from the multivariate logistic models show that although the relationship between women's autonomy and reproductive preferences in Eritrea is complex, some clear, broad patterns exist that have implications for theory and policy. First, although the different dimensions of women's autonomy influence the outcome variables differently in terms of magnitude and statistical significance, most of them have a strong connection; in particular, women's final say in decisions regarding day-to-day household purchases and spousal communication are significant explanatory variables in fertility preferences and ever-use of modern contraception. Second, many background (proxy) variables, particularly household economic condition and employment, exert a strong and independent influence over fertility preferences and ever-use of contraception regardless of a woman's autonomy. In their relationship to reproductive behaviours, therefore, employment and economic status cannot be considered as proxies for women's autonomy in Eritrea. A complete explanation of the relationship between women's autonomy and reproductive preferences must recognize the effects of both the background and direct autonomy indicators. Interventions are needed to improve women's decision-making autonomy and strengthen their negotiating capacity on family planning if an increased desire to limit fertility is to be attained.

  13. Use of a bibliometric literature review to assess medical research capacity in post-conflict and developing countries: Somaliland 1991-2013. (United States)

    Boyce, Ross; Rosch, Richard; Finlayson, Alexander; Handuleh, Djibril; Walhad, Said Ahmed; Whitwell, Susannah; Leather, Andy


    Effective healthcare systems require high-quality research to guide evidence-based interventions and strategic planning. In low- and middle-income countries, especially those emerging from violent conflict, research capacity often lags behind other aspects of health system development. Here, we sought to bibliometrically review health-related research output in Somaliland, a post-conflict self-declared, autonomous nation on the Horn of Africa, as a means of assessing research capacity. We reviewed articles on health-related research conducted in Somaliland between 1991 and 2013 that included a description of the experimental design, and articles were published in either a peer-reviewed journal or as part of a scholarly programme receiving formal review. We did not include policy or social science research that did not enrol or interact with subjects from Somaliland. Using online databases, all studies meeting minimum eligibility criteria were reviewed in regard to Somaliland-based co-authorship, topic of research and specific measures of quality. A total of 37 studies were included in this review. Of these, only 19 (51%) included co-authorship by Somaliland-based researchers. Of the 21 studies reporting ethical approval, 16 (64%) received approval from the Somalia or Somaliland Ministry of Health, while five received approval from a university or national commission. More than two-thirds of published research was limited to a few areas of investigation with most (19, 51%) following basic cross-sectional study designs. The number of articles published per year increased from 0 to 1 in the years 1991-2007 to a maximum of 8 in 2013. Research activity in Somaliland is extremely limited. Investigators from high-income countries have largely directed the research agenda in Somaliland; only half of the included studies list co-authors from institutions in Somaliland. Leadership and governance of health research in Somaliland is required to define national priorities

  14. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and evolution of the Somaliland-Yemen conjugate margin (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.


    We have used biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells to determine the tectonic subsidence history of the Somaliland (northwestern Somalia)-Yemen conjugate margin, a poorly known margin in the central part of the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data suggest the Gulf of Aden is a young feature that formed following the rifting apart and breakup of the African and Arabian plates ~32 Ma. Our tectonic subsidence data suggest, however, that the present-day Gulf of Aden developed on an earlier Mesozoic rift system. The oldest episode of rifting initiated at ~156 Ma and lasted for ~10 Ma and had a NW-SE trend. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the breakup of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. At ~80 Ma, there is evidence of an intermediate rift event which correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The combined effect of all three rifting events has been to thin the crust and upper mantle by up to a factor of 2. The amount of thinning deduced from the wells is in accord with the crustal structure inferred from available seismic refraction data and process-oriented gravity and flexure modeling. The margin is asymmetric with a steeper gradient in the Moho on the Yemen side than the Somaliland side. The main discrepancy is on the Yemen side where the gravity-derived Moho is 10 km deeper than the well-derived Moho. We attribute the discrepancy to the addition of material at the base of the crust since rifting, possibly magma sourced from the Afar plume.

  15. Risk behaviour and group formation in microcredit groups in Eritrea


    Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.


    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit groups in Eritrea. Since the methodology to test for homogeneous matching needs estimating risk behaviour, the paper also provides new evidence on risk behaviour of members of microcredit groups in Eri...

  16. [Development and prospects of acupuncture therapy in Eritrea]. (United States)

    Hu, Shan-Jia


    It has been over 30 years that acupuncture was first introduced and later used to treat patients in Eritrea. There are acupuncture clinics at three hospitals to treat various common diseases. As one of the valuable treatments to cure diseases, acupuncture has been accepted by the government and the public in Eritrea. It is the fruits of public recognition, government support and the devotion of Chinese clinic practitioners.

  17. Distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in Eritrea. (United States)

    Shililu, Josephat; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Mengistu, Solomon; Fekadu, Helen; Zerom, Mehari; Mbogo, Charles; Githure, John; Gu, Weidong; Novak, Robert; Beier, John C


    The spatial distribution of anopheline mosquito species was studied throughout Eritrea during the 1999-2001 malaria transmission seasons from October to December for the highlands and western lowlands and February to April for the coastal region. Of the 302 villages sampled, 59 were visited in both the first and second year. Overall, 13 anopheline species were identified, with the Anopheles gambiae complex predominating during the first year (75.6%, n = 861) and the second year (91.9%, n = 1,262). Intrazonal variation accounted for 90% of the total variation in mosquito distribution. Polymerase chain reaction results indicated that 99% (n = 1,309) of the An. gambiae s.l. specimens were An. arabiensis, indicating that this was the only member of the gambiae complex present. There was a high degree of aggregation of anophelines within zones and villages, with more than 80% of the total anophelines being collected from less than 20% of the villages and from only 10% of the houses sampled. At least 80% of the anopheline mosquitoes were collected from grass-thatched Agudo-type housing. Vector abundance showed an inverse relationship with elevation, with highest densities in the low-lying western lowlands. Multiple regression analysis of log-transformed mean density of An. arabiensis with rainfall and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (average NDVI, minimum NDVI, and maximum NDVI) showed that these independent variables were not significantly associated with mosquito densities (R2 = 0.058). Our study contributes to the basic understanding of the ecology and distribution of malaria vectors with respect to species composition and spatial heterogeneities both that could be used to guide vector control operations in Eritrea.

  18. Integrating traditional medical practice with primary healthcare system in Eritrea. (United States)

    Habtom, GebreMichael Kibreab


    The purpose of this paper was to assess the perceptions and attitudes of modern medical practitioners (MMPs) and traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) about traditional medical practice and to analyze the utilization of traditional medicine in Eritrea. The data for this study were collected in a 10-month period from January to October 2004. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three sub-zones of Eritrea: Dekemhare, Ghinda, and Maekel. A total of 500 (250 each) MMPs and TMPs, and 1657 households were included in the study. Data were collected both by questionnaire and an interview (with key informants). Our study reveals that there is a significant difference in perception and attitude between MMPs and TMPs about traditional medical practice in Eritrea. Their differences lie not only in their way of thinking but also in their perceptions of man and health. Our study further shows that in most rural communities in Eritrea, the use of traditional medicine and self-care is extensive. This is the case even in the presence of the supposedly free/subsidized health care available in government health centers. Higher confidence in traditional medicine for the treatment of serious illnesses, irrespective of availability of western medical service in many parts of Eritrea, indicates the need for selective integration of traditional medical practice with the primary healthcare system of the country.

  19. Learning from Somaliland? Transferability of learning from volunteering to national health service practice in the UK. (United States)

    Tillson, Esther; van Wees, Sibylle Herzig; McGowan, Charlotte; Franklin, Hannah; Jones, Helena; Bogue, Patrick; Aliabadi, Shirin; Baraitser, Paula


    Capacity building partnerships between healthcare institutions have the potential to benefit both partners particularly in staff development. Previous research suggests that volunteering can contribute to professional development but there is little evidence on how learning is acquired, the barriers and facilitators to learning in this context or the process of translation of learning to the home environment. Volunteers from a healthcare partnership between the UK and Somaliland reported learning in communication, interdisciplinary working, teaching, management, leadership and service development. This learning came from observing familiar practices in unfamiliar environments; alternative solutions to familiar problems; learning about Somali culture; opportunities to assume higher levels of responsibility and new professional relationships. There was variability in the extent of translation to NHS practice. Time and support available for reflection and mentoring were important facilitators of this process. The professional development outcomes documented in this study came directly from the experience of volunteering. Experiential learning theory suggests that this requires a complex process of critical reflection and new knowledge generation, testing and translation for use in new contexts. This process benefits from identification of learning as an important element of volunteering and support for reflection and the translation translation of learning to UK contexts. We suggest that missed opportunities for volunteer learning will remain until the volunteering process is overtly framed as part of continuing professional development.

  20. Laas Geel (somaliland): 5000 Year-Old Paintings Captured in 3D (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Antoniotti, P.; Hamon, G.; Happe, D.


    Discovered in 2002 by a French archaeology team conducted by Prof. X. Gutherz, Laas Geel (Somaliland), is probably one of the most remarkable archaeological site in the horn of Africa. Located in an isolated arid region, it is made of natural rocky shelters on which hundreds of colored paintings still remain in a particularly good state of conservation. The first studies achieved in the last decade let suppose that they are 5000 years old. After several studying and exploring expeditions, a 3Ddigitizing campaign has been carried out by Art Graphique et Patrimoine, under the direction of X. Gutherz, with the support of the cultural service of the French Embassy in Djibouti. The project was focused on three main goals: production of a high accuracy 3D-documentation for scientific needs, archiving the 3D digital print recorded on site for the conservation and the saving of this heritage, and finally diffusing the results throughout various kinds of media to reveal the site to the public, insisting on its vulnerability.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Grenier


    Full Text Available Discovered in 2002 by a French archaeology team conducted by Prof. X. Gutherz, Laas Geel (Somaliland, is probably one of the most remarkable archaeological site in the horn of Africa. Located in an isolated arid region, it is made of natural rocky shelters on which hundreds of colored paintings still remain in a particularly good state of conservation. The first studies achieved in the last decade let suppose that they are 5000 years old. After several studying and exploring expeditions, a 3Ddigitizing campaign has been carried out by Art Graphique et Patrimoine, under the direction of X. Gutherz, with the support of the cultural service of the French Embassy in Djibouti. The project was focused on three main goals: production of a high accuracy 3D-documentation for scientific needs, archiving the 3D digital print recorded on site for the conservation and the saving of this heritage, and finally diffusing the results throughout various kinds of media to reveal the site to the public, insisting on its vulnerability.

  2. Courts, Clans and Companies: Mobile Money and Dispute Resolution in Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Stremlau


    Full Text Available One of the world’s most ambitious experiments in mobile money is underway in the Somali territories. In the absence of a strong central government and internationally recognized banking institutions, remittance companies and the telecoms industry have been innovating to provide services unique to the Somali context, which is making the economy increasingly ‘cashless’. Mobile money has posed new regulatory and legal challenges, particularly when disputes involving consumers are involved. This article focuses on a case study from Somaliland (the northern, self-declared independent region of Somalia and examines Zaad, the dominant mobile money platform. Given the weak state institutions, there are a variety of actors, including private companies, government police and courts, sharia courts and traditional elders that play an active role in resolving conflicts that result from mobile money transactions, forging a hybrid judicial approach. We examine how these different actors intervene and create an enabling environment to allow innovation and foster trust in a region of the world that is frequently characterized as violent and lawless.

  3. Female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland: is there a move towards less severe forms? (United States)

    Lunde, Ingvild Bergom; Sagbakken, Mette


    According to several sources, little progress is being made in eliminating the cutting of female genitalia. This paper, based on qualitative interviews and observations, explores perceptions of female genital cutting and elimination of the phenomenon in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Two main groups of participants were interviewed: (1) 22 representatives of organisations whose work directly relates to female genital cutting; and (2) 16 individuals representing different groups of society. It was found that there is an increasing use of medical staff and equipment when a girl undergoes the procedure of female genital cutting; the use of terminology is crucial in understanding current perceptions of female genital cutting; religion is both an important barrier and facilitator of elimination; and finally, traditional gender structures are currently being challenged in Hargeisa. The findings of this study suggest that it is important to consider current perceptions on practices of female genital cutting and on abandonment of female genital cutting, in order to gain useful knowledge on the issue of elimination. The study concludes that elimination of female genital cutting is a multifaceted process which is constantly negotiated in a diversity of social settings. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib


    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  5. TB-HIV co-infection in Eritrea. (United States)

    van der Werf, M J; Sebhatu, M; Weldegergis, T; Tesfazion, A; Borgdorff, M W


    We assessed the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identified risk factors for HIV infection in smear-positive TB patients diagnosed by the TB programme in Eritrea. Of 365 notified TB patients, 220 (60.3%) could be traced and provided a blood sample that was tested. Of these, 26 (11.8%, 95%CI 7.6-16.1) were HIV-infected. Risk factors were age, urban residence and schooling level. The data indicate that, starting with the urban areas, it is time for Eritrea to introduce HIV testing of all TB patients.

  6. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to:

  7. British Columbia (United States)

    Walton, Gerald


    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  8. Risk Behaviour and Group Formation in Microcredit Groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.


    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  9. Strategy and Management Guideline on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    An action-oriented and practical guideline for the planning, organisation and management of preventive school maintenance in Eritrea. The manual is the result of a participatory planning process which has involved actors at the school and community level, district levels and the national policy...

  10. Participatory rural appraisal of spate irrigation systems in eastern Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.; Graaff, de J.


    In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to

  11. Thoracopagus: a first case of incomplete conjoint twins in Eritrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight hour old boy with incomplete duplication of the head was admitted in a tertiary paediatric referral hospital in Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea. The incompletely developed head with the neck of one twin was attached to the much larger and more fully developed one on the anterior aspect (ventral) of the chest. This

  12. Multilingualism and Nation Building: Language and Education in Eritrea. (United States)

    Hailemariam, Chefena; Kroon, Sjaak; Walters, Joel


    Focuses on language choice in Eritrea within the broader context of language policy in multilingual states. Pre-colonial and post-colonial language policies are surveyed in relation to evolving linguistic and political nationalism. Post-independence language policy is examined from the perspective of the functional allocation of nine Eritrean…

  13. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...

  14. Risk behaviour and group formation in microcredit groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.


    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  15. Supra-Ethnic Nationalism: The Case of Eritrea | Bereketeab | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30) ...

  16. An introduction to the grasses of Ethiopia and Eritrea | Phillips ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia together with Eritrea has a rich grass flora comprising over 600 species. Grasses typical of each of the vegetation types found in the area are discussed. Grasses from specialised edaphic conditions are considered, and also weed, pasture and lawn grasses. The paper concludes with a section on the importance of ...

  17. Researching Diverse Learners from Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. (United States)

    Sadler, Charlotte; Hytowitz, Sarah Gail; Frutiger, Eliso

    This report presents information to help teachers work with diverse students. The report includes: information regarding the countries and cultures of Haiti, Eritrea, and Ethiopia (for helping to establish rapport with diverse learners); characteristics of Haitians, Eritreans, and Ethiopians as contrasted with American students' characteristics…

  18. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Weerdmeester, K.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van Froukje; Moormann, R.J.M.; Dekker, Aldo


    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in

  19. Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the primary goal of Eritrea is to guarantee food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and water conservation, with less dependence on rainwater. Thus the Government has articulated its food policy, which stresses national ownership of grant food assistance and to achieve food ...

  20. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.


    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in

  1. Determining the Level of Maternal Mortality in Eritrea using RAMOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the current estimate for the Maternal Mortality Ratio in Eritrea. Methods: The study used RAMOS (Reproductive Age Mortality Study), which is a methodology of identifying all deaths of women in reproductive age as a source for identifying maternal deaths. All female deaths with in reproductive age ...

  2. Education and youth development in Eritrea: A discourse | Rena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of any education and training system is often judged by how well this system prepares the recipients for gainful employment and thus bring about a positive social and economic change in them. Students in Eritrea are expected to acquire appropriate knowledge and skills as part of their education and training.

  3. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has taken steps to control tobacco use. Its 2004 proclamation aims to curb consumption, as do higher tax rates on cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, in spite of these measures, tobacco consumption is increasing. Enforcement of the proclamation is weak, and cheap, smuggled cigarettes and other ...

  4. Diversity between and within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 21, 2011 ... This study therefore aimed at evaluating genetic diversity within and between tomato varieties collected from different parts of Eritrea, to compare this to mate- rials from other African and Italian sources and to relate the genetic analysis with information on the traditional seed management system obtained ...



    TEWELDE, Yonatan


    This study shows the existence of horizontal news flow between periphery countries in contrast to the assumptions of Johan Galtung who saw the absence of horizontal interaction between peripheries independent on Western or Center media agencies. The dominance of Iranian news channel, Press TV as an important source of international news for Eritrea Profile shows that, today, there is some level of horizontal level of interaction, where bigger media agencies in the periphery nations feed media...

  6. Outpatients’ Perspectives on Problems and Needs Related to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Qualitative Study from Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fried


    Full Text Available Aim. To explore female outpatients’ perspectives on problems related to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C and their views on information, care, and counseling. Setting. An FGM/C support center at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Methods. A qualitative, descriptive study, using content analysis of seven semistructured interviews with female outpatients. Results. All participants had been ignorant of the etiology of their FGM/C-related complications and hesitant to seek care. All had undergone infibulation but did not wish the same for their daughters. In recent years they had learnt through religious leaders and media campaigns that infibulation was unapproved by Islam. A less severe FGM/C type, “Sunna,” was more accepted; however, few could define what “Sunna” meant. Condemning and ridiculing attitudes against uncircumcised women prevailed in their community. Conclusions. New ideas and concepts related to FGM/C enter the common discourse in the Somali society while traditional norms and values still prevail. Religion was shown to have a strong impact on FGM/C practices and beliefs. Interventions aiming to raise awareness of health consequences of all types of FGM/C, as well as where to seek care for complications, are needed in Somaliland. Involvement of religious leaders in anti-FGM/C programs is essential.

  7. Poverty in Eritrea: challenges and implications for development. (United States)

    Rena, Ravinder


    Poverty, one of the world's most serious problems, is particularly severe in Africa. Eritrea is a 16-year-old nation that gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993. The country's economy was doing relatively well between 1993 and 1997. Eritrea was then exposed to numerous challenges such as drought, famines and recurrent war. As a result, poverty has become more rampant in a country where over 66 per cent of people live below the poverty line. Some families live on remittances. The government has taken some poverty alleviation measures. However, it has not mitigated poverty due to a lack of resources and a poorly implemented poverty alleviation programme. This article attempts to explore the incidence of poverty. It also provides details of poverty surveys that have been conducted since independence. It discusses various poverty challenges and provides some policy implications for development.

  8. The quality of the maternal health system in Eritrea. (United States)

    Sharan, Mona; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Ghebrehiwet, Mismay; Rogo, Khama


    To examine the quality of the maternal health system in Eritrea to understand system deficiencies and its relevance to maternal mortality within the context of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5. A sample of 118 health facilities was surveyed. Data were collected on 5 dimensions of health system quality: availability; accessibility; management; infrastructure; and process indicators. Data on the causes of hospital admissions for obstetric patients and maternal deaths were extracted from medical records. Eritrea has only 11 comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) facilities, all of which are grossly understaffed. There is considerable pressure on the infrastructure and health providers at hospitals. Compliance with clinical care standards and availability of supplies were optimal. As a result, the case fatality rate of 0.65% was low. In total, 45.6% of obstetric admissions and 19.5% of maternal deaths were attributed to abortion complications. In Eritrea, critical gaps in the health system-especially those related to human resources-will impede progress toward MDG 5, and it will not be possible to reduce maternal mortality without addressing the high burden of abortion. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical management of complex obstetric fistula in Eritrea. (United States)

    Husain, Amreen; Johnson, Khaliah; Glowacki, Carol A; Osias, Joelle; Wheeless, Clifford R; Asrat, Kibreab; Ghebrekidan, Abrehet; Polan, Mary Lake


    To evaluate the incidence of and demographic characteristics associated with obstetric fistula in Eritrea. To determine the outcomes of surgical repair of complex fistula in Eritrea by a visiting surgical team. A surgical team comprising expert gynecologic surgeons traveled to Eritrea in September 2004. We evaluated 50 patients with genitourinary fistula and performed surgical repairs of these fistulas on 37 women via both vaginal and abdominal approaches. Demographic and basic medical data were obtained at the time of evaluation, and follow-up questionnaires were completed at 4 weeks postoperative. The majority of the women had fistulas related to obstructed labor at their first pregnancy unattended by any healthcare professional. The average duration of labor was 3 days, and more than half had resulted in stillbirths. The rate of successful repair in women with primary vesicovaginal fistulas (VVF) was 63%, and that in women with recurrent vesicovaginal fistulas was 61%. Two women required urinary diversion procedures because of the severity of the damage to the genital tract. Urethral reconstruction in women with urethrovaginal fistulas (UVFs) was successfully accomplished in 77% of patients. The rate of successful repair of rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) was 87%. We have demonstrated that a team of specialized surgeons can successfully accomplish surgical procedures and repairs of very complex urinary tract fistulas in a very short mission to a resource-poor nation.

  10. Prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors in Eritrea. (United States)

    Usman, Abdulmumini; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Mufunda, Jacob; Nyarang'o, Peter; Hagos, Goitom; Kosia, Andrew; Ghebrat, Yohannes; Mosazghi, Asgedom; Atanga, S Joseph; Equbamichael, Mussie M


    To establish the baseline prevalence rates for non-communicable disease risk factors in Eritrea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the ethnic groups in Eritrea with the WHO STEPwise approach. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg or a person on medication for hypertension, while diabetes based on medical history of the disease. Of the targeted sample size of 2460, 2352 responded. Respondents were distributed among the six regions of the country proportional to population size. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used. Males and females from 15 to 64 years of age were studied. Prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and low vegetable and low fruit consumption. Prevalence rate of daily smoking of 7.2% with variations among age, sex, religion and regions. A high prevalence of low fruit and low vegetable intake was observed at 84.7% and 50.6% respectively. Alcohol drinking was 39.6%. Level of physical activity was high (90%). The prevalence of obesity was low at 3.3%. The prevalence of hypertension in the general population was 16%, while 2.2% were known diabetic patients. More than 80% of the hypertensive persons were not aware of their condition. No significant rural/urban or sex difference was seen in hypertension prevalence. The baseline data are useful for developing interventions designed to prevent and control NCDs in Eritrea.

  11. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Seroprevalence in Cattle in Eritrea. (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Weerdmeester, K; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, F; Moormann, R J M; Dekker, A


    Information about seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and virus serotypes in Eritrea is unavailable, but is very important as it may guide the choice of intervention measures including vaccination to be implemented. We carried out a cross-sectional study from February to June 2011 in Eritrea with a two-stage cluster design, sampling cattle in 155 villages with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of FMD in four administrative regions of the country. We analysed cattle sera (n = 2429) for FMD virus antibodies using the non-structural ELISA (NS ELISA) and virus neutralization test (VNT). The overall seroprevalence was 26% and 30% for the NS ELISA and VNT, respectively. FMD virus serotypes O (14%) and A (11%) were the most prevalent. Gash Barka showed the highest (39%) seroprevalence both in NS ELISA and VNT compared to the other three administrative regions. Strategic FMD virus vaccination with type O and A (matching circulating strains) in combination of zoo-sanitary measures would be the best control option for Eritrea which could be started in areas where the disease is less endemic. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Overview of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea: The long road to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was carried out with shared responsibilities between Addis Ababa University and Uppsala University, Sweden. The objectives of the project were: 1) to write up a Flora of Ethiopia (FE), which later became the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea (FEE) with the separation of Eritrea from Ethiopia in 1991; 2) build-up of the ...

  13. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  14. Evaluation of an online master’s programme in Somaliland. A phenomenographic study on the experience of professional and personal development among midwifery faculty


    Erlandsson, Kerstin; Osman, Fatumo; Hatakka, Mathias; Egal, Jama Ali; Byrskog, Ulrika; Pedersen, Christina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie


    To record the variation of perceptions of midwifery faculty in terms of the possibilities and challenges related to the completion of their first online master's level programme in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Somaliland. The informants included in this phenomenongraphical focus group study were those well-educated professional women and men who completed the master's program. The informant perceived that this first online master's level programme provided tools for independen...

  15. Impact of a multidisciplinary intervention for diabetes in Eritrea. (United States)

    Windus, David W; Ladenson, Jack H; Merrins, Cindy K; Seyoum, Melles; Windus, Debra; Morin, Susan; Tewelde, Beyene; Parvin, Curtis A; Scott, Mitchell G; Goldfeder, Jason


    When hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing was made available to diabetic patients in the nation of Eritrea, the majority of values were markedly increased. As a result, a multidisciplinary clinical education program was instituted in Eritrea and the rate of HbA1c testing was increased to monitor progress. In February 2003, a cooperative diabetes project was initiated in Eritrea to train diabetes educators, enhance physician education, create patient-teaching materials, and promote glucose monitoring. Two additional visits were made in 2003 and 2004. HbA1c values from January 2003 to November 2004 (n = 3606) were reviewed to assess diabetic control for the population and for a subset of individual patients (n = 350). A cohort of 209 diabetic persons were evaluated for demographics, treatment, and prevalence of complications. The cohort of 209 patients was 34% female and had a mean (SD) age of 50.5 (15.5) years and diabetes duration of 8.6 (6.3) years. Prevalence of hypertension was 37% and proteinuria 6%. For diabetes treatment, 59% received insulin therapy, 35% received oral agents, and 6% received nonpharmacologic treatment. HbA1c values improved significantly between the 1st 6 months of 2003 (median 10.9%) and the last 6 months of 2004 (median 8.5%; P or =3 months apart showed a significant mean decrease of 0.5% (P <0.001). Our experience suggests that the combination of sustainable upgraded laboratory services and training in clinical management leads to sustainable improvement in diabetes care in developing countries.

  16. Malaria stratification, climate, and epidemic early warning in Eritrea. (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Jaiteh, Malanding; Graves, Patricia M; Levy, Marc; Ghebreselassie, Shashu; Ogbamariam, Andom; Barnston, Anthony G; Bell, Michael; del Corral, John; Connor, Stephen J; Fesseha, Issac; Brantly, Eugene P; Thomson, Madeleine C


    Eritrea has a successful malaria control program, but it is still susceptible to devastating malaria epidemics. Monthly data on clinical malaria cases from 242 health facilities in 58 subzobas (districts) of Eritrea from 1996 to 2003 were used in a novel stratification process using principal component analysis and nonhierarchical clustering to define five areas with distinct malaria intensity and seasonality patterns, to guide future interventions and development of an epidemic early warning system. Relationships between monthly clinical malaria incidence by subzoba and monthly climate data from several sources, and with seasonal climate forecasts, were investigated. Remotely sensed climate data were averaged over the same subzoba geographic administrative units as the malaria cases. Although correlation was good between malaria anomalies and actual rainfall from ground stations (lagged by 2 months), the stations did not have sufficiently even coverage to be widely useful. Satellite derived rainfall from the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation was correlated with malaria incidence anomalies, with a lead time of 2-3 months. NDVI anomalies were highly correlated with malaria incidence anomalies, particularly in the semi-arid north of the country and along the northern Red Sea coast, which is a highly epidemic-prone area. Eritrea has 2 distinct rainy seasons in different parts of the country. The seasonal forecasting skill from Global Circulation Models for the June/July/August season was low except for the Eastern border. For the coastal October/November/December season, forecasting skill was good only during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. For epidemic control, shorter-range warning based on remotely sensed rainfall estimates and an enhanced epidemic early-detection system based on data derived for this study are needed.

  17. Roll back malaria--an African success story in Eritrea. (United States)

    Mufunda, Jacob; Nyarango, Peter; Usman, Abdulmumini; Gebremeskel, Tewolde; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Ogbamariam, Andom; Kosia, Andrew; Ghebrat, Yohannes; Gebresillosie, Shashu; Goitom, Samuel; Araya, Eyob; Andemichael, Girmay; Gebremichael, Andemariam


    High morbidity and mortality from malaria in Africa prompted the Abuja Declaration by African Heads of State in 2000. The goal set in the declaration for 2010 was to reduce malaria mortality by 50%. Countries were therefore expected to ensure that 60% of people suffering from malaria had access to treatment, that 60% of those at risk received intermittent prophylaxis, and that 60% of people in high-risk groups were using insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) by 2005. In 1999 Eritrea introduced malaria policies, strategies and multi-level interventions targeting households, communities and health facilities. To assess Eritrea's progress towards meeting the Abuja Declaration goal, targets and key determinants. A retrospective study was undertaken using data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS) and reports of annual reviews. Correlation and regression analysis were used to assess associations between selected variables. The incidence rate for malaria decreased from 6000/100000 in 1998 to 1100/100000 in 2003, representing > 80% decline in morbidity. The cumulative number of ITNs distributed increased from 50000 in 1998 to 685000 in 2003. The ITN impregnation rate increased from 15% to > 70% during the same period. Indoor residual spraying increased from 7444 kg to 41157 kg of insecticide in 2004 resulting in the protected population increasing from 117017 to 244315 respectively. The number of health workers recruited and trained rose from 936 to 4118. There was a strong correlation between the malaria incidence rate, distribution of ITNs (R2 = 0.76) and the total number of health workers trained (R2 = 0.72). The association was consistent in regression analysis (beta = -0.05, p = 0.03 for ITNs, and beta = -0.249, p = 0.05 for trained health workers). Within 5 years Eritrea met the Abuja Declaration objectives through multiple vector-control methods, case management and surveillance.

  18. Causes of Childhood Vision Impairment in the School for the Blind in Eritrea. (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Moodley, Vanessa R


    Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country. This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. All children enrolled in the school were examined, and the World Health Organization form for the examination of visually impaired children was used to record the data. Examination included visual acuity, refraction, anterior segment, and fundus assessment. Causes of vision loss for children with severe vision impairment (visual acuity Eritrea. Despite the limitations, it is clearly shown that nearly half of the vision loss is due to avoidable causes. Thus, preventive public health strategies, specialist pediatric eye care, and rehabilitative services are recommended to address childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.

  19. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea where skilled care delivery is ... Conclusion: Health promotion targeted at scaling up skilled care delivery attendance can further reduce childhood morbidity and .... women, the whole issue of stigma, non compliance.

  20. Surgery in the Horn of Africa: a 1-year experience of an American-sponsored surgical residency in Eritrea. (United States)

    Khambaty, Fatima M; Ayas, Huda M; Mezghebe, Haile M


    To describe the 1-year experience of a unique postgraduate medical education program set in Eritrea, a recently war-torn country. The Partnership for Eritrea, a cooperative between The George Washington University Medical Center, Physicians for Peace, and the Eritrean Ministry of Health, formed a surgical residency program, launched January 2, 2008, in Asmara, Eritrea, to train native Eritrean surgeons. No prior residency program (to our knowledge) had existed in Eritrea. Eritrea, a country in the Horn of Africa. Five Eritrean physicians participated in the surgical residency. The number of operations performed, length of stay, antibiotic use, and intravenous fluid use. The number of operations increased and resource use decreased because of improved and standardized clinical management. The Partnership for Eritrea established a general surgical residency program that improved clinical care in a resource-poor country that previously had lacked postgraduate training. The program experience suggests a model that can be reproduced in other developing countries.

  1. Capacity building: benchmark for production of meat with low levels of bacterial contamination in local slaughterhouses in Somaliland. (United States)

    Wamalwa, Kinyanjui; Castiello, Massimo; Ombui, Jackson Nyarangi; Gathuma, Joseph


    The objective of the study was to investigate and assess the impact of trainings on the levels of meat contamination produced from local livestock slaughter facilities in the North-West region of Somalia (Somaliland). The investigation considered slaughter facilities where workers had been trained or not. The survey was carried out in four local slaughter facilities. A pre-tested questionnaire on abattoir hygiene and food safety standards was administered to International Aid Organizations, government officials, abattoir workers and supervisors. In addition, a total of 320 surface meat swab samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminant carcasses slaughtered from four purposefully selected local slaughter facilities. The samples were analyzed at Analabs laboratories in Nairobi, Kenya, for total viable counts, total coliforms count and presence of Salmonella species. Meat contamination risk factors associated with hygiene practices based on training offered or not was identified. It was noted that slaughter facilities where abattoir workers had not received trainings on minimum meat hygiene standards and quality assurance systems of good hygiene practices and sanitary standard operating procedures produced carcasses with high levels of bacterial contamination in comparison with those where workers had received the said trainings. The laboratory results were in agreement with poor hygiene meat handling practices and lack of compliance with minimum meat hygiene and food safety standards in Berbera and Burao local livestock slaughter facilities where personnel had not been trained.

  2. Retrospective data on causes of childhood vision impairment in Eritrea. (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Bhayal, Bharat Kumar; Adhikary, Rabindra; Shrestha, Arjun; Sah, Rabindra Prasad


    Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea. A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (Causes of vision loss for children with vision impairment (recorded visual acuity less than 6/18 for distance in the better eye) was classified by the anatomical site affected and by underlying etiology based on the timing of the insult and causal factor. The medical record cards of 22,509 children were reviewed, of whom 249 (1.1%) were visually impaired. The mean age of the participants was 7.82 ± 5.43 years (range: one month to 16 years) and male to female ratio was 1:0.65. The leading causes of vision loss were cataract (19.7%), corneal scars (15.7%), refractive error and amblyopia (12.1%), optic atrophy (6.4%), phthisis bulbi (6.4%), aphakia (5.6%) and glaucoma (5.2%). Childhood factors including trauma were the leading causes identified (34.5%) whereas other causes included hereditary factors (4%), intrauterine factors (2.0%) and perinatal factors (4.4%). In 55.0% of the children, the underlying etiology could not be attributed. Over two-thirds (69.9%) of vision loss was potentially avoidable in nature. This study explored the causes of vision loss in Eritrean children using hospital based data. Cataract corneal opacities, refractive error and amblyopia, globe damage due to trauma, infection and nutritional deficiency, retinal disorders, and other congenital abnormalities were the leading causes of childhood vision impairment in children attending the tertiary eye hospital in Eritrea. As majority of the causes of vision loss was due to avoidable causes, we recommended primary level public health strategies to prevent ocular injuries, vitamin A deficiency, perinatal infections and

  3. Problem-based, peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning between the UK and Somaliland: a pilot study. (United States)

    Murphy, Roberta; Clissold, Elliot; Keynejad, Roxanne C


    WHO's mental health gap action programme intervention guide (mhGAP-IG) is an evidence-based tool aimed at front-line health workers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Its potential to improve global mental health education, especially through digital technologies, has been little studied. Problem-based learning (PBL) is usually conducted face-to-face, but its remote application could facilitate cross-cultural education. To evaluate PBL, applied to peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning (Aqoon), using mhGAP-IG. Twelve pairs of UK and Somaliland medical students completed the full programme. Participants self-directedly met online, via the low-bandwidth Medicine Africa website, for PBL-style tutorials focused on modules of the mhGAP-IG, V.2.0. Preparticipation and postparticipation surveys used mixed methods to evaluate Aqoon, including the Attitudes Toward Psychiatry (ATP-30) instrument. Median ATP-30 scores for Somaliland (82.0 vs 95.0, p=0.003) and UK students (82.0 vs 95.0, p=0.011) improved significantly following Aqoon. Qualitative feedback showed that participants valued peer connectivity and learning about cultural and psychosocial differences in their partner's country. Somaliland students were motivated by clinical learning and UK students by global health education. Feedback on the PBL structure was positive. Digital PBL represents an innovative method to extend the benefits of mhGAP-IG beyond front-line clinical staff, to healthcare students in LMICs. Educational resource limitations in LMICs may be overcome using digital platforms and PBL. Replication with non-medical healthcare students is the next step for this model to explore Aqoon's relevance to pressing global mental health workforce challenges. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. British Sign Name Customs (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel


    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder RENA


    Full Text Available All over the world, distance mode of education is gaining a momentum and becoming more popular than conventional education. It is a system in which schools, universities and other educational agencies offer instruction wholly or partly by mail. Eritrea is a newly independent country in Africa is been facing many challenges particularly in its education sector. It did not have more educational institutions at tertiary level. Thus the distance learning is the best option for this country. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss various problems related to the establishment and development of distance education. It also provides the distance education programmes so far undertaken in the country with concluding remarks.

  6. Malaria prevalence and associated risk factors in Eritrea. (United States)

    Sintasath, David M; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Lynch, Matthew; Kleinau, Eckhard; Bretas, Gustavo; Shililu, Josephat; Brantly, Eugene; Graves, Patricia M; Beier, John C


    A parasitological cross-sectional survey was undertaken from September 2000 through February 2001 to estimate the prevalence of malaria parasitemia in Eritrea. A total of 12,937 individuals from 176 villages were screened for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasite species using the OptiMal Rapid Diagnostic Test. Malaria prevalence was generally low but highly focal and variable with the proportion of parasitemia at 2.2% (range: 0.4% to 6.5%). Despite no significant differences in age or sex-specific prevalence rates, 7% of households accounted for the positive cases and 90% of these were P. falciparum. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that mud walls were positively associated with malaria infection (OR [odds ratio] = 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2, 2.2], P < 0.008). For countries with low and seasonal malaria transmission, such information can help programs design improved strategic interventions.

  7. Larval habitat diversity and ecology of anopheline larvae in Eritrea. (United States)

    Shililu, Josephat; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Seulu, Fessahaye; Mengistu, Solomon; Fekadu, Helen; Zerom, Mehari; Ghebregziabiher, Asmelash; Sintasath, David; Bretas, Gustavo; Mbogo, Charles; Githure, John; Brantly, Eugene; Novak, Robert; Beier, John C


    Studies on the spatial distribution of anopheline mosquito larvae were conducted in 302 villages over two transmission seasons in Eritrea. Additional longitudinal studies were also conducted at eight villages over a 24-mo period to determine the seasonal variation in anopheline larval densities. Eight anopheline species were identified with Anopheles arabiensis predominating in most of the habitats. Other species collected included: An. cinereus, An. pretoriensis, An. d'thali, An. funestus, An. squamosus, An. adenensis, and An. demeilloni. An. arabiensis was found in five of the six aquatic habitats found positive for anopheline larvae during the survey. Anopheles larvae were sampled predominantly from stream edges and streambed pools, with samples from this habitat type representing 91.2% (n = 9481) of the total anopheline larval collection in the spatial distribution survey. Other important anopheline habitats included rain pools, ponds, dams, swamps, and drainage channels at communal water supply points. Anopheline larvae were abundant in habitats that were shallow, slow flowing and had clear water. The presence of vegetation, intensity of shade, and permanence of aquatic habitats were not significant determinants of larval distribution and abundance. Larval density was positively correlated with water temperature. Larval abundance increased during the wet season and decreased in the dry season but the timing of peak densities was variable among habitat types and zones. Anopheline larvae were collected all year round with the dry season larval production restricted mainly to artificial aquatic habitats such as drainage channels at communal water supply points. This study provides important information on seasonal patterns of anopheline larval production and larval habitat diversity on a countrywide scale that will be useful in guiding larval control operations in Eritrea.

  8. Mental distress and associated factors among undergraduate students at the University of Hargeisa, Somaliland: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Hersi, Liban; Tesfay, Kenfe; Gesesew, Hailay; Krahl, Wolfgang; Ereg, Deria; Tesfaye, Markos


    Mental distress is a common finding among University students. Empirical research has confirmed that the University student population has a higher prevalence of mental disorder than the general population. However, no previous study has examined the mental health conditions of students in Somaliland. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 570 undergraduate students at the University of Hargeisa in October, 2013. Study subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling. The Self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to assess mental distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors independently associated with mental distress. The point prevalence of mental distress was found to be 19.8%. Mental distress was associated with being female (AOR = 3.52, 95% CI 1.94, 6.39), having a monthly income of 100 United States dollars (USD) or less (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.12, 4.28), and not having a satisfying relationship with the family (AOR = 11.52, 95% CI 3.18, 41.72) and friends (AOR = 7.33, 95% CI 2.83, 18.93). Nearly one in five students (18.6%) has been using Khat in the previous 12 months. Khat use was also associated with greater likelihood of mental distress (AOR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.26, 6.56). In addition, financial difficulties and the poor prospect of finding a job were common sources of stress among the students. A significant proportion of the students at the University of Hargeisa suffer from mental distress which might have a detrimental effect on their academic performance. The mental health needs of the University students require attention with special emphasis on female students, students experiencing financial hardships, students who use Khat and those who have interpersonal problems.

  9. Review: Kjetil Tronvoll, Daniel R. Mekonnen, The African Garrison State: Human Rights and Political Development in Eritrea (2014 / Andebrhan Welde Giorgis, Eritrea at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih O. Nur


    Full Text Available Review of: Kjetil Tronvoll and Daniel R. Mekonnen, The African Garrison State: Human Rights and Political Development in Eritrea, Rochester, NY: James Currey, 2014, ISBN-10: 1847010695, 223 pp.and Andebrhan Welde Giorgis, Eritrea at a Crossroads: A Narrative of Triumph, Betrayal and Hope, Houston, TX: Strategic Book Publishing, 2014, ISBN-10: 1628573317, 692 pp.

  10. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam


    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  11. Mapping Prosopis spp. with Landsat 8 data in arid environments: Evaluating effectiveness of different methods and temporal imagery selection for Hargeisa, Somaliland (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Tim; Meroni, Michele; Immitzer, Markus; Böck, Sebastian; Leonardi, Ugo; Rembold, Felix; Gadain, Hussein; Atzberger, Clement


    Prosopis spp. is a fast and aggressive invader threatening many arid and semi-arid areas globally. The species is native to the American dry zones and was introduced in Somaliland for dune stabilization and fuel wood production in the 1970⿿s and 1980⿿s. Its deep rooting system is capable of tapping into the groundwater table thereby reducing its reliance on infrequent rainfalls and near-surface water. The competitive advantage of Prosopis is further fuelled by the hybridization of the many introduced subspecies that made the plant capable of adapting to the new environment and replacing endemic species. This study aimed to test the mapping accuracy achievable with Landsat 8 data acquired during the wet and the dry seasons within a Random Forest (RF) classifier, using both pixel- and object-based approaches. Maps are produced for the Hargeisa area (Somaliland), where reference data was collected during the dry season of 2015. Results were assessed through a 10-fold cross-validation procedure. In our study, the highest overall accuracy (74%) was achieved when applying a pixel-based classification using a combination of the wet and dry season Earth observation data. Object-based mapping were less reliable due to the limitations in spatial resolution of the Landsat data (15⿿30 m) and problems in finding an appropriate segmentation scale.

  12. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib


    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  13. The distribution of the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera in Eritrea: the role of environment and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogbazghi, W.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Wessel, M.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.


    Aim We determined the present and past distribution, and the abundance, of Boswellia papyrifera in Eritrea, and the environmental and land-use factors determining its distribution limits. Location Eritrea, in the Horn of Africa. Methods In 1997 a Boswellia field survey was conducted in 113 village

  14. Earthquakes in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This pamphlet provides information about the causes of earthquakes, where earthquakes occur, British Columbia plate techtonics, earthquake patterns, earthquake intensity, geology and earthquake impact...

  15. Structural setting of Neoproterozoic mineralization, Asmara district, Eritrea (United States)

    Ghebreab, Woldai; Greiling, Reinhard O.; Solomon, Semere


    Late Neoproterozoic collision between East and West Gondwana concentrated transpressional deformation in the juvenile crust of the Nubian Shield in Eritrea along at least two steep, curvilinear crustal-scale belts, the Augaro-Adobha Belt (AAB) and the Asmara-Nakfa Belt (ANB). Volcanosedimentary rocks dominantly metamorphosed at greenschist-facies conditions characterize the belts. Each of these belts comprises a complex network of syn-metamorphic shear-fold structures. Steep strike-slip shear zones and accompanying vertical to steeply plunging folds dominated the latest phase of deformation. Quartz vein-hosted gold ± sulphide type and volcanic-hosted massive sulphide type deposits and occurrences are either deformed or hosted by these steep shear zones and folds. The deposits are broadly grouped into three major mineral districts, Asmara, Augaro and Bisha. The Asmara district, the main focus of this study, is located where the southern part of the Asmara-Nakfa Belt changes in strike from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE. Combined field, micro-structural, and magnetic fabric studies are conducted in the sheared host rocks of a series of the mineral deposits and/or occurrences of the Asmara mineral district. These combined studies revealed that the Asmara area was subjected to a transpressional deformation accommodated in a complex and curved flower structure. Both the quartz vein and massive sulphide types of deposits are sheared, folded and generally spatially associated. The ore-bearing quartz veins are often concentrated along dilatant-extensional en-echelon fracture arrays in reverse and normal sense shear zones, and they either cut through or structurally overlie, the massive sulphide deposits. The massive sulphides that formed at the same time as the Neoproterozoic volcanosedimentary rocks were later deformed and metamorphosed with them. This study, along with previous investigations, further implies that the Asmara area represents an intra-arc, palaeo-oceanic trough or

  16. Dengue fever outbreaks in Eritrea, 2005-2015: A case for strengthening surveillance, control and reporting. (United States)

    Usman, Abdulmumini; Ball, Jacob D; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Berhane, Araia; Ghebrat, Yohannes; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Gebresellasie, Azmera; Zehaie, Assefash; Mufunda, Jacob; Liseth, Olivia; Haque, Ubydul; Chanda, Emmanuel


    The geographic distribution and burden of dengue is increasing globally. This study aims to evaluate dengue outbreaks and to substantiate the need for strengthened surveillance, reporting and control in Eritrea. Data from two cross-sectional dengue epidemic investigations in 2005 and 2010 were analyzed. Samples were tested for dengue virus-specific IgM and IgG antibodies using capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Dengue vectors' breeding attributes were characterized and epidemic risk indices determined. National routine surveillance weekly reports from 2005 to the second quarter of 2015 were analyzed for spatiotemporal trends. Dengue outbreaks increased in Eritrea from 2005 to 2015 with clinical presentation varying markedly among patients. The house and container indices for Aedes aegypti were 40 and 39.6 % respectively, with containers having A. aeqypti varying significantly (P Eritrea and necessitates strengthening of surveillance and health worker and laboratory capacity, as well as targeted vector control interventions.

  17. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.


    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per l’Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che un......, Sebsebe Demissew e van Breugel. La distribuzione ed ecologia di P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis in Africa orientale e il Madagascar viene riesaminata, utilizzando i dati quantitativi disponibili. La distribuzione è stata ottenuta da dati d’erbario, mentre sono state valutate anche la distribuzione potenziale...

  18. The choice of a health care provider in Eritrea. (United States)

    Habtom, GebreMichael Kibreab; Ruys, Pieter


    The purpose of the study was to assess the factors that affect patients' choice of health care service providers and to analyse the effect of each factor, and to examine the policy implications for future health care provision in Eritrea. The data for this study was collected in a 10-month period from January to October 2003. A total of 1657 households were included in the study. Our findings reveals that education, perceived quality, distance, user fees, severity of illness, socio-economic status and place of residence are statistically significant in the choice of a health care provider. Our study further shows that illness recognition is much lower for poor and less educated individuals. When an illness is recognized by the individual or household, a typical observation is that health care is less likely to be sought when the individual or household is poor and lives far from the facilities, and then only in case of a serious illness. Information on the choice of health care service providers is crucial for planning, organizing and evaluation of health services. The people's perception of disease/illness, their concept of health and the basis for their choice in health care has to be considered in order to respond with appropriate services and information, education and communication programs.

  19. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib


    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa.......An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  20. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....... located in different regions of Eritrea. Management tools and evaluation guidelines were developed and the pilot project was started in 2004. Supervision, monitoring collection of experience was collected by staff of the Ministry of Education. Experiences, findings and recommendations for solidification...

  1. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib


    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea...... and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  2. First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011. (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O S; Grandin, Raphaël; Barnie, Talfan; Donovan, Amy; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Yohannes, Ermias; Kibrom, Goitom; Kendall, J-Michael; Carn, Simon A; Fee, David; Sealing, Christine; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay; Blundy, Jon; Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Berhe, Seife

    We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of regional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodigious quantity of SO 2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shallow, NW-SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response mitigated the human costs of the eruption.

  3. Urban Sprawl Analysis and Modeling in Asmara, Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie G. Tewolde


    Full Text Available The extension of urban perimeter markedly cuts available productive land. Hence, studies in urban sprawl analysis and modeling play an important role to ensure sustainable urban development. The urbanization pattern of the Greater Asmara Area (GAA, the capital of Eritrea, was studied. Satellite images and geospatial tools were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal urban landuse changes. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA, Landuse Cover Change (LUCC analysis and urban sprawl analysis using Shannon Entropy were carried out. The Land Change Modeler (LCM was used to develop a model of urban growth. The Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network was employed to model the transition potential maps with an accuracy of 85.9% and these were used as an input for the ‘actual’ urban modeling with Markov chains. Model validation was assessed and a scenario of urban land use change of the GAA up to year 2020 was presented. The result of the study indicated that the built-up area has tripled in size (increased by 4,441 ha between 1989 and 2009. Specially, after year 2000 urban sprawl in GAA caused large scale encroachment on high potential agricultural lands and plantation cover. The scenario for year 2020 shows an increase of the built-up areas by 1,484 ha (25% which may cause further loss. The study indicated that the land allocation system in the GAA overrode the landuse plan, which caused the loss of agricultural land and plantation cover. The recommended policy options might support decision makers to resolve further loss of agricultural land and plantation cover and to achieve sustainable urban development planning in the GAA.

  4. Evaluation of prokaryotic diversity of five hot springs in Eritrea. (United States)

    Ghilamicael, Amanuel M; Budambula, Nancy L M; Anami, Sylvester E; Mehari, Tadesse; Boga, Hamadi I


    Total community rDNA was used to determine the diversity of bacteria and archaea from water, wet sediment and microbial mats samples of hot springs in the Eastern lowlands of Eritrea. The temperatures of the springs range from 49.5 °C to 100 °C while pH levels varied from 6.97 to 7.54. Akwar and Maiwooi have high carbonate levels. The springs near the seashore, Garbanabra and Gelti, are more saline with higher levels of sodium and chlorides. Elegedi, situated in the Alid volcanic area, has the highest temperature, iron and sulfate concentrations. The five hot springs shared 901 of 4371 OTUs recovered while the three sample types (water, wet sediment and microbial mats) also shared 1429 OTUs. The Chao1 OTU estimate in water sample was significantly higher than the wet sediment and microbial mat samples. As indicated by NMDS, the community samples at genus level showed location specific clustering. Certain genera correlated with temperature, sodium, carbonate, iron, sulfate and ammonium levels in water. The abundant phyla included Proteobacteria (6.2-82.3%), Firmicutes (1.6-63.5%), Deinococcus-Thermus (0.0-19.2%), Planctomycetes (0.0-11.8%), Aquificae (0.0-9.9%), Chlorobi (0.0-22.3%) and Bacteroidetes (2.7-8.4%). There were significant differences in microbial community structure within the five locations and sample types at OTU level. The occurence of Aquificae, Deinococcus-Thermus, some Cyanobacteria and Crenarchaeota were highly dependent on temperature. The Halobacterium, unclassified Thaumarchaeota, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria showed significant correlation with salinity occurring abundantly in Garbanabra and Gelti. Firmicutes and unclassified Rhodocylaceae were higher in the microbial mat samples, while Archaea were prominent in the wet sediment samples.

  5. First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011 (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O. S.; Grandin, Raphaël; Barnie, Talfan; Donovan, Amy; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Yohannes, Ermias; Kibrom, Goitom; Kendall, J.-Michael; Carn, Simon A.; Fee, David; Sealing, Christine; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay; Blundy, Jon; Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Berhe, Seife


    We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of regional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodigious quantity of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shallow, NW-SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response mitigated the human costs of the eruption.

  6. Human resource management and performance in a developing country : the case of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Luchien; Ghebregiorgis, F.

    This study investigates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance. Results based on a sample of 82 organizations from private and public sectors in Eritrea indicate that some of the practices have a significant impact on employee turnover,

  7. A tradition in transition: water management reforms and indigenous spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, A.M.


    This book, based on a research conducted in the Wadi Laba, Eritrea, gives a comprehensive insight of the oldest, but the least understood indigenous water management systems for spate irrigation that relied on earthen/brushwood structures and customary water rights. The research further analyses the

  8. Bottlenecks in the provision of quality mental health services in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The status of mental disorders and the mental health services in Eritrea from the policy to management guidelines requires urgent review. Significant Outcomes: a) In resource limited settings, the integrated primary health care approach for mental health services is cost effective and avoids associated stigma.

  9. The elephants of Gash-Barka, Eritrea: nuclear and mitochondrial genetic patterns. (United States)

    Brandt, Adam L; Hagos, Yohannes; Yacob, Yohannes; David, Victor A; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Shoshani, Jeheskel; Roca, Alfred L


    Eritrea has one of the northernmost populations of African elephants. Only about 100 elephants persist in the Gash-Barka administrative zone. Elephants in Eritrea have become completely isolated, with no gene flow from other elephant populations. The conservation of Eritrean elephants would benefit from an understanding of their genetic affinities to elephants elsewhere on the continent and the degree to which genetic variation persists in the population. Using dung samples from Eritrean elephants, we examined 18 species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms in 3 nuclear genes, sequences of mitochondrial HVR1 and ND5, and genotyped 11 microsatellite loci. The sampled Eritrean elephants carried nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers establishing them as savanna elephants, with closer genetic affinity to Eastern than to North Central savanna elephant populations, and contrary to speculation by some scholars that forest elephants were found in Eritrea. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was relatively low, with 2 haplotypes unique to Eritrea predominating. Microsatellite genotypes could only be determined for a small number of elephants but suggested that the population suffers from low genetic diversity. Conservation efforts should aim to protect Eritrean elephants and their habitat in the short run, with restoration of habitat connectivity and genetic diversity as long-term goals.

  10. Wage Labor and Mobility in Colonial Eritrea, 1880s to 1920s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Zaccaria, Massimo


    Mobility and wage labor are two key variables that help to explain some of the complexities of the labor history of colonial Eritrea. Focusing on the initial period of Italian colonization, between the 1880s and 1920s, this article analyzes the relationship between the two above-mentioned variables.

  11. Multilingual Education Policy in Practice: Classroom Literacy Instruction in Different Scripts in Eritrea (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Kroon, Sjaak


    This contribution compares literacy instruction in three different scripts in Eritrea. It uses data stemming from classroom observations of beginning readers of Tigrinya (Ge'ez script), Arabic (Arabic script) and Saho (Roman alphabet), the examination of teaching materials, and teacher interviews. Our analysis focuses on literacy events. We…

  12. Quality of Maternity Care at Health Facilities in Eritrea in 2008 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the quality of maternal health services at health facilities in Eritrea. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey of all hospitals and health centers and a random sample of a third of health stations. Extensive interviews with health providers and facility managers were undertaken using structured ...

  13. Eritrea-Ethiopia Arbitration: A 'Cure' Based on Neither Diagnosis nor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eritrea-Ethiopia peace process remains stalled a decade after the arbitral award by the Boundary Commission and several years after awards by the Claims Commission. This article assesses why arbitration by the two commissions did not produce the desired outcome. To this end, the author analyzes primary and ...

  14. Caesarian section rates in private and public hospitals in Eritrea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Caesarian section is one of the skilled delivery attendance interventions that have proven to be a life saver. There are standard indications for its use in delivery. The practice of cesarean section in public and private hospitals has not been studied in Eritrea. Objective: The purpose of this retrospective ...

  15. Designing Media and ICT Strategies for Non-Formal Education in Eritrea (United States)

    Murthy, C. S. H. N.


    Designing media and ICT strategies for a newly formed country like Eritrea, which has endured 30 years of armed struggle, leading to massive destruction followed by serial drought, is fraught with numerous constraints: limitation of human resources (e.g. qualified personnel), infrastructure and financial constraints. At the same time, though it…

  16. The impact of slow privatisation in the beverage and textile industry in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailemariam, Stifanos; Eije, Henk van


    In many developing countries the privatisation of state owned enterprises is receiving increased attention but the selling of the enterprises is difficult. In Eritrea state owned enterprises were offered for sale at the end of 1996, but many of the relatively large companies are not privatised yet.

  17. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    one third of live deliveries can be reduced to <2% through antiretroviral prophylaxis. The study was done to determine the effectiveness of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS in Eritrea where skilled care delivery is less than 30%. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the use of ...

  18. Spate Irrigation Systems and Watershed Development in Eritrea: the case of Sheeb watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.


    This paper describes the interactions of the Spate Irrigation System (SIS) in Eritrea with their upper watersheds, as a case study in Sheeb watershed. The spate irrigation practices, among others, include techniques to harvest runoff water, sediments, and nutrients. A strong relationship exists

  19. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programmes : evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.


    In this paper, we provide an empirical analysis of the impact of monitoring and social ties within group lending programs on moral hazard behavior of its participants, based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We find support for the fact that

  20. Mellem Globale Projekter og Lokale Virkeligheder - Uddannelse i Nepal og Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius; Valentin, Karen


    funderede forestillinger om uddannelse og det uddannede menneske påvirker børn og unge i lande i 3. verden,  der er involveret i udviklingsbistand. Centralt i denne proces er også internationale politiske tiltag, der handler om børns og unges rettigheder. Eksemplerne er hentet fra Nepal og Eritrea, lande...

  1. Prevalence of dental caries in high school students in Asmara, Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental Caries is a common but unnoticed health problem affecting all age groups Dental Surgeon to population ration is 1:900000 rendering effective service with this scarce man power impossible. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in Eritrea. Method: A cross-sectional comparative study ...

  2. Bottlenecks in the provision of quality mental health services in Eritrea.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can ... Conclusion: The status of mental disorders and the mental health services in Eritrea from the policy to management guidelines requires urgent ... care approach for mental health services is cost effective and avoids associated stigma.

  3. Caesarian section rates in private and public hospitals in Eritrea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Since becoming independent in 1991, Eritrea has faced many health challenges especially high maternal mortality. The maternal mortality rate witnessed a very welcome steady decline from 998/1000001 at the time of independence to near 450/100000 in. 20052.One of the success tools in decreasing ...

  4. Population structure and morphology of the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera along an altitude gradient in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogbazghi, W.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Wessel, M.


    In Eritrea, the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera is a multipurpose plant. Human induced factors such as land clearing for agriculture, overgrazing by livestock and overtapping of resin are threatening its distribution. Against this background, a study was carried out to investigate the species

  5. Consolidating strategic planning and operational frameworks for integrated vector management in Eritrea. (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Mihreteab, Selam; Berhane, Araia; Zehaie, Assefash; Ghebrat, Yohannes; Usman, Abdulmumini


    Contemporary malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticide-based, indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, malaria-endemic countries, including Eritrea, have struggled to effectively deploy these tools due technical and operational challenges, including the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. This manuscript outlines the processes undertaken in consolidating strategic planning and operational frameworks for vector control to expedite malaria elimination in Eritrea. The effort to strengthen strategic frameworks for vector control in Eritrea was the 'case' for this study. The integrated vector management (IVM) strategy was developed in 2010 but was not well executed, resulting in a rise in malaria transmission, prompting a process to redefine and relaunch the IVM strategy with integration of other vector borne diseases (VBDs) as the focus. The information sources for this study included all available data and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Eritrea. Structured literature searches of published, peer-reviewed sources using online, scientific, bibliographic databases, Google Scholar, PubMed and WHO, and a combination of search terms were utilized to gather data. The literature was reviewed and adapted to the local context and translated into the consolidated strategic framework. In Eritrea, communities are grappling with the challenge of VBDs posing public health concerns, including malaria. The global fund financed the scale-up of IRS and LLIN programmes in 2014. Eritrea is transitioning towards malaria elimination and strategic frameworks for vector control have been consolidated by: developing an integrated vector management (IVM) strategy (2015-2019); updating IRS and larval source management (LSM) guidelines; developing training manuals for IRS and LSM; training of national staff in malaria entomology and vector control, including insecticide resistance

  6. Chronocentrism and British criminology. (United States)

    Rock, Paul


    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  7. Exposure to Traumatic Experiences Among Asylum Seekers from Eritrea and Sudan During Migration to Israel. (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Langer, Benjamin; Nagar, Maayan; Shoham, Shahar; Lurie, Ido; Davidovitch, Nadav


    Little is known about the experiences of displaced individuals en route to destination countries. We investigated the reported prevalence of exposure to traumatic experiences during migration among a consecutive sample of adult asylum seekers (n = 895 Eritrean, n = 149 Sudanese) who sought health services in the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Percentage of Eritrean and Sudanese men and women who reported witnessing violence (Eritrea: men: 41.3 %, women: 29.3 %; Sudan: men: 16.8 %, women: 22.2 %) and/or being a victim of violence (Eritrea: men: 56.0 %, Women: 34.9 %; Sudan: men: 51.9 % women: 44.4 %) during migration varied by gender and country of origin. Findings highlight the need for a well-coordinated international cooperation to document and prevent these transgressions.

  8. The Role of Muslim Mentors in Eritrea: Religion, Health and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bruzzi


    Full Text Available The role of Islam and the participation of Muslim shaykhs, in both defining and implementing colonial policies in Eritrea, have roused less interest among scholars than Christian and missionary activities. This article sheds more light on the Islamic players and especially on the role of a holy family: the Mīrghanī. During the Colonial occupation of Eritrea this family adapted to the political and economic context imposed by the colonial rule. Our aim is to point out their activity not only as religious representatives, but also as medical mentors for local people. As a social and religious focal point, it is remarkable to see their growing interest, not only in endogenous and Islamic practices, but also in colonial medicine within the context of their charity work for the sick.

  9. Prevalence of Giardiasis due to wastewater reuse for agriculture in the suburbs of Asmara City, Eritrea. (United States)

    Srikanth, R; Naik, Durgadas


    A study was undertaken to assess the health impact of utilization of the raw domestic sewage for vegetable cultivation in the suburbs of the capital city of Asmara, Eritrea. Standard techniques were adopted for the analysis of the samples. Results showed heavy contamination of vegetables by faecal coliforms as well as with Giardia cysts. Stool samples of 75 farmers who were occupationally exposed revealed that 45% of them were harbouring giardia cysts. The dietary intake of raw salads (lettuce, cabbage) grown on the raw sewage appear to be a causative factor of Giardiasis in the farming community as well as in the town of Tsadachristian located on the suburbs of the capital city of Asmara. The hospital data of the affected town is compared with other towns of Eritrea. The result indicates agriculture reuse of untreated wastewater is a major cause for the increase in Giardasis.

  10. Health effects of wastewater reuse for agriculture in the suburbs of Asmara city, Eritrea. (United States)

    Srikanth, Raghavachari; Naik, Durgadas


    The health impact of utilization of raw domestic sewage for vegetable cultivation in the suburbs of Asmara, Eritrea, was assessed. Results showed heavy contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms and Giardia cysts as well as other pathogenic bacteria such as Shigella and Salmonella. Stool samples from 75 occupationally exposed farmers revealed that 45% of them were harboring Giardia cysts. Dietary intake of raw greens (lettuce, cabbage) grown on the raw sewage appears to cause giardiasis, amebiasis, and diarrhea in the farming community as well as in the surrounding area. Comparison of hospital data from the affected area with data from other areas of Eritrea indicated that agriculture use of untreated wastewater was the major cause of the increase in giardiasis and other gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. Risk management strategies on small-scale commercial farms in three zobatat of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Mohammed


    Full Text Available In this study the perceptions of small-scale commercial farmers in Eritrea of the importance of various risk responses are ascertained and analysed to gain insight into their risk-management strategies.  Data were elicited through a survey of 186 small-scale commercial farmers conducted in three zobatat (regions of Eritrea. Factor Analysis is used to investigate heterogeneity in sample farmers’ responses.  Results indicate that relatively more important risk responses include the use of internal and external sources of information, on-farm and off-farm diversification, choice of production system and product marketing arrangements. Farmers’ perceptions of risk responses vary according to farm type, geographical location, farm and farmer characteristics, as well as the existence of enterprise specific risk responses (e.g. livestock insurance and differences in the marketing regulations of various agricultural products.

  12. Laws of return and ethnic cleansing: the case of Eritrea and Ethiopia:


    Schaeffer, Robert


    In 1992, the Provisional Government of Eritrea published a Nationality Proclamation that offered citizenship to ethnic nationals who lived abroad in Diaspora communities. This law, like the 'Laws of Return' adopted by other countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Israel, and Germany), was designed to encourage immigration, a legitimate purpose. But because this Laws of Return also denied non-national ethnic residents the same rights offered to immigrants, and encouraged the emigration or exit ...

  13. L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak


    A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

  14. Molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance related genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Eritrea. (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; Nurahmed, Abduselam M; Talha, Albadawi A; Nour, Bakri Y M; Severini, Carlo


    The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy has led to extraordinary results in malaria control, however the recent emergence of partial resistance to artemisinin therapy in Southeast Asia jeopardizes these successes. This study aimed at investigating resistance to the antimalarial drugs by evaluating the polymorphisms in the PfK13, Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes in Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained from patients in Eritrea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in Eritrea. (United States)

    Ghebremariam, Michael K; Rutten, V P M G; Vernooij, J C M; Uqbazghi, K; Tesfaalem, T; Butsuamlak, T; Idris, A M; Nielen, M; Michel, A L


    The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy cattle in the three major milk producing regions of Eritrea was assessed by subjecting 15,354 dairy cattle, 50 % of Eritrea's dairy cattle population, to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Skin test results were interpreted according to guidelines of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) with >4 mm as cutoff in skin thickness increase. In addition, we studied the relation between 'physiological' variables related to pregnancy and lactation, and the variable 'region' on the probability to be skin test positive. The BTB prevalences at animal and herd levels were: 21.5% and 40.9% in Maekel, 7.3% and 10% in Debub, and 0.2% and 1.6% in the Anseba region, respectively. Overall, in the regions included, prevalence was 11.3% (confidence interval (CI) 95% CI, 11.29 - 11.31%) and 17.3% (95% CI, 17.27-17.33%), at animal and herd level, respectively. Considering positive herds only, the animal BTB prevalence was 36.8%, 30.1%, and 1.8%, in Maekel, Debub and Anseba, respectively, and the overall animal prevalence within these herds was 32%. In adult dairy cattle the probability of positive reactivity in the SICTT test was highest in pregnant animals as compared to the other categories. This study reports persistent prevalence of BTB as defined by positive SICTT in the dairy sector of Eritrea, especially in the regions of Maekel and Debub that are located in the central highlands of the country. To our understanding this is the first report that has encompassed all the major dairy farms in Eritrea and it will be instrumental in advocating future BTB control programs in the dairy sector.

  16. Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis) in asylum seekers from Eritrea, the Netherlands, July 2015. (United States)

    Wilting, K R; Stienstra, Y; Sinha, B; Braks, M; Cornish, D; Grundmann, H


    Two patients from Eritrea, recently arrived in the Netherlands, presented with fever and were investigated for malaria. Bloodfilms showed spirochetes but no blood parasites. Louse-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis was diagnosed. Treatment was complicated by severe Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions in both patients. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of B. recurrentis infection in migrant populations who travel under crowded conditions, especially after passing through endemic areas such as Ethiopia and neighbouring countries.

  17. Serological Evidence Indicates that Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O, C and SAT1 are most Dominant in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekleghiorghis, T.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Weerdmeester, K.; Dekker, A.


    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eritrea and in most parts of Africa. To be able to control FMD using vaccination, information on the occurrence of various foot-and-mouth disease serotypes in Eritrea is needed. In this cross-sectional study, 212 sera samples were collected from FMD

  18. Evaluation of an online master's programme in Somaliland. A phenomenographic study on the experience of professional and personal development among midwifery faculty. (United States)

    Erlandsson, Kerstin; Osman, Fatumo; Hatakka, Mathias; Egal, Jama Ali; Byrskog, Ulrika; Pedersen, Christina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie


    To record the variation of perceptions of midwifery faculty in terms of the possibilities and challenges related to the completion of their first online master's level programme in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights in Somaliland. The informants included in this phenomenongraphical focus group study were those well-educated professional women and men who completed the master's program. The informant perceived that this first online master's level programme provided tools for independent use of the Internet and independent searching for evidence-based information, enhanced professional development, was challenge-driven and evoked curiosity, challenged professional development, enhanced personal development and challenged context-bound career paths. Online education makes it possible for well-educated professional women to continue higher education. It furthermore increased the informants' confidence in their use of Internet, software and databases and in the use of evidence in both their teaching and their clinical practice. Programmes such as the one described in this paper could counter the difficulties ensuring best practice by having a critical mass of midwives who will be able to continually gather contemporary midwifery evidence and use it to ensure best practice. An increase of online education is suggested in South-central Somalia and in similar settings globally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: analysing the contextual and social network factors influencing the use of sustainability indicators in a health system--a comparative study in Nepal and Somaliland. (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Palmer, Jennifer; Palanchowke, Raju; Boggs, Dorothy; Jama, Ali; Girois, Susan


    Health systems strengthening is becoming a key component of development agendas for low-income countries worldwide. Systems thinking emphasizes the role of diverse stakeholders in designing solutions to system problems, including sustainability. The objective of this paper is to compare the definition and use of sustainability indicators developed through the Sustainability Analysis Process in two rehabilitation sectors, one in Nepal and one in Somaliland, and analyse the contextual factors (including the characteristics of system stakeholder networks) influencing the use of sustainability data. Using the Sustainability Analysis Process, participants collectively clarified the boundaries of their respective systems, defined sustainability, and identified sustainability indicators. Baseline indicator data was gathered, where possible, and then researched again 2 years later. As part of the exercise, system stakeholder networks were mapped at baseline and at the 2-year follow-up. We compared stakeholder networks and interrelationships with baseline and 2-year progress toward self-defined sustainability goals. Using in-depth interviews and observations, additional contextual factors affecting the use of sustainability data were identified. Differences in the selection of sustainability indicators selected by local stakeholders from Nepal and Somaliland reflected differences in the governance and structure of the present rehabilitation system. At 2 years, differences in the structure of social networks were more marked. In Nepal, the system stakeholder network had become more dense and decentralized. Financial support by an international organization facilitated advancement toward self-identified sustainability goals. In Somaliland, the small, centralised stakeholder network suffered a critical rupture between the system's two main information brokers due to competing priorities and withdrawal of international support to one of these. Progress toward self

  20. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel


    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... different “British worlds” against each other....

  1. Effectiveness of malaria control during changing climate conditions in Eritrea, 1998-2003. (United States)

    Graves, Patricia M; Osgood, Daniel E; Thomson, Madeleine C; Sereke, Kiros; Araia, Afwerki; Zerom, Mehari; Ceccato, Pietro; Bell, Michael; Del Corral, John; Ghebreselassie, Shashu; Brantly, Eugene P; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde


    To assess the effectiveness of impregnated mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying and larval control relative to the impacts of climate variability in the decline of malaria cases in Eritrea. Monthly data on clinical malaria cases by subzoba (district) in three zobas (zones) of Eritrea for 1998-2003 were used in Poisson regression models to determine whether there is statistical evidence for reduction in cases by DDT, malathion, impregnated nets and larval control used over the period, while analysing the effects of satellite-derived climate variables in the same geographic areas. Both indoor residual spraying (with DDT or malathion) and impregnated nets were independently and significantly negatively associated with reduction in malaria cases, as was larval control in one zoba. Malaria cases were significantly positively related to differences in current and previous months' vegetation (NDVI) anomalies. The relationship to rainfall differences 2 and 3 months previously was also significant, but the direction of the effect varied by zoba. Standardized regression coefficients indicated a greater effect of climate in the zoba with less intense malaria transmission. The results support the view that both indoor residual spraying and impregnated nets have been independently effective against malaria, and that larval control was also effective in one area. Thus climate, while significant, is not the only explanation for the recent decline in malaria cases in Eritrea. If appropriate statistical approaches are used, routine surveillance data from cases attending health facilities can be useful for assessing control programme success and providing estimates of the effectiveness of individual control measures. Effectiveness estimates suitable for use in cost-effectiveness analysis have been obtained.

  2. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programmes: evidence from Eritrea


    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.


    In this paper, we provide an empirical analysis of the impact of monitoring and social ties within group lending programs on moral hazard behavior of its participants, based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We find support for the fact that peer monitoring by and social ties of group leaders do help to reduce moral hazard behavior of group members. In contrast, peer monitoring by and social ties of other group members are not related to...



    Rena, Ravinder


    The role of Eritrean women in thirty years war of independence brought major changes and reflects in the present demography and economy of Eritrea in the development arena. Their participation in the economy contributes to local production and income by filling the gaps left by men who died in the war or who have left the country and settled in different parts of the world. Despite the growing importance of women for the formal economy, jobs and self-employment opportunities available to wom...

  4. Do women with higher autonomy seek more maternal health care? Evidence from Eritrea and Ethiopia. (United States)

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam


    Using data from the 2002 Eritrea and 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study was carried out to investigate the link between women's autonomy and maternal health care utilization in relation to socioeconomic factors. Although some dimensions of women's autonomy are significantly linked to an increased likelihood of receiving health care, they do not emerge to be mediators of the link between socioeconomic factors and use of health services for antenatal care and delivery care. In order to derive a complete understanding of the determinants of maternal health care utilization, both women's autonomy and socioeconomic indicators should be analyzed.

  5. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca


    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  6. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock


    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  7. Soil strength assessment using threshold probability approach on soils from three agro-ecological zones in Eritrea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekeste, M.A.; Habtzghi, D.H.; Stroosnijder, L.


    Soils in many agro-ecological zones in Eritrea, a country in sub-Saharan Africa, are low in productivity due to erosion, low organic matter and poor soil management. Recently, mechanised farming has been intensively practiced to increase agricultural food production. However, the use of heavy

  8. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica with Liposomal Amphothericin B in an Immunocompromised Traveler Returning from Eritrea (United States)

    Zanger, Philipp; Kötter, Ina; Raible, Armin; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Schönian, Gabriele; Kremsner, Peter G.


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica is rarely encountered outside disease-endemic areas and there have been no clinical trials evaluating its pharmacotherapy. We describe the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica using liposomal amphothericin B in an immunocompromised traveler returning from Eritrea. PMID:21540377

  9. Reflecting on the EFA Global Monitoring Report's Framework for Understanding Quality Education: A Teacher's Perspective in Eritrea (United States)

    Gordon, Charlie


    This paper considers issues concerning the quality of education in Eritrea using the Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report's (GMR) framework for quality education. Drawing on 2 years school-based professional experience in the country, the multiple factors affecting quality in schooling are discussed. The applicability of the GMR…

  10. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.


    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Tesfamariam Bahta


    Full Text Available This paper uses household level data collected from November 2010 to December 2011 for 303 respondents to examine probable determinants of poverty status employing descriptive analysis and Probit models. The descriptive result of mean per capita food expenditure (MPKFE in ZobaMaekel of Eritrea found that all the households’ heads are poor. The result of Probit analysis shows that poverty status is strongly associated with almost all variables used. Education level, type of resident, size of land, number of meal, remittance, access of credit from relatives, credit institutions, opinion to credit, rain fed crop, irrigated crop, income from agriculture and income from -non-agriculture were found to be negatively associated with food self-sufficiency as a proxy of poverty. However, family number, number of children, children at school age and rent of land highly positively related to poverty. For instance, higher levels of educational attainment will provide higher levels of welfare for the household. Education is not sufficient condition to escape from poverty. This indicates that there are other factors which affect poverty of a household in conjunction with education. There is a need for providing complementary factors alongside with education to alleviate poverty. Remittance is a good indicator of poverty, showing strong family ties within Eritrean society, the fact that Eritrea does not have social security system it may help to pursue policies which foster cultural ties and family networks as part of poverty alleviating endeavor. Polices to enhance social capital should be stressed more.

  12. The relationship between female genital cutting and women's autonomy in Eritrea. (United States)

    Besera, Ghenet; Roess, Amira


    To investigate the relationship between women's autonomy and attitudes toward female genital cutting (FGC) and having a daughter with FGC in Eritrea. Data from a nationally representative sample of 8754 women aged between 15 and 49 years from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of the practice of and attitudes toward FGC, including women's autonomy. Sixty-three percent (n = 3168) of women sampled had at least one daughter who had undergone FGC and 50.1% (n = 4848) of women believed FGC should continue. When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of supporting the continuation of FGC were greater among women who justified wife beating (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.66). Among women who participated in household decisions, the odds of them supporting the continuation of FGC were less than among women who did not participate in household decisions (aOR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99). Interventions addressing women's autonomy, specifically attitudes toward gender norms and increasing women's involvement in household decisions that carry a greater responsibility, may be a useful approach to reduce the support for and practice of FGC. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Barriers to and facilitators of hypertension management in Asmara, Eritrea: patients' perspectives. (United States)

    Gebrezgi, Merhawi Teklezgi; Trepka, Mary Jo; Kidane, Eyob Azaria


    Personal hypertension management is a cornerstone in the prevention of hypertension complications. In Eritrea, the increase in the national life expectancy rate has been accompanied by an increase in hypertension complications such as stroke. Hence, this study was designed to identify barriers and facilitates to hypertension management from the perspective of the patients. This was a qualitative study of a total of 48 individual in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. It was conducted among hypertensive patients who were attending outpatient services at two hospitals in Asmara, Eritrea. This study identified barriers and facilitators of hypertension management related to the individual patient, family and community, and healthcare system. With respect to individual factors, economic barriers, stress, non-adherence to medications due to the use of traditional remedies, and difficulties and misconceptions about following physical activity guidelines were mentioned as barriers to hypertension management. Related to the community and healthcare system, low community awareness, community stigma, and inadequate health promotion materials were stated as barriers. Individual knowledge, family, and government support were reported as very important factors to the patient's success in the personal hypertension management. Counseling patients about adherence to medication, strengthening family and government support, and empowering families and the community with appropriate knowledge of hypertension management could potentially help in an individual's adherence.

  14. Maternal mortality in Eritrea: Improvements associated with centralization of obstetric services. (United States)

    Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Greiner, Dorothea; Schwidtal, Peter


    To reduce maternal mortality and move more effectively toward achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 it is important to learn from positive national experiences and to try to isolate the significant factors that were successful. Maternal mortality in Eritrea is still high, but within the period since the country's independence in 1991, the Eritrean Government has received support to improve maternal health from two German nongovernmental organizations: the Hammer Forum and Archemed. This support has focused on prenatal care, contraception counseling, postabortion care, and most notably the centralization of obstetric and neonatal services in the capital, Asmara, and in the second biggest city, Keren. It is now possible to tentatively evaluate the effect of this approach. National data show that the maternal mortality ratio declined from 998 per 100000 live births in 1995 to 486 in 2010. Although the positive effect of skilled birth attendants in the periphery is also well documented, the centralization of obstetric services in Eritrea seems to have been a major factor in the country's considerable progress toward achieving MDG 5. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfusion transmitted infections - a retrospective analysis from the National Blood Transfusion Service in Eritrea. (United States)

    Fessehaye, Nahom; Naik, Durgadas; Fessehaye, Tesfay


    The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. The study population included all donors who donated blood from January 2006 to November 2009. The data was collected from the National Blood Transfusion Services (NTBS) of Eritrea and includes category of donor and result for TTI markers. A total of 29,501 units of blood were collected from 23,385(79%) voluntary blood donors and the rest 6,116(21%) units were collected from family replacement donors. The over all prevalence of TTI's were 3.8% with 3.5% in voluntary blood donors and 5.1% in family replacement donors. The sero-prevalence for TTI markers were 0.18% HIV, 2.58% HBV, 0.57% HCV and 0.49% Syphilis. In conclusion, even if the TTI prevalence rate among Eritrean blood donors is low, ensuring blood safety has a long way to go.

  16. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum isolates lacking histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 in Eritrea. (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; L'Episcopia, Mariangela; Nurahmed, Abduselam M; Talha, Albadawi A; Nour, Bakri Y M; Severini, Carlo


    The histidine-rich protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum is the most common malaria antigen targeted by rapid diagnostic tests for the specific diagnosis of P. falciparum. Recently, pfhrp2 gene deletions have been documented in P. falciparum isolates from South America and some multiple endemic countries in Africa and Asia. Parasites with such gene deletions can produce false negative diagnostic results using HRP2-based rapid diagnostic kits. In the present work, the prevalence of P. falciparum parasites lacking pfhrp2, pfhrp3, which produces a second P. falciparum antigen that is recognized by PfHRP2 -based rapid diagnostic tests, and their flanking genes was evaluated in 135 P. falciparum isolates from Gash Barka region and in 9 isolates from Debub region, in Eritrea. In the analyzed samples, 56% (81/144) of isolates were pfhrp2/pfhrp3 positive, while 9.7% (14/144) showed deletion of exon 2 of pfhrp2 gene and 43% (62/144) of isolates lacked the pfhrp3 gene. These results suggest that the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletion phenomenon is present in a considerable proportion in the study areas, thus making the HRP2/3 based rapid diagnostic tests not completely reliable for malaria diagnosis in Eritrea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transfusion transmitted infections – A retrospective analysis from the National Blood Transfusion Service in Eritrea (United States)

    Fessehaye, Nahom; Naik, Durgadas; Fessehaye, Tesfay


    Background The emergence of transfusion transmitted infection (TTI) especially HIV/AIDS has created a huge obstacle in ensuring blood safety. To assess the situation in Eritrea, we carried out a retrospective study of 29,501 blood donors for the prevalence of TTI's i.e. HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis. Methods The study population included all donors who donated blood from January 2006 to November 2009. The data was collected from the National Blood Transfusion Services (NTBS) of Eritrea and includes category of donor and result for TTI markers. Results A total of 29,501 units of blood were collected from 23,385(79%) voluntary blood donors and the rest 6,116(21%) units were collected from family replacement donors. The over all prevalence of TTI's were 3.8% with 3.5% in voluntary blood donors and 5.1% in family replacement donors. The sero-prevalence for TTI markers were 0.18% HIV, 2.58% HBV, 0.57% HCV and 0.49% Syphilis. Conclusion In conclusion, even if the TTI prevalence rate among Eritrean blood donors is low, ensuring blood safety has a long way to go. PMID:22145069

  18. Analysis of Long-range Clean Energy Investment Scenarios forEritrea, East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, Robert D.


    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors.

  19. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown


    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  20. Pre-, Syn- and Post Eruptive Seismicity of the 2011 Eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Hammond, James; Kendall, Michael; Nowacky, Andy; Keir, Derek; Oppenheimer, Clive; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Ayele, Atalay; Ibrahim, Said; Jacques, Eric


    Nabro volcano, located in south-east Eritrea, East Africa, lies at the eastern margin of the Afar Rift and the Danakil Depression. Its tectonic behaviour is controlled by the divergence of the Arabian, Nubian and Somali plates. Nabro volcano was thought to be seismically quiet until it erupted in June 2011 with limited warning. The volcano erupted on June 12, 2011 around 20:32 UTC, following a series of earthquakes on that day that reached a maximum magnitude of 5.8. It is the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano and only the second in Eritrea, following the Dubbi eruption in 1861. A lava flow emerged from the caldera and travelled about 20 km from the vent and buried settlements in the area. At the time of this eruption there was no seismic network in Eritrea, and hence the volcano was not monitored. In this study we use ten Ethiopian, one Yemeni and one Djibouti stations to investigate the seismicity of the area before, during and after the eruption. Four Eritrean seismic stations deployed in June 2011, four days after the eruption, are also included in the dataset. Travel time picks supplied by colleagues from Djibouti were also incorporated into the dataset. Our analysis covers roughly three months before and after the eruption and shows that Nabro was seismically quiet before the eruption (nine events), with the exception of one major earthquake (4.8 magnitude) that occurred on March 31, 2011. In contrast, the region shows continued seismic activity after the eruption (92 events). During the eruption seismicity levels are high (123 events), with two days particularly active, June 12 and June 17 with 85 and 28 discrete events, respectively. Maximum magnitudes of 5.8 and 5.9 were recorded on these two days. The two days of increased seismicity are consistent with satellite observations of the eruption which show two distinct phases of the eruption. The period between these two phases was dominated by volcanic tremor. The tremor signal lasted for almost one

  1. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.


    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and associated factors among 12 years old students in Eritrea. (United States)

    Andegiorgish, Amanuel Kidane; Weldemariam, Bizen Weldmicheal; Kifle, Meron Mehari; Mebrahtu, Filmon Gebreysus; Zewde, Henos Keflom; Tewelde, Micheal Gebregziabhir; Hussen, Mohammed Anwar; Tsegay, Winta Kesete


    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases of childhood in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries in Eritrea. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among 12 years old school children in Eritrea. A school based cross sectional study was conducted among 225 twelve years old students in two selected schools. One school from randomly selected urban and rural subzones of the country were selected. WHO adopted questionnaire and a standard checklist were used to collect relevant data. To assess dental caries, two examiners were calibrated by a certified dentist and inter observer agreement was calculated using the Cohen's Kappa statistic (0.82). All data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. The prevalence of dental caries was 78%, without significant difference between males (78%) and females (79%).The mean DMFT value was 2.50 (±2.21). The decayed component contributed 98.3% of the score as it had 2.44 (±1.2) share to the mean DMFT value. The first molar was the most affected tooth with a DMFT value of 1.55 (±1.36). The mean significant caries index score (SiC) was 4.97 (±1.9) which is higher than the upper limit of SiC value of 3 set by the WHO as a global average. More than half of the respondents had never visited a dentist and out of the students who had utilized a dental health facility, 82% of visits were due to dental pain while visits for regular checkups were cited by only 6.6% of the respondents. Dental caries was found to be a common public health problem among 12 years old Eritrean students. The prevalence of dental caries, mean DMFT and SiC scores were higher than the average score of other developing countries. Gaps in dental health service utilization, dental health practices and suboptimal water fluoride levels contribute to poor dental health among school children in Eritrea.

  3. Microcomputing in British planning education


    I Masser; G Teet


    The findings of a survey of British planning schools carried out during spring 1986 suggest that the number of microcomputers available in British planning schools has increased by at least two-and-a-half times over an eighteen-month period. However, compulsory courses on computer applications and information management in these schools still tend to be linked with quantitative methods teaching and few opportunities are provided for more advanced training in information management in most sch...

  4. War and food security in Eritrea and Ethiopia, 1998-2000. (United States)

    White, Philip


    This paper examines the 1998-2000 'border' war between Eritrea and Ethiopia and its continuing legacies from the perspective of food security. Focusing on the food crisis that hit both countries during the same period and was allowed to develop into a famine in southeast Ethiopia, it argues that this was linked with the war in more ways than hitherto recognised. Such connections can be appreciated only by taking a longer-term view of the decline of the rural economy of which this food crisis was part, factoring in the role played by this and other conflicts that have flared up in the region. An analysis of this kind might have helped donors and aid agencies to respond more effectively both to short-term humanitarian needs in the midst of an inter-state war and to the need for longer-term support for food security in a region beset by endemic conflict.

  5. Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Fee, David; Matoza, Robin S.; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Ogden, Darcy E.


    The lowermost portion of an explosive volcanic eruption column is considered a momentum-driven jet. Understanding volcanic jets is critical for determining eruption column dynamics and mitigating volcanic hazards; however, volcanic jets are inherently difficult to observe due to their violence and opacity. Infrasound from the 2011 eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea has waveform features highly similar to the "crackle" phenomenon uniquely produced by man-made supersonic jet engines and rockets and is characterized by repeated asymmetric compressions followed by weaker, gradual rarefactions. This infrasonic crackle indicates that infrasound source mechanisms in sustained volcanic eruptions are strikingly similar to jet noise sources from heated, supersonic jet engines and rockets, suggesting that volcanologists can utilize the modeling and physical understandings of man-made jets to understand volcanic jets. The unique, distinctive infrasonic crackle from Nabro highlights the use of infrasound to remotely detect and characterize hazardous eruptions and its potential to determine volcanic jet parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is an arid area. P. sinuatus is not a member of the Eritrean herpetofauna. Although the marked preponderance of the crocodile remains is probably connected to the taphonomy of the sites and the collecting methods used, the ecological value of the reptile fauna corroborates that of the mammals, in indicating a lacustrine or fluvio-deltaic palaeoenvironment and a tropical/subtropical or even sub-Sahelic climate. The Buia remains represent the first reported Eritrean palaeoherpetofauna. 


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper offers a preliminary overview on the large fossil mammals (Primates, Hyaenidae, Proboscidea, Rhinocerotidae, Equidae, Hippopotamidae, Suidae, Giraffidae, and Bovidae from the Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea. The 1995-1997 Eritrean-italian fossil collection has been revised and studied. A few significant remains collected during the 2002-2004 field activities have also been included. Eighteen species of mammals have been identified, described and illustrated in the principal specimens. The systematic study allows general coclusions on the biochronologic and paleoenvironmental significance of the faunal assemblage. This study is completed by an analysis of “Genus Faunal Resemblance Index” (GFRI with some well known faunal assemblages of Africa across the time span Late Pliocene – Middle Pleistocene.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Mwangi


    Full Text Available This paper subsumes the mysticism of Chinese law by distinguishing it from other bodies of law, while also rendering it transcendental in the contemporary universal legal context. It is also an attempt to romanticize Chinese constitutional law, as afertile ground that can be used to re-thread the fabric of Eritrean constitutional order. The root of this research is nournished by an extravagance of ideas and desires, which if applied can make the ubiquity and plasticity of the rule of law flow across what is perceived to be “unyielding” borders. Eritrea has just turned twenty-five and despite a tangled post-independence period, the country has been successful in articulating and advancing the vision of the pre-independence generation. Today, Eritrea envisages rejuvenating its governance with a new constitution that not only talks to post-independence Eritreans, but also triggers sustainable development with substantive emphasis on the rule of law. Eritrean endeavours can easily open up to the seductive appeal of the rich conceptual enigma of Chinese constitutional polity, China being one of the countries with the oldest legal traditions in the world. It is axiomatic that Chinese constitution-centred governance, which is well adorned with Chinese characteristics, is pre-eminent, for it has influenced China since 1949 to aptly rise as the world’s second largest economy. This paper illustrates that Eritrean constitutional polity can be examined through a Chinese lens, to be calibrated in such a way as to exhibit Eritrean characteristics, and still govern by the rule of law.

  9. The British Monarchy On Screen


    Merck, Mandy


    Moving images of the British monarchy, in fact and fiction, are almost as old as the moving image itself, dating back to an 1895 American drama, The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. British monarchs even appeared in the new ‘animated photography’ from 1896, led by Queen Victoria. Half a century later, the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II was a milestone in the adoption of television, watched by 20 million Britons and 100 million North Americans. At the century’s end, Princess Diana’s funeral ...

  10. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-


    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  11. Medical slang in British hospitals. (United States)

    Fox, Adam T; Fertleman, Michael; Cahill, Pauline; Palmer, Roger D


    The usage, derivation, and psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of slang terminology in medicine are discussed. The colloquial vocabulary is further described and a comprehensive glossary of common UK terms provided in appendix. This forms the first list of slang terms currently in use throughout the British medical establishment.

  12. Technical and scale efficiency of public community hospitals in Eritrea: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses M; Asbu, Eyob Z


    Eritrean gross national income of Int$610 per capita is lower than the average for Africa (Int$1620) and considerably lower than the global average (Int$6977). It is therefore imperative that the country's resources, including those specifically allocated to the health sector, are put to optimal use. The objectives of this study were (a) to estimate the relative technical and scale efficiency of public secondary level community hospitals in Eritrea, based on data generated in 2007, (b) to estimate the magnitudes of output increases and/or input reductions that would have been required to make relatively inefficient hospitals more efficient, and (c) to estimate using Tobit regression analysis the impact of institutional and contextual/environmental variables on hospital inefficiencies. A two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method is used to estimate efficiency of hospitals and to explain the inefficiencies. In the first stage, the efficient frontier and the hospital-level efficiency scores are first estimated using DEA. In the second stage, the estimated DEA efficiency scores are regressed on some institutional and contextual/environmental variables using a Tobit model. In 2007 there were a total of 20 secondary public community hospitals in Eritrea, nineteen of which generated data that could be included in the study. The input and output data were obtained from the Ministry of Health (MOH) annual health service activity report of 2007. Since our study employs data that are five years old, the results are not meant to uncritically inform current decision-making processes, but rather to illustrate the potential value of such efficiency analyses. The key findings were as follows: (i) the average constant returns to scale technical efficiency score was 90.3%; (ii) the average variable returns to scale technical efficiency score was 96.9%; and (iii) the average scale efficiency score was 93.3%. In 2007, the inefficient hospitals could have become more efficient

  13. Characteristics of seismicity in Eritrea (2011-2012): Implications for rifting dynamics (United States)

    Goitom, B.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendal, M. J.; Ogubazghi, G.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Illsley-Kemp, F.


    Eritrea hosts the final stages of on-land East-African rifting, yet questions remain about how rifting transits from the Afar Depression to the Red Sea. In this study, we use data from recent deployments of 6 broadband seismometers in Eritrea together with deployments in Ethiopia to locate seismicity and determine the current focus of strain. Over 1000 events have been located with local magnitudes 0.7-5.0. A significant period of seismicity was observed on 1 July 2012 around Nabro volcano and is associated with the biggest event of mL 5 preceded by 33 events in the previous two days. It may be related to magma movement below Nabro. Other significant seismicity was observed on 25 December 2011 and is correlated with an earthquake of mL 4.2 and associated with 13 other events on the same day. This event is located around Hayli Gubbi and Ale Bagu volcanoes and could be related to the activities around these volcanoes. We use double difference relocations to improve accuracy and show two main clusters of seismicity, one oriented NW-SE in the Bada-Alid axis along the north-western boundary of the Danakil microplate and the other NE-SW, following the trend of the Biddu-Nabro volcanic complex. Our new estimates of seismicity demarcate the boundary between the Nubian, Somalian, and Danakil Microplate and suggest that the Danakil microplate may be broken in two along the Biddu-Nabro Volcanic complex. We estimate b-values for the different clusters of events and show that close to the major border faults near Massawa, average b-values are lower (0.65) than that found near the volcanic centres (1.2 - Bada-Alid, 0.81 - Biddu-Nabro). This may indicate that the stress is less in the volcanic regions and the seismicity is due to movement of magma fluids and strain is accommodated by the injection of magma. In contrast the earthquakes around Massawa occur in relatively stronger rocks suggesting strain may be accommodated by movement on larger faults.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998 led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31, two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369, and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and UA-466, the latter recovered on 2003. The cranium and the postcranial remains represent a single adult individual, likely of female sex. The cranium evidences a blend of "erectus-like" and progressive morpho-architectural features, the latter more commonly found in the Middle Pleistocene. Preparation and restoration of the specimens (notably, of the virtually complete UA-31 face were only completed on September 2003. The revision, refinement, and integration of our previous analytical and interpretative work (cf. Abbate et al. 1998; Macchiarelli et al. 2002 is in progress within the context of the paleoanthropological reord currently available for the African Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  15. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge. The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  16. Profile of patients with diabetes in Eritrea: results of first phase registry analyses. (United States)

    Seyum, Berhane; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Usman, Abdulmumini; Mufunda, Jacob; Tewolde, Beyene; Haile, Solomon; Kosia, Andrew; Negassi, Ermias


    A cross-sectional descriptive study was done on patients recently entered into the National Diabetes Registry in Eritrea where the prevalence was estimated to be 2.2% based on patient information in 2004. Of the 627 patients with diabetes, two thirds were type 2. Although type 1 had poorer control (42.9%) than type 2 (29.9%), some of the risk factors such as cholesterol (43.4 vs. 28.2%), triglyceride (23.4 vs. 12.8%), hypertension (55.2 vs. 12.7%) as well as BMI and waist/hip ratio were higher in type 2 than type 1. More than one-third (41.2%) of patients with type 2 compared to type 1 (19.5%) had complications, the commonest being retinopathy (33%) followed by foot ulcers (14%) and neuropathy (4%). Many of the diabetic patients demonstrated the presence of the metabolic syndrome components such as hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. The authors conclude that diabetes registry is invaluable in providing evidence-based prevention and control of the disease.

  17. Prevalence of Helminth Parasites in Indigenous Fowls of Zoba Anseba of Eritrea, North-East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Ghebremariam

    Full Text Available The prevalence of helminth parasites in indigenous fowls was investigated in Zoba Anseba, Eritrea. The rate of infection was as high as 52.43% in rectal swab examination and 63.00% in the slaughtered fowls. The helminth parasites recorded were: Ascaridia galli (70.58%, Subulura sp. (5.88%, Heterakis sp. (52.94%, Tetrameres sp. (11.76%, Cheilospirura sp. (5.88%, Raillietina sp. (82.35% and Amoebotaenia sp. (11.76%. The infection rate between nematodes and cestodes was 92.59% and 59.25%, respectively. Mixed infection with two to three species was common. Cloacal swabs of 82 fowls collected were found positive with different types of ova. Out of which 22 were positive for Ascaridia (51.16%, 14 for Heterakis sp. (32.55%, 6 for Tetrameres sp. (13.95% and 30 were positive for Raillietina sp. (69.76%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 492-494

  18. A study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgadas Govind Naik


    Full Text Available Background:Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S.aureus isolates, the prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA and nasal carriage rate in healthy hospital staff. Methods:A total of 278 S.aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and 30 anterior nares swabs from healthy hospital staff were screened for S.aureus organisms using standard methods. Results:High resistance was observed against ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline. High sensitivity was recorded against amikasin, amoxicillin-c and ciprofloxacin. Of the 278 isolates 26 (9% isolates were methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA. 17 % of the hospital staff were positive for nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion:Our study emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of S.aureus isolates including MRSA for the selection of appropriate therapy. In Eritrea, from the present findings it appears that the spread of MRSA in community and hospital settings is limited.

  19. Cracking the whip on childhood mortality--role of the specialized neonatal unit in Eritrea. (United States)

    Zemichael, O; Nyarang'o, P; Mufunda, J


    Health care services in developing countries are being challenged by high childhood mortality rates. Although there have been tremendous strides made in reducing infant mortality rates largely due to vaccinations and improved standards of living, a lot remains to be done to reduce neonatal mortality. Achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 4 on childhood mortality will remain unattainable in most developing countries unless purpose based interventions targeted at reducing neonatal mortality are instituted. This viewpoint is based on the experiences gained in Eritrea, a country that gained independence less than twenty years ago following a protracted war that left a trail of destruction of infrastructure in general and health facilities in particular. War that broke out with Ethiopia less than 10 years into its independence and border conflicts followed by a no peace no war stalemate situation aggravated by frequent droughts have continued to throttle economic recovery, reconstruction and rehabilitative efforts. The population is estimated at 3.5 million comprising of nine ethnic groups who speak different languages. The country has a surface area of 124,000 km2 which shares borders with Sudan, Ethiopia, Djibouti and the Red Sea. Attainment of the MDG number 4 on reduction of childhood mortality can be achieved by addressing morbidities of the neonate where the bottle neck currently appears to be sited.

  20. Currently married women with an unmet need for contraception in Eritrea: Profile and determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Woldemicael


    Full Text Available Eritrea’s contraceptive prevalence rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa and its fertility has only started to decline. Using data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS, this study examines the determinants of unmet need for family planning that is the discrepancy between fertility goals and actual contraceptive use. More than one-quarter of currently married women are estimated to have an unmet need, and this has remained unchanged since 1995. The most important reason for unmet need is lack of knowledge of methods or of a source of supply. Currently married women with higher parity, and low autonomy, low or medium household economic status, and who know no method of contraception or source of supply are identified as the most likely to have an unmet need. Addressing the unmet need for family planning entails not merely greater knowledge of or access to contraceptive services, but also the enhancement of the status of women.

  1. Equatorial plasma bubbles in the ionosphere over Eritrea: occurrence and drift speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available An all-sky imager was installed in Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 38.9° E, 7° N dip and used to monitor the OI 630-nm nightglow. Nine months of data were studied between September 2001 and May 2002, a time including the recent maximum in the solar activity cycle. Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs were recorded on 63% of nights with adequate viewing conditions. The station location within view of the equatorial ionization anomaly and with a magnetic declination near zero makes it an excellent test case for comparison with satellite studies of the seasonal variation of EPBs with longitude. The imager was accompanied by two Cornell GPS scintillation monitors, and the amplitude scintillation data are compared to the all-sky data. GPS scintillations indicate the beginning of EPBs, but die out sooner in the post-midnight period than the larger scale EPBs. Both phenomena exhibit clear occurrence maxima around the equinoxes. Ionospheric zonal drift speeds have been deduced from EPB and GPS scintillation pattern movement. Average near-midnight EPB drift speeds are between 100 and 120 m/s most months, with the GPS scintillation speeds being about the same. A winter drift speed maximum is evident in both EPB and GPS scintillation monthly means.

  2. Evaluation of a community intervention for promotion of safe motherhood in Eritrea. (United States)

    Turan, Janet Molzan; Tesfagiorghis, Mekonnen; Polan, Mary Lake


    We evaluated a community-based intervention to promote safe motherhood, focusing on knowledge and behaviors that may reduce maternal mortality and birth complications. The intervention aimed to increase women's birth preparedness, knowledge of birth danger signs, use of antenatal care services, and birth at a health care facility. Volunteers from a remote rural community in Northern Eritrea were trained to lead participatory educational sessions on safe motherhood with women and men. The evaluation used a quasiexperimental design (nonequivalent group pretest-posttest) including cross-sectional surveys with postpartum women (pretest n = 466, posttest n = 378) in the intervention area and in a similar remote rural comparison area. Women's knowledge of birth danger signs increased significantly in the intervention area but not in the comparison area. There was a significant increase in the proportion of women who had the recommended 4 or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy in the intervention area (from 18% to 80%, P < .001), although this proportion did not change significantly in the comparison area (from 53% to 47%, P = .194). There was a greater increase in birth in a health care facility in the intervention area. Participatory sessions led by community volunteers can increase safe motherhood knowledge and encourage use of essential maternity services. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens


    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge.

    The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  4. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea. (United States)

    Sium, Mussie; Kareru, Patrick; Keriko, Joseph; Girmay, Berhane; Medhanie, Ghebrehiwet; Debretsion, Semere

    This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs) and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  5. The role of counseling for obstetric fistula patients: lessons learned from Eritrea. (United States)

    Johnson, Khaliah A; Turan, Janet M; Hailemariam, Letu; Mengsteab, Elsa; Jena, Dirk; Polan, Mary Lake


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the first formal counseling program for obstetric fistula patients in Eritrea. To evaluate the impact of the counseling program, clients were interviewed both before pre-operative counseling and again after post-operative counseling. A questionnaire was used in the interviews to assess women's knowledge about fistula, self-esteem, and their behavioral intentions for health maintenance and social reintegration following surgical repair. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with a total of 19 clients assessing their experiences with the surgical care and counseling. Data from the questionnaires revealed significant improvements in women's knowledge about fistula, self-esteem, and behavioral intentions following counseling. Focus group data also supported increased knowledge and self-esteem. Evaluation of the short-term impact of an initial formal counseling program for fistula patients in sub-Saharan Africa affirmed the positive effects that such a program has for fistula patients, with increased knowledge about the causes of fistula, fistula prevention and enhanced self-esteem. Culturally appropriate counseling can be incorporated into services for surgical repair of obstetric fistula in low-resource settings and has the potential to improve the physical and mental well-being of women undergoing fistula repair. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate - amiodaquine for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Ghindae Zonal Referral Hospital, Eritrea. (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdu O; Tewolde, Seltene; Estifanos, Dawit; Tekeste, Yohannes; Osman, Mohammed-Hamid


    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) which is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Eritrea. The study was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 in Ghindae Zonal Referral Hospital in Northern Red Sea Zone. Out of 481 patients screened, 103 were enrolled in the study. The therapeutic efficacy test was done as per the WHO protocol for a period of 28days of follow-up. The PCR-uncorrected treatment outcome was classified as adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) in 95 patients, which meant the cure rate was 96.0 (95% CI: 89.7%-98.5%) after survival analysis. Therapeutic efficacy of AS+AQ still meets the WHO efficacy criteria for its continued use in the study area as the first-line drug against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. However, further studies are needed using correction with molecular markers to monitor therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of benefits and risks of landfill materials for agriculture in Eritrea. (United States)

    Tesfai, Mehreteab; Dresher, Silke


    In Eritrea, farmers have applied landfill materials as fertiliser to their fields for several decades. A sampling scheme in the landfill site of Asmara and selected farmers' fields was carried out to investigate the benefits and risks of using landfill materials for agriculture. Soil samples were collected from farmers' fields (7 samples) and from the Asmara landfill site (12 samples). The samples were analysed for major plant nutrients, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg and Zn), and some physical properties. Nearly 65% (by weight) of the total landfill material mined from the landfill site constituted waste fractions of various substances. The remaining 35% was composed of soil-like materials, which are apparently used to fertilize agricultural soils. The average organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus contents of soils with landfill material measured 2.4%, 0.13%, and 45 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, soils without landfill material consisted of 1.1 % organic matter, 0.04% total N, and <40 mg kg(-1) of available P. Except for Hg, all the other heavy metals in the landfill site showed values above the permissible limits. In particular, the average concentrations of Cu (913 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (598 mg kg(-1)) in the landfill site were nine-fold and four-fold greater than the allowable limits, respectively. It is, therefore, suggested that composting fresh organic wastes should be considered and tested as an alternative material for fertilising agricultural soils and to maintain the quality of the environment.

  8. Currently Married Women with an Unmet Need for Contraception in Eritrea: Profile and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot


    Full Text Available Eritrea’s contraceptive prevalence rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa and its fertility has only started to decline. Using data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS, this study examines the determinants of unmet need for family planning that is the discrepancy between fertility goals and actual contraceptive use. More than one-quarter of currently married women are estimated to have an unmet need and this has remained unchanged since 1995. The most important reason for unmet need is lack of knowledge of methods or of a source of supply. Currently married women with higher parity, and low autonomy, low or medium household economic status, and who know no method of contraception or source of supply are identified as the most likely to have an unmet need. Addressing the unmet need for family planning entails not merely greater knowledge of or access to contraceptive services, but also the enhancement of the status of women.

  9. Farm-level risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in the dairy sector in Eritrea. (United States)

    Ghebremariam, M K; Michel, A L; Nielen, M; Vernooij, J C M; Rutten, V P M G


    The aim of our study was to determine the association of selected potential risk factors with the presence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy herds in Eritrea. A case-control study was conducted in the three major milk-producing regions of the country by stratified random sampling of 61 case and 65 control herds combined with completion of a standardized pretested questionnaire pertaining 36 relevant risk factors (variables). The variables were divided into two clusters, based on potential association with either "introduction" or "establishment" of BTB on the farms to elucidate association with incident or prevalent cases separately. Subsequent to univariable analysis of the 36 risk factors at herd level, 14 of these were offered to multivariable logistic regression models. Farms with higher numbers of cows, and those with concrete floors, were 3.6, and 7.5 times more at risk for presence of BTB, respectively, compared with their references. These findings will be useful as entry points for future informed decision-making towards BTB control and eradication programme in the country. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Sium


    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (P<0.05.

  11. Survey of Barley and Wheat Diseases in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Yahyaoui


    Full Text Available Annual surveys of barley and wheat diseases were conducted in Eritrea from 2000 to 2002. The surveys covered six zones of the central highlands where barley and wheat are grown. The main diseases of barley were netform net blotch, spot-form net blotch, leaf rust and scald. Other, less important diseases were loose smut, covered smut, barley stripe and septoria leaf blotch. Wheat was mainly affected by yellow rust and leaf rust. Loose smut, septoria leaf spot and tan spot diseases were less prevalent. The average incidence of these diseases varied according to the zone. Among barley diseases, net blotch incidence was high in four of the six zones surveyed. Leaf rust occurred at medium incidence in five zones. Loose smut was more severe in the southern highland plains, while covered smut was more common in the south-eastern highland terraces. For wheat, yellow rust incidence was high in two zones. Areas with a high incidence of yellow rust were not necessarily those with a high incidence of leaf rust. Leaf rust was important in the south-eastern and western highland terraces and in the western highland plains. The number of diseases found in the same field varied from 2 to 5. The south eastern highland terraces, the western highland terraces and the northern highland terraces had the highest proportions of individual barley fields with three or more diseases.

  12. Larch sawfly in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.


    Summary of the history of infestations in British Columbia of the larch sawfly, first introduced into the province in 1930. Information is based on the Forest Insect and Diseases Survey records and data and preliminary observations on the impact of defoliation on growth of western larch. The report describes biology; history of outbreaks in western larch and tamarack; sampling, population assessments, and predictions; damage appraisal; and controls, including parasites, predators, and weather.

  13. The conduct of an Inter-state War and multiple dimensions of territory: 1998-2000 Eritrea-Ethiopia war


    Alexandra Magnólia Dias


    Inter-state wars are not one of the most salient features in the post-Cold War era. The literature on contemporary armed conflict, particularly those in the aftermath of the Cold War, tends to overlook the centrality of territory in the causation of war. However, a border incident between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 1998 led to a crisis which escalated. The war lasted two and a half years, leading to an estimated 100.000 casualties. The article’s central claim shows the centrality of territory in...

  14. The First Historic Eruption of Nabro, Eritrea: Insights from Thermal and UV Satellite Data (United States)

    Sealing, C. R.; Carn, S. A.; Harris, A. J. L.


    In June 2011, the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, took place at the border of Eritrea and Ethiopia. This eruption was the largest in what could be considered an ongoing sequence of eruptions in the Afar-Red Sea region since 2005. It halted air travel in northern Africa, contaminated food and water sources, and displaced thousands from their homes. Geographic isolation, previous quiescence, and regional civil unrest meant that this volcano was effectively unmonitored at the time of eruption, and opportunities for field study were limited. The purpose of this study is to explore the quantity of erupted products and the timing and mechanisms of their emplacement using predominantly free, publicly available satellite data. We use MODIS and OMI data to examine rates of lava effusion and SO2 emission, and quantify the amount of erupted products. We also examine published images from other satellites, such as ALI and SEVIRI in order to understand the temporal evolution of the eruption. Synthesizing these data, we then attempt to infer the mechanisms through which the eruption progressed. Examination of satellite data reveals a bimodal eruption, beginning with explosive activity marked by high SO2 emission totalling 1824 - 2299 KT, and extensive ash fall of 270 - 440 km2. This was followed by a period of rapid effusion, producing a ~17 km long lava flow, and a volume of ~22.1 x 106 m3. Mass balance between the SO2 and lava flows reveals no sulfur 'excess', suggesting that nearly all of the degassed magma was extruded. This eruption of Nabro continued for nearly 6 weeks, and may be considered the second largest historic eruption in Africa. This type of work highlights the effectiveness and importance of accessible satellite remote sensing data for the study of active volcanoes, particularly those in remote regions that may be otherwise inaccessible.

  15. Costs and cost-effectiveness of vector control in Eritrea using insecticide-treated bed nets. (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Zerom, Mehari; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Lengeler, Christian


    While insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are a recognized effective method for preventing malaria, there has been an extensive debate in recent years about the best large-scale implementation strategy. Implementation costs and cost-effectiveness are important elements to consider when planning ITN programmes, but so far little information on these aspects is available from national programmes. This study uses a standardized methodology, as part of a larger comparative study, to collect cost data and cost-effectiveness estimates from a large programme providing ITNs at the community level and ante-natal care facilities in Eritrea. This is a unique model of ITN implementation fully integrated into the public health system. Base case analysis results indicated that the average annual cost of ITN delivery (2005 USD 3.98) was very attractive when compared with past ITN delivery studies at different scales. Financing was largely from donor sources though the Eritrean government and net users also contributed funding. The intervention's cost-effectiveness was in a highly attractive range for sub-Saharan Africa. The cost per DALY averted was USD 13 - 44. The cost per death averted was USD 438-1449. Distribution of nets coincided with significant increases in coverage and usage of nets nationwide, approaching or exceeding international targets in some areas. ITNs can be cost-effectively delivered at a large scale in sub-Saharan Africa through a distribution system that is highly integrated into the health system. Operating and sustaining such a system still requires strong donor funding and support as well as a functional and extensive system of health facilities and community health workers already in place.

  16. Results of a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Eritrea. (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Zerom, Mehari; Limburg, Hans; Ghebrat, Yohannes; Meresie, Ghenet; Fessahazion, Kahsai; Beyene, Kibret; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Mebrahtu, Goitom


    To collect baseline data for planning of the National Blindness Prevention & Control Program and for monitoring future achievements. Sixty six clusters of 50 people were selected from a sampling frame that included all 2,593 villages in Eritrea (population 3.56 million). Within each selected village, 50 eligible people aged 50+ years were selected. All eligible participants underwent visual acuity (VA) measurement followed by examination by an ophthalmologist if the presenting VA (PVA) was less than 6/18. Three thousand one hundred sixty three of the 3300 eligible persons were examined (coverage 95.9%). The adjusted prevalence of blindness (PVA < 3/60 in the better eye) in the survey population was 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.2-8.8%), bilateral severe visual impairment (PVA < 6/60 to ≥ 3/60 in the better eye) 3.0% (95% CI: 2.3-3.7%) and of bilateral moderate visual impairment (PVA < 6/18 to ≥ 6/60 in the better eye) 10.5% (95% CI: 9.1-11.9%). Of all bilateral blindness 55% was due to cataract. The adjusted cataract surgical coverage (percentage of people requiring cataract surgery that have had surgery) was 68% for blind people and 41% for blind eyes. Cataract surgery outcome was poor (PVA < 6/60) in 39% of all eyes operated in the past. The prevalence of blindness was high compared to recent surveys in Africa. Visual outcome after cataract surgery potentially could be improved by more detailed pre-operative examination, coaching of surgeons, and provision of adequate optical correction, including routine monitoring of visual outcome after cataract surgery. The development of intervention programs for refractive error and glaucoma should be considered.

  17. Crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Baer, Gidon


    We investigate the crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Afar, Eritrea. The Nabro volcano erupted on the night of 12 June 2011. A seismic sequence started 5 h before the onset of the volcanic eruption. It included 25 M > 3 earthquakes, of which one Mw 5.6 normal fault earthquake occurred on 12 June at about the same time as the onset of the eruption, and one Mw 5.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred at the end of the main sequence on 17 June. The deformation associated with the eruption and the seismic activity was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the TerraSAR-X and ENVISAT satellites. Interferograms were generated using ascending and descending track pairs. The Nabro caldera and the associated channel of magma flow are characterized by significant loss of coherence which limited our InSAR observations at the near field of the volcano. Therefore, detailed assessment of co- and post-eruptive seismicity and monitoring of post-eruptive deformation using continued InSAR observations were added to the co-eruptive analysis in order to better constrain the different magmatic and tectonic components and determine the final source model. We carried out tens of different inversion models. Our best-fit model includes a dike, a normal fault and a strike-slip fault, consistent with the mechanisms of the major earthquakes. Coulomb stress calculations based on our model are found to be in agreement with post-eruptive seismicity. Finally, the source mechanism and geometry of our model are found to be in accord with the major tectonic structures in this area.

  18. Does the group leader matter? The impact of monitoring activities and social ties of group leaders on the repayment performance of group-based lending in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    This paper analyses whether the effects of monitoring and social ties of the group leader and other group members on repayment performance of groups differ, using data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We hypothesize that the monitoring activities and

  19. Does the group leader matter? The impact of monitoring activities and social ties of group leaders on the repayment performance of groupbased lending Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.


    This paper analyzes whether the effects of monitoring and social ties of the group leader and other group members on repayment performance of groups differ, using data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We hypothesize that the monitoring activities and

  20. Contribution of Complementary Elementary Education towards Transition of Nomadic Pupils from Non-Formal to Middle School Education in Habero Sub-Zone, Eritrea (United States)

    Tekle, Tesfu; Njihia, Mukirae; Ogeta, Norbert; Habtu, Michael


    Background: Education in Eritrea is a fundamental right of every person. Therefore, ensuring equal and equitable educational opportunities for every citizen is essential for upward mobility. However, enrolment in areas inhabited by the nomadic groups is far less from the national average. To boost enrolment among the nomads and to meet the…

  1. Case report: Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica with liposomal amphothericin B in an immunocompromised traveler returning from Eritrea. (United States)

    Zanger, Philipp; Kötter, Ina; Raible, Armin; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Schönian, Gabriele; Kremsner, Peter G


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica is rarely encountered outside disease-endemic areas and there have been no clinical trials evaluating its pharmacotherapy. We describe the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica using liposomal amphothericin B in an immunocompromised traveler returning from Eritrea.

  2. El papel de la educación superior en el desarrollo de la ciudadanía global en Eritrea


    Tsegay, Samson M.


    Este estudio argumenta que existen potencialidades importantes en la interacción entre la pedagogía crítica y el contenido de los cursos en las instituciones de educación superior de Eritrea (IES) para formar a unos graduados que se están preparado

  3. 'Now I am free' - education and human resource development in Eritrea : contradictions in the lives of Eritrean women in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, T.R.


    Human resource development as an objective of education policy in developing countries is increasingly narrowed down to its human capital component. In Eritrea, the objective of a highly centralized human resource development strategy is to produce human capital for the advancement of the nation.

  4. Teleoncology uptake in British Columbia. (United States)

    Clarke, Melissa; Barnett, Jeff


    Telehealth enables the delivery of specialized health care to patients living in isolated and remote regions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the current uptake of teleoncology in mainland British Columbia. Patient appointment data was extracted from the Cancer Agency Information System (CAIS) for the 2009 calendar year. Three types of practitioners used teleoncology in 2009: Medical Oncologists, Genetic Counsellors and Medical Geneticists. In total, 712 telehealth encounters were conducted; Medical Oncologists conducted 595 encounters (83.6%), Genetic Counsellors conducted 112 encounters (15.7%) and Medical Geneticists conducted 5 encounters (0.7%). The most common oncology appointments were Gastro-Intestinal (11.4%) and Lymphoma (11.0%) follow-up appointments with a Medical Oncologist. Telehealth encounters were conducted by 46 individual health care providers however, a single Medical Oncologist conducted 418 encounters and this accounts for more than half (58.7%) of all telehealth appointments in 2009. Radiation Oncologists on the mainland up to this point are not using the technology. The Local Health Areas with the highest number of oncology telehealth appointments were: Kamloops: 203 encounters (34.1%), Penticton: 84 encounters (14.1%), Cranbrook: 58 encounters (9.7%) and the Southern Okanagan: 33 encounter (5.5%). Use of telehealth in rural and remote areas of BC is limited and there is significant room for growth. Further research will be required to identify barriers and restrictions to the use of telehealth in order to increase teleoncology adoption in British Columbia.

  5. Breast cancer clinicopathological presentation, gravity and challenges in Eritrea, East Africa: management practice in a resource-poor setting. (United States)

    Tesfamariam, Asmerom; Gebremichael, Andemariam; Mufunda, Jacob


    In Africa, breast cancer closely compares with cervical cancer as the most common malignancy affecting women and the incidence rates appear to be rising. Early detection of breast cancer is a key strategy for a good treatment outcome. However, there is no established protocol or guideline for management of breast cancer in Eritrea, East Africa. To assess the clinicopathological presentation, gravity and management challenges presented in breast cancer treatment in Eritrea. Methods. Our investigation was a retrospective, descriptive study to assess the clinical features and severity of breast cancer at time of presentation. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who presented with breast malignancies over the 2-year period from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2008. Eighty-two patients ranging in age from 26 - 80 years (mean 48 years) were included in the study. Of these 51% were premenopausal women; 61% of the patients presented with breast mass only and the remainder with manifestations of local (mass plus discharge, breast pain or breast ulceration) or distant metastatic disease. More than 60% of the patients presented after >2 years following onset of symptoms. Two-thirds of patients had late stage (III or IV) disease. All except one case was managed surgically. Most cases presented at younger age and advanced stage. These findings call for strengthening health education to promote early health-seeking behaviour and advocacy for the introduction of national screening, implementation of a management protocol and establishment of a radio-chemotherapy centre.

  6. Interpersonal perception in Japanese and British observers. (United States)

    Kito, Tsuneo; Lee, Billy


    We compared performance of Japanese and British observers in deciphering images depicting Japanese interpersonal relationships. 201 Japanese and 215 British subjects were assessed by means of a test consisting of 31 photograph problems accompanied by two or three alternative solutions one of which was correct. Japanese subjects outperformed British subjects on the test overall (z = 3.981, p interpersonal relationships, but it may sometimes cause specific errors. Differences in the perceptual cues used suggest that British subjects had difficulty reading Japanese facial expressions.

  7. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen


    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  8. Relationship satisfaction among Turkish and British adults


    Celenk, O.; Van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Goodwin, R.


    We tested three theories (adult attachment, autonomy/relatedness, and gender roles) to understand relationship satisfaction among 150 British and 170 Turkish adults, all involved in romantic relationships. Avoidance, relatedness, autonomy–relatedness, and masculinity mediated the relationship between culture and romantic relationship satisfaction. Additionally, as anticipated, Turkish participants scored lower on relationship satisfaction and autonomy whereas British participants scored lower...

  9. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors. (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  10. British African Caribbean Women and Depression (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney


    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  11. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia. (United States)

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  12. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 58th World Health Assembly and 56th WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted resolutions urging Member States to ensure that health financing systems included a method for prepayment to foster financial risk sharing among the population and avoid catastrophic health-care expenditure. The Regional Committee asked countries to strengthen or develop comprehensive health financing policies. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted among senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies to elicit views on some of the elements likely to be part of a national health financing policy. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 19 senior staff (Directors in the Ministry of Health, Labour Department, Civil Service Administration, Eritrean Confederation of Workers, National Insurance Corporation of Eritrea and Ministry of Local Government. The respondents were selected by the Ministry of Health as key informants. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 84.2% (16/19; 37.5% (6/16 and 18.8% said that the vision of Eritrean National Health Financing Policy (NHFP should include the phrases ‘equitable and accessible quality health services’ and ‘improve efficiency or reduce waste’ respectively; over 68% indicated that NHFP should include securing adequate funding, ensuring efficiency, ensuring equitable financial access, protection from financial catastrophe, and ensuring provider payment mechanisms create positive incentives to service providers; over 80% mentioned community participation, efficiency, transparency, country ownership, equity in access, and evidence-based decision making as core values of NHFP; over 62.5% confirmed that NHFP components should consist of stewardship (oversight, revenue collection, revenue pooling and risk management, resource allocation and purchasing of health services, health economics research, and development of

  13. Infrasound and SO2 Observations of the 2011 Explosive Eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Fee, D.; Carn, S. A.; Prata, F.


    Nabro volcano, Eritrea erupted explosively on 12 June 2011 and produced near continuous emissions and infrasound until mid-July. The eruption disrupted air traffic and severely affected communities in the region. Although the eruption was relatively ash-poor, it produced significant SO2 emissions, including: 1) the highest SO2 column ever retrieved from space (3700 DU), 2) >1.3 Tg SO2 mass on 13 June, and 3) >2 Tg of SO2 for the entire eruption, one of the largest eruptive SO2 masses produced since the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Peak emissions reached well into the stratosphere (~19 km). Although the 12 June eruption was preceded by significant seismicity and clearly detected by satellite sensors, Nabro volcano is an understudied volcano that lies in a remote region with little ground-based monitoring. The Nabro eruption also produced significant infrasound signals that were recorded by two infrasound arrays: I19DJ (Djibouti, 264 km) and I32KE (Kenya, 1708 km). The I19DJ infrasound array detected the eruption with high signal-noise and provides the most detailed eruption chronology available, including eruption onset, duration, changes in intensity, etc. As seen in numerous other studies, sustained low frequency infrasound from Nabro is coincident with high-altitude emissions. Unexpectedly, the eruption also produced hundreds of short-duration, impulsive explosion signals, in addition to the sustained infrasonic jetting signals more typical of subplinian-plinian eruptions. These explosions are variable in amplitude, duration, and often cluster in groups. Here we present: 1) additional analyses, classification, and source estimation of the explosions, 2) infrasound propagation modeling to determine acoustic travel times and propagation paths, 3) detection and characterization of the SO2 emissions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Spin Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Instrument (SEVIRI), and 4) a comparison between the relative infrasound energy and

  14. Need for optical intervention in children attending a school for the blind in Eritrea. (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Moodley, Vanessa R


    To identify the need for optical intervention including spectacles and low vision devices (LVDs) in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. A total of 92 children were examined using the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness program form for the recording of children with blindness and vision impairment. Examination included distance and near visual acuity (VA), refraction, trial of LVDs and evaluation of anterior and posterior segments. All the children who showed at least one line improvement in distance or near VA with refractive correction and/or LVDs were provided with these devices. Six children had distance VA of ≥6/18 (no vision impairment, NVI) at presentation and were excluded from analysis. For the remaining 86 children, male to female ratio was 1.2:1.0 with a mean age of 11.8 ± 2.8 years (range: 6-17 years). At presentation, 47 (54.7 per cent) children were blind (VA <3/60) and 24 (27.9 per cent) were severely visually impaired (VA <6/60-3/60), which reduced to 42 (48.9 per cent) and seven (8.1 per cent) children after refraction, respectively. A further 5.8 per cent (five children) achieved NVI with refractive correction. Using distance LVDs, 26 (30.2 per cent) and 16 (18.6 per cent) children had NVI and moderate vision impairment (VA <6/18-6/60), respectively. In terms of near vision, eight (9.3 per cent) children had near VA better than 1.00 M at presentation, which improved to 11 (12.8 per cent) with refractive correction and 19 (22.1 per cent) with near LVDs. A total of 29 spectacles and 42 LVDs were provided. A significant number of children at the school for the blind benefited from refractive correction and LVDs. With such optical intervention, many of these children could study at mainstream schools with print media. A system including comprehensive vision examinations before admission to the school, refractive services and low vision rehabilitation is required to ensure that children with adequate

  15. [A complex crisis intervention for a 16-year-old pregnant girl after unaccompanied emigration from Eritrea]. (United States)

    Dixius, Andrea; Möhler, Eva


    Unaccompanied refugee minors are frequently confronted with multiple, potentially traumatizing events; girls tend to show most profound traumatizations. A 16-year-old female refugee minor was admitted to a child psychiatric ward over the weekend for acute suicidal behavior. The girl had fled unaccompanied from Eritrea and was living in a shelter home for adolescents. Pregnancy (23 weeks p. c.) had been diagnosed the previous day, stemming from several rapes that had occurred on her journey through Sudan and Nigeria. The girl had repressed all signs of the pregnancy from her consciousness. However, when it became medically undeniably apparent, she tried to end her life by jumping out of a window. The shelter home staff requested a psychiatric indication for termination of the pregnancy. Implications of medical indications for psychiatric reasons at a pregnancy state of 23 weeks as well as ethical aspects and considerations with regard to posttraumatic symptomatology are discussed in the following case report.

  16. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touré Kandioura


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR. This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005, the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines, service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR.

  17. Fogging the issue of HIV - barriers for HIV testing in a migrated population from Ethiopia and Eritrea. (United States)

    Lindkvist, Pille; Johansson, Eva; Hylander, Ingrid


    The outcome of HIV treatment has dramatically improved since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy. Studies confirm that if treatment of HIV is initiated when the immune system is not severely affected by the virus the prognosis for the outcome is significantly better. There is also evidence that many immigrants come late for their first HIV test. If found to be HIV positive, and if the immune system is already significantly affected, this will compromise the treatment outcome. This study was performed in an attempt to understand the barriers for early HIV testing in a migrant population from Ethiopia and Eritrea in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants were theoretically sampled and consisted of individuals who had immigrated from Ethiopia and Eritrea. Data were collected using 14 focus group discussions and seven semi-structured interviews. The analysis was performed according to a Grounded Theory approach using the paradigm model. Denial and fear of knowing one's HIV status dominated all aspects of behavior in relation to HIV. The main strategy was a "fogging" of the issue of HIV. People were said to not want to know because this would bring social isolation and exclusion, and it was often believed that treatment did not help. This attitude had strong roots in their culture and past experiences that were brought along to the new country and maintained within the immigrant community. The length of time spent in Sweden seemed to be an important factor affecting the "fogging of the HIV issue". In bridging the gap between the two cultures, Swedish authorities need to find ways to meet the needs of both earlier and newly arrived immigrants as well as the second generation of immigrants. This will require adjusting and updating the information that is given to these different sub-groups of Ethiopian and Eritrean immigrants. Appropriate access to healthcare for a diverse population obviously requires more than simply providing the healthcare services.

  18. Cost analysis of an integrated disease surveillance and response system: case of Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali (United States)

    Somda, Zana C; Meltzer, Martin I; Perry, Helen N; Messonnier, Nancy E; Abdulmumini, Usman; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Sacko, Massambou; Touré, Kandioura; Ki, Salimata Ouédraogo; Okorosobo, Tuoyo; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Sow, Idrissa


    Background Communicable diseases are the leading causes of illness, deaths, and disability in sub-Saharan Africa. To address these threats, countries within the World Health Organization (WHO) African region adopted a regional strategy called Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). This strategy calls for streamlining resources, tools, and approaches to better detect and respond to the region's priority communicable disease. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incremental costs of establishing and subsequently operating activities for detection and response to the priority diseases under the IDSR. Methods We collected cost data for IDSR activities at central, regional, district, and primary health care center levels from Burkina Faso, Eritrea, and Mali, countries where IDSR is being fully implemented. These cost data included personnel, transportation items, office consumable goods, media campaigns, laboratory and response materials and supplies, and annual depreciation of buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Results Over the period studied (2002–2005), the average cost to implement the IDSR program in Eritrea was $0.16 per capita, $0.04 in Burkina Faso and $0.02 in Mali. In each country, the mean annual cost of IDSR was dependent on the health structure level, ranging from $35,899 to $69,920 at the region level, $10,790 to $13,941 at the district level, and $1,181 to $1,240 at the primary health care center level. The proportions spent on each IDSR activity varied due to demand for special items (e.g., equipment, supplies, drugs and vaccines), service availability, distance, and the epidemiological profile of the country. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the IDSR strategy can be considered a low cost public health system although the benefits have yet to be quantified. These data can also be used in future studies of the cost-effectiveness of IDSR. PMID:19133149

  19. Evaluating indoor residual spray for reducing malaria infection prevalence in Eritrea: results from a community randomized control trial. (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Locatelli, Andrea; Gebremichael, Andemariam; Ghebremeskel, Tewolde; Mufunda, Jacob; Mihreteab, Selam; Berhane, Daniel; Carneiro, Pedro


    This paper examines the relationship between indoor residual spray (IRS) and malaria parasite infection in Gash Barka Zone, Eritrea, an area with near universal coverage of insecticide treated bednets (ITN) and already low malaria parasite prevalence. A community randomized control trial was conducted in 2009. Malaria parasite infection prevalence was 0.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-0.78%], with no significant difference detected between treatment and control areas. ITN possession remains high, with over 70% of households reporting ITN ownership [95% CI: 68.4-72.9]. ITN use among individuals within ITN-owning households was just under half [46.7% (95% CI: 45.4-48.0)]. Slight differences in ITN possession and use were detected between treatment and control areas. There was no significant difference in malaria parasite infection prevalence among individuals in households with ≥1 ITN compared to those in households without ITNs, nor among individuals reporting ITN use. Among individuals in ITN-owning households, sleeping under an ITN offered no statistically significant protection from malaria parasite infection. Community participation in environmental and larval habitat management activities was low: 17.9% (95% CI: 16.0-19.7). It is likely that IRS, larval habitat management and ITN distribution alone may be insufficient to interrupt transmission without corresponding high ITN use, sustained IRS application in areas where infections are clustered, and promptly seeking laboratory diagnosis and treatment of all fevers. Eritrea is ready for elimination, irrespective of inconclusive impact evaluation results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydatidosis as a major cause of liver condemnation among parasitic diseases in goats and sheep in Keren slaughterhouse, Anseba zone, Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Ghebremariam


    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the prevalence of hydatidosis and the number of livers condemned due to this disease using retrospective data from municipal slaughterhouse in Keren, Eritrea. Materials and Methods: A retrospective data of ten years (1999 to 2008 on slaughtered goats and sheep was collected from Keren Municipal slaughterhouse, Anseba Zone of Eritrea. The data was analyzed for the prevalence of hydatidosis and the number of livers condemned. Besides, condemned livers from sheep and goats due to the presence of hydatid cysts were collected (September to December, 2008, and from March to July, 2009 for gross examination and microscopic pathology. Result: Our findings indicated that among the parasitic diseases encountered in the slaughtered animals, hydatid cysts were the most prevalent ones. Conclusion: This study has depicted that the major contributor for liver condemnation was hydatidosis. Moreover, the study has shown that the trend of the prevalence of hydatidosis is increasing and this warrants immediate intervention for its control.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record circa one million years old. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 led to the collection of fossil vertebrate remains now stored at the National Museum of Eritrea. Bones were recovered in different localities of the Dandiero Basin, where abundant archaeological and paleontological remains outcrop from the eroded sediments. The faunal collection of 436 animal bones from the Buia Basin, mostly derived from Uadi Aalad area, have undergone taphonomic analysis. Even though bone surfaces are poorly preserved due to abrasion, our work demonstrates carcass exploitation. Some specimens, mostly representing Hippopotamus gorgops and medium- to large-sized bovids, show traces of butchering left by stone tools. We also document, as far as we know for the first time, a single case of butchering involving a femur of a crocodile.   

  2. Nabro and Mallahle Volcanoes, Eritrea and Ethiopia, SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief (United States)


    The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth

  3. Geologic setting of the Abdur Archaeological Site on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea, Africa (United States)

    Buffler, Richard T.; Bruggemann, J. Henrich; Ghebretensae, Berhane N.; Walter, Robert C.; Guillaume, Mireille M. M.; Berhe, Seife M.; McIntosh, William; Park, Lisa E.


    The Abdur Archaeological Site was defined initially by the discovery and dating (125 +/- ka by Ur/Th) of in situ stone tools within uplifted marine terrace deposits located along the southern Red Sea coast of Eritrea, near the small village of Abdur. These tools represent some of the earliest well-dated evidence for human occupation of coastal marine environments. The site is located on the Buri Peninsula along the eastern shoreline of the Gulf of Zula and covers an area of approximately 7 km by 1 km. Three main stratigraphic units are defined and discussed from oldest to youngest: The Buri Formation is defined herein as a sequence of brackish-freshwater (estuarine) and fluvial-deltaic sediments consisting of mudstones, siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and limestones with ash and pumice beds. Ar-Ar dating of pumice and tephras puts the time of deposition of this unit from about 0.91 to 0.72 Ma (Early-Middle Pleistocene). Several stone tools were discovered in the Buri Formation, indicating early human occupation of a coastal environment during the Early to Middle Pleistocene. The Abdur Volcanic Complex (AVC) is a small basaltic shield complex that forms the highlands along the eastern part of the Abdur Site and extends to the north and south of the area. Basalts from this center were dated from 2.12 to 0.17 Ma, indicating that the volcanic complex has been tectonically and magmatically active prior to, during and after deposition of the Buri Formation. The Abdur Reef Limestone (ARL) is the remnant of a shallow marine reef system deposited approximately 125 ka (last glacial highstand, isotope stage 5e) along the margins of the Abdur volcanic highlands. The ARL consists of a basal transgressive lag deposit overlain by extensive buildups of mollusks, echinoderms, bioclastic sands and corals up to 11 m thick. Numerous stone tools in the ARL fall into two tool kits, bifacial hand axes of the Acheulian industry and Middle Stone Age-type (MSA) obsidian flakes and

  4. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... this page: Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street Prince ...

  5. British and American attitudes toward credit cards. (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David


    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  6. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Simpson, William A.


    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  7. Politics, policy and government in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carty, R. Kenneth


    ... and Gerry Kristiansonvi Contents Part 3: Governing the Province 9 The Government of the Day: The Premier and Cabinet in British Columbia / 143 Terence Morley 10 Provincial Governance and the Pu...

  8. Does the group leader matter? The impact of monitoring activities and social ties of group leaders on the repayment performance of groupbased lending Eritrea


    Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.


    This paper analyzes whether the effects of monitoring and social ties of the group leader and other group members on repayment performance of groups differ, using data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We hypothesize that the monitoring activities and social ties of the group leader have a stronger positive impact on the repayment performance of groups. The results show that social ties of the group leader do have a positive effect on repayment ...

  9. Magistratura togata vs. giustizia amministrativa nella Colonia Eritrea, 1907-1911. Il memoriale Conte e il rapporto n. 10330 di Salvago Raggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Zaccaria


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the reactions of the Italian colonial establishment in Eritrea to the reforms of the judicial system introduced by the judicial ordinance (ordinamento giudiziario known as R. D. 2 July 1908, n. 325. Passed thanks to the efforts of Governor Giuseppe Salvago Raggi, the new judicial ordinance sanctioned the rise to a position of prominence in the judiciary by the “commissari” to the disadvantage of the magistrates. This innovation found a determined opposition inside the Italian community in Eritrea that organized a steady but ineffective resistance in order to contrast the implementation of the judicial ordinance. This article present the text of two documents related to this particular phase. The first one is the “Memoriale” by Ernesto Conte, a pitiless description of the shortcomings of the judiciary system run by the Italians. The second document (the report nr. 10330 is the official answer by Salvago Raggi to the accusations contained in Conte’s “Memoriale”. Both documents show the gravity of the confrontation that took place in 1911-1912 between the colonial government and the Italian settlers in Eritrea.

  10. Serological evidence indicates that foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O, C and SAT1 are most dominant in eritrea. (United States)

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A


    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Eritrea and in most parts of Africa. To be able to control FMD using vaccination, information on the occurrence of various foot-and-mouth disease serotypes in Eritrea is needed. In this cross-sectional study, 212 sera samples were collected from FMD infected and recovered animals in Eritrea. These samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against FMD non-structural proteins (NSP) and neutralizing antibodies against six of the seven (all but SAT 3) serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Of these, 67.0% tested positive to non-structural protein antibodies in the FMD NS ELISA. By virus neutralization, FMDV serotype O antibodies were shown to be the most dominant (approximately 50%). Virus neutralization test results indicate that infection with serotype C and SAT 1 might have occurred, although there are no reports of isolation of these two serotypes. Because the samples were not randomly selected, further random serological surveillance in all age group animals is necessary both to estimate the prevalence of FMD in the country and to confirm the serological results with serotype C and SAT 1. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. El papel de la Comunidad Internacional representada por la Organización de Naciones Unidas, la Unión Africana de Naciones, Estados Unidos y Ruanda en la guerra y postguerra entre Eritrea y Etiopía 1998 – 2008”


    Rojas Hernández, Natalia del Pilar


    La presente monografía trata sobre la Gestión de Conflictos empleada en la guerra entre Eritrea y Etiopía por parte de la Comunidad Internacional en dos fases: guerra (1998 y 2000) y postguerra (2001-2008). También muestra la evolución del conflicto desde la independencia eritrea.

  12. British Teachers' Transnational Work within and beyond the British Empire after the Second World War (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay


    Focusing on British graduates from Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) in London, this article illustrates transnational history's concerns with the reciprocal flows of people and ideas within and beyond the British Empire. GHTC's progressive curriculum and culture positioned women teachers as agents of change, and the article highlights the lives…

  13. Gains attained in malaria control coverage within settings earmarked for pre-elimination: malaria indicator and prevalence surveys 2012, Eritrea. (United States)

    Berhane, Araia; Mihreteab, Selam; Ahmed, Hagos; Zehaie, Assefash; Abdulmumini, Usman; Chanda, Emmanuel


    Eritrea, like most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has expended much effort towards malaria control with the view of transitioning from reduction of the disease burden to elimination. This paper reports on the level of achievement as highlighted by the follow-on, malaria-endemic area representative, survey that aimed to provide data and to assess progress on malaria indicators and parasite prevalence at household level across the country. In 2012, data were collected using a two-stage stratified cluster random sample of 1887 households in 96 clusters (villages in rural areas and census enumeration areas in urban centers) during a malaria indicator and prevalence survey in Eritrea. The survey determined parasite prevalence in vulnerable population groups and evaluated coverage, use and access to malaria control services. Standardized Roll-Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group household and women's questionnaires were adapted to the local situation and used for collection of data that were analysed and summarized using descriptive statistics. The results of the survey showed that 90% (95% CI 89-91) of households owned at least one mosquito net. The proportion of the population with access to an insecticide-treated net (ITN) in their household was 55% (95% CI 54-56). The utilization of ITNs was 67% (95% CI 65-70) for children under 5 years and 60% (95% CI 58-63) for pregnant women (OR: 0. 73(95% CI 0.62-0.85); P = 0.52). Only 28% (95% CI 26-30) of households were covered by indoor residual spraying (IRS) the previous year with significant heterogeneity by zoba (Debub 50 % (95% CI 45-54) vs Gash Barka 32 % (95% CI 28-36); OR = 0. 47 (95% CI 0.36-0.61), P = 0.05). Malaria parasite prevalence was low; 1.1% (95% CI 0.9-1.3) in the general population and 1.4% (95% CI 1.0-2.0) in children under five and 0.7% (95% CI 0.4-1.1) among women aged 15-49 years. Only 19% (95% CI 15-26) of children under five had fever in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, with 61

  14. Predictors of Women’s Satisfaction with Hospital-Based Intrapartum Care in Asmara Public Hospitals, Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meron Mehari Kifle


    Full Text Available Background. Exploring patient satisfaction contributes to provide quality maternity care, but there is paucity of epidemiologic data in Eritrea. Objectives. To determine the predictors of women's satisfaction with intrapartum care in Asmara public maternity hospitals in Eritrea. Methods. A cross-sectional study among 771 mothers who gave birth in three public Hospitals. Chi-square tests were done to analyze the difference in proportion and logistic regression to assess the predictors of satisfaction with intrapartum care. Results. Overall, only 20.8% of the participants were satisfied with intrapartum service. The key predictors of satisfaction with intrapartum care were provision of clean bed and beddings (AOR = 18.87, 2.33–15.75, privacy during examinations (AOR = 10.22, 4.86–21.48, using understandable language (AOR = 8.72, 3.57–21.27, showing how to summon for help (AOR = 8.16, 4.30–15.48, showing baby immediately after birth (AOR = 8.14, 2.87–23.07, control of the delivery room (AOR = 6.86, 2.65–17.75, receiving back massage (AOR = 6.43, 3.23–12.81, toilet access and cleanliness (AOR = 6.09, 3.25–11.42, availability of chairs for relatives (AOR = 5.96, 3.14–11.30, allowing parents to stay during labour (AOR = 3.52, 1.299–9.56, and request for permission before any procedure (AOR = 2.39, 1.28–4.46. Conclusion. To increase satisfaction with intrapartum care, maternity service providers need to address the general maternity ward cleanliness, improve the quality of physical facilities, and sensitize health providers for better communication with clients. Policy makers need to adopt strategies that ensure more women involvement in decision making and consideration of privacy and reassurance needs during the whole delivery process.

  15. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič


    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  16. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal


    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  17. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata


    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory.......Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...

  18. A critical history of British earthquakes


    R. M. W. Musson


    This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesipov Mikhail Alekseevich


    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students. The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.

  20. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites. (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian


    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  1. The Conduct of an Inter-state War and Multiple Dimensions of Territory: 1998-2000 Eritrea-Ethiopia war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Magnólia Dias


    Full Text Available Inter-state wars are not one of the most salient features in the post-Cold War era. The literature on contemporary armed conflict, particularly those in the aftermath of the Cold War, tends to overlook the centrality of territory in the causation of war. However, a border incident between Eritrea and Ethiopia in 1998 led to a crisis which escalated. The war lasted two and a half years, leading to an estimated 100.000 casualties. The article’s central claim shows the centrality of territory in its multiple dimensions for the understanding of the war that opposed the two sovereign states.As guerras inter-estatais não são uma das características mais salientes do pós-Guerra Fria. A literatura que analisa os conflitos contemporâneos, em particular aqueles ocorridos no pós-Guerra Fria, tendencialmente não reconhece centralidade ao território enquanto causa de conflito. No entanto, um incidente fronteiriço entre a Eritreia e a Etiópia em 1998 despoletou uma crise que viria a escalar, resultando num conflito de dois anos e meio com cerca de 100.000 vítimas. A tese central do presente artigo sublinha a centralidade do território nas suas múltiplas dimensões para o entendimento da guerra que opôs os dois Estados soberanos.

  2. InSAR investigation of crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Hamiel, Y.; Grandin, R.; Baer, G.; Wright, T. J.; Doubre, C.; Hamlyn, J.; Pagli, C.; Peltzer, G.


    The Nabro volcano, Afar, Eritrea, erupted on the night of June 12, 2011. The volcano emitted ~ 1.5 Tg of sulfur dioxide (SO2), one of the highest mass ever recorded, with a volcanic plume reaching about 15 km elevation. A seismic sequence started on June 12, 15:37 UTC time, a few hours before the onset of the volcanic eruption. It included in total 18 M>4 earthquakes, of which two Mw 5.6 normal fault earthquakes occurred on June 12, and an Mw 5.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred at the end of the sequence on June 17. The deformation associated with the eruption and the seismic activity was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the TerraSAR-X satellite. Interferograms as well as range and azimuth offset maps were generated using ascending and descending track pairs. The Nabro caldera and the associated channel of magma flow are characterized by significant loss of coherence which limited our InSAR observations at the near field of the volcano. Elastic modeling based on these InSAR measurements are thus ambiguous resulting in several possible mechanisms, with various interactions between faults and magmatic sources. Detailed assessment of co- and post-eruptive seismicity and monitoring of post-eruptive deformation using continued InSAR observations are used to discriminate between the different magmatic and tectonic components that triggered and sustained the eruption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the small size of grains. In addition, after polishing only few glass shards showed useful surfaces for track counting and only 25 spontaneous tracks were counted. The determined fission-track age - 0.75 +/- 0.16 Ma - is a rejuvenated age due to the presence of a certain amount of annealing of spontaneous tracks. An attempt to apply the plateau method for correcting this apparent age failed. A corrected age of 1.3 +/- 0.3 Ma was computed using the size-correction method. In spite of its low precision, this fission-track age represents a significant result, since it corroborates the attribution to Jaramillo Subchron of the normal magnetozone near the base of which the tephra is located. 

  4. Extracting and analyzing forest and woodland cover change in Eritrea based on landsat data using supervised classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihretab G. Ghebrezgabher


    Full Text Available Remote sensing images are suitable for quantifying and analyzing land-cover dynamics, particularly for forest-cover change. In this study, the methodology used the supervised classification technique to classify and analyze the total forest-cover change in Eritrea. The results indicated that the forest and woodland cover extracted with high overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of approximately 96% and 0.94, respectively. Generally, the forest cover declined from 2966 km2 to 1401 km2 from the 1970s to 2014, and the woodland forest cover was reduced from 14,879 km2 to 13,677 km2 in the same period. The annual rate of deforestation was very high, with approximately 0.35% (62 km2 of the total forest cover lost each year for the last 44 years. The study concluded that deforestation is one of the leading causes of environmental degradation in the country and it might be caused by human factors as well as due to climate change, i.e., by prolonged drought and inadequate and erratic rainfall. Thus, this paper may significantly help decision makers and researchers who are interested in remote sensing for forest management and monitoring, and for controlling and planning development at local, regional, and global [scales].


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We report the findings of two proboscideans from a sedimentary intercalation within the Central Eritrea Tertiary Trap basalt succession. These intertrappean sediments can be traced continuously between Tera’emni and Adi Quala in the Mendefera region, and are interbedded between the underlying Asmara/Aiba-Alaji basalts and the overlying Adi Ugri basalt. This intercalation is up to 50 m thick and consists of a predominant intensely pedogenized red, green and gray mudstone and siltstone with subordinate channelized pebbly sandstone. The newly discovered mammal remains come from the coarse-grained deposits in the Mai Gobro section.  Available radiometric datings of the host volcanic rocks constrain the age of the fossils between 24.6 and 22.1 Ma, i.e. at the transition between the Oligocene and the Miocene. The fossil vertebrate remains from Mai Gobro represent two proboscidean families, Deinotheriidae and Gomphotheriidae. The morphological grade of the two Mai Gobro proboscideans would suggest a more derived stage than that of representatives of the same families known from other Oligocene African sited (e.g. Chilga, Ethiopia, suggesting a possible Oligo-Miocene age. 

  6. Surgical treatment of neglected congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus after walking age in Eritrea: an Italo-Eritrean cooperation. (United States)

    Faldini, C; Prosperi, L; Traina, F; Nanni, M; Tesfaghiorghi, S; Tsegay, S; Yosief, M; Pungetti, C; Sanzarello, I


    An Italian team of orthopaedic surgeons joined Eritrean colleagues to perform a clinical study in ambulating children affected by neglected idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). This study reports the surgical strategy as well as clinical outcomes, early complications and relapse at a mid-term follow-up. Four expeditions of 7 days were organized between 2012 and 2015 from Italy to the Halibet Hospital of Asmara in Eritrea. In each expedition were included two experienced surgeons, two assistants and one anaesthesiologist. During these expeditions, a total of 468 patients were evaluated together with Eritrean colleagues and 45 cases of neglected talipes equinovarus in ambulating children were diagnosed and selected for surgery. Follow-up range was 1-3 years. During the four expeditions, the Eritrean team of orthopaedic surgeons learned to manage most cases of neglected talipes equinovarus. No major complications were reported. Sixteen feet were considered excellent, 25 good and four poor. No overcorrections were observed. Neglected congenital talipes equinovarus is the result of delayed treatment of congenital deformity in developing countries, and its treatment often requires extensive surgery. Collaboration with foreign expert surgeons may help local doctors to learn how to treat this disease. The current study demonstrates that surgical expeditions in developing countries, when organized in collaboration with local doctors, help to manage on site this severe deformity.

  7. British Higher Education and Its Older Clients. (United States)

    Woodley, Alan; Wilson, Jane


    Using results from a survey of British graduates, examined outcomes of higher education for older students, including their current employment situation, relationship of degree to job, and student satisfaction. Found that mature students are an extremely heterogeneous group, with differences in outcomes by age and mode of study. (EV)

  8. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen


    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  9. British Technology Education. An American View. (United States)

    Hutchinson, John


    The author describes the British Craft, Design and Technology (CDT) curriculum, which is comparable to American technology education. According to the author, CDT is characterized by creative thinking and experimentation. He states, however, that little national coordination or cooperation is evident. (CH)

  10. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia (United States)

    Santos, Ana


    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  11. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia


    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  12. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon (United States)


    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  13. British scorched earth and concentration camp policies.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THE BRITISH SCORCHED EARTH AND. CONCENTRATION CAMP POLICIES IN THE. POTCHEFSTROOM REGION, 1899–1902. 1. Prof GN van den Bergh. Research Associate, North-West University. Abstract. The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of. Bloemfontein and Pretoria and ...

  14. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens


    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  15. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  16. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy. (United States)


    development or production. To Kennedy and MacNamara , the decision to cancel the SKYBOLT program in 1962 was only a measure to improve the cost...Kennedy- MacNamara decision to cancel SKYBOLT. Kennedy suc- cessfully solved the British dilemma by offering to sell them the American POLARIS submarine

  17. Demand for wildlife hunting in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.


    We present estimates of the demand for hunting licenses by residents and nonresidents in British Columbia for the period 19712000. We obtain estimates of both short-run and long-run price elasticities and discuss their revenue implications for future fee increases. We find the demand by nonresidents

  18. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  19. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis (United States)

    Shaw, Alison


    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  20. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.


    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth

  1. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective. (United States)

    Christian, Mark


    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Valerievna Eremina


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the forms, methods, content of British strategy in Arctic. Arctic is becoming the area of international cooperation among, first of all, Arctic states. Britain has ambitions to get the status of so-called “subarctic state” to prove its international leadership and acquire guarantees of energetic security. Now Britain has been elaborating the two strategies: military and scientific ones. The main instrument to solve the tasks for Britain is to participate in international structures, connected with Arctic. The article pays attention to the aspects that were not previously analyzed, such as: reasons of British interests in Arctic, bilateral and multilateral relationships between Britain and its partners, first of all, cooperation between Russia and Britain; British institutions; positive and negative aspects of British Arctic strategy; factors that have impact on its evolution, mainly EU and Scottish factors. The research allowed to make the conclusion that Britain does not have enough instruments to have a strong disposition in Arctic, though it plans to accelerate its participation in Arctic organizations. The article is based upon system and structural analysis.

  3. subordination across ghanaian and british newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical research in this area is scanty, though this theoretical argumentation is not without contention, especially cross-culturally. Empirical investigation is therefore ... Frimpong: Subordination Across Ghanaian and British Newspaper Editorials: A Register. Perspective. 78. Figure 1: The Components in a register analysis.

  4. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites


    McClelland, A.; S. Khanam; Furnham, A.


    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma İgüs


    Full Text Available This article examines the life and works of British architect William James Smith and outlines his contributions to nineteenth century Ottoman architecture and presents his prominence as an architectural historian of nineteenth century British architectural work.

  6. A proboscidean from the late Oligocene of Eritrea, a “missing link” between early Elephantiformes and Elephantimorpha, and biogeographic implications (United States)

    Shoshani, Jeheskel; Walter, Robert C.; Abraha, Michael; Berhe, Seife; Tassy, Pascal; Sanders, William J.; Marchant, Gary H.; Libsekal, Yosief; Ghirmai, Tesfalidet; Zinner, Dietmar


    We report on a late Oligocene proboscidean species from Eritrea, dated to 26.8 ± 1.5 Mya. This “missing link” between early elephantiformes and Elephantimorpha is the oldest known nongomphothere proboscidean to probably display horizontal tooth displacement, typical of elephants [Elephantimorpha consists of Mammutida (mastodons) and Elephantida, and Elephantida includes gomphotheres, stegodons, and elephants]. Together with the newly discovered late Oligocene gomphotheres from Chilga, Ethiopia, the Eritrean taxon points to the importance of East Africa as a major area for the knowledge of the early evolution of Elephantimorpha before the faunal exchange between Eurasia and Africa. PMID:17085582

  7. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football


    Daniel Kilvington


    This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group). Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work...

  8. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle


    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  9. The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South African constabulary, 1900-1902. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... to the colonies but sought guidance from existing institutions throughout the British Isles and Empire in a single 'British-Imperial' model of administration.

  10. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  11. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes (United States)


    ... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series... instructions of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JM7862, Revision 1, dated...

  12. the relationship between british war correspondents in the field

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal ... press corps in the field and British Military Intelligence, especially in the initial and formal part of the Anglo-Boer ..... recognised and acknowledged the Value and Power of the Press by establishing a Newspaper as ...

  13. Negative connotations in speech behaviour of the british and american men and women (british and american drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е М Люльчева


    Full Text Available Use of special linguistic means in the British and American men and women speech is researched in this article. Various linguistic means are typical of the British and American men and women negative emotional speech.

  14. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W. [British Columbia Ministry of Finance, Victoria, BC (Canada). Land Use Coordination Office


    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province.

  15. Prevalence of refractive error and spectacle coverage in Zoba Ma'ekel Eritrea: a rapid assessment of refractive error. (United States)

    Chan, Ving Fai; Mebrahtu, Goitom; Ramson, Prasidh; Wepo, Mary; Naidoo, Kovin S


    To determine the prevalence of refractive error and spectacle coverage in Zoba Ma'ekel, Eritrea in order to assist in planning for refractive services and blindness prevention strategies. A community-based cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling was conducted. A total of 3200 participants aged 15-50 years were enumerated and examined using the Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error (RARE) protocol. The response rate was 99.1%. The prevalence of refractive error was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-7.2%). Spectacle coverage for refractive error was 22.2% (95% CI 16.7-28.5%). It was higher among males than females (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.028), and highest in those who had completed secondary school (48.6%, 95% CI 31.9-65.6%) and those who resided in Asmara (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.002). The prevalence of presbyopia was 32.9% (95% CI 30.3-35.7%) with 94.9% correctable. Spectacle use for presbyopia was 9.9% (95% CI 7.2-13.4%), which was lowest in those with no formal schooling but highest in those who had completed secondary school (χ(2) test, p < 0.001) and those persons who resided in Asmara (Fisher's exact test, p < 0.001). Respondents expressed different barriers to uptake of services. A total of 128 subjects were aware of the problem but did not feel the need for consultation while 83 subjects stated they could not afford the cost of examination and spectacles. The study provides helpful findings to assist with the development of appropriate refractive service planning in Zoba Ma'ekel. Uncorrected refractive error is of public health importance and prompt measures are needed to address the problem.

  16. Factors associated with mortality and length of stay in hospitalised neonates in Eritrea, Africa: a cross-sectional study (United States)

    Zemichael, O; Meng, Hong Dao


    Objective To determine the factors associated with mortality in a hospitalised cohort of infants in Asmara, Eritrea. Design Retrospective cross-sectional review of all 2006 admissions to a specialised neonatal intensive care unit. Data on gestational age (prematurity), age at presentation, birth weight, gender, mode of delivery, Apgar score, maternal age, birth location, admission diagnosis, admission comorbidities, time of admission and outcome were collected. Setting Orotta Pediatric Hospital ‘Specialised Neonatal Intensive Care Unit’ (SNCU) in Orotta National Maternity Referral Hospital, the nation's only tertiary newborn centre. Primary and secondary outcome measures Factors associated with mortality and length of stay via multivariate regression analysis and the combined association of both hypothermia and pneumonia. Other outcome measures were determination of the association of admission hypothermia, time of admission and pneumonia on mortality. Results A total of 1502 infants were admitted to the SNCU with an average preterm gestational age of 35.9 weeks. 87 died (mortality 8.2%). In bivariate analysis, the highest mortality rate (10.3%) was seen in patient's admitted <1 h after birth. Patients with hypothermia or pneumonia exhibited higher mortality rates (13.6% and 13.4%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, birth weight <2 kg (p<0.01), birth weight between 2.1 and 2.5 kg (p<0.01), Apgar score at 1 min (p<0.01), small for gestational age (p<0.01), hypothermia (p<0.04) and pneumonia (p<0.01) were associated with mortality. Conclusion Hypothermia, pneumonia, younger gestational age, 1 min Apgar score and small size for gestational age are significantly associated with mortality and longer length of stay in the Eritrean SNCU. PMID:22983873

  17. Interpreting household survey data intended to measure insecticide-treated bednet coverage: results from two surveys in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukich Josh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As efforts are currently underway to roll-out insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs to populations within malarious areas in Africa, there is an unprecedented need for data to measure the effectiveness of such programmes in terms of population coverage. This paper examines methodological issues to using household surveys to measure core Roll Back Malaria coverage indicators of ITN possession and use. Methods ITN coverage estimates within Anseba and Gash Barka Provinces from the 2002 Eritrean Demographic and Health Survey, implemented just prior to a large-scale ITN distribution programme, are compared to estimates from the same area from a sub-national Bednet Survey implemented 18 months later in 2003 after the roll-out of the ITN programme. Results Measures of bednet possession were dramatically higher in 2003 compared to 2002. In 2003, 82.2% (95% confidence interval (CI 77.4–87.0 of households in Anseba and Gash Barka possessed at least one ITN. RBM coverage indicators for ITN use were also dramatically higher in 2003 as compared to 2002, with 76.1% (95% CI 69.9–82.2 of children under five years old and 52.4% (95% CI 38.2–66.6 of pregnant women sleeping under ITNs. The ITN distribution programme resulted in a gross increase in ITN use among children and pregnant women of 68.3% and 48% respectively. Conclusion Eritrea has exceeded the Abuja targets of 60% coverage for ITN household possession and use among children under five years old within two malarious provinces. Results point to several important potential sources of bias that must be considered when interpreting data for ITN coverage over time, including: disparate survey universes and target populations that may include non-malarious areas; poor date recall of bednet procurement and treatment; and differences in timing of surveys with respect to malaria season.

  18. Russian-British Symposium on Quantum Technologies (United States)

    Zadkov, V. N.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Naumov, A. V.


    In the year 2017, declared 'The Year of Science and Education', the Russian Federation (RF) and the United Kingdom (UK) implemented the Promotion of UK-RF Joint Research in the Field of Quantum Technologies Project. In the framework of this project, Russian scientists from various scientific and science educational institutions in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhnii Novgorod and St. Petersburg and their British colleagues from scientific centres in London, Birmingham and Glasgow exchanged visits.

  19. Metaphor and creativity in British magazine advertising


    Lundmark, Carita


    This thesis is a cognitive linguistic study of the various ways in which conceptual metaphor and related cognitive processes are exploited for creative purposes in advertising texts and accompanying images. The material consists of advertisements collected from British magazines between the years 1996 and 2002, and is classified into four main categories according to how the metaphorical content is signalled in the advertisement. These categories include polysemous words, idiomatic expression...

  20. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change? (United States)


    must create a vision, devise a strategy, and implement it. They require buy -in from the wider Army but this support is not guaranteed. Indeed, many...investigate. However, there is a compulsion element to any change in the British Army. Orders are orders after all. How much room there is for change evident throughout? Whether Senior Leaders had any power to influence change is important due to the compulsion aspect of the

  1. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth


    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn


    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  2. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness. (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian


    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  3. Women Without Arms: Gendered Fighter Constructions in Eritrea and Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Weber


    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    An analysis of gendered fighter constructions in the liberation movements in Eritrea and southern Sudan (EPLF and SPLA/M, examining the question of female access to the sphere of masculine fighter constructs and the relevance of this for influence in peacetime affairs. Empirical research in both countries, in particular interviews with participants, reveals that what keeps women out of the sphere of legitimized violence is not some

  4. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN


    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  5. Rapid diagnostic tests failing to detect Plasmodium falciparum infections in Eritrea: an investigation of reported false negative RDT results. (United States)

    Berhane, Araia; Russom, Mulugeta; Bahta, Iyassu; Hagos, Filmon; Ghirmai, Michael; Uqubay, Selam


    Relatively large number of false-negative malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results for microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum cases were reported from five of the six administrative regions of Eritrea in 2015. This activated the Ministry of Health to conduct an initial exploratory investigation. The main objective of the investigation was to confirm the sensitivity of the RDTs in the field in microscopically confirmed malaria cases, identify the possible causes of the failure and recommend further actions to be taken. A team composed of the National Malaria Control Programme, National Medicines and Food Administration and Laboratory Unit of the Ministry of Health was established to confirm the sensitivity of the SD Bioline® RDTs. A 'Malaria RDT quality monitoring form' was prepared and distributed to 13 health facilities selected on availability of microscopy services, experienced laboratory personnel and malaria endemicity, to carry out preliminary investigation on the suspected RDT quality defect. In parallel, field visits to central and regional medical warehouses as well as selected health facilities were conducted to assess the storage conditions, handling and operator procedures. Furthermore, joint field assessment was conducted with the manufacturer, SD Bioline RDTs. During the time frame of 15 July 2015 to 19 January 2016, 65 microscopically confirmed patients were tested with Malaria RDTs SD Bioline Pf/Pv/Mixed Combo cassettes. A total of 65 blood specimens (50 P. falciparum, 13 Plasmodium vivax and 2 mixed) confirmed microscopically were tested against the available lots of malaria RDTs. Out of the 50 P. falciparum infected blood specimens, only 10 were confirmed positive with all the lots of PfHRP-2 detecting RDTs making the false negativity rate at 80% [41/51]. The false negative result for RDT targeting PfHRP2 antigen ranged from 65% [11/17] in Gash Barka region to 100% [12/12] in Northern Red Sea Region. In addition, supervisory visits

  6. Hard-rock hydrotectonics using geographic information systems in the central highlands of Eritrea: Implications for groundwater exploration (United States)

    Solomon, Semere; Ghebreab, Woldai


    SummaryIn the central highlands of Eritrea, the fractures derived as lineaments from digitally enhanced Landsat TM images are grouped based on their tectonic origins and relative ages into three major sets of geological structures, Set 1, Set 2 and Set 3. Set 1 comprises the oldest NNE-SSW and NW-SE trending tensile lineaments, Set 2 is N-S and WNW-ESE and Set 3 is NE-SW and ENE-WSW. Both Set 2 and Set 3 are conjugate shear fractures. Frequency of groundwater occurrence (producing wells close to fracture lineaments), well yield and distance or locations of well data from the fractures are the main parameters considered in the analysis using geographic information systems (GIS). In the Set 2 and Set 3 shear fractures, well yields at distances of 0-60 m to lineaments are low while well yields at a distance of about 90-120 m away from the major lineaments are high. In the NNE-SSW fractures of Set 1, well yields at distances of 0-60 m from the major fractures are high but much lower than the highest well yields in the shear fractures at about 90-120 m. The relationship between well yield and distance to fracture lineaments in the three sets of fractures indicates that both of the shear fractures are hydrotectonically more significant than the tensile fractures. Of the shear fractures the N-S trending Set 2 lineaments are relatively the most important in terms of groundwater potential. The data summarized in a conceptual hydrotectonic model can be used as a working reference in selecting potential sites for future groundwater exploration in the region. Although drilling sites can be designed within the optimum distances, for example, 90 m distance, along the N-S trending fractures, supplementary detailed geophysical investigations should be carried out prior to drilling. The lineament analysis using GIS thus provides a means for scaling down target areas and design cost-effective and successful groundwater exploration programmes.

  7. The British Monarchy. On the Teaching of British Affairs at College and School Level (United States)

    Campbell-Doherty, Julian


    Deals with "area study" aspects of the teaching of English in schools and colleges. Using as an example the British monarchy, it is shown how "area study" elements are handled in schoolbooks in use today. Suggestions relating to the subject are also offered. (IFS/WGA)

  8. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system (United States)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.


    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  9. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer


    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  10. Suicide reporting within British newspapers' arts coverage. (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Stevenson, Fiona


    Many suicide prevention strategies promote media guidelines on suicide reporting, given evidence that irresponsible reporting of suicide can influence imitative suicidal behavior. Due to limited resources, monitoring of guideline adherence has tended to focus on news outputs, with a risk of neglecting other journalistic content. To determine whether British newspapers' arts coverage adheres to media guidelines on suicide reporting. Purposive sampling was used to capture current national practice on suicide reporting within newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions. Recent major UK exhibitions by artists who had died by suicide were identified: Kirchner, Rothko, Gorky, and Van Gogh. Content analysis of all UK national newspaper coverage of these exhibitions was performed to measure the articles' adherence to widely accepted media guidelines. In all, 68 newspaper reviews satisfied inclusion criteria, with 100% failing to show full adherence to media guidelines: 21% used inappropriate language; 38% provided explicit descriptions of the suicide; 7% employed simplistic explanations for suicide triggers; 27% romanticized the suicide; and 100% omitted information on sources of support. British newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions deviates considerably from media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. The findings suggest scope to improve journalists' awareness of the importance of this component of suicide prevention strategies.

  11. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate

  12. A steep decline of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Eritrea between 2000 and 2004: the effect of combination of control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremichael Andemariam


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a huge public health problem in Africa that is responsible for more than one million deaths annually. In line with the Roll Back Malaria initiative and the Abuja Declaration, Eritrea and other African countries have intensified their fight against malaria. This study examines the impact of Eritrea's Roll Back Malaria Programme: 2000–2004 and the effects and possible interactions between the public health interventions in use. Methods This study employed cross-sectional survey to collect data from households, community and health facilities on coverage and usage of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs, Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, larvicidal activities and malaria case management. Comparative data was obtained from a similar survey carried out in 2001. Data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS and reports of the annual assessments by the National Malaria Control Programme was used to assess impact. Time series model (ARIMA was used to assess association. Results In the period 2000–2004, approximately 874,000 ITNs were distributed and 13,109 health workers and community health agents were trained on malaria case management. In 2004, approximately 81% households owned at least one net, of which 73% were ITNs and 58.6% of children 0–5 years slept under a net. The proportion of malaria cases managed by community health agents rose from 50% in 1999 to 78% in 2004. IRS coverage increased with the combined amount of DDT and Malathion used rising from 6,444 kg, in 2000 to 43,491 kg, in 2004, increasing the population protected from 117,017 to 259,420. Drug resistance necessitated regimen change to chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. During the period, there was a steep decline in malaria morbidity and case fatality by 84% and 40% respectively. Malaria morbidity was strongly correlated to the numbers of ITNs distributed (β = -0.125, p Conclusion Eritrea has within 5 years attained key Roll Back

  13. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip


    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  14. British view of Canadian general practice. (United States)

    Marsh, G N


    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  15. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat. (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J


    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  16. The Contradiction in the "Prevent Duty": Democracy vs "British Values" (United States)

    Wolton, Suke


    The duty to monitor "the failure to uphold British Values" in the "Prevent" strategy, introduced in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015, is itself an attack on British democracy. This article explains the contradictory nature of the "Prevent Duty." First, the current state of democracy in Britain is examined…

  17. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda


    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  18. Southern Cameroons' financial contributions to British Second World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serious damage done to the British economy during World War II compelled the leaders of the British Government to look for ways of repairing the damage. Hence, they turned to the colonies for help. Inter alia, they needed financial assistance because of their inability to pay for imports from the United States. Imports of ...

  19. The Relationship between British War Correspondents in the Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military ...

  20. British and American Journal Evaluation: Divergence or Convergence? (United States)

    Crewe, Ivor; Norris, Pippa


    Presents results of a survey comparing British and U.S. political scientists' familiarity with different journals, evaluations of journal quality, and measures of journal impact. Concludes that British and U.S. subjects agree about quality but read different sets of journals. Reports the two groups' familiarity with different literature,…

  1. Malta Stockholm Syndrome (or why we love the British)


    Duca, Edward


    Between 1798 and 1800, Malta changed hands three times. The feudal Knights were easily replaced by Napoleonic France, whom the Maltese initially welcomed, then revolted against a mere 82 days later ushering in the British Empire.

  2. Editorial. Themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology. (United States)

    Summers, R J


    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the 7th in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (MPGPCR) held at the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Melbourne Australia from the 6th-8th December 2012. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Genesis of the Open Learning Institute of British Columbia. (United States)

    Moran, Louise


    Discusses the history of distance education and provides historical background on the development of the Open Learning Institute in British Columbia. Topics addressed include the environment of British Columbia; expansion of higher education; political influences; and educational influences, including the role of Simon Fraser University. (Contains…

  4. Political Islam Under British Colonial Administration In Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most serious challenges faced by the British in the occupation of northern Nigeria was where and how to place Islam in the new dispensation. Islam provided the state structure and political machinery, which made it easy for British administrators to rule such a vast area through the Indirect Rule system. On the ...

  5. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington


    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  6. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.


    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  7. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia (United States)

    Agar, Douglas J.


    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  8. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis. (United States)

    Craig W. Shinn


    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  9. The British scorched earth and concentration camp policies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated the British High Command. In the case of the Potchefstroom region, British aggravation came to focus on the successful resurgence of the Potchefstroom ...

  10. Promoting major pediatric surgical care in a low-income country: a 4-year experience in Eritrea. (United States)

    Calisti, Alessandro; Belay, Kibreab; Mazzoni, Guglielmo; Fiocca, Guido; Retrosi, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Claudio


    Access to pediatric surgical care in many sub-Saharan African countries is strongly limited by lack of medical facilities, adequate transport system, and trained medical and nursing manpower. The mortality rate for major congenital abnormalities remains extremely elevated in this area of the world. Strong efforts have been spent during the past decades to elevate the level of pediatric surgery standards in these countries through cooperation programs acting through periodical medical missions or supporting local medical teaching institutions. This is a report of a partnership between an Italian Medical Institution and the Eritrean Ministry of Health with the goal to improve pediatric surgical standard of care in the country. During the past 4 years, teams composed of two pediatric surgeons, a pediatric anesthetist, and a pediatric nurse regularly visited the Orotta Medical and Surgical Referral Hospital of Asmara (Eritrea) to offer modern surgical treatment to children with major congenital abnormalities and to offer academic training to local medical and nursing staff. The team worked in local health structures. A total of 714 patients have been visited and 430 surgical procedures have been performed during 35 weeks of clinical work. Among them were 32 anorectal malformations, 11 Hirschsprung's disease cases, 8 bladder extrophies, and many other major surgical problems, such as congenital intestinal obstructions, obstructive uropathies, and solid tumors. The standard of care has been based on the principle of researching sustainable solutions. Surgical options and timing of each procedure have been decided to reduce hospitalization and the recourse to temporary stomas, indwelling catheterization, and prolonged intravenous feeding. Posterior sagittal anorectoplasties (PSARP) and posterior vagino-anorectoplasty (PSVARP) were performed for anorectal malformations, introducing minimal technical variants to reduce the need for postoperative nursing. Endorectal pull

  11. Rifting, volcanism, and magma genesis at the northern end of the Danakil Depression: The Alid volcanic center of Eritrea (Invited) (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Clynne, M. A.; Duffield, W. A.; Smith, J. G.; Woldegiorgis, L.


    The Alid volcanic center, Eritrea, is a structural dome formed by subvolcanic intrusion of pyroxene-bearing rhyolite, subsequently erupted as pumice and lava, during the period 40,000 to 15,000 years ago. The northern Danakil Depression is thought to be the most recently developed part of the Afar, and represents an active continental rift subparallel to the Red Sea spreading center. The location of Alid may be controlled by the intersection of the structural grain of the NE trending Senafe-Alid lineament with the NW trending Danakil Depression. Our work began as a geothermal assessment (Duffield et al., 1997, USGS Open-file 97-291) that found evidence for 300 meters of vertical offset of early Pleistocene basalt flows over the past 1.1 million years. Structural uplift at Alid reveals Proterozoic metamorphic basement rocks overlain by Quaternary marine sediments including siltstone, and sandstones interbedded with pillow lavas and hyaloclastites. These units are overlain by subaerial amphibole-bearing rhyolites (dated at ~200 ka), basalts, and andesites that were deposited on a relatively flat surface and before significant growth of a large volcanic edifice. About 1 km of structural uplift of the marine sediments began 40 ka when pyroxene-bearing rhyolitic magma intruded close to the surface. Uplift was accompanied by contemporaneous eruptions of pumice falls and more common obsidian domes and lava flows over the next 20,000 years. Uplift apparently ceased after eruption of pyroclastic flows and vent-clogging lava about 15 ka. The pumice deposits contain cognate xenoliths of granophyric pyroxene-granite (Lowenstern et al., 1997, J. Petrol. 38:1707). Our geochronology of the uplift is consistent with the idea that growth of the Alid volcanic center played a role in isolating the southern Danakil Depression from the Red Sea, helping to initiate dessication of the rift and producing the young evaporites found today at Baddha and further south at Dallol. U

  12. African Journals Online: Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Eritrean Medical Association. The journal aims to publish and disseminate scientifically rigorous health information of Eritrean and international significance that enables policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to be more effective in the improvement of the health of Eritrean people. View Journal | Current ...

  13. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers (United States)

    Henry, H.


    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  14. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael


    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  15. Unity is strength: staff college and the British officer corps. (United States)

    King, Anthony


    Utilizing Bourdieu's concept of the habitus, Keith Macdonald has recently examined the elite social origins of the British officer corps. His analysis is valid as far at it goes but it ignores the professional practices of British officers. This article examines Britain's Joint Services Command and Staff College to assess the unification of the three services around common forms of military practice. It argues that while the new staff college has been effective in disseminating new forms of professional expertise among British officers, various practices have been institutionalized which actively undermine the unity of the officer corps.

  16. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.


    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  17. Affective norms for 210 British English and Finnish nouns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eilola, Tiina M; Havelka, Jelena


    .... The norms were collected with 135 native British English and 304 native Finnish speakers, who rated the words according to their emotional valence, emotional charge, offensiveness, concreteness, and familiarity...

  18. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  19. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  20. Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceia, Carlos


    In his article "Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels" Carlos Ceia discusses a certain type of resistance to genre categorization in many novels in contemporary literature...

  1. Malaysia as the Archetypal Garden in the British Creative Imagination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Siti Nuraishah


    ...) of Malaysia as a garden. In order to ascertain the ways in which the garden archetype has been deployed by the British creative imagination in the past and the present, novels from the colonial and postcolonial periods...

  2. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  3. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  4. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова


    .... The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized...

  6. Geology of British Columbia: a journey through time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannings, Sydney G; Nelson, JoAnne; Cannings, Richard


    "In this completely updated edition of the bestselling Geology of British Columbia, authors Sydney Cannings, JoAnne Nelson and Richard Cannings describe the various geological forces that have created...

  7. Shared Concerns: Thoughts on British Literature and British Music in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allis


    Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.

  8. Society and the British Army: Implications for Fighting Spirit (United States)


    British one accepts some diversity, but within a tightly bounded community that insists on much conformity. In such an organisation , individualism, self...Used to ‘Bridge the Gap’ between the Attitudes and Culture of British Army Recruits and the Army’s Organisational Culture?” (Master’s diss...of military authority combines coercive and hierarchical elements typical of a military organization with ‘group consensus ’ and persuasive forms of

  9. Cultural change and lodestones in the British Police


    Grint, Keith


    • Purpose: This Research Paper considers a challenge to an occupational jurisdiction in the British police. Historically, street cops have defended the importance of operational credibility as a way of sustaining the value of experience, and inhibiting attempts to introduce external leaders. This has generated a particular form of policing and leadership that is deemed by the British government as inadequate to face the problems of the next decade. \\ud • Design: The project used the High Pote...

  10. ABC: A Franco-British Intra-Group Comparison


    John, Innes; Pierre, Mevellec; University of Dundee; University of Nantes


    This case study describes the implementation of ABC in two factories within the one British multinational group in France and Britain. It also explores the similarities and differences between the assessment, implementation and use of the ABC system in these two factories. The French managers assessed ABC with the major objective of product costing whereas in the British factory ABC was used mainly for cost management. However, it is important to realise that the French homogeneous cost pools...

  11. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper


    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an int......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....

  12. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh


    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  13. Explaining British Political Stability After 1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Davis


    Full Text Available Though not its main focus, Goldstone's Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (1991 threw considerable new light on 19th century Europe's revolutions and near-revolutions. While Goldstone stresses the role of an expanding and industrializing economy in absorbing 19th century England's demographic shocks, we accept this analysis but argue alongside it for similar attention to the vector of emigration, settler-colonialism, and imperial state expansion into which at least some of the exhaust fumes of the population explosion were vented. Furthermore, it is important to note the crucial role of a highly interventionist state and 'big' government in the background to these dynamics—a far cry from the light-touch, laissez-faire qualities with which the 19th century British state is often associated. To make our case, this article takes advantage of secondary literature and raw data not available prior to the publication of Goldstone's book. Of crucial importance here is our unique dataset of fatality-inducing political violence events in Britain and Ireland from 1785 to 1900. This is the first research paper to utilise this dataset. We draw upon this in the following section, which seeks to establish what the real level of political instability was in 19th century Britain—thus cross-referencing Goldstone's account with more recent data—before moving on in the following section to a more detailed overview of the socio-economic conditions underlying events at the political level. This is followed by our account of the emigration-settler-colonialism-imperial state expansion vector and the interventionist state policy behind it, which we argue was crucial to making 19th century Britain relatively 'revolution-proof'—alongside the expanding economic opportunities rightly highlighted by Goldstone. Lastly come our brief concluding remarks, which lay out the implications, as we see them, of this article's findings for research on

  14. The role of strategic health planning processes in the development of health care reform policies: a comparative study of Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Collins, Charles; Stefanini, Angelo; Ferrinho, Paulo; Chapman, Glyn; Hagos, Besrat; Adams, Yussuf; Omar, Mayeh


    This paper reports on comparative analysis of health planning and its relationship with health care reform in three countries, Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The research examined strategic planning in each country focusing in particular on its role in developing health sector reforms. The paper analyses the processes for strategic planning, the values that underpin the planning systems, and issues related to resources for planning processes. The resultant content of strategic plans is assessed and not seen to have driven the development of reforms; whilst each country had adopted strategic planning systems, in all three countries a more complex interplay of forces, including influences outside both the health sector and the country, had been critical forces behind the sectoral changes experienced over the previous decade. The key roles of different actors in developing the plans and reforms are also assessed. The paper concludes that a number of different conceptions of strategic planning exist and will depend on the particular context within which the health system is placed. Whilst similarities were discovered between strategic planning systems in the three countries, there are also key differences in terms of formality, timeframes, structures and degrees of inclusiveness. No clear leadership role for strategic planning in terms of health sector reforms was discovered. Planning appears in the three countries to be more operational than strategic. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. “C’è l’Assaorta che ci aspetta...”. Geografi ed etnografi italiani tra i Saho d’Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Dore


    Full Text Available At the very beginning of the XX c. four Italian geographers and ethnologists reached Eritrea to do a scientific survey of several Saho groups. Their aim was to collect data on Saho material culture, as well as on their myths of origins, historical accounts, riddles, and genealogies. They sought support for their research insisting that it would also be useful to colonial administrators. This essay takes into account the methodology of their inquiry, the colonial practices and sheds light on the complex and ambiguous relationship between researchers, colonial officers, local chiefs and inhabitants in the Akkälä Guzai region in that early stage of Italian colonial rule. As a product of that mission a rich ethnographic collection of Saho handcrafts reached Florence where it was kept in the Museum of Anthropology and partly exhibited. It is a remarkable resource on the Saho cultural heritage. That old mission and its results are the scientific basis on which today’s field research mission with its own linguistic and ethnographic goals is based.

  16. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  17. Part II: Muslims perceptions of British cobat troops. (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid; Hughes, Jamie Hacker


    On the 22nd May 2017, suicide bomber Salman Abedi detonated an improvised explosive device (IED) in the Manchester Arena killing 22 people and injuring 116 others. Following the 'massacre in Manchester', the leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn, linked UK foreign policy with terrorism on British soil. Controversial and contentious though Corbyn's claims may be, the terrorists themselves have also reported that what motivates them to carry out their abominable atrocities are British military operations in Muslim majority countries. Indeed, on the 22nd May 2013, British serviceman, Lee Rigby, was brutally attacked and killed by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. The perpetrators of this heinous act told passers-by at the scene that they wanted to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British Armed Forces. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study on Muslim perceptions of British combat troops and UK foreign policy. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. We crafted a survey that explored Muslim perceptions of the British military and the government's foreign policy. Response items were on a Likert-scale and there was white space for free text comments which were subjected to thematic analyses. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). 66/75 (88%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that British military operations in Muslim majority countries have negatively influenced perceptions towards combat troops. 42/75 (56%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that contact with a combat troops or veterans would positively influence their perceptions towards them. Themes of free text comments included the role that the media plays in demonising Muslims, the transcendental bond that Muslims around the world

  18. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline. (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S


    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  19. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  20. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  1. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule. (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen


    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  2. British Coal Opencast deals the 'ace'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.N. (British Coal Opencast, Mansfield (UK))


    1992 will see the introduction of the 4000 t Harnischfeger P H 757 'Ace of Spades' electric walking dragline into the Stobswood Opencast Coal Site in Northumberland which will complete a 16 million pound investment by British Coal Opencast in addition to a similar investment by Contractor Crouch Mining to fully equip the most modern opencast mine in the United Kingdom to produce 12 Mt of coal into the 21st century. This paper examines the background to the Stobswood Site and the selection and use of the latest mining equipment by British Coal Opencast and Crouch Mining to complement the mining method, devised by Crouch to ensure that Stobswood Site will be British Coal Opencast's flagship to low cost coal production in the North East of England. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Joshi


    Full Text Available This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of postponement across cohorts and projects its impact on eventual levels of childlessness. Men and women are considered separately in our models of a population stratified by educational attainment. We find the most striking postponement occurring among graduate men. Among graduate women, after taking family building intentions into account, we estimate that about a quarter of 1970 born graduate women will remain childless, rather than something nearer 40 per cent as had been conjectured elsewhere.

  4. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations]. (United States)

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C


    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E


    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  6. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder


    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Philip Connors


    Full Text Available The history of British industrial decline since 1945 has focused on whether the decline was relative or an absolute process. As a British industry, shipbuilding illustrates many contradictions inherent in both views; although overtaken by Japanese competition from the mid 1950’s, between 1945-1973 the output and productivity of British shipbuilding increased faster than at any point previously. This paper will discuss the role of the state in this process by using the negotiations between government and the Scott Lithgow shipyard in Scotland concerning the market for 250,000-ton crude oil carriers as an example, demonstrating that the agency of both management and government influenced the eventual outcome more than prevailing market conditions of the time.

  8. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda


    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  9. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview (United States)

    Coates, Chad O.


    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  10. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.


    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous

  11. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is rooted in the British tradition, its possible evolution on the American model is demonstrated, and thus the role of the dictionary in a postcolonial community is briefly discussed. Keywords: lexicography, dictionary, definition, social labeling, race, racism, ethnicity, english, south africa, afrikaans, epithets, usage labels ...

  12. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels (United States)

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef


    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  13. Graduate Evaluation of British Higher Education Courses: An Exploration. (United States)

    Johnston, R. J.


    The retrospective evaluations of their degree courses by 8,948 British 1980 graduates suggested 2 routes of analysis--one based on respondents' satisfaction in becoming an educated person and one based on satisfaction in acquiring an interesting job with a good income. Graduates differed according to the relative importance of the route used. (DB)

  14. Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information was also gathered from some chiefs and educationists who hail from the area, and from University dons who have provided written material about the area. Other relevant secondary source material, such as from books, enriched the study. The study found out that the British imposed levies on the caravan transit ...

  15. During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore Biological Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore. Biological Programme (latterly Pelagic Ecosystem. Studies Programme), two specimens of a cephalopod belonging to the squid family Chiroteuthidae were caught in the Scotia Sea by rectangular midwater trawl. (Baker et al. 1973). The material closely resembles. Chiroteuthis ...

  16. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie


    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  17. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe


    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  18. Deaf People as British Sign Language Teachers: Experiences and Aspirations (United States)

    Atherton, Martin; Barnes, Lynne


    Little research has been undertaken into the profession of British Sign Language (BSL) teaching, despite a huge increase in the number of BSL classes offered over the past twenty years. Following the introduction of Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards in 2007, BSL teachers working in "further education" (FE) colleges were…

  19. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice (United States)

    Cole, F. H.


    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners. PMID:7328548

  20. British colonial rule and food crops production in Esan, Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the conquest and imposition of colonial rule, the British authorities imposed new demands on the people; the production of raw materials such as rubber, palm oil and kernels among others. The production of these raw materials impeded the cultivation of food crop in Esan. This paper therefore, examines the factors ...

  1. Collecting Grey Literature : A British Library Lending Division Perspective (United States)

    Chillag, John

    Grey literature in its various aspects presents many problems for producers, intermediaries and end users. The paper describes the British Library Lending Division's activities in this field in the hope that organizations elsewhere will find some of them helpful in overcoming similar difficulties.

  2. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma


    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  3. Understanding British Strategic Failure in America: 1780-1783 (United States)


    subject to this country or independent.”10 With the clairvoyance of hindsight, however, the British decision to employ force in the spring of 1775 rested...warfare. He possessed the presence of mind and clairvoyance of thought to employ a hybrid combination of conventional and non-conventional methods in

  4. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.


    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of

  5. The Dutch, French and British species of Psathyrella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kits van Waveren, E.


    The sole object of the present work is to furnish a monograph dealing exclusively with the species of the genus Psathyrella (exclusive of Lacrymaria, see Chapter VI) reported from the Netherlands, France and the British Isles. Ever since 1958 we intensively collected, described, depicted and stored

  6. Subordination Across Ghanaian And British Newspaper Editorials: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a corpus-based empirical study which argues in the light of the register theory that grammatical categories are functional and relate to their situational context of use. Using editorials from Ghanaian and British newspapers, this paper examined the usage dynamics and the functional motivations behind the use of ...

  7. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data. (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T


    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. British army commisions by purchase | Usher | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. British army commisions by purchase. HJ Dick ...

  9. Rethinking Apprenticeship Training in the British Construction Industry (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed


    The British government continued intervention to support apprenticeship training across the economy has been notable in recent years. The construction industry is the only sector to retain a levy/grant scheme (that supports training including apprenticeships) since 1964, yet it still faces the problem of skills shortages. This article thus reviews…

  10. Health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.


    In this article, changes in the quality of health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population between 1991 and 1998 are analysed. It is found that at all given age levels, life expectancy increased during this period. Life expectancy at birth increased by 1 year for women and by 1.5 years for

  11. British colonial administration, development of Islam and lslamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British policy towards religion in colonial Africa was influenced by its intrinsic value to the maintenance of a very strong administration over the continent and achieving the socio-economic objectives Britain set itself at the beginning of its colonization. The Benin Kingdom had been largely untouched by any world religion ...

  12. Pitch Alterations in British Motherese: Some Preliminary Acoustic Data. (United States)

    Shute, Brenda; Wheldall, Kevin


    Analysis of speech samples from British female adults (N=8) revealed that the subjects increased vocal pitch when addressing young children, but not as much as previously studied North American subjects did. Pitch increases were more commonly observed in free speech than in reading-aloud conditions. (23 references) (Author/CB)

  13. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities (United States)

    Pulman, Mark


    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  14. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane


    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  15. Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction through Russian documents. DR GENNADY SHUBIN. Institute for African Studies, Moscow. On the eve of the outbreak of the All'glo-Boer War in South Africa, Colonel. N.S. Yermolov, the Russian Military agent [attache] in London reported on October I,.

  16. British Columbia Library Network: A Study of Feasibility. Revised. (United States)

    Shoffner, Ralph M.; Madden, Mary A.

    This feasibility study was conducted to collect financial, operational, and other data concerning the alternatives of continuing with the University of Toronto Library Automation System (UTLAS), the present supplier of catalog support to the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC) participating libraries, or of replicating the Washington Library…

  17. integration and disintegration in british colonial west africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually attributed largely to the mood or the British public and parliament rather than to the ..... amongst Tribes hostile to each other. is a hot bed of intrigue. and from the ... arise which would seriously affect the interests or Lagos. In such an.

  18. Spanish listeners’ perception of American and Southern British English vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Chládková, K.


    L2 studies demonstrate that learners differ in their speech perception patterns. Recent explanations attribute this variation to the different initial stages with which learners start their L2 development. Spanish listeners' categorization of Standard Southern British English and American English

  19. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.


    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  20. Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes. (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Smith, Marjorie; Upton, Penney; Heverin, Andrea


    British mothers (n=362) and fathers (n=103) of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed concerning physically punishing their children. The proportion of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar. Percentages of types and severity of punishments varied. These findings are discussed in…

  1. Colors in French, American and British dictionaries | Williams | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colors have senses specific to particular fields such as physics and printing, in addi-tion to senses used in everyday life. This article examines the specialized information found in color definitions in French, American and British dictionaries. We explore whether specialized and non-specialized definitions are lumped or split ...

  2. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert


    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  3. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.


    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  4. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.


    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these

  5. Algorithm for Concrete Mix Design Based on British Method | Ezeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the algorithm were compared with those obtained based on the British method and the differences between them were found to be less than 10% in each example. Hence, the algorithm developed in this paper is working with minimum error. It is recommended for use in obtaining good results for ...

  6. Farmland Preservation Verdicts - Rezoning Agricultural Land in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Eagle, A.J.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.


    The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development

  7. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers. (United States)

    Gillett, Karen


    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sex Ratios Among Births in British Columbia, 2000-2013. (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Lee, Lily; Williams, Kim


    Previous studies have reported distorted sex ratios among live births within specific immigrant groups in Canada. We carried out an investigation into sex ratios in British Columbia. All stillbirths and live births to residents of British Columbia from April 2000 to March 2013 were included in the study, with data obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined sex ratios among births and among pregnancy terminations that resulted in a stillbirth or live birth. Analyses were stratified by congenital anomaly status, maternal residence, and parity. The study population included 567 225 stillbirths and live births. In the Fraser Health Authority, the sex ratio among births without congenital anomalies was 51.3% males (95% CI 51.1 to 51.5); this was significantly higher than the sex ratio of 40.7% males (95% CI 33.2 to 48.6) among late pregnancy terminations without congenital anomalies (P = 0.008). However, in British Columbia, excluding the Fraser Health Authority, the same sex ratios were 51.1% (95% CI 50.9 to 51.3) and 51.1% (95% CI 45.5 to 56.7), respectively (P = 0.99). Sex ratios among births to multiparous women were also significantly different in the Fraser Health Authority. Only a negligible fraction of the shortfall in female births in the Fraser Health Authority could be explained by sex ratio distortions among late pregnancy terminations. Sex ratios among stillbirths and live births to residents of the Fraser Health Authority are distorted relative to those observed elsewhere in British Columbia. This is likely due to sex differences in early pregnancy terminations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. All rights reserved.

  9. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard


    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  10. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study (United States)


    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  11. Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.


    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until

  12. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  13. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream... Service Information BAE Systems (Operations) Limited has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA020741, dated November 2, 2002; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  14. 75 FR 59170 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and... (United States)


    ... British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009; and British Aerospace Regional Aircraft has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009. (2) Replace the...

  15. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents. (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon


    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  16. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia (United States)

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias


    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  17. The Evolution of Capitalism: A Comparison of British and American Literature (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.


    This paper discusses the evolution of capitalism in British and American literature. The impact of capitalism on the lives of individuals has been well represented in both American and British literature throughout the centuries. The paper will discuss how seminal British authors such as Thomas More, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George…

  18. Educating for British Values: Kant's Philosophical Roadmap for Cosmopolitan Character Education (United States)

    Hildebrand, Carl


    The UK's 2016 decision to exit the European Union and the discussion surrounding it indicate that public understanding of British identity has important consequences, one way or another. Defining British identity will be an important task in the years to come. The UK government not long ago provided some guidance on the matter of British identity…

  19. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot


    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  20. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asratyan, Z.D.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of some aspects of the British conceptual world on the basis of contemporary imaginative literature examination. Concept is understood as the individual author’s vision of the reflected world, as a predication of the topic to its author’s interpretation. The work analyses concepts reflecting the collective unconscious of the nation which turns them into linguo-cultural ones. The article examines the concept of tolerance through cause-effect relations of crime and punishment. The problems of children-parents relations in the British Muslim culture are also touched upon. The work shows the differences of some basic linguo-cultural concepts in Britain and in Russia.

  2. Language and identity among British South Asians: a theoretical review.


    Jaspal, Rusi


    Given the pervasiveness of language in social life and the implications that language use can have for one’s individual and collective identities, attempts were made to explore the theoretical and empirical advantages in connecting social psychological theories of identity and sociological/sociolinguistic approaches to language use and language choices in order to make sense of language and identity among second-generation British Asians. The current theoretical essay features a brief overvie...

  3. Still Invisible? Women artists in British public collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Montfort


    Full Text Available Does women's work in British public collections receive curatorial care and scholarly attention? And if or when it does not—when it lingers on the darkest racks of museums stores, collected for a posterity it will never achieve—how has this happened, and why? Or should we be especially concerned about the display of women’s work in public collections, in an age of digital images and online archives?

  4. Tracing Sydenham's chorea: historical documents from a British paediatric hospital


    de Martino, D.; Tanner, A.; Defazio, G.; Church, A J; Bhatia, K.P.; Giovannoni, G.; Dale, R. C.


    Sydenham's chorea (SC) became a well defined nosological entity only during the second half of the nineteenth century. Such progress was promoted by the availability of large clinical series provided by newly founded paediatric hospitals. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical features of patients with chorea admitted to the first British paediatric hospital (the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London) between 1852 and 1936. The seasonal and demographic characterist...

  5. Popular Music Pedagogy: band rehearsals at British universities


    Pulman, Mark


    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis of participants’ interview responses suggested their perceptions could be grouped into three over-arching categories: operational mechanics of rehe...

  6. Identifying and characterising price leadership in British supermarkets


    Seaton, Jonathan S.; Waterson, Michael


    Price leadership is a concept that lacks precision. We propose a deliberately narrow, falsifiable, definition then develop it, illustrate its feasibility and test it using the two leading British supermarket chains. We find both firms engaging in leading prices upward over a range of products, with the larger being initially more dominant but the smaller increasing leadership activity to take overall leadership over time. However, more price leadership events are price reductions than price i...

  7. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)


    Jean-Paul Jean


    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  8. The British warning; L'avertissement britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Just as the Stone Age did not come to an end for want of stones, the end of the LPG Age will not occur due to a shortage of LPG. This witticism, offered by Tom Fidell (the Director-General of the British LP Gas Association) conceals a serious warming: these needs to be a fast response in terms of technology, as the advantages of autogas are being reduced by competing fuels and their supporting technologies. (authors)

  9. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement


    Zahn, Rebecca


    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  10. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia


    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K.; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.


    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  11. Directors in British and Irish cinema 


    Murphy, R. P.


    Directors in British and Irish Cinema is an assessment of the careers and achievements of over a thousand directors, most of whom have received little scholarly attention. It draws upon the expertise of over sixty contributors. Each of the 1028 entries has been provided with a comprehensive filmography (which for some of the silent film directors includes over a hundred films). Comprehensive coverage have made it a standard reference work. Collaboration with the BFI-based website Screenonli...

  12. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning


    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan


    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  13. Western false hemlock looper in British Columbia, 1947-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, R.L.


    Compilation and summary of published and unpublished data on western false hemlock looper in British Columbia since its discovery near Chase in 1942. Information is based on file reports of the Insect and Disease Survey for Pacific and Yukon Regions. The report describes biology, methods of detection, tree mortality and incremental loss, and controls, including insect parasites, bacterial and viral disease, predators, and chemical insecticides.

  14. British political values, attitudes to climate change, and travel behaviour


    Johnston, Ron; Deeming, Christopher


    The UK is committed to a sharp reduction of greenhouse gases. Progress towards its goal will depend on whether the public can be persuaded to change their travel behaviour. Using British Social Attitudes 2011 survey data, analyses show that the majority of adults – especially the young and better-educated – believe that climate change is occurring but even concerned believers appear reluctant to modify their behaviour. Policies designed to alter transport habits and induce behaviour change ne...

  15. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia. (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren


    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of outdoor recreational injury in northern British Columbia. (United States)

    Besserer, Floyd A; Caron, Nadine R


    The objective of this study was to examine the patterns of severe injury documented at a northern British Columbia regional trauma center based on age, sex, month of year, activity type, injury type, and injury severity as they relate to participation in outdoor recreational activities. A retrospective analysis of data abstracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for patients sustaining injuries between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, while engaged in outdoor recreational activities in the Northern Health Authority. The British Columbia Trauma Registry inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) admitted for treatment of injuries sustained from the transfer of external energy or force; 2) admitted to the facility within 7 days of injury; and 3) length of stay more than 2 days or in-hospital mortality. In all, 159 patients met study criteria. August and September were peak injury months (mean 7.3 and 7.0 per month, respectively). The highest injury patterns involved cycling (n = 31), all-terrain vehicle operation (n = 30), horseback riding (n = 22), and snowmobiling (n = 22). Of the 159 patients, 76.1% were male, with a peak age distribution between 10 years and 19 years (22%). Males were more commonly injured than females among cycling (83.9%), all-terrain vehicle (86.7%), and snowmobile (100%) traumas. Females were more commonly injured from horseback riding events (42.1%). This study emphasizes the need for rapid translation of research findings into injury prevention awareness and programming in northern British Columbia, particularly relating to cycling, horseback riding, snowmobiling, and all-terrain vehicle operation. Further investigation is required to analyze long-term outcomes for this common injury population. Wilderness Medical Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова


    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  18. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard


    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  19. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations


    Welch, Roger


    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  20. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.


    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)…

  1. Conventional natural gas play atlas, northeast British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson, Calgary, AB (Canada); Davidson, J.; Feduniak, B. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hayes, M.; Walsh, W.; Ferri, F.; Hickin, A.; Richardson, D.; Fournier, M.; Adams, C.; Kerr, B.; Lee, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC (Canada); Johnson, J.; Mclean, D.; Barker, J.; Walker, D.; Farr, G. [British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC (Canada)] (and others)


    This report provides an assessment of British Columbia's undiscovered resources. Although it covers all of the province's gas potential areas, its main focus is the quantification of the remaining undiscovered conventional gas potential of northeast British Columbia. The Conventional natural gas play atlas for northeast British Columbia contains both established and conceptual plays. Play definitions include resources that are considered proven and developable with current technology. They include exploration concepts that have been typically exploited in the province's portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Play descriptions were also provided. Unconventional plays such as coalbed gas, some tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates were also included, although they were deemed not currently productive. The atlas provides a framework for the assessment process as well as a reference point for future analyses. The current play definitions are expected to evolve with new geological concepts, technological developments and changing commodity prices. The northeast BC geographic areas covered in this report include the Deep Basin; Liard Basin and Fold Belt; the Northern Foothills; the southern Foothills; Fort St. John; and, Fort Nelson/Northern Plains. A series of maps were created to spatially display cumulative data for all plays throughout northeast BC. Values for the following categories were assigned to PNG and NTS grid units: discovered gas in place; discovered initial established marketable gas; discovered remaining marketable gas; cumulative marketable gas produced; undiscovered gas in place; undiscovered marketable gas; ultimate gas in place; ultimate marketable gas and ultimate remaining marketable gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Pessimism Preserved: Real Wages in the British Industrial Revolution


    Robert Allen; Allen, Robert C.


    The paper compares Feinstein`s and Clark`s consumer price and real wage indices for the British industrial revolution. The sources for their weights and component price series are evaluated. While some of Clark`s innovations are improvements, many of his changes degrade the price index. A new price index is developed using the best components of Clark`s and Feinstein`s. This index is much closer to Feinstein`s than to Clark`s. The implied growth in real wages is also close to Feinstein`s and ...

  3. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  4. Locating Ancestry in Notions of Britishness/Germanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pöllmann


    Full Text Available This article focuses on ancestry as a controversial marker of Britishness/Germanness. Considering developments in nationality law and large-scale survey data for England and Germany, it illustrates that macrocontextual distinctions into civic and ethnic nations tend to overestimate cross-national differences, while underestimating important within-country variations according to people’s educational background. The fact that—in both countries—higher levels of formal education are strongly associated with more ethnically inclusive notions of legitimate national membership underlines the formative potential of formal education in contemporary multicultural societies.

  5. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses. (United States)

    Pimentel, Juan


    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Community Paramedicine Initiative: Transforming Paramedicine in British Columbia. (United States)

    Calderone, Colton; Brittain, Michelle; Sirivar, Daniel; Kotani, Nancy


    British Columbia's health care system is facing challenges related to rural access to care and an ever increasing demand for services. These variables are compounded by the anticipated needs of an aging population that can expect to live several of their golden years with a chronic illness. The introduction of community paramedicine in BC allows for a care delivery model that expands the role of qualified paramedics to include the delivery of prevention, health promotion and primary care services in the community. The implementation of the Community Paramedicine Initiative in rural and remote BC highlights a transformational approach to health care delivery empowered by a technology enabled perspective of community needs.

  7. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy


    Porter, Laraine


    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  8. Joseph Kestner, Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880–1915


    Pham-Thanh, Gilbert


    Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880-1915 compte deux cent treize pages, dont cent soixante-seize réservées à l’étude à proprement parler. La formulation inaugurale plurielle du titre place l’analyse dans le cadre des Masculinities Studies, Joseph Kestner (université de Tulsa, USA) posant ainsi implicitement que la société phallocentrique de la Grande-Bretagne est traversée par la « crise de la masculinité dont parle Elaine Showalter. En outre, le même titre indique que cette remi...

  9. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.


    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  10. The British species of Enicospilus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Broad


    Full Text Available The nine British and Irish species of Enicospilus are revised, mapped and an identification key provided. One species, Enicospilus myricae sp. nov., is described as new; Enicospilus merdarius (Gravenhorst, 1829 is a senior synonym of E. tournieri (Vollenhoven, 1879 syn. nov.; the only available name for E. merdarius auctt. is Enicospilus adustus (Haller, 1885 stat. rev., and a neotype is designated for Ophion adustus Haller, 1885. Enicospilus cerebrator Aubert, 1969 and E. repentinus (Holmgren, 1860 are newly recorded from Britain. Some host data are available for eight of the nine species.

  11. Paleoenvironmental evolution and geomorphic dynamics recorded in the Homo-bearing Pleistocene stratigraphic succession of Aalat (Eritrea, East Africa): A pedological perspective (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Mercatante, Giuseppe; Donato, Paola; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Carnevale, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Oms, Oriol; Papini, Mauro; Pavia, Marco; Sani, Federico; Rook, Lorenzo


    The Aalat stratigraphic succession represents a 300 m-thick continental archive in the northern sector of the African Rift Valley (Dandiero basin, Eritrea). Based on high-resolution magnetostratigraphy, along with tephrostratigrapic, paleontological and paleoanthropological data and correlations, the chronological constraints for the emplacement of this succession can be fixed at two stages characterized by normal polarity of the Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the base of the Jaramillo event and the lower part of the Brunhes chron, marking the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition. Remains of Homo erectus/ergaster and abundant fossil vertebrates were identified. Despite nowadays the study area has a typical arid, hot desert climate, the sedimentary succession records repeated shifts from fluvial to lacustrine facies, in line with dominant mammalian taxa characterized by strong water dependence and ichthyofauna typical of shallow-water fluvio-lacustrine paleoenvironments. The dominance of these water-controlled depositional environments over more than 250 ka suggests a major tectonic control, even though a clear overprinting of Pleistocene climate changes can be detected. The main morphological soil features, along with physico-chemical, mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological data of selected soil profiles and horizons depict an overall poor to moderate degree of soil development, coherently with high rates of sedimentation of about 1 mm/year and local erosive phases. Nonetheless, the presence of calcic and especially petrocalcic horizons and one petrogypsic horizon at different stratigraphic heights clearly indicates cyclical phases of geomorphic stability, which allowed important leaching and accumulation of carbonate (or gypsum). Their complex, polygenetic fabric, often showing brecciation and re-dissolution features, points to a polyphased genesis, caused by changes in soil moisture conditions over time. This finding, together with the alternation of

  12. Negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. (United States)

    Brar, Amandip; Moneta, Giovanni B


    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. Based on a study of levels of alcohol consumption (Spada & Moneta, 2004), it was hypothesized that the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms would be present only in British White students. A sample of 150 British Indian students and 150 British White students completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Structural regression modeling indicated that negative emotions predict higher levels of alcohol dependence symptoms in British White students, and do not predict alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian students. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. What did British nuclear report really say: an EEI perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The British Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution was instituted ''to advise on matters, both national and international, concerning the pollution of the environment; on the adequacy of research in this field; and the future possibilities of danger to the environment.'' The decision to undertake a study of nuclear power was made early in 1974; the final report, Sixth Report, Nuclear Power and the Environment, was submitted to Parliament in September 1976. Generally, the Commission has given nuclear power a clean bill of health, but the Commission's positive findings have been obscured. One of its recommendations says, ''the abandonment of nuclear fission power would, however, be neither wise nor justified. But a major commitment to fission power and a plutonium economy should be postponed as long as possible.'' It is felt that this is a new weapon for the opponents of nuclear power. A major impact of its misinterpretation is expected in the United States. The head of the Commission has said the statements concerning the ''plutonium economy'' were made in the context of looking far into the future. Comments from the Secretary of State for the Environment, a spokeman from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., and a spokesman from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority are included. (MCW)

  14. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism. (United States)

    Sloan, P R


    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism.

  15. Dental anxiety levels in British servicemen and women. (United States)

    Grimshaw, G P; Boyle, C A; Newton, T


    The objectives of the study were to determine: 1, the level of dental anxiety in British Service personnel; 2 whether there was a difference in dental anxiety levels across the three Services; and, 3, the relationship between number of operational tours and level of dental anxiety. Cross sectional questionnaire survey of individuals attending 3 Armed Services dental treatment centres in the UK. The questionnaires were completed between February 2008 and April 2009. 50 patients each from the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force, selected consecutively from those attending the centres for treatment. There was a 100% response rate. Dental fear as assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and scores on a scale of fear of dental injections. 27% of the Armed Services experienced severe dental anxiety: a level similar to that found in the general population. There was no difference in the level of dental anxiety or fear of dental injections across the three Armed Services. There was no relationship between number of operational tours undertaken and level of dental anxiety. Dental anxiety is found amongst members of the British Armed Services at levels similar to that in the general population. This represents a challenge for service provision, particularly in operational settings.

  16. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults. (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner


    To explore ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults, and the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in those inequalities. We analysed data on 1925 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults living in an ethnically diverse and socially deprived area. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD)≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA)≥4 mm. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal measures were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (gender and age groups) and SEP indicators (education and socioeconomic classification). Compared to White British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Asian Others had more teeth with PPD≥4 mm whereas White East European, Black African and Bangladeshi had more teeth with LOA≥4 mm, after adjustments for demographic and SEP measures. The association of ethnicity with periodontal disease was moderated by education, but not by socioeconomic classification. Stratified analysis showed that ethnic disparities in the two periodontal measures were limited to more educated groups. This study showed considerable ethnic disparities in periodontal disease between and within the major ethnic categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery (United States)

    Morrell, Peter


    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  18. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement. (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine


    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge


    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  20. Introduction to British Sculpture Abroad in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Wood


    Full Text Available In the 1960s, British sculpture enjoyed a complex transitional life, taking on a new, bold, and increasingly internationalized profile, at the very same time that its forms and meanings were being challenged and contested. Both in Britain and beyond its shores, sculpture experienced substantial reorientation at the same time as it developed a rich and complicated “import” and “export” life, conceptually, commercially, and curatorially. When “Sculpture” was “British” and “Abroad”, its “abroad-ness” was not always so explicitly visible, since its forms and concerns frequently chimed with sensibilities and approaches that were emerging elsewhere too, whether they were figurative or abstract, Constructivist or Pop. At the same time, when sculpture was being displayed in Britain, whether in terms of groups, schools, and/or recent tendencies, it was increasingly described as “British Sculpture”. Visual evidence of foreign impact and exchange gradually emerged at the same time as this national and generational trope became a cultural identifier on a broader cultural landscape.

  1. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims (United States)

    Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Booy, R; El Bashir, H; Ali, K; Zambon, MC; Memish, ZA; Ellis, J; Coen, PG; Haworth, E


    Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT) of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18%) were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3) accounted for 54% (20/37) of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37), influenza B 19% (7/37), and influenza A (H1) 3% (1/37). Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28) had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%). The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202). This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:22460211

  2. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dawson


    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  3. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents. (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will


    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  4. Legionum Urbs and the British Martyrs Aaron and Julius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Breeze


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the localization of the martyrdom of the British saints Aaron and Julius, known of solely from Gildas, writing in the early 530s. His remarks were taken up by Bede (d. 737, so that the two saints have never been forgotten, their cult surviving to this day. The author provides a detailed survey of discussion of Aaron and Julius over the centuries, and argues that their martyrdom was neither at Caerleon (in south-east Wales nor Chester (in north-west England, as suggested by numerous scholars, but at Leicester, another major city of Roman Britain. Working from epigraphic sources and taking into account ancient models of naming, the author attempts a reinterpretation of Legionum urbs in the original texts by emending it to Legorum urbs “city of the Legores,” the Celtic people of the Leicester region. The latter, by the time of Gildas, was occupied by the Angles, while the city itself was abandoned, which may explain Gildas’s remarks, otherwise unclear if one identifies Legionum urbs with Caerleon or Chester. The author adduces both historical and linguistic arguments for his proposal and shows that it sheds new light on the history of early British Christianity.

  5. Geographical aspects of British overseas trade: a framework and a review


    A G Hoare


    This paper is an overview of geographical studies into the British involvement in international trade. A conceptual framework comprising three elements is presented: internal regional economies, British trading ports, and overseas trading partners. The interactions among these three elements are discussed in order to review the rationale for an academic interest in British geography of overseas trade. The existing literature on the subject is also briefly discussed.

  6. Public ownership, privatisation and regulation: social welfare counterfactuals for British Telecom


    Puglisi, Riccardo; Florio, Massimo


    Is privatization per se socially beneficial? Or do those benefits depend on the subsequent changes in the regulatory regime? In this paper, building on Vogelsang, Jones and Tandon (1994), we answer these questions by analyzing three different counterfactuals about British Telecom privatization and regulation. In the factual scenario, the British government decided to privatize British Telecom, and at the same time to establish an independent agency (OFTEL), which was to impose a price cap mec...

  7. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter


    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  8. Dissidenze statali contemporanee. Guerra, internazionalizzazione e sviluppo informale nel Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ciabarri


    Full Text Available Il termine somalizzazione sembra in questo inizio secolo aver completamente sostituito l’espressione balcanizzazione, suo omologo perfetto per i secoli XIX e XX, per alludere ad un rischio a cui molte crisi internazionali (Siria, Libia, Mali, Afghanistan… vi è in effetti un lungo elenco potrebbero tendere: il rischio cioè del precipitare nell’anarchia e nel disordine totale, nella lotta settaria, così rappresentata, senza logica e senza sbocco. L’articolo intende analizzare da un punto di vista etnografico uno specifico paesaggio sociale all’interno di queste aree di crisi, in particolare all’interno dell’area somala, per mettere in luce, piuttosto che la disconnessione e l’eccezionalità di queste zone, le forme della loro connessione con il mondo degli Stati più ampio. Il commercio informale transfrontaliero, e la sovrapposizione tra movimenti di beni, di persone e di denaro, è preso ad esempio in questo studio di caso per mostrare le profonde ambiguità e contraddizioni di queste forme di relazione. Dinamiche regionali che intrecciano percorsi di persone e merci, che alimentano confini reali e ideologici, che avvicinano o allontanano gli attori in campo in forme inattese e che sono irriducibili rispetto a macro discorsi fondati sul pericolo di radicalizzazioni islamiche o violenze settarie sono qui proposte come determinanti decisive per poter comprendere i percorsi verso il conflitto e verso la pace nelle aree contemporanee di dissidenza e vuoto statale.

  9. Somaliland: The Journey of Resistance, Reconciliation and Peace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    56. The Proliferation of Somalia's Liberation Movements. In terms of an historical and contemporary perspective on the politics of conflict and accommodation along the Somali coast, Davies (1994) offers a typology of. Somali liberation movements that may be instructive in contextualising the. SNM insurgency and its legacy.

  10. The search for Somali leadership and the potentials of Somaliland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman


    the identity of the community. According to Sokefeld (2006), such frames not just aim to establish and sustain community but also refer to concrete, significant events “reflecting collective memoires, grievances, identity and history” (ibid.) shaping and consolidating community consciousness....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    this is in part attributable to the ineffectiveness of arbitration as the sole mechanism to resolve the conflict. ♧. Assistant Professor, Addis Ababa University School of Law; also teaches on part-time basis at the Institute for Peace and Security Studies. The author's deepest gratitude goes to all those who contributed to this work ...

  12. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CONSENT IN THE ERITREAN CIVIL CODE. Consent is a requirement or prerequisite for many ... Notwithstanding the provisions of ArtfZl] Civil Code where an investigating police officer considers it necessary, having .... Liability Article 2028 — General Principle. Whosoever causes damage to another by an offence.

  13. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  14. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery In Eritrea.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age, gender, demography, type of heart defects and treatment offered with surgical outcomes was retrieved. Diagnosis was primarily made clinically based on ... 300. Most open cardiac operations were performed for patients with ventricular septal defects 74(25%) while the majority of closed heart operations were for patent.

  15. Multiculturalism and Contemporary British Fiction: Londonstani and The Islamist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Elia


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the need to move beyond post-colonial and cultural studies somewhat abstract categories seems to be stronger than ever. In order to analyse all-encompassing issues such as ‘Europe', ‘black' and ‘white', a reification of post-colonial theoretical tools is made possible by an ever-increasing permeability of the boundaries between subjects such as literature, sociology, contemporary history, political science, international relations, anthropology. By pursuing an interdisciplinary and pragmatic approach, one finds it difficult to identify a persuasive idea of ‘Europe' when even its ‘capital' Brussels has to face an identity compromise between Flemish and Walloons (Castells, AlSayyad: 2002; by the same token, it is hard to imagine that, say, Scottish people would define themselves first as Europeans, and then as British and Scottish - the opposite sequential order is much more likely. Traditional categories such as ‘black' and ‘white' are also being repeatedly challenged and disrupted, witness the recent publication of novels such as Gautam Malkani's Londonstani (2006 and Ed Husain's The Islamist (2007. The former displays a religion-free kind of identity describing the life in Hounslow of apolitical British-Asian teenage rude-boys ironically embracing the traditionally opposed black hip-hop culture. The latter, instead, is based on a real account of a British Muslim who, after becoming an Islamic fundamentalist, rejected political Islam and returned to normal life. My essay aims to investigate this anti-essentialist notion of the South-Asian community in contemporary Britain by reflecting on the passionate debate between those who keep celebrating multiculturalism as the necessary path to a more tolerant society, and those who blame the policy of appeasement that supposedly fostered the growth of Muslim fundamentalism in Britain. Bearing in mind the diverse colonial histories and the dangers of

  16. Gaps and spaces: representations of dementia in contemporary British poetry. (United States)

    Zeilig, Hannah


    This article considers the work of a number of contemporary British poets who have attempted to articulate some of the experiences that dementia entails. The unique potential of poetry as a means of portraying the dislocations and reinventions of self that dementia involves has been mostly overlooked. The insights offered by critical gerontology are central to this article. This perspective calls for critical thought about the ways in which dementia has been socially constructed. The challenges posed by poets such as Vuyelwa Carlin, Valerie Laws and Jo Shapcott in particular, are examined. The complex poetic representations offered by these poets acknowledge the pathological declines of dementia and simultaneously celebrate the individuality and life of their subjects. Considering dementia with reference to the work of contemporary poets and critical gerontology is one way in which we can deepen our understanding of what this illness involves and humanise those who suffer from it.

  17. The Electronic Agora of the British Society in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rangelova


    Full Text Available H. Rheyngold (1993 introduces the concept of "electronic agora", claiming that virtual communities act on the square - an open space where it all happens. The theoretical framework of this paper will be set by the theory of Schutz for multiplication of reality and will build on the theory of Muggleton virtual identity. Commonwealth in Bulgaria communicates in a parallel to the real world to the virtual. Through virtual identity can reinvent itself, moving freely between multiple online roles, to be the opposite sex, younger, older, anonymous and thus to avoid the presentation of the true self. What roles occupy the British in Bulgaria in the early 21st century in cyberspace and how it used? Do they experiment with their identity? Do they develop strong relationships in social groups? Answers to these questions will be looking for in this study.

  18. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan


    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  19. Economic Consequences of BREXIT after the British Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Critian PĂUN


    Full Text Available The European Union project is strongly challenged today by the historical decision of United Kingdom’s citizens to exit from this structure, with all consequences assumed. United Kingdom will be the first nation that will quit this ambitious initiative and the decision is transmitted by the organized national referendum’s results in this respect. The population’s opinion expressed by a huge number of voting persons should be taken into consideration by British politicians and transposed very soon into political actions that could have a strong and clear economic impact on both sides. This paper will discuss the possible economic consequences of such historical decision, including potential effects on a small country like Romania.

  20. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  1. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1993-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The annual report reviews the work of the Occupational Health Service of British Coal during 1993. The report summarises medical examinations and consultations carried out; presents, in detail, the reports of the Periodic X-ray surveys (1993 was the final year of the eighth round of surveys); reports on various hazards and problems such as noise, temperature, detection inks, occupational stress; discusses activities relating to compliance with health and safety regulations; reports on work of the toxicology unit on hazardous substances and on carcinogenicity; reports on injuries and treatments (including counselling after the Bilsthorpe Accident in August 1993) and on the nursing service, and summarises research on 1-hydroxypyrene as a monitor of exposure to coal liquefaction workers and on monitoring exposure to benzene.

  2. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst


    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  3. Appearance of bacteriology in the British medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Hardy, S P


    Published histories of bacteriology concentrate on the scientific concepts, exemplified by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Arguably, the early British bacteriological studies are headed by Lord Lister, whereas other notables such as Ronald Ross, Robert Bruce and Patrick Manson are honoured for their discoveries of 'tropical' microbes, accomplished abroad. What then was happening in Great Britain? The introduction of bacteriology into the medical school curriculum is examined according to the published lectures in The Lancet between 1889 and 1901 and the dates are reviewed in light of other published sources. The names of the people delivering bacteriology at the medical schools in Great Britain and Ireland provide a guide to the relevance of crediting Lister as the leading light for microbiology in the UK. The diversity of names and backgrounds suggests that a critical reassessment of the perceived late and limited start of UK medical bacteriology is needed.

  4. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis. (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R


    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  5. The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baltar


    Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.

  6. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel


    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  7. Keeping up Appearances on the Romano-British Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Birley


    Full Text Available Roman Vindolanda lies on the Stanegate Road to the south of Hadrian's Wall, on the northern frontier of the Romano-British province. It has complex stratigraphy with at least ten layers of occupation dating from around AD 85 to its abandonment in the 5th century, but it is the first five levels from AD 85 to AD 130-139 that have produced some of the most significant organic objects from the Empire, including the Vindolanda writing tablets (Birley 2009. One of the distinctive aspects of the Vindolanda collection is the large number of wooden hair combs found in these levels. Over 160 boxwood hair combs have been unearthed from the site. Resembling modern nit combs, these small objects had the primary function of cleaning and detangling hair, but further examination of the collection allows for the exploration of different aspects of style and function.

  8. Finding official British information official publishing in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Inman, Jane; Purushothama, B


    Examining the different bodies that publish official material, this book describes the types of material published, how it is made available and how it is recorded. Finding Official British Information focuses on the digital availability of official information and considers how much is now freely available on the web and how to locate it as well as addressing issues of web only publishing. It covers public bodies in the UK and includes publications issued by central and local government as well as the devolved assemblies and the many other organisations that issue official publications. Quick 'how to find' section for each area Designed for the non-specialist Covering central and local government, the devolved assemblies and other public bodies in the UK.

  9. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries. (United States)

    Robb, Carolyn K


    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  10. Acute hepatitis A virus infections in British Gurkha soldiers. (United States)

    Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.

  11. Towards targeted screening for acute HIV infections in British Columbia. (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Cook, Darrel A; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Haag, Devon; Tsang, Peggy; Wong, Elsie; Brooks, James I; Merks, Harriet; Rekart, Michael L


    Our objective was to describe the characteristics of acute and established HIV infections diagnosed in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Province-wide HIV testing and surveillance data were analyzed to inform recommendations for targeted use of screening algorithms to detect acute HIV infections. Acute HIV infection was defined as a confirmed reactive HIV p24 antigen test (or HIV nucleic acid test), a non-reactive or reactive HIV EIA screening test and a non-reactive or indeterminate Western Blot. Characteristics of unique individuals were identified from the British Columbia HIV/AIDS Surveillance System. Primary drug resistance and HIV subtypes were identified by analyzing HIV pol sequences from residual sera from newly infected individuals. From February 2006 to October 2008, 61 individuals met the acute HIV infection case definition, representing 6.2% of the 987 newly diagnosed HIV infections during the analysis period. Acute HIV infection cases were more likely to be men who have sex with men (crude OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.01-2.89], to have had a documented previous negative HIV test result (crude OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.52-5.51), and to have reported a reason for testing due to suspected seroconversion symptoms (crude OR 5.16; 95% CI 2.88-9.23). HIV subtypes and rates of transmitted drug resistance across all classes of drugs were similar in persons with both acute and established HIV infections. Targeted screening to detect acute HIV infection is a logical public health response to the HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest that acute HIV infection screening strategies, in our setting, are helpful for early diagnosis in men who have sex with men, in persons with seroconversion symptoms and in previously negative repeat testers.

  12. Electricity and Static: Franklin and his British compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mankin


    Full Text Available Les découvertes en électricité de Benjamin Franklin ont mobilisé des chercheurs depuis des décennies. Cet essai ne traite pas de ces découvertes au sens strict, mais étudie le contexte dans lequel Franklin a présenté certains de ses travaux scientifiques et politiques en 1751, ainsi que leur réception en Grande-Bretagne. L’essai suggère que Franklin ne fut ni l’enfant des Lumières britanniques ou européennes, ni un de leurs jouets. Bien que célébré très généralement par son siècle, Franklin demeurait comme une force étrangère à laquelle les Lumières britanniques devaient faire face, tant sur le plan intellectuel que politique. Peut-être que cette situation explique pourquoi il fut un adversaire si redoutable pour l’Etat britannique.Franklin’s discoveries in electricity have rewarded scholarly attention for many decades. This short essay is not about electricity in the strict sense, but about the context in which Franklin presented some of his work in science and in politics in 1751, and about the way that work was received in Britain. The aim of the essay is to suggest that Franklin was neither a child of the British or European Enlightenment nor one of its toys. And though he may have been touted very generally as an inspiration, he was closer to a foreign force with which, intellectually as well as a politically, it had to contend. This may help in explaining why he proved so considerable a foe to the British state.

  13. Alexander von Humboldt and British artists: the Oriental taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido, Elisa


    Full Text Available Humboldtian landscape is the best result of a close relationship between artists and scientists in the context of the Enlightenment. Many artists inspired Humboldt to develop his concept of landscape as the best way of representing Nature, but some British artists in particular were a strong reference for him. Thomas Daniell and William Hodges had travelled to Asia creating a particular imagery, which inspired the desire to travel and the feeling of the exotic taste in Humboldt. Around Humboldt, mainly two types of artists have been studied: on the one hand, painter travellers who received direct instructions from Humboldt after his experience in America, and on the other, artists who started their trips by themselves after reading his works. However, this paper is focused on the links between Humboldt and these British painters of the Orient, whom he met on a European tour with Georg Forster, before making his trip to America.El paisaje teorizado por Humboldt es el resultado de una estrecha relación entre artistas y científicos, en el contexto de la Ilustración. Muchos artistas inspiraron a Humboldt a desarrollar su concepto del paisaje como la mejor forma de representar la naturaleza pero particularmente, algunos artistas británicos supusieron una fuerte referencia para él. Principalmente, alrededor de Humboldt se han estudiado dos tipos de artistas: por una parte, los pintores viajeros que recibieron instrucciones directas de Humboldt tras su experiencia en América y por otra, los artistas que iniciaron sus viajes por iniciativa propia tras haber leído los sus trabajos. Sin embargo, este texto se centra en las relaciones entre Humboldt y los pintores británicos de Oriente, a quienes él conoció en su viaje europeo junto a Georg Forster, antes de realizar su viaje americano.

  14. British surgeons' experiences of mandatory online workplace-based assessment. (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Dean, Benjamin J F


    An online workplace-based assessment tool, the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP), has become mandatory for all British surgical trainees appointed since August 2007. A compulsory pound125 annual trainee fee has also been introduced to fund its running costs. The study sought to evaluate user satisfaction with the ISCP. A total of 539 users across all surgical specialties (including 122 surgeons acting as assessors) were surveyed in late 2008 by online questionnaire regarding their experiences with the ISCP. Sixty-seven percent had used the tool for at least one year. It was rated above average by only 6% for its registration process and only 11% for recording meetings and objectives. Forty-nine percent described its online assessments as poor or very poor, only 9% considering them good or very good. Seventy-nine percent rated the website's user friendliness as average or worse, as did 72% its peer-assessment tool and 61% its logbook of procedures. Seventy-six percent of respondents had carried out paper assessments due to difficulties using the website. Six percent stated that the ISCP had impacted negatively on their training opportunities, 41% reporting a negative impact overall upon their training; only 6% reported a positive impact. Ninety-four percent did not consider the trainee fee good value, only 2% believing it should be paid by the trainee. The performance of the ISCP leaves large numbers of British surgeons unsatisfied. Its assessments lack appropriate evidence of validity and its introduction has been problematic. With reducing training hours, the increased online bureaucratic burden exacerbates low morale of trainees and trainers, adversely impacting potentially upon both competency and productivity.

  15. Dental caries experience of British children in an international context. (United States)

    Downer, M C; Drugan, C S; Blinkhorn, A S


    To document data on current and past levels of dental decay in British children and compare trends with those in other countries, in Europe in particular. Data were abstracted from multiple sources and collated and tabulated. The dental health of the majority of British children has improved dramatically since the early 1970s. Twelve-year-old children now have on average less than one decayed, missing (extracted) or filled tooth. Levels of dental decay in UK children at 5 and 12 years are among the lowest in the world. There are still marked inequalities in the dental decay experience of children between the territorial regions of the UK, high and low socio-economic groups, and regular and symptomatic dental attenders. Many children in areas of deprivation are either not motivated to seek dental treatment or experience barriers in obtaining it. In parallel with improvements in the dental health of the majority of children, the proportion of UK adults who have no natural teeth has fallen from 37% to 12% over the past four decades. Total tooth loss is now confined almost entirely to individuals over 45 years of age. Most of the improvements in children's dental health are attributable to environmental factors, in particular the widespread availability of fluoride containing toothpastes since the 1970s. There are clear benefits from fluoridation of public water supplies over and above those attributable to other factors. The findings suggest initiatives should be directed to bringing children from deprived backgrounds under the umbrella of dental care. To help alleviate the inequalities in dental health, water fluoridation should be implemented, in urban industrial areas in particular, where levels of dental decay are still unacceptably high.

  16. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps. (United States)

    Bury, Patrick


    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  17. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology. (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford


    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles

  18. British ‘Bollocks’ versus American ‘Jerk’: do native British English speakers swear more –or differently- compared to American English speakers?


    Dewaele, Jean-Marc


    The present study investigates the differences between 414 L1 speakers of British and 556 L1 speakers of American English in self-reported frequency of swearing and in the understanding of the meaning, the perceived offensiveness and the frequency of use of 30 negative emotion-laden words extracted from the British National Corpus. Words ranged from mild to highly offensive, insulting and taboo. Statistical analysies revealed no significant differences between the groups in self reported freq...

  19. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jackson


    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  20. Using Web-Based Technologies and Tools in Future Choreographers' Training: British Experience (United States)

    Bidyuk, Dmytro


    In the paper the problem of using effective web-based technologies and tools in teaching choreography in British higher education institutions has been discussed. Researches on the usage of web-based technologies and tools for practical dance courses in choreographers' professional training at British higher education institutions by such British…

  1. British Policy Towards Loyalists in the Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778 (United States)


    Loyalists. The Queens Rangers provide clear evidence of the potential that resided within the Loyalist volunteers. The British publicly acknowledged...University of North Carolina Press, 1941. Davies, K. G. “The Restoration of Civil Government by the British in the War of Independence.” In. Red

  2. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.


    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly

  3. How British-Chinese Parents Support Their Children: A View from the Regions (United States)

    Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei


    Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…

  4. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage? (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.


    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  5. Comics Unmasked: A Conversation with Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Priego


    Full Text Available In this interview Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library, talks to Ernesto Priego about the Comics Unmasked: Art and Anarchy in the UK exhibition at The British Library, 2 May – 19 August 2014.

  6. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.


    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas…

  7. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated January 18, 2010. (2... defined in paragraph 2.D.(4) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32... bores for cracks. Do the inspections following British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service...

  8. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series 3101, and... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...

  9. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.


    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content

  10. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion. (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.


    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  11. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.


    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999

  12. Proposal to Fund the Establishment of a Computer Based Library Service Utility in British Columbia. (United States)

    British Columbia Union Catalogue, Richmond.

    Sponsored by the 28 member libraries of the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC), this proposal requests funds from provincial government to establish the British Columbia Library Network (BCLN), a computerized library information system based on the existing BCUC organization and database. Chapters describe the need for the establishment of…

  13. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency (United States)


    Iberian Peninsula, some twenty-five years later, suggesting perhaps that at least some officers in the British Army did absorb key lessons from 20 the...lived 1723-1786. A career British officer he was wounded serving in 60th Foot under Wolfe at Quebec. He was promoted Colonel in September 1775

  14. "I dumped my husband for a Turkish toyboy": romance tourism and intersectionality in British tabloid newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; van Zoonen, L.; Kuipers, G.M.M.


    In this article, we analyse how British tabloid newspapers represent relationships between mature British women and the younger Turkish toyboy lovers they meet (and sometimes look for) on their holiday; a practice that is often considered as the female counterpart to male sex tourism, albeit

  15. Is the Culture of the British Army Conducive to the Successful Execution of Mission Command (United States)


    John W. Creswell , Research Design : Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014), 14, the U.S., British, and Israeli Armies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. Creswell , John W., Research Design : Qualitative ...The research for this paper was qualitative in nature. It investigated the relationship between two elements, Mission Command and British Army

  16. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.


    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  17. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  18. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello


    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora. PMID:28069962

  19. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals. (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello


    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  20. Perceptions of technology at sea amongst British seafaring officers. (United States)

    Allen, Paul


    The use of Information Communication Technology is growing in the maritime industry as more systems become monitored remotely and new technologies are introduced to aid environmental awareness and increase safety. An exploratory survey was conducted as part of the EU project 'FLAGSHIP' to assess how seafarers perceive the current state of technology onboard ship and to identify areas of resistance to advancements in this area. Only 5.8% of the sample of British officers (overall n = 805) reported feeling resistant to new technology either 'quite a lot' or 'a great deal' at a general level compared to 82.8% when asked about the specific issue of training. Logistic regression analysis revealed older seafarers and those with low computer literacy to show greater resistance to new technology. Resistance was also higher on vessels with smaller crews, although a confound with vessel type is likely. Technology training for seafarers should be improved but not as a means of compensating for equipment developed without reference to user-centred design principles. Around 90% of all goods are transported by ship yet ergonomic research into the onboard environment is extremely limited. New technology is being introduced to substitute for the human element but little has been done to investigate how work processes have adapted. Seafarers' perceptions of new technology are examined here.