WorldWideScience

Sample records for british somaliland eritrea

  1. Bradbury, Mark. – Becoming Somaliland

    OpenAIRE

    Massing, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The Horn of Africa is one of the least known regions of the globe and receives media attention over fighting in or near Mogadisho, piracy or terrorism. The image of Somalia as failed state does not fit the reality that there are areas which carry on their lives–like African communities have done for thousands of years–under traditional local authority without state institutions. In Northern Somalia, Somaliland and Puntland have since 1990, emerged as two states, with the former acting indepen...

  2. Higher Education Trends in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    RENA, Ravinder

    2007-01-01

    Higher education has been viewed as a potential instrument of national economic development. Human resource development in Eritrea is important for making the nation self-reliant thus the efforts are exerted to achieve this objective. However, Eritrea has been facing so many challenges in its way to develop its own human resources. The objective of this paper is to delve the current changes in higher education in the country. An attempt is made to highlight what may be termed as tentative iss...

  3. Mother Tongue Education in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjertmann, Kjeld

    A six months study of literacy education in primary school and teacher education in Eritrea, specifically in regard to the problem of lack of written language in the small ethnic groups. There is an urgent need of producing written materials outside school in local government practices....

  4. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  5. Teenage childbearing and child health in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremariam Woldemicael

    2005-01-01

    Data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) are used to examine teenage childbearing and its health consequences. Bivariate analysis is used to calculate trends and differentials in teenage childbearing. Logistic and Cox hazard models are employed to examine the health impact of teenage childbearing on mothers and their children. Teenage childbearing is high in Eritrea, where around half of all women aged 19 have already been pregnant with their first child. Nearly all fir...

  6. Defining Eritrea's scarce water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eritrea - located in Northeast Africa - covers a surface area of 117 600 km2. The country has a long stretch of coastline along the Red Sea to the northeast, across from which are Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Sudan is to the west, Ethiopia to the south and Djibouti to the southeast (above figure). The Red Sea region, with its multiple ports, especially the major ports of Assab and Massawa, is economically vital to the country. Part of the East African Rift System, the area also has high potential for geothermal energy development and mineral water exploitation. Sustainable water management is regarded as a priority in this region, as it is a major basis for socio- economic development. The main aquifers in the area are primarily located in Quaternary alluvial deposits and vesicular basalt flows originating from volcano massifs. Two national technical cooperation projects in isotope hydrology were started respectively in 2007 and 2009 by the Department of Water Resources, the Eritrean Ministry of Land, Water and Environment and the Ministry of Health. These projects aim to contribute to improving the potable water supply in the region by determining whether aquifers are affected by salt intrusion into the Eritrean part of the Red Sea Basin, which extends from the northern Gulf of Suez southeast along the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden in the Indian Ocean. 'Isotope Hydrology in the Red Sea Basin' (ERI8002) is the first isotope hydrology TC project in Eritrea, and 'Applying Nuclear Techniques for the Monitoring and Protection of Surface and Groundwater Resources' (ERI8003), is the continuation of the first project. In southeast Eritrea, available water has been highly scarce (facing page, bottom). Total surface water and groundwater (excluding overlap), for example, only amounted to 701 m3 per capita in 2001 (compared to 5705 m3 per capita in sub-Saharan Africa), and irregular and unreliable rainfall in recent years has been exacerbating water resources scarcity. Under

  7. Estimated Annual Maintenance Costs for Educational Facilities in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea.......Global estimated annual costs for undertaking basic maintenance of all educational facilities in Eritrea....

  8. Youth in post-independence Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius

    2002-01-01

    , Faculty of Education. The data in the present study consists of interviews with students and drop-outs from secondary schools in Assab, Keren and Asmara and of informal meetings with parents, school directors and teachers. A limited number of students in grade 9 have written diaries focusing on school and......This paper presents a study of young people?s perception and experiences on school and education in Eritrea. The study is one out of two that focuses on Youth and Education in different educational contexts in Eritrea. Another study has been carried out among students at the University of Asmara...

  9. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  10. Fiscal Sustainability; The Case of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Ayumu Yamauchi

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines fiscal sustainability issues for the case of Eritrea but has wider implications for addressing fiscal and debt sustainability. It begins with a formal definition and explanation of analytical sustainability indicators, followed by an assessment of the causes of fiscal deficits and their impact on the usual indicators of fiscal and external debt sustainability. The paper then goes beyond the usual analytical indicators by attempting to identify how and through which channels...

  11. Student selection and retention at the University of Asmara, Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonida, Tekie Asehun

    2004-01-01

    Eritrea is a new and developing country in East Africa that was declared independent in May 1993. Since independence, Eritrea has been engaged in all-out efforts to rebuild its war-shattered social and economic infrastructure. One of the vital programs in the campaign for national rehabilitation has

  12. Old Sins Cast Long Shadows : Failed democratisation in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In 1993, Eritrea achieved de jure independence and was perceived by the international community and the Eritrean population as Africa’s new hope as the leadership projected a rhetoric of multi-party elections, socio-economic development and human rights. Today, the country is one of the worst human rights violators, there is only one party allowed, and dissenters are thrown into prison and tortured without due process. The thesis attempts to answer the research question: why has Eritrea faile...

  13. Soil and Water Management in Spate Irrigation Systems in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive big floods. Annually, a tremendous amount of soil with nutrients is eroded from the adjacent highlands, transported by seasonal streams (wadis) and deposited on the lowlands in the irrigated fields. The dom...

  14. "Traditionele" leiders en instellingen in Somaliland: een Somalische staat in opbouw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Renders

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the prominence of 'traditional' leaders and institutions in the Somaliland's "success-story" of political reconstruction after a violent conflict. Can the Somaliland experience be replicated and serve as a model for other cases of problematic statehood? Through an analysis of the Somaliland case, the article shows that one can not simply 'use' traditional leaders and institutions. They are not a-political entities or concepts. They are adaptable and have a dynamic of their own. The 'traditional' order is profoundly connected with 'non-traditional' orders i.e. 'modern' political leaders and institutions. How both develop and interact is contingent upon an aggregate of factors which develop over a long period of time. This set of factors include so-called 'structural' ones as well as ones that are more 'agency'-related. This aggregation of factors makes the Somaliland experience difficult to replicate. 'Traditional' leaders and institutions are not magic bullets, not a onefits-all in cases of problematic statehood. They should not be viewed as a-political components of some 'appropriate governance technology' that will provide leaders and institutions supposedly adapted to a timeless 'African situation and culture'.

  15. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  16. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.;

    2012-01-01

    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e osservazioni di Plumbago sono state fatte in Etiopia durante e dopo la preparazione del Flora of Ethiopia and...... trattamento del genere Plumbago in Etiopia e Eritrea, tenendo conto delle nuove scoperte secondo le norme della Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. The genus Plumbago has a concentration of indigenous species in eastern tropical Africa and Madagascar: nine out of a total of between twelve and twenty-five species...

  17. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  18. Biståndet göder Eritreas diktatur

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Daniel; Sidan, Fjarde

    2009-01-01

    Now the EU member status to the aid of 1.3 billion kronor to the dictatorship in Eritrea. Billion aid is devastating for the political prisoners, writes exileritreanen Daniel R Mekonnen, Doctor of Human Rights. "I hope now that Gunilla Carlsson dare stand up for the millions eritraner - which sometimes Dawit Isaak - who are unable to do it ourselves." Eritrea is one of the world's poorest and most famine-stricken countries. It is also governed by one of the most corrupt and repressive ...

  19. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Spate irrigation is a system used for wetting land prior to planting. Use is made of seasonal rivers (wadis) producing flash floods in the uplands, which are directed by structures to irrigate fields in the lowlands. A land suitability system for spate irrigation schemes in Eritrea was studied in th

  20. Strategy and Management Guideline on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    An action-oriented and practical guideline for the planning, organisation and management of preventive school maintenance in Eritrea. The manual is the result of a participatory planning process which has involved actors at the school and community level, district levels and the national policy...

  1. EDUCATION AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN POST-INDEPENDENT ERITREA – AN EXPLANATORY NOTE

    OpenAIRE

    RENA, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    Education is a lifelong process. Twentieth century has witnessed the miracles of Human Resource Development (HRD) activities reflected through increase in GNP and overall productive activities. The Government of Eritrea offering both formal and informal training programmes at different levels in order to develop the human resources. This prosperity in education is obviously a great thing for Eritrea, and the dream to make Eritrea a technological-oriented and advanced nation would become real...

  2. Conflict, Child Health, and Household Adjustments in Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Child stunting in growth currently affects 164 million children globally, and has dire consequences for the future well-being of the affected children. Wars disproportionately affect children and is believed to raise levels of stunting due to malnutrition and diseases. Using the 2002 Eritrean Demographic and Health Survey, this thesis adopts a differences-in-differences methodology and finds that the 1998-2000 border war between Eritrea and Ethiopia raised levels of stunting in affected regio...

  3. Urban Sprawl Analysis and Modeling in Asmara, Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Tewolde, Mussie G.; Pedro Cabral

    2011-01-01

    The extension of urban perimeter markedly cuts available productive land. Hence, studies in urban sprawl analysis and modeling play an important role to ensure sustainable urban development. The urbanization pattern of the Greater Asmara Area (GAA), the capital of Eritrea, was studied. Satellite images and geospatial tools were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal urban landuse changes. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), Landuse Cover Change (LUCC) analysis and urban sprawl analysis using ...

  4. First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Goitom, Berhe; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O.S.; Grandin, Raphael; Barnie, Talfan; Donovan, Amy; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Yohannes, Ermias; Kibrom, Goitom; Kendall, J-Michael; Carn, Simon A.; Fee, David; Sealing, Christine; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of re- gional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative ...

  5. Mapping areas invaded by Prosopis juliflora in Somaliland on Landsat 8 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, Felix; Leonardi, Ugo; Ng, Wai-Tim; Gadain, Hussein; Meroni, Michele; Atzberger, Clement

    2015-10-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a fast growing tree species originating from South and Central America with a high invasion potential in semi-arid areas around the globe. It was introduced to East Africa for the stabilization of dune systems and for providing fuel wood after prolonged droughts and deforestation in the 1970s and 1980s. In many dry lands in East Africa the species has expanded rapidly and has become challenging to control. The species generally starts its colonization on deep soils with high water availability while in later stages or on poorer soils, its thorny thickets expand into drier grasslands and rangelands. Abandoned or low input farmland is also highly susceptible for invasion as P. juliflora has competitive advantages to native species and is extremely drought tolerant. In this work we describe a rapid approach to detect and map P. juliflora invasion at country level for the whole of Somaliland. Field observations were used to delineate training sites for a supervised classification of Landsat 8 imagery collected during the driest period of the year (i.e., from late February to early April). The choice of such a period allowed to maximise the spectral differences between P. juliflora and other species present in the area, as P. juliflora tends to maintain a higher vigour and canopy water content than native vegetation, when exposed to water stress. The results of our classification map the current status of invasion of Prosopis in Somaliland showing where the plant is invading natural vegetation or agricultural areas. These results have been verified for two spatial subsets of the whole study area with very high resolution (VHR) imagery, proving that Landsat 8 imagery is highly adequate to map P. juliflora. The produced map represents a baseline for understanding spatial distribution of P. juliflora across Somaliland but also for change detection and monitoring of long term dynamics in support to P. juliflora management and control activities.

  6. Irrigation development in Eritrea: potentials and constraints: Proceedings of the workshop of AEAS and SLM Programme Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Development of irrigation, which is of crucial importance in Eritrea, is perceived by many as the main technique for improving the precarious food security situation in this Sahelian country in the Horn of Africa. The present publication presents the outcome of a nationwide workshop held in 2003, which brought together administrators, scientists, and members of public development agencies and NGOs. These workshop participants presented experiences, lessons learnt, and ideas about how to move ...

  7. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-01-01

    On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional med...

  8. Il genere Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Etiopia e Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.; Wondafrash, Melaku; Demissew, Sebsebe

    2012-01-01

    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la largamente diffusa e comune specie P. zeylanica e una nuova specie, P. truncata, limitato a sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. Il nome P. truncata non è stato formalmente convalidato. Allora, più collezioni e os...

  9. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and evolution of the Somaliland-Yemen conjugate margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Watts, A. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have used biostratigraphic data from deep exploration wells to determine the tectonic subsidence history of the Somaliland (northwestern Somalia)-Yemen conjugate margin, a poorly known margin in the central part of the Gulf of Aden. Bathymetry and magnetic anomaly data suggest the Gulf of Aden is a young feature that formed following the rifting apart and breakup of the African and Arabian plates ~32 Ma. Our tectonic subsidence data suggest, however, that the present-day Gulf of Aden developed on an earlier Mesozoic rift system. The oldest episode of rifting initiated at ~156 Ma and lasted for ~10 Ma and had a NW-SE trend. We interpret the rift as a late stage event associated with the breakup of Gondwana and the separation of Africa and Madagascar. At ~80 Ma, there is evidence of an intermediate rift event which correlates with a rapid increase in spreading rate on the ridges separating the African and Indian and African and Antarctica plates and a contemporaneous slowing down of Africa's plate motion. The combined effect of all three rifting events has been to thin the crust and upper mantle by up to a factor of 2. The amount of thinning deduced from the wells is in accord with the crustal structure inferred from available seismic refraction data and process-oriented gravity and flexure modeling. The margin is asymmetric with a steeper gradient in the Moho on the Yemen side than the Somaliland side. The main discrepancy is on the Yemen side where the gravity-derived Moho is 10 km deeper than the well-derived Moho. We attribute the discrepancy to the addition of material at the base of the crust since rifting, possibly magma sourced from the Afar plume.

  10. Outpatients’ Perspectives on Problems and Needs Related to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Qualitative Study from Somaliland

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fried; Amina Mahmoud Warsame; Vanja Berggren; Elisabeth Isman; Annika Johansson

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To explore female outpatients' perspectives on problems related to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and their views on information, care, and counseling. Setting. An FGM/C support center at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Methods. A qualitative, descriptive study, using content analysis of seven semistructured interviews with female outpatients. Results. All participants had been ignorant of the etiology of their FGM/C-related complications and hesitant to seek care....

  11. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Muula Adamson S; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Siziya Seter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2004 to esti...

  12. CHALLENGES IN INTRODUCING DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN ERITREA:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder RENA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, distance mode of education is gaining a momentum and becoming more popular than conventional education. It is a system in which schools, universities and other educational agencies offer instruction wholly or partly by mail. Eritrea is a newly independent country in Africa is been facing many challenges particularly in its education sector. It did not have more educational institutions at tertiary level. Thus the distance learning is the best option for this country. An attempt is made in this paper to discuss various problems related to the establishment and development of distance education. It also provides the distance education programmes so far undertaken in the country with concluding remarks.

  13. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  14. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea and...

  15. Health, Islam and Alternative Capitalism. Three possible Key Factors in Developing Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zizzola

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the socio, political and economic dynamics that have occurred in Somaliland in the last decades. Even though this country is still unrecognized by the international community, Somaliland’s economy has undertaken an enduring growth, above all in the private entrepreneurial sector. The author argues that religion has had an important role in the Somali cultural and social identification. According to this assumption, the article analyzes the Islamic factor by showing how it has led to the creation of many alternative connections supported by mutual trust and religious solidarity among involved communities. These connections are somehow fulfilling the absence of political legitimacy while progressively substituting conventional routes of intra-national negotiation, like diplomacy. To confirm this tendency, specific arguments are drawn from Somaliland’s health sector. The health care system is considered a preferential index to evaluate the level of national development. Above all, the private non-profit sector gives some evidence of the Somali capacity of running competitive private businesses while multiplying simultaneously their resources and suppliers with a consequent increase in autonomy and efficiency. This successful compromise bears the fruits of Somali engagement and can be identified by their inexhaustible adaptability to adverse conditions and their ability to avoid, not deny, the rational rules imposed by external actors and their ostensible, insurmountable interests.

  16. Courts, Clans and Companies: Mobile Money and Dispute Resolution in Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Stremlau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the world’s most ambitious experiments in mobile money is underway in the Somali territories. In the absence of a strong central government and internationally recognized banking institutions, remittance companies and the telecoms industry have been innovating to provide services unique to the Somali context, which is making the economy increasingly ‘cashless’. Mobile money has posed new regulatory and legal challenges, particularly when disputes involving consumers are involved. This article focuses on a case study from Somaliland (the northern, self-declared independent region of Somalia and examines Zaad, the dominant mobile money platform. Given the weak state institutions, there are a variety of actors, including private companies, government police and courts, sharia courts and traditional elders that play an active role in resolving conflicts that result from mobile money transactions, forging a hybrid judicial approach. We examine how these different actors intervene and create an enabling environment to allow innovation and foster trust in a region of the world that is frequently characterized as violent and lawless.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation for the improvement of MSW collection in Somaliland and Puntland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Vaccari, Mentore; Di Bella, Veronica; Giardina, Daniela

    2011-05-01

    This paper is based on a study, which aim is to provide an overview of the current MSW management in the main cities in Somaliland and Puntland and to identify strategies to improve the present situation. In particular, this article illustrates assessments concerning waste collection and technical solutions identified for its improvement, whereas waste treatment and disposal phases will be discussed in a further paper. The survey, which has been carried out in close collaboration with local administrators and technicians, has shown that MSW management is very lacking and needs both structural and operational actions. Waste collection in the surveyed cities covers 65% of population at its best, whereas it is substantially absent in Gardo and Sheik. The extension of waste collection service to the entire population of each city would need investment costs varying between 17,500 USD for Sheik and 200,000 USD for Galkayo, whereas total operational costs would vary between 1.17 USD/ inh/y in Boroma and 5.73 USD/inh/y in Garowe. Anyway, technical interventions are necessary to provide a larger number of citizens with a regular waste collection service and they should be preceded and accompanied by public awareness campaigns on environmental protection and capacity building services addressed to local administrators and technicians. PMID:20937621

  18. Outpatients' perspectives on problems and needs related to female genital mutilation/cutting: a qualitative study from somaliland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Sarah; Mahmoud Warsame, Amina; Berggren, Vanja; Isman, Elisabeth; Johansson, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To explore female outpatients' perspectives on problems related to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and their views on information, care, and counseling. Setting. An FGM/C support center at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Methods. A qualitative, descriptive study, using content analysis of seven semistructured interviews with female outpatients. Results. All participants had been ignorant of the etiology of their FGM/C-related complications and hesitant to seek care. All had undergone infibulation but did not wish the same for their daughters. In recent years they had learnt through religious leaders and media campaigns that infibulation was unapproved by Islam. A less severe FGM/C type, "Sunna," was more accepted; however, few could define what "Sunna" meant. Condemning and ridiculing attitudes against uncircumcised women prevailed in their community. Conclusions. New ideas and concepts related to FGM/C enter the common discourse in the Somali society while traditional norms and values still prevail. Religion was shown to have a strong impact on FGM/C practices and beliefs. Interventions aiming to raise awareness of health consequences of all types of FGM/C, as well as where to seek care for complications, are needed in Somaliland. Involvement of religious leaders in anti-FGM/C programs is essential. PMID:24151505

  19. Outpatients’ Perspectives on Problems and Needs Related to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Qualitative Study from Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fried

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore female outpatients’ perspectives on problems related to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C and their views on information, care, and counseling. Setting. An FGM/C support center at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Methods. A qualitative, descriptive study, using content analysis of seven semistructured interviews with female outpatients. Results. All participants had been ignorant of the etiology of their FGM/C-related complications and hesitant to seek care. All had undergone infibulation but did not wish the same for their daughters. In recent years they had learnt through religious leaders and media campaigns that infibulation was unapproved by Islam. A less severe FGM/C type, “Sunna,” was more accepted; however, few could define what “Sunna” meant. Condemning and ridiculing attitudes against uncircumcised women prevailed in their community. Conclusions. New ideas and concepts related to FGM/C enter the common discourse in the Somali society while traditional norms and values still prevail. Religion was shown to have a strong impact on FGM/C practices and beliefs. Interventions aiming to raise awareness of health consequences of all types of FGM/C, as well as where to seek care for complications, are needed in Somaliland. Involvement of religious leaders in anti-FGM/C programs is essential.

  20. Geology and geothermal potential of Alid Volcanic Center, Eritrea, Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clynne, M.A.; Duffield, W.A.; Fournier, R.O.; Janik, C.J. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Alid volcanic center is a 700-meter-tall mountain in Eritrea, northeast Africa. This mountain straddles the axis of an active crustal-spreading center called the Danakil Depression. Though volcanism associated with this crustal spreading is predominantly basaltic, centers of silicic volcanism, including Alid, are present locally. Silicic centers imply a magma reservoir in the crust and thus a possible potent shallow heat source for a hydrothermal-convection system. Boiling-temperature fumaroles are common on Alid, and their gas compositions indicate a reservoir temperature of at least 250{degrees}C. Alid is a 7-km x 5-km structural dome. The domed rocks, in decreasing age, are Precambrian schist and granite, a sequence of intercalated sedimentary rocks and basaltic lavas, and a sequence of basaltic and rhyolitic lava flows. Though isotopic ages are not yet determined, the domed volcanic rocks of Alid appear to be late Tertiary and/or Quaternary. Doming was likely caused by intrusion of relatively low density silicic magma into the upper crust. Subsequent to dome formation, a substantial volume of this magma was erupted from a vent near the west end of the summit area of the dome. This eruption produced a blanket of plinian rhyolite pumice over most, if not all, of the dome and fed pyroclastic flows that covered the part of the Danakil Depression around the base of the dome. The pumice deposits contain abundant inclusions of granophyric, miarolitic pyroxene granite, chemically indistinguishable from the pumice. This granite likely represents the uppermost part of the magma reservoir, which crystallized just prior to the pumice eruption.

  1. Urban Sprawl Analysis and Modeling in Asmara, Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie G. Tewolde

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The extension of urban perimeter markedly cuts available productive land. Hence, studies in urban sprawl analysis and modeling play an important role to ensure sustainable urban development. The urbanization pattern of the Greater Asmara Area (GAA, the capital of Eritrea, was studied. Satellite images and geospatial tools were employed to analyze the spatiotemporal urban landuse changes. Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA, Landuse Cover Change (LUCC analysis and urban sprawl analysis using Shannon Entropy were carried out. The Land Change Modeler (LCM was used to develop a model of urban growth. The Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network was employed to model the transition potential maps with an accuracy of 85.9% and these were used as an input for the ‘actual’ urban modeling with Markov chains. Model validation was assessed and a scenario of urban land use change of the GAA up to year 2020 was presented. The result of the study indicated that the built-up area has tripled in size (increased by 4,441 ha between 1989 and 2009. Specially, after year 2000 urban sprawl in GAA caused large scale encroachment on high potential agricultural lands and plantation cover. The scenario for year 2020 shows an increase of the built-up areas by 1,484 ha (25% which may cause further loss. The study indicated that the land allocation system in the GAA overrode the landuse plan, which caused the loss of agricultural land and plantation cover. The recommended policy options might support decision makers to resolve further loss of agricultural land and plantation cover and to achieve sustainable urban development planning in the GAA.

  2. First recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitom, Berhe; Oppenheimer, Clive; Hammond, James O. S.; Grandin, Raphaël; Barnie, Talfan; Donovan, Amy; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Yohannes, Ermias; Kibrom, Goitom; Kendall, J.-Michael; Carn, Simon A.; Fee, David; Sealing, Christine; Keir, Derek; Ayele, Atalay; Blundy, Jon; Hamlyn, Joanna; Wright, Tim; Berhe, Seife

    2015-10-01

    We present a synthesis of diverse observations of the first recorded eruption of Nabro volcano, Eritrea, which began on 12 June 2011. While no monitoring of the volcano was in effect at the time, it has been possible to reconstruct the nature and evolution of the eruption through analysis of regional seismological and infrasound data and satellite remote sensing data, supplemented by petrological analysis of erupted products and brief field surveys. The event is notable for the comparative rarity of recorded historical eruptions in the region and of caldera systems in general, for the prodigious quantity of SO2 emitted into the atmosphere and the significant human impacts that ensued notwithstanding the low population density of the Afar region. It is also relevant in understanding the broader magmatic and tectonic significance of the volcanic massif of which Nabro forms a part and which strikes obliquely to the principal rifting directions in the Red Sea and northern Afar. The whole-rock compositions of the erupted lavas and tephra range from trachybasaltic to trachybasaltic andesite, and crystal-hosted melt inclusions contain up to 3,000 ppm of sulphur by weight. The eruption was preceded by significant seismicity, detected by regional networks of sensors and accompanied by sustained tremor. Substantial infrasound was recorded at distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the vent, beginning at the onset of the eruption and continuing for weeks. Analysis of ground deformation suggests the eruption was fed by a shallow, NW-SE-trending dike, which is consistent with field and satellite observations of vent distributions. Despite lack of prior planning and preparedness for volcanic events in the country, rapid coordination of the emergency response mitigated the human costs of the eruption.

  3. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  4. Mellem Globale Projekter og Lokale Virkeligheder - Uddannelse i Nepal og Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius; Valentin, Karen

    2007-01-01

    funderede forestillinger om uddannelse og det uddannede menneske påvirker børn og unge i lande i 3. verden,  der er involveret i udviklingsbistand. Centralt i denne proces er også internationale politiske tiltag, der handler om børns og unges rettigheder. Eksemplerne er hentet fra Nepal og Eritrea, lande...

  5. Imagining Selves. School Narratives from Girls in Schools in Eritrea, Nepal and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla Ambrosius

    2006-01-01

    The article has a double aim. First, to study the relation between education, schooling and the construction of identity as this is played out in everyday life and school among young girls in secondary schools in Eritrea, Nepal and Denmark; second, to explore challenges and opportunities for...

  6. Population structure and morphology of the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera along an altitude gradient in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogbazghi, W.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Wessel, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Eritrea, the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera is a multipurpose plant. Human induced factors such as land clearing for agriculture, overgrazing by livestock and overtapping of resin are threatening its distribution. Against this background, a study was carried out to investigate the species

  7. Wage Labor and Mobility in Colonial Eritrea, 1880s to 1920s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Zaccaria, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Mobility and wage labor are two key variables that help to explain some of the complexities of the labor history of colonial Eritrea. Focusing on the initial period of Italian colonization, between the 1880s and 1920s, this article analyzes the relationship between the two above-mentioned variables.

  8. Spate Irrigation Systems and Watershed Development in Eritrea: the case of Sheeb watershed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfai, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the interactions of the Spate Irrigation System (SIS) in Eritrea with their upper watersheds, as a case study in Sheeb watershed. The spate irrigation practices, among others, include techniques to harvest runoff water, sediments, and nutrients. A strong relationship exists betw

  9. Multilingual Education Policy in Practice: Classroom Literacy Instruction in Different Scripts in Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Kroon, Sjaak

    2011-01-01

    This contribution compares literacy instruction in three different scripts in Eritrea. It uses data stemming from classroom observations of beginning readers of Tigrinya (Ge'ez script), Arabic (Arabic script) and Saho (Roman alphabet), the examination of teaching materials, and teacher interviews. Our analysis focuses on literacy events. We…

  10. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    located in different regions of Eritrea. Management tools and evaluation guidelines were developed and the pilot project was started in 2004. Supervision, monitoring collection of experience was collected by staff of the Ministry of Education. Experiences, findings and recommendations for solidification...

  11. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  12. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LAND TENURE LAW IN ERITREA, HORN OF AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, Luca G.

    2000-01-01

    After a historical sketch of the evolution of land tenure systems in the Eritrean highlands, this paper describes the main features of the new Eritrean land law and its operative assumption that the legislation is meant to extend state control over land. The legal devices employed by the law are widely used in sub-Saharan Africa (and were largely inspired by colonial policies). The State of Eritrea frequently asserts that its recent independence gives it the opportunity to learn from other de...

  13. DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY OF ZOBA MAEKEL OF ERITREA: A HOUSEHOLD LEVEL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Yonas Tesfamariam Bahta; Berhane Okubay Haile

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses household level data collected from November 2010 to December 2011 for 303 respondents to examine probable determinants of poverty status employing descriptive analysis and Probit models. The descriptive result of mean per capita food expenditure (MPKFE) in ZobaMaekel of Eritrea found that all the households’ heads are poor. The result of Probit analysis shows that poverty status is strongly associated with almost all variables used. Education level, type of resident, size o...

  14. The Potential for Scaling Up a Fog Collection System on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Fessehaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog is an untapped natural resource. A number of studies have been undertaken to understand its potential as an alternative or complementary water source. In 2007, a pilot fog-collection project was implemented in 2 villages on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea. The government of Eritrea, buoyed by the project’s positive results, has encouraged research into and application of fog-collection technologies to alleviate water-supply problems in this region. In 2014, this study was undertaken to assess the coverage, prevalence, intensity, and seasonality of fog on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea and consequently to identify potential beneficiary villages. Three independent methods used in the study—satellite image analyses, personal interviews, and a standard fog collector—produced reasonably similar characterizations of fog coverage and timing. The period with high fog incidence is mainly between November and March, with the highest number of fog days per year (96 on the central Eastern Escarpment and decreasing frequency to the south (78 days and north (73 days. The fog intensity on the central Eastern Escarpment is very high and in most cases reduces visibility to less than 500 m. In this period, a light to moderate breeze blows predominantly from the north and northeast. More than half of the villages in the region currently have a reliable water-supply system. The rest depend on seasonal roof-water harvesting, rock-water harvesting, and truck delivery and, therefore, could potentially benefit from fog collection as a supplementary water source. In particular, fog water could be useful for a small number of beneficiaries, including public services like schools and health facilities, where conventional water-delivery systems are not viable.

  15. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  16. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica with Liposomal Amphothericin B in an Immunocompromised Traveler Returning from Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Zanger, Philipp; Kötter, Ina; Raible, Armin; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Schönian, Gabriele; Peter G Kremsner

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica is rarely encountered outside disease-endemic areas and there have been no clinical trials evaluating its pharmacotherapy. We describe the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica using liposomal amphothericin B in an immunocompromised traveler returning from Eritrea.

  17. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.;

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  18. Analysis of Long-range Clean Energy Investment Scenarios forEritrea, East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, Robert D.

    2004-05-07

    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors.

  19. Analysis of long-range clean energy investment scenarios for Eritrea, East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EE/RE are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study, we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in EE/RE. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors

  20. DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY OF ZOBA MAEKEL OF ERITREA: A HOUSEHOLD LEVEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonas Tesfamariam Bahta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses household level data collected from November 2010 to December 2011 for 303 respondents to examine probable determinants of poverty status employing descriptive analysis and Probit models. The descriptive result of mean per capita food expenditure (MPKFE in ZobaMaekel of Eritrea found that all the households’ heads are poor. The result of Probit analysis shows that poverty status is strongly associated with almost all variables used. Education level, type of resident, size of land, number of meal, remittance, access of credit from relatives, credit institutions, opinion to credit, rain fed crop, irrigated crop, income from agriculture and income from -non-agriculture were found to be negatively associated with food self-sufficiency as a proxy of poverty. However, family number, number of children, children at school age and rent of land highly positively related to poverty. For instance, higher levels of educational attainment will provide higher levels of welfare for the household. Education is not sufficient condition to escape from poverty. This indicates that there are other factors which affect poverty of a household in conjunction with education. There is a need for providing complementary factors alongside with education to alleviate poverty. Remittance is a good indicator of poverty, showing strong family ties within Eritrean society, the fact that Eritrea does not have social security system it may help to pursue policies which foster cultural ties and family networks as part of poverty alleviating endeavor. Polices to enhance social capital should be stressed more.

  1. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  2. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.

    2010-07-01

    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  3. FOSSIL REPTILES FROM THE PLEISTOCENE HOMO-BEARING LOCALITY OF BUIA (ERITREA, NORTHERN DANAKIL DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMO DELFINO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is an arid area. P. sinuatus is not a member of the Eritrean herpetofauna. Although the marked preponderance of the crocodile remains is probably connected to the taphonomy of the sites and the collecting methods used, the ecological value of the reptile fauna corroborates that of the mammals, in indicating a lacustrine or fluvio-deltaic palaeoenvironment and a tropical/subtropical or even sub-Sahelic climate. The Buia remains represent the first reported Eritrean palaeoherpetofauna. 

  4. Renewable energy for Eritrea: North-South co-operation by SMEs; Nord-Sued-Kooperation von KMUs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitzmann, B.

    2005-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the Swiss Eco-Centre in Langenbruck helps national and international partners in the development and implementation of schemes for the use of renewable forms of energy in the African country of Eritrea. The setting-up of a stable network of partners is described. After the successful opening of a facility for the production of solar water heaters, a solar dryer for fruit is soon to go into production. Facts and figures on Eritrea and possibilities for international co-operation within the framework of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) are examined. Both private and government-supported projects are looked at, as is the necessary education and training.

  5. FOSSIL REPTILES FROM THE PLEISTOCENE HOMO-BEARING LOCALITY OF BUIA (ERITREA, NORTHERN DANAKIL DEPRESSION)

    OpenAIRE

    MASSIMO DELFINO; AMAHA SEGID; DESSALE YOSIEF; JEHESKEL SHOSHANI; LORENZO ROOK; YOSIEF LIBSEKAL

    2004-01-01

    The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea) hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is a...

  6. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting the productivity of mixtures include genotype combination, crop density and component crop ratio.Grain yields differed significantly among genotype combinations in certain years. A combination of Ardu 12/6...

  7. Characteristics of seismicity in Eritrea (2011-2012): Implications for rifting dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitom, B.; Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendal, M. J.; Ogubazghi, G.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Illsley-Kemp, F.

    2015-12-01

    Eritrea hosts the final stages of on-land East-African rifting, yet questions remain about how rifting transits from the Afar Depression to the Red Sea. In this study, we use data from recent deployments of 6 broadband seismometers in Eritrea together with deployments in Ethiopia to locate seismicity and determine the current focus of strain. Over 1000 events have been located with local magnitudes 0.7-5.0. A significant period of seismicity was observed on 1 July 2012 around Nabro volcano and is associated with the biggest event of mL 5 preceded by 33 events in the previous two days. It may be related to magma movement below Nabro. Other significant seismicity was observed on 25 December 2011 and is correlated with an earthquake of mL 4.2 and associated with 13 other events on the same day. This event is located around Hayli Gubbi and Ale Bagu volcanoes and could be related to the activities around these volcanoes. We use double difference relocations to improve accuracy and show two main clusters of seismicity, one oriented NW-SE in the Bada-Alid axis along the north-western boundary of the Danakil microplate and the other NE-SW, following the trend of the Biddu-Nabro volcanic complex. Our new estimates of seismicity demarcate the boundary between the Nubian, Somalian, and Danakil Microplate and suggest that the Danakil microplate may be broken in two along the Biddu-Nabro Volcanic complex. We estimate b-values for the different clusters of events and show that close to the major border faults near Massawa, average b-values are lower (0.65) than that found near the volcanic centres (1.2 - Bada-Alid, 0.81 - Biddu-Nabro). This may indicate that the stress is less in the volcanic regions and the seismicity is due to movement of magma fluids and strain is accommodated by the injection of magma. In contrast the earthquakes around Massawa occur in relatively stronger rocks suggesting strain may be accommodated by movement on larger faults.

  8. An outbreak of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and post outbreak sero-surveillance in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2002 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) was never reported in Eritrea for the last 20 to 30 years. A major incursion of CBPP was reported from illegally smuggled Raya Azebo type cattle from Ethiopia, introduced through the Southern Red Sea administrative region of Eritrea (the Afar area bordering Ethiopia). The first case was detected in the Asmara abattoir during post mortem inspection. Characteristic CBPP clinical signs and post-mortem lesions were observed in affected herd during the outbreak of the disease. Significant number of in-contact indigenous cattle was infected by the disease. Samples were first sent to OIE reference laboratory CIRADEMVT in France for confirmation. The disease was confirmed by PCR on 15 January 2003.Samples of Pleural fluids and lung tissues were collected from CBPP infected animals and tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique at the National Veterinary Laboratory. The affected cattle herds were held in an isolation pen and eventually destroyed following confirmation of the disease. Following this incident, surveillance of CBPP was stepped-up and a total of 4,695 serum samples were collected from 313 sampling units or villages and submitted to the National Veterinary Laboratory for testing in 2004 one year after the outbreak of the disease as part of the epidemiosurveillance. Serum samples collected for sero-surveillance were tested for CBPP antibodies by the use of the monoclonal antibody specific for Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides sc as described in the competitive ELISA kit manual from CIRAD-EMVT, France. During this post outbreak sero-surveillance sampling season, all age group animals were eligible for sampling. Out of the total sampled animals 67 (1.43%) were positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides sc antibodies using the cELISA test. This result suggested that very low lateral infectious agent transmission could have taken place. Vaccination as a control measure had never

  9. Brightness variations of the northern 630nm intertropical arc and the midnight pressure bulge over Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Wiens

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying just north of Asmara after midnight, and gradually brightening to a maximum at 02:00h local civil time, 02:00 LT, after which it disappears before dawn. It is argued that all features of the plots can be explained by known mechanisms capable of driving ions along magnetic field lines, including the fountain effect, summer to winter transequatorial winds, and the midnight pressure bulge.

    The 02:00 LT brightness maximum is the most striking and the most persistent feature in the data. The persistence of the location of the 02:00 LT brightening is attributed to a pressure bulge centered on the geographic equator at midnight and extending to higher latitudes with increasing local time in both the winter and the summer hemispheres. The bulge is shown to be stronger near solstice than near equinox, confirming earlier work.

  10. THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE HUMAN REMAINS FROM BUIA, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO MACCHIARELLI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 on a site at Uadi Aalad (Abbate et al. 1998 led to the discovery of one-million-year-old human remains. They consist of a cranium in excellent preservation condition (UA-31, two permanent teeth (UA-222 and UA-369, and three pelvic portions (UA-173, UA-405 and UA-466, the latter recovered on 2003. The cranium and the postcranial remains represent a single adult individual, likely of female sex. The cranium evidences a blend of "erectus-like" and progressive morpho-architectural features, the latter more commonly found in the Middle Pleistocene. Preparation and restoration of the specimens (notably, of the virtually complete UA-31 face were only completed on September 2003. The revision, refinement, and integration of our previous analytical and interpretative work (cf. Abbate et al. 1998; Macchiarelli et al. 2002 is in progress within the context of the paleoanthropological reord currently available for the African Early to Middle Pleistocene.

  11. Prevalence of Helminth Parasites in Indigenous Fowls of Zoba Anseba of Eritrea, North-East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Ghebremariam

    Full Text Available The prevalence of helminth parasites in indigenous fowls was investigated in Zoba Anseba, Eritrea. The rate of infection was as high as 52.43% in rectal swab examination and 63.00% in the slaughtered fowls. The helminth parasites recorded were: Ascaridia galli (70.58%, Subulura sp. (5.88%, Heterakis sp. (52.94%, Tetrameres sp. (11.76%, Cheilospirura sp. (5.88%, Raillietina sp. (82.35% and Amoebotaenia sp. (11.76%. The infection rate between nematodes and cestodes was 92.59% and 59.25%, respectively. Mixed infection with two to three species was common. Cloacal swabs of 82 fowls collected were found positive with different types of ova. Out of which 22 were positive for Ascaridia (51.16%, 14 for Heterakis sp. (32.55%, 6 for Tetrameres sp. (13.95% and 30 were positive for Raillietina sp. (69.76%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 492-494

  12. Currently Married Women with an Unmet Need for Contraception in Eritrea: Profile and Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eritrea’s contraceptive prevalence rate is one of the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa and its fertility has only started to decline. Using data from the 2002 Eritrea Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS, this study examines the determinants of unmet need for family planning that is the discrepancy between fertility goals and actual contraceptive use. More than one-quarter of currently married women are estimated to have an unmet need and this has remained unchanged since 1995. The most important reason for unmet need is lack of knowledge of methods or of a source of supply. Currently married women with higher parity, and low autonomy, low or medium household economic status, and who know no method of contraception or source of supply are identified as the most likely to have an unmet need. Addressing the unmet need for family planning entails not merely greater knowledge of or access to contraceptive services, but also the enhancement of the status of women.

  13. "Now I Am Free"--Education and Human Resource Development in Eritrea: Contradictions in the Lives of Eritrean Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Tanja R.

    2004-01-01

    Human resource development as an objective of education policy in developing countries is increasingly narrowed down to its human capital component. In Eritrea, the objective of a highly centralized human resource development strategy is to produce human capital for the advancement of the nation. This instrumentalist view ignores the fact that…

  14. Prevent and "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  15. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 58th World Health Assembly and 56th WHO Regional Committee for Africa adopted resolutions urging Member States to ensure that health financing systems included a method for prepayment to foster financial risk sharing among the population and avoid catastrophic health-care expenditure. The Regional Committee asked countries to strengthen or develop comprehensive health financing policies. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted among senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies to elicit views on some of the elements likely to be part of a national health financing policy. Methods This is a descriptive study. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 19 senior staff (Directors in the Ministry of Health, Labour Department, Civil Service Administration, Eritrean Confederation of Workers, National Insurance Corporation of Eritrea and Ministry of Local Government. The respondents were selected by the Ministry of Health as key informants. Results The key findings were as follows: the response rate was 84.2% (16/19; 37.5% (6/16 and 18.8% said that the vision of Eritrean National Health Financing Policy (NHFP should include the phrases ‘equitable and accessible quality health services’ and ‘improve efficiency or reduce waste’ respectively; over 68% indicated that NHFP should include securing adequate funding, ensuring efficiency, ensuring equitable financial access, protection from financial catastrophe, and ensuring provider payment mechanisms create positive incentives to service providers; over 80% mentioned community participation, efficiency, transparency, country ownership, equity in access, and evidence-based decision making as core values of NHFP; over 62.5% confirmed that NHFP components should consist of stewardship (oversight, revenue collection, revenue pooling and risk management, resource allocation and purchasing of health services, health economics research, and development of

  16. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  17. The elephants of Zoba Gash Barka, Eritrea: part 4. Cholelithiasis in a wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Dalen W; Hagey, Lee; Shoshani, Jeheskel

    2005-12-01

    A 4.0-kg cholelith was found within the abdominal cavity of a dead wild African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Eritrea. Analysis of this cholelith by histochemistry, electron microscopy, electrospray mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed it was composed of bile alcohols but no calcium, bilirubin, or cholesterol. Bacteria were also found in the cholelith. Similar, but smaller, bile stones have been identified previously in other wild African elephants and an excavated mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). Choleliths have been reported only once in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Elephants, along with hyraxes (Procavia capensis) and manatees (Trichechus manatus), are unique among mammals in producing only bile alcohols and no bile acids, which may predispose them to cholelithiasis, particularly in association with bacterial infection. Dietary factors may also play an important role in cholelith formation. PMID:17312726

  18. TAPHONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE LATE EARLY PLEISTOCENE BONE REMAINS FROM BUIA (DANDIERO BASIN, DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA:EVIDENCE FOR LARGE MAMMAL AND REPTILE BUTCHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA FIORE

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Early Pleistocene sedimentary succession of the Dandiero (Buia Basin (Danakil Depression, Eritrea has preserved a rich paleontological, paleoanthropological, and archeological record circa one million years old. Fieldwork undertaken between 1995 and 2003 led to the collection of fossil vertebrate remains now stored at the National Museum of Eritrea. Bones were recovered in different localities of the Dandiero Basin, where abundant archaeological and paleontological remains outcrop from the eroded sediments. The faunal collection of 436 animal bones from the Buia Basin, mostly derived from Uadi Aalad area, have undergone taphonomic analysis. Even though bone surfaces are poorly preserved due to abrasion, our work demonstrates carcass exploitation. Some specimens, mostly representing Hippopotamus gorgops and medium- to large-sized bovids, show traces of butchering left by stone tools. We also document, as far as we know for the first time, a single case of butchering involving a femur of a crocodile.   

  19. The Question of Structural Violence on the Saho people of Eritrea, in spite of their important role during the Eritrean Struggle for Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Esmail, Romodan Abdellah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The thesis focuses on discovering incidents of the structural violence on the Saho of Eritrea under the Eritrean PFDJ government. It is mainly stressed on the government policies, especially language and land and how the policies undermined the democratic rights of the Saho people. At the same time, it attempts to shed light on the subsequent suppressive attitudes of the government and its overall impacts on the Saho people and the consequences. To meet the objectives, the study ...

  20. Competition and niche differentiation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) mixtures under rainfed conditions in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeamlak, A.; L. Bastiaans; Struik, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Barley and wheat mixtures were grown in the field using additive and replacement ratios at two locations (Halhale and Mendefera) in Eritrea during the 1997 and 1998 seasons. The aim was to assess yield advantage and to analyse competition and niche differentiation using a hyperbolic regression model. It proved advantageous to grow barley and wheat in mixtures because more land area was required to obtain the same yield in sole crops. The hyperbolic regression approach confirmed that barley an...

  1. Breeding a better stove: the use of computational fluid dynamics and genetic algorithms to optimise a wood burning stove for Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham-Slipper, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Improved cooking stoves can bring significant benefits to women and children in rural African situations, due to reduced fuel consumption and improved indoor air quality. This investigation focuses on the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to optimise a stove for Eritrea. Initial work focussed on developing a model of wood combustion in a fixed bed. An experimental investigation was carried out on regular wood cribs to determine the burn rate and temper...

  2. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  3. British Gas business opportunities overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the joint British Gas Department of Trade and Industry Seminar cover overseas exploration and production and development projects; an overview of gas transmission, distribution and supply; and power generation. Details of the Oil and Gas Projects and Supplies Office, Projects Export Promotion Division, the Export Credits Guarantee Department, and British Gas Offices Worldwide are given in the Appendix. (UK)

  4. FISSION-TRACK DATING OF A TEPHRA LAYER IN THE ALAT FORMATION OF THE DANDIERO GROUP (DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIULIO BIGAZZI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to date a biotite separate from a tephra layer recognized near Buia (Danakil Depression, Eritrea in the liwer part of the Homo remains – bearing Dandiero group (formerly attributed to the Danakil Formation using the 39Ar/40Ar method failed because of xenocrystic contamination. For this reason it was applied the fission-track method on glass, since no other phases datable with this technique were present. The quality of glass was very poor for fission-track dating, because of the small size of grains. In addition, after polishing only few glass shards showed useful surfaces for track counting and only 25 spontaneous tracks were counted. The determined fission-track age - 0.75 +/- 0.16 Ma - is a rejuvenated age due to the presence of a certain amount of annealing of spontaneous tracks. An attempt to apply the plateau method for correcting this apparent age failed. A corrected age of 1.3 +/- 0.3 Ma was computed using the size-correction method. In spite of its low precision, this fission-track age represents a significant result, since it corroborates the attribution to Jaramillo Subchron of the normal magnetozone near the base of which the tephra is located. 

  5. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  6. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  7. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  8. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  9. ^Eine^ Analyse weiblicher Flüchtlingsschicksale: zur Lebenssituation weiblicher Flüchtlinge aus Äthiopien und Eritrea am Beispiel des Aufnahmeortes Khartoum

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nawal

    2005-01-01

    Im September 1999 verkündete das Amt des hohen Flüchtlingskommissars der Vereinten Nationen (UNHCR) die weltweite Inkraftsetzung der Aufhebungsklausel des UN-Hilfsprogramms (Cessation Clause) sowie die Beendigung des Flüchtlingsstatus für die äthiopischen Flüchtlinge. Die Arbeit untersucht die Lebenssituation weiblicher Flüchtlinge aus Äthiopien und Eritrea in Khartoum nach der UNHCR- Aufhebungsklausel. Die Forschungsarbeit wurde in Khartoum ausgeführt. Die Datenerhebung erfolgte von Juli 200...

  10. Stratigraphy, palaeoenvironments and model for the deposition of the Abdur Reef Limestone : context for an important archaeological site from the last interglacial on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggemann, JH; Buffler, RT; Guillaume, MMM; Walter, RC; von Cosel, R; Ghebretensae, BN; Berhe, SM

    2004-01-01

    Stone tools discovered within uplifted marine terraces along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea at the Abdur Archaeological Site, dated to 125 +/- 7 ka (the last interglacial, marine isotope stage 5e), show that early humans occupied coastal areas by this time [Walter et al. (2000) Nature 405, 65-69]. In

  11. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    OpenAIRE

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...

  12. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  13. American English vs. British English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1997-01-01

    The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…

  14. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  15. BRITISH ARMY COMMISIONS BY PURCHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Dick Usher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I have before me a copy of a letter dated 12 May, 1814, written by certain Lieutenant-Colonel William Fuller of the King's Dragoon Guards to a British Lord, in which is advised that a commission for His Lordship's son would cost £735. Further on in this article I shall state the prices as they were at the time of the' Crimean War. Only recently did I read a book by a very well-known British author who claims that the British army of the 1850's was small, and that the Crimean War was to prove that it was shockingly organised, but he speaks only well of the navy of that period. I ask that my readers please bear in mind that in earlier days there was no such rank as second-lieutenant nor sub-lieutenant in the British army. The most junior commissioned rank in the infantry was that of ensign. In the cavalry, it was cornet until 1871, when it became sub-lieutenant.

  16. Insurance revolution within British gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooke, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    With the transformation of the British gas industry from a manufacturing to a distribution role, British Gas Corp. questioned the whole function of insurance within the industry and arrived at a new approach of extended self-insurance. The basic questions posed were whether British Gas really needed insurance protection, what size of loss it could absorb within its own financial resources, and what catastrophic losses might occur that should be covered by insurance. In the past, each area board determined its own insurance requirements and obtained the best coverage available for its needs. With the formation of British Gas, however, insurance was investigated on an industry-wide basis by an insurance committee in which each region was represented by its insurance officer. This enabled the industry to negotiate from a position of strength in what would be a bulk purchase and permit the most flexible coverage to be obtained at the most economic cost. The committee proposed a system that made the figure of $3.6 million (pounds 2 million) the main criterion for self-insurance; risks not considered as having a real potential for a loss exceeding this figure would be borne uninsured. Where such potential existed, only amounts above this figure would be insured. The actual program that was eventually adopted cancelled the employer's liability insurance, retained third-party insurance for claims over $3.6 million, retained full-coverage fire insurance, reduced engineering coverage to an inspection service only, retained motor and personal accident insurance for further consideration, and cancelled all other forms of insurance. To implement this program of greater self-insurance, British Gas strengthened the claims-handling expertise within the regions and has incorporated greater risk management techniques to reduce or eliminate risks with loss-making potential.

  17. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  18. A steep decline of malaria morbidity and mortality trends in Eritrea between 2000 and 2004: the effect of combination of control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremichael Andemariam

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a huge public health problem in Africa that is responsible for more than one million deaths annually. In line with the Roll Back Malaria initiative and the Abuja Declaration, Eritrea and other African countries have intensified their fight against malaria. This study examines the impact of Eritrea's Roll Back Malaria Programme: 2000–2004 and the effects and possible interactions between the public health interventions in use. Methods This study employed cross-sectional survey to collect data from households, community and health facilities on coverage and usage of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITNs, Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, larvicidal activities and malaria case management. Comparative data was obtained from a similar survey carried out in 2001. Data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS and reports of the annual assessments by the National Malaria Control Programme was used to assess impact. Time series model (ARIMA was used to assess association. Results In the period 2000–2004, approximately 874,000 ITNs were distributed and 13,109 health workers and community health agents were trained on malaria case management. In 2004, approximately 81% households owned at least one net, of which 73% were ITNs and 58.6% of children 0–5 years slept under a net. The proportion of malaria cases managed by community health agents rose from 50% in 1999 to 78% in 2004. IRS coverage increased with the combined amount of DDT and Malathion used rising from 6,444 kg, in 2000 to 43,491 kg, in 2004, increasing the population protected from 117,017 to 259,420. Drug resistance necessitated regimen change to chloroquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. During the period, there was a steep decline in malaria morbidity and case fatality by 84% and 40% respectively. Malaria morbidity was strongly correlated to the numbers of ITNs distributed (β = -0.125, p Conclusion Eritrea has within 5 years attained key Roll Back

  19. Leukaemia near british nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An excess of childhood leukaemia has been seen near some British nuclear installations, especially near the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The same result was found in a more general study including a large number of nuclear sites. Similar studies made in USA, Canada and France have been negative. Moreover, epidemiological studies made in England have discovered other childhood leukaemia clusters in areas far from nuclear facilities, and especially near potential sites of nuclear installations. Several explanations are suggested but no definite conclusion is yet possible. Doses from radioactive releases seem to be too low to account for the additional deaths from leukaemia by environmental contamination. A virus activation, which might be associated with population influx into rural isolated areas, has been considered. The hypothesis of genetic mutation induced by ionising radiation in the fathers of children with leukaemia has been made because a higher risk of leukaemia was observed for children of fathers employed at Sellafield. No firm conclusion is possible considering the small number of observed cases and the lack of excess leukaemias in the offspring of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The possibility of internal contamination, chemicals or even radon is discussed as other causes. Studies in progress might allow to find an answer to the problem of leukaemia in the vicinity of British nuclear installations

  20. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  1. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  2. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  3. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  4. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  5. The British foreign exchange reserves puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Hüfner, Felix P.

    2000-01-01

    The British foreign exchange reserves decreased by 40 percent during the period August 1996-December 1999 although the Pound Sterling is considered a floating exchange rate since it left the EMS in 1992. Since changes in the level of foreign exchange reserves are usually taken as indicators for foreign exchange interventions in the economic literature we investigate the case of the British reserves in detail. While the Pound Sterling has appreciated strongly against the Deutsche Mark in this ...

  6. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  7. Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Temin

    1996-01-01

    There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...

  8. The British Empire and the Muslim world

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Francis

    2001-01-01

    By the 1920s the British Empire embraced substantially more than half the Muslim peoples of the world. For much of the twentieth century Britain was the greatest influence over their development. Imperial security in large part dictated which territories of former Muslim empires or petty Muslim states the British came to rule. Imperial interests in combination with those of rival empires and local forces dictated precisely, and sometimes not so precisely, where the boundaries of new states we...

  9. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-01-01

    In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003), with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001), this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and...

  10. Radon in British mines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer

  11. Some Differences Between British And American English

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Ellemina

    2011-01-01

    Kertas karya ini berjudul “Some Differences Between British and American English”. Kertas karya ini memaparkan secara singkat tentang perbedaan antara British and American English baik dalam speling, grammar, maupun vocabulary sehingga akan diketahui secara jelas perbedaan diantara keduanya. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kepustakaan dengan membaca beberapa buku bahasa Inggris sebagai bahan referensi yang dapat mendukung topik. Dari pemaparan diatas ada beberapa hasi...

  12. Entry Modes for British MNCs into China

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    China has undergone massive economic reforms and institutional changes over the last 3 decades. Increasingly liberalized government regulations and the opening up of the Chinese market have attracted British MNCs to enter into this ‘dream market’. This paper seeks to primarily explore the factors that affect the entry mode selection of British MNCs. It will also seek to investigate how the current institutional environment affects entry mode selection. This paper uses a case study method to a...

  13. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindicus) as an alternative feed and water source for animals during the dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout East Africa, animal feed resources fluctuate seasonally and are often of limited availability. Finding alternative feed resources that can sustain animal production during the long dry season is an essential need. Cactus is a drought-tolerant and succulent feed resource available throughout the year in Eritrea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including increasing levels of spineless cactus in the diet of sheep fed urea-treated barley straw. Twenty four fat tailed Highland male sheep with mean live weight of 21.1 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments (T1-T4). Animals in T1 received urea (5%) -treated barley straw (UTBS) alone ad libitum, while those in T, T3 and T4 received ad libitum UTBS supplemented with 175 g, 350 g and 525 g of spineless cactus (dry matter [DM] basis), respectively. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant increases in DM intake (P 0.75d and 96.5 g/ kg BWt0.75d, respectively) as compared with the first two treatments (94.4 g/kg BWt0.75d and 87.6 g/kg BWt0.75d). Water intake was significantly decreased with the progressive increase in cactus intake. The highest BWt gain (51.9 g/d) was found when sheep received 350 g DM of cactus (T3), while the lowest was in the control diet (26.8 g/d). The metabolism data demonstrated that available energy intake (TDNI) was directly related to animal performance. In conclusion, feeding cactus with UTBS can significantly increase animal performance and feed intake, and reduced water intake. (author)

  14. Evaluation of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indicus) as an alternative animal feed and water resource during dry season in Eritrea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal feed and water shortage is one of the main constraints for the livestock sector in arid and semi arid region of Eritrea. The major feed resource comes from the rangeland pasture and crop residue. The quality and availability of these feed resources decreases rapidly following the rainy season. This fluctuating pattern of animal feed supply results in a pattern of gain and loss in animal growth and performance. In a country like Eritrea where feed shortage is such a serious problem, utilization of multipurpose trees and shrubs such as cactus that can cope with low and erratic rain fall, high temperature poor soils, and required low energy inputs can serve as an alternative strategy to reduce the chronic animal feed and water shortage (Barbera et al., 1995). Therefore the aim of this research was to assess the potential of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficusindica) as an alternative source feed and water for ruminant animals fed poor quality crop residues during the dry season in Eritrea. A randomized complete block design was used to allocate 24 fat tailed Highland male sheep with initial mean live weight of 21.1kg in two replications and one of four feed treatment groups. Animal in T1 received ad libitum amount of urea treated barley straw alone, while those in T2, T3 and T4 received ad libitum urea treated barley straw supplemented with 175g, 350g and 525g of spineless cactus (DM basis), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, four sheep were transferred to metabolic crates for the digestibility trial. Data were analyzed using standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) with help of GENSTAT statistical producer software. Spineless cactus cladodes were high in water and ash content but low in crude protein and low in crude fibre. The energy content of cactus was 65% more than the urea treated straw. The effect of increasing level of spineless cactus on feed and water intake and weight gain is presented. With increasing level of cactus, there were significant

  15. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  16. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  17. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  18. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  19. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Алексеевич Есипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13

  20. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...... of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  1. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  2. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  3. British advice for the Dutch natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief impression is given of the Netherlands Energy Congress, which was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in December 1999. Many speakers were British which compared the liberalization process of the Dutch natural gas market with the British experiences

  4. British or American English? A Survey on Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Svanhildur Sif Halldórsdóttir 1985

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to determine whether Icelanders use more British English or American English in their speech. British English is taught in most compulsory and secondary schools in Iceland but most English input comes from the United States. The research shows that males are more likely to use British English in their speech than females. They are also better at determining whether a sentence is written in British English or American English. The research indicates that older partici...

  5. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  6. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  7. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  8. An American on a British Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大川

    2004-01-01

    A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-

  9. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. In addition, it participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. This report notes that the most significant development in 2000 was the sharp increase in the continental market price for natural gas, and in the winter spot price spikes in the west from southern British Columbia to California. As a result, the Commission had to approve large rate increases for BC gas customers. These high prices had a marked impact on cost of living and operating costs. In British Columbia, electricity rates are based on the cost of generation, transmission and distribution. Electricity rates have been, and will continue to be frozen for B.C. Hydro customers until October 2001. The Commission has instituted transmission access principles and tariffs for B.C. Hydro and West Kootenay Power to make it possible for these utilities to participate in regional electricity markets. The report also noted that the movement toward increased competition and deregulation of electricity markets in British Columbia has lost momentum, given the experiences in California and Alberta. tabs., figs

  10. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  11. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  12. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  13. A very British spectacle? : critical reception of the fantasy genre within contemporary British cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...

  14. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, A; Khanam, S.; Furnham, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...

  15. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  16. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  17. Digital preservation at the British Library

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyard, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Ensuring the comprehensive coverage, recording and preservation of the UK national published output is one of the British Library’s key responsibilities. A significant proportion of the Library’s cultural heritage collections will be in digital formats and require long term access, so the Library has to be at the forefront of national and international efforts to develop digital preservation. The Library is addressing digital preservation by establishing policy, negotiating and legally obtain...

  18. Care credits in the British pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachantoni, Athina

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...

  19. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    D.R. Seip; D.B. Cichowski

    1996-01-01

    The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces) populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus). Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitat...

  20. Nostalgia versus Feminism in British Costume Drama

    OpenAIRE

    NORMAN, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Sibel ÇELİK

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the phenomenon of (mainly British) costume drama during the last twenty-five years and the theoretical debate surrounding the socalled 'heritage' film. Critics of the 1980s and 1990s saw in the heritage film an attempt to exploit the nostalgic and conservative appeal of the historical costume drama in order to support the Thatcherite political project of redefining and reorientating national identity. Yet the costume drama, with its independently-minded heroines and its sh...

  1. The Differences between British and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进

    2012-01-01

    English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.

  2. Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Import protection is frequently advocated as a means of preserving jobs and avoiding labour adjustment costs. Defining adjustment costs in terms of output forgone during the process of adjustment and ignoring any general equilibrium repercussions, we estimate that quantitative restrictions on British footwear imports during 1979 protected about 1,000 jobs and avoided once-and-for-all adjustment costs of only around 1 million pounds sterling. The result is based on new data which reveal high r...

  3. Dystopia in British and American literature

    OpenAIRE

    GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  4. Hearing care policy analysis in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadyeyeva, Inna

    2007-01-01

    Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...

  5. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  6. The parliamentary representation of British Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...

  7. British interests in the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ellerby, Clive Richard.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the circumstances which influenced the policy of the British Government towards the decolonization of the Falklands from 1945 to 1989. A comprehensive approach to the subject enabled an examination of the inter-relationship between the various forces which defined the nature of the dilemma. The themes included economic development, the form of landownership in the Colony, Falkland polit...

  8. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  9. A critical history of British earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.

  10. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  11. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  12. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve [Public Service International Research Unit, Business School, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10 9LS (United Kingdom)

    2006-03-15

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition. (author)

  13. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  14. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  15. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  16. Precocious Albion: A New Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2014-01-01

    Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...

  17. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Joshi; Dylan Kneale

    2008-01-01

    This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of pos...

  18. The Present Perfect and Preterite in British and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Dea Žetko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our article is to present the selected results of the research which was conducted for the purpose of our master’s thesis. We focused on the transfer of the functions of the present perfect into the domain of the preterite in informal British and American English. We put together a British and an American corpus and analysed the differences and similarities between British and American English in this transfer. We examined some factors that may influence this transfer either ...

  19. Making sense of British newspaper campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...

  20. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  1. Battleships and British Society, 1920-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Connelly, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    This article will explore the image of the Royal Navy’s battleships in British society between 1920 and 1960. Although much of what follows might be said to apply to Royal Navy as a whole, particularly ‘glamorous’ vessels such as aircraft carriers, cruisers and destroyers, it is the contention of this piece that the Royal Navy’s battleships by virtue of their sheer size and power captured the public imagination more than any other type of warship. The study of the image of the battleship in p...

  2. A history of British Assemblies of God

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, William K.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...

  3. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems-- Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), World Resources Institute, International Food Policy Research Institute, Global Maritime Boundaries Database (GMBD),World Conservation Monitoring Centre(WCMC),The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME)

  4. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  5. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  6. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate.

  7. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  8. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  9. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  10. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  11. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  12. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution. PMID:14660122

  13. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    Britain's race for Africa continues to draw significant scholarly interest. Traditionally, studies have focused on well-documented figures such as explorers, missionaries and capitalists. Working against the trend, this is the first book to concentrate solely on the role of engineers. It analyses...... the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen...... reconstructs the networks and activities of Britain's engineers while focusing on London as a centre of imperial expansion. By treating Britain and the empire as an interconnected zone heanalyses the ways in whichideas , people and technologies circulated during the critical period....

  14. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金苹

    2015-01-01

    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  15. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  16. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  19. British Gas marks progress in drive for global operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that British Gas plc, London, is driving to boost the share of its business that comes form outside the U.K. Non-U.K. activities accounted for about 10% of the company's business last year. By the turn of the century earnings form British Gas's non-U.K. exploration and production activities are expected to be about in line with those form the U.K. core business. In addition, the company's global gas business unit-acquisitions, sales, of British Gas technology worldwide, and power generation form gas-will contribute significantly to overseas earnings

  20. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  1. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  2. British vs American English : Pronunciation in the EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Östlund, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Today English is a world language; it is spoken by millions both as first and second language almost all over the world. The varieties best known to Swedish pupils are the varieties British and American English. Another variety of English, which is spoken by both native and non-native speakers, is a mixture of British English and American English called Mid-Atlantic English. As long as the English language has been a part of the Swedish curriculum, the leading variety taught has been British ...

  3. GURKHA IN THE BRITISH ARMY : A HISTORICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL KUMAR POKHAREL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of Gorkhali men's recruit in the British Army is about two centuries long. Its history can be traced from the time of colonial India. When Anglo-Nepal war was took place in 1814-16 British surprised by seeing their fighting capacities. During the course of two great wars Gorkhali proved them as a warrior races and it was followed by in the Falkland war too. So, this article is written in the periphery of recruitment of Gorkhali people in to the British army and it gives its historical knowledge to the readers in some extent.

  4. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  6. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  7. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278. ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. The Ethical Perspective of British and American Preservice Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of responses from 38 U.S. and 27 British preservice teachers on the Ethics Position Questionnaire indicated that both groups had high idealism. U.S. teachers had lower relativism scores. (SK)

  9. Analysis of the British Commercial Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Memanova, Tamilyam

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on the economic evaluation of the British commercial real estate market and feasibility study of London’s inner-city office development. Thereby, synthesis of specialized literature and market researches, quantitative analysis of real estate indicators and study of financial viability of 20 Fenchurch Street project were implemented. Based on economic analysis, it was deduced that British commercial real estate markets are steadily recovering from recession start...

  10. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  11. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and their determinants in older British men

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon Lucy; Papacosta Olia; Whincup Peter; Haines Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there has been concern about the levels of carbon monoxide exposure, particularly among older people, little is known about COHb levels and their determinants in the general population. We examined these issues in a study of older British men. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4252 men aged 60–79 years selected from one socially representative general practice in each of 24 British towns and who attended for examination between 1998 and 2000. Blood samples were mea...

  12. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  13. British anarchism 1881-1914: reality and appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Shpayer, H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...

  14. On Grammatical Differences between Daily British and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhang; Zhaofeng Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The grammatical differences between daily British English and American English are mainly in terms of the usage of prepositions, auxiliary verbs, articles, pronouns, adjectives and adverbs, and tense and subjunctive mood. These differences exert influence on English learning and interpersonal communication. This paper tries to illustrate the differences of grammar between British and American daily English based on the authors’ teaching experience and learning experience in the UK. By compari...

  15. Small farms and climate change adaptation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Kaleen

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...

  16. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  17. Making of British India fictions, 1772-1823

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...

  18. Remnants of Empire? British media reporting on Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the various ways in which the British media, and the broadsheets The Guardian and The Daily Telegraph in particular, have framed and represented events in Zimbabwe since 2000. It argues that representations of the situation in Zimbabwe have been largely struggles over meanings and definitions of the ‘crisis’ in the country. The extensive media coverage of Zimbabwe in the British media generated a significant amount of debate and this article demonstrates h...

  19. A nestbox trial for British marsh tits Poecile palustris

    OpenAIRE

    Broughton, Richard K.; Hinsley, Shelley A.

    2014-01-01

    Two experimental nestbox trials were attempted, which aimed to maximise uptake by Marsh Tits in British woodland. Nestboxes which more closely approximated the dimensions of natural cavities were used more frequently than standard nestboxes, but the overall uptake was low. We conclude that nestboxes are an inefficient method of monitoring Marsh Tits, at least in the British context, and researchers should concentrate efforts on locating and monitoring natural nest sites.

  20. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  1. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  2. Climate change and health in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document described the models that scientists use to investigate the links between climate change and health. It then reviewed the evidence for possible impacts of climate change on human health. Most models conceptualize that climate change will affect the health of British Columbians directly through physical and biological pathways, and indirectly through complex socio-economic and environmental pathways. The direct physical and biological pathways will be the easiest to investigate, monitor and attribute to climate change, while the indirect socio-economic pathways will be more complex to investigate but will have the most impact. This document also provided guidance for a program of research and policy directions to better predict future impacts of climate change on health in BC and to enhance adaptation to these changes. The document suggested that basic research is needed to develop a made in BC model and infrastructure for climate change and health investigations. Currently, rural and remote forestry-dependent and Aboriginal communities in mountain pine infected zones are particularly vulnerable. However, it was concluded that although there is strong evidence for shifts in climate in BC, no direct evidence exists on the impact of climate change on human health in BC. refs., tabs., figs

  3. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  4. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  5. Appendix XXIX: Succession management in British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts

  6. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  7. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  8. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  9. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  10. The outlook for the natural gas industry in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During most of the 1980s, the natural gas industry in British Columbia languished. In 1980, a total of 218 natural gas wells were drilled in the portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin lying in northeastern British Columbia. By 1983, this number had fallen to only 19. In fact, the average number of gas wells drilled in British Columbia in the nine years following 1980 was only 48 per year. Yearly production during most of the 1980s was also far below levels seen in the previous decade. The outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry was developed making use of the analytical framework provided in the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model. Using the NARG model enables one to investigate flows of British Columbia natural gas to various markets as a component of the overall North American natural gas market. This paper reviews the appropriate background necessary to familiarize the reader with the natural gas industry in British Columbia and, following a brief description of the NARG model, provides preliminary results from the current research effort

  11. Introduction : from the British Tertiary into the future - modern perspectives on the British Palaeogene and North Atlantic Igneous provinces.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Dougal A.; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Troll, Valentin R.

    2009-01-01

    The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly...

  12. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  13. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  14. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and

  15. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  16. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  17. Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.

  18. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....... interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks...

  19. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  20. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Joshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of postponement across cohorts and projects its impact on eventual levels of childlessness. Men and women are considered separately in our models of a population stratified by educational attainment. We find the most striking postponement occurring among graduate men. Among graduate women, after taking family building intentions into account, we estimate that about a quarter of 1970 born graduate women will remain childless, rather than something nearer 40 per cent as had been conjectured elsewhere.

  1. Love attitudes of white South African and British university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, C R

    1992-10-01

    The Munro-Adams Love Attitude Scale was administered to 133 randomly chosen final-year undergraduate White South African and British university students in this examination of their attitudes toward love, courtship, and marriage in relation to the observation that, although South African tertiary educational institutions exist within the authoritarian and restrictive culture of apartheid, they nevertheless are modeled on the British educational system, which has its roots deeply embedded within a politically democratic context. Results indicated that the South African sample's endorsement of the love attitude items was weaker, except for those pertaining to the power of love, than that of their British counterparts. In addition, the South African scores were lower than those previously reported in other similar cross-cultural research, and there was a differential ranking of the three love styles by the male and female subjects. PMID:1453693

  2. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)

  3. Los obstáculos en la construcción de un estado en Somalia frente a los logros relativos en Somalilandia | The obstacles to the construction of a State in Somalia in light of the relative achievements in the Somaliland state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro POZO MARÍN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1991, Somalia es una nación sin estado. Somalilandia, una de sus regiones, consiguió en cambio formar una estructura estatal independiente poco después del colapso general. Entre los cuantiosos y complejos factores que intentarían explicar la diferente evolución de los hechos en ambos territorios, cabe destacar, por su relevancia, cuatro: la manipulación del clan y las disputas internas en las facciones armadas; la violencia extendida, favorecida por las continuas transferencias de armas que violan el embargo de la ONU; la injerencia de varios países que buscaban satisfacer sus propios intereses incluso a costa de perpetuar los problemas en Somalia; y, finalmente, los escasos recursos de todo tipo de los que disponía el país para construir un estado junto a la descarada impunidad demostrada en los procesos de formación de gobierno, plagado de caciques. Ni los 14 procesos políticos acontecidos en la última década y media ni el periodo de relativa estabilidad proporcionado por la Unión de Tribunales Islámicos fueron capaces de mejorar el bienestar de la castigada población somalí.  Since 1991, Somalia has been a nation without state. In contrast, Somaliland, one of its regions, has managed to form an independent state structure shortly after the general collapse. Among the numerous and complex factors that could explain the differing evolutions of these two territories, four of them are distinguished by their relevance: clan manipulation and internal disputes between armed factions; rampant violence, favoured by the constant arms traffic that violates the UN embargo; the interference of different states trying to satisfy their own interests, even at the expense of perpetuating the problems in Somalia; and finally, the scarcity of resources necessary for state-building, as well as the existence of the blatant impunity demonstrated throughout the government formation process, heavily manipulated by local tyrants. None of the

  4. The British cycling economy: 'gross cycling product' report

    OpenAIRE

    Grous, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We believe this is the first-ever attempt to chart the full extent of cycling’s contribution to the British economy. Previous studies have focused on particular sectors such as the bicycle retail trade, but never before has a study been conducted into the true ‘Gross Cycling Product’ (GCP) of UK plc – from bike sales to improved health. The GCP report was conceived by Sky and British Cycling and has been made a reality through the London School of Economics. We commissioned the report, t...

  5. Expanding School Choice through Open Enrolment: Lessons from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Friesen; Benjamin Cerf Harris; Simon Woodcock

    2015-01-01

    Is expanding the scope for parents to choose among competing schools an effective policy lever for improving the quality of education? What lessons can we take from British Columbia’s experience with greater school choice? In 2002, British Columbia implemented a new policy that makes it easier for parents to opt out of their neighbourhood school. Along with the province’s rich administrative and test score data, the introduction of this “open enrolment” policy provides a rare opportunity to e...

  6. Colonial film: moving images of the British Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2010 I was employed as a postdoctoral researcher on the AHRC-funded project, Colonial Film: Moving Images of the British Empire. The primary outcome of this project was a database detailing the colonial films held by BFI, the Imperial War Museum and the British Empire and Commonwealth Museum. Many of these films are not widely known, and the project provided the first thorough documentation of these materials. I was employed to write 95 1,000-word essays about selected films ...

  7. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  8. Towards Space Tourism - The Challenge for British Space Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    In recent years it has become increasingly widely accepted, including within NASA, that the largest commercial opportunity in space is the development of passenger space travel, or `space tourism'. However, to date, the British government has provided no support whatever for work in this field. In 2000 the parliamentary Trade and Industry Select Committee criticized this unsatisfactory situation, but their comments have been disregarded to date. This paper reviews the current situation and discusses measures that must be implemented in order for British taxpayers to obtain the greatest economic benefit from the government's space expenditure.

  9. Britannia still rules the waves. Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes to British English and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Hilde Fossan

    2015-01-01

    This MA thesis investigates Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes toward British English and American English. To the best of my knowledge no previous language studies have been conducted on both of these groups in Norway. British English had traditionally been the variety taught at European schools (Trudgill & Hannah 2008). On the other hand, Norwegians are arguably exposed to more American English than British English in their daily lives. The results show that British English still h...

  10. An Evaluation of Structured Abstracts in Journals Published by the British Psychological Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, James; Benjamin, Michele

    1998-01-01

    Background. In 1997 four journals published by the British Psychological Society - the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, the British Journal of Educational Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology, and Legal and Criminological Psychology - began publishing structured abstracts. Aims. The aim of the studies reported here was to assess the effectiveness of these structured abstracts by comparing them with original versions written in a traditional, unstructured, format. Meth...

  11. The problem of the Hungarian borders and minorities in British foreign political thought, 1938-41

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, András

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyses the British official attitudes and the gradual change of British policy towards Hungary and Hungarian revisionism in the period from the Anschluss in March 1938 to December 1941, when the British government declared war on Hungary. The primary focus of this thesis lies in the impact of Hungary`s territorial claims on British policy towards Hungary and Central Europe and upon the criteria Britain judged the territorial gains of Hungary between 1938 and 1941. This work is t...

  12. Are British Higher Educational Concerns Different from European Higher Educational Concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangset, Marte

    2008-01-01

    British universities are known among the other Bologna countries not to have adjusted fully to the new common three-tier degree structure. Is it the case that British higher educational concerns are different from Continental concerns? A study of recent developments in two British graduate schools of history shows that a three-tier study structure…

  13. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  14. Famous Chinese Porcelain and British Queen’s Wedding Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 China Jingdezhen International Ceramics Fair in October drew a large crowd of visitors from around the world to the capital of porcelain to admire the beautiful displays from various countries.Among them,a 12-member British delegation from the Bath & North East Somerset Council headed by Councilor Francine Haeberling had an additional special reason for their visit.

  15. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  16. Individual risk. A compilation of recent British data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of data is presented on individual risk obtained from recent British population and mortality statistics. Risk data presented include: risk of death, as a function of age, due to several important natural causes and due to accidents and violence; risk of death as a function of location of accident; and risk of death from various accidental causes. (author)

  17. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.

    1956-01-01

    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these deposi

  18. Youth, Heroin, Crack: A Review of Recent British Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…

  19. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  20. [British Columbia Hydro] annual report 1997--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third largest electric utility in Canada, B.C. Hydro services over 1.3 million customers in a area containing over 92 per cent of British Columbia's population. B.C. Hydro's mission is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. This annual report covers the business and financial performance of B.C. Hydro, and financial statistics

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  2. Modern Traditions? British Muslim Women and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fauzia

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed British Muslim women of South Asian origin regarding their motivations for entering higher education. Women increasingly viewed higher education as a necessary asset for maintaining and gaining social prestige. Motivations included parental encouragement, independence, and personal satisfaction. Respondents continually negotiated and…

  3. Are the British Really Bad at Learning Foreign Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, James; Meara, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examined the foreign-language-learning abilities of 14- to 15-year olds in Britain, Germany, and Greece. Comparison of results from tests of students' foreign vocabulary knowledge indicated that British students had only one-third to one-half of the foreign language vocabulary knowledge of Greek and German students. They also spent less time…

  4. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show that...

  5. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  6. Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

  7. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  8. Organising for Continuing Vocational Education in British Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A study of continuing vocational education in British universities found a variety of organizational approaches and assumptions that continuing education should be mainstreamed and self-financing. Essential elements include leader commitment, specialized units, clear academic identity, and continuous reflective review. (SK)

  9. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  10. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  11. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial data and…

  12. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As three Ph.D.…

  13. Under British Eyes: The Complex Fortune of Italian Crime Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Vallorani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Under British Eyes: The Complex Fortune of Italian Crime Fiction(Mirna Cicioni & Nicoletta Di Ciolla (eds, Differences, Deceits and Desires. Murder and Mayhem in Italian Crime Fiction, Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2008, 228 p., ISBN 978-0-87413-051-5by Nicoletta Vallorani

  14. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1986-01-01

    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)

  15. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology…

  16. Mission Groups and the New Politics of British Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…

  17. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  18. Modernised Learning: An Emerging Lifelong Agenda by British Trade Unions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Keith P.

    2001-01-01

    British trade unions' engagement in workplace learning is currently shaped by discourses of globalization and the learning society. Unions' workplace learning representatives appear more focused on uncritical acceptance of learning for employability and less on learning for active citizenship and workplace democracy. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  19. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  20. British Columbia electricity export policy: Long-term firm exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy statement on long-term firm electricity exports from British Columbia is presented, combining the recommendations of the British Columbia Energy Council with provincial objectives and input from interested parties. The general objective of the policy is to maximize net provincial benefits, defined to include financial and non-financial impacts, without negative effects on the province's energy security. Matters considered in the policy include the types of generating resources and transmission facilities permitted, the marketing of the exports, the entities allowed to engage in exports, review of export sales agreements, terms and conditions of export, and the requirement for social and environmental reviews. A background paper is included which provides the reasons for the policy direction on long-term firm electricity exports as well as more detailed information on some aspects of the policy

  1. History of British infrared astronomy since the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, the author describes the development of British infrared astronomy, from its beginnings around 1960 to the present time. The paper outlines the various techniques available and the different wavelength ranges which can be covered by these techniques e.g. balloons, mountain-based telescopes, the AAT in Australia, the 60-inch flux-collector on Tenerife, and the UKIRT telescope on Hawaii, and finally the IRAS satellite. The main groups involved in the British infrared work are UCL, Imperial College, and QMC, together with cooperative programmes with the Netherlands and the USA. The scientific results which have been obtained with these installations include studies of the relict radiation, HII regions, thermal radiation from dust and grains, and a dust shell around the star Vega, to mention but a few, interferometry, photometry and spectroscopy are also discussed, as in the long awaited development of infrared detector arrays. (UK)

  2. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  3. Medicare financing and redistribution in british columbia, 1992 and 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2007-05-01

    Equity in healthcare in British Columbia is defined as the provision of services based on need rather than ability to pay and a separation of contributions to financing from the use of services. Physician and hospital services in Canada are financed mainly through general tax revenues, and there is a perception that this financing is progressive. This paper uses Gini coefficients, concentration indexes and Kakwani indexes of progressivity to assess the progressivity of medicare financing in British Columbia in 1992 and 2002. It also measures the overall redistributive effect of medicare services, considering both contributions to financing and use of hospital and physician services. The conclusion is that medicare does redistribute across income groups, but this redistribution is the result solely of the positive correlation between health status and income; financing is nearly proportionate across income groups, but use is higher among lower-income groups. Informed public debate requires a better understanding of these concepts of equity. PMID:19305738

  4. British Columbia marine oil spill response plan. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope and structure of British Columbia's involvement in response to a major oil spill was defined in this document. Emergency preparedness and response management in the case of an oil spill in British Columbia is the responsibility of the Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. The Incident Command Post is a marine oil spill response plan that focuses on a response at the spill site. This marine oil spill response plan was designed to be operated concurrently and in cooperation with the plans in place by other responding jurisdictions and companies. The plan discusses: provincial response strategy; incident notification, escalation and support; response organization; checklist of individual duties; ministry roles and services; and provincial support. 27 refs., 6 figs

  5. Overview of the British Columbia oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and financial highlights from British Columbia's oil and gas sector are presented. British Columbia accounts for 12 per cent of total natural gas production in Canada, making it the second largest producer of natural gas in the country. Energy consumption in Canada and the United States increased by 22 percent and 26 per cent respectively between 1986 and 1996, with a marked shift in energy source patterns away from petroleum and coal toward natural gas and non-fossil fuels. Trends in B.C. over the past decade indicate marked increases in both exploration and production in the natural gas industry, contributing a total of $1.27 billion to the provincial GDP in 1996. The combined upstream and downstream petroleum industry employs about 37,500 people - 14,500 directly, and another 23,00 indirectly. Annual capital expenditures in the industry are about $1.7 billion. tabs., figs

  6. British Society for Immunology: vaccines and mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E

    2001-03-01

    The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384

  7. The British 'Personal Capitalism': Some Evidence on Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    1998-01-01

    By analysing the ownership and control structures of 23 Scottish textile companies of national importance this article suggests some hard evidence on the extent to )holm family influence did persist, well into the second half of the twentieth century, in both ownership and control in the British economy. The majority of the companies remained priwite• even in the companies which went public, characteristics of the private company status continued to be dominant Within these organisational f...

  8. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  9. The British Library Big Data Experiment: Experimental Interfaces, Experimental Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, J. W.; Terras, M. M.; Mohamedally, D.; Weyrich, T.; Alborzpour, S.; Stelios, G.; Stavrou, N.; Wong, W

    2015-01-01

    Many digital humanities–taught programmes aim to engage undergraduate and postgraduate humanists with computational methods and practices (Hirsch, 2012; Cohen and Scheinfeldt, 2013). It is relatively rare, however, to routinely engage computer scientists with the needs, methods, and worldview of historians, literature scholars, librarians, and related researchers (Spiro, 2012). This poster describes an ongoing collaboration between British Library Digital Research and the UCL Department of Co...

  10. How British Columbia school district superintendents manage data

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Gerald Edward

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Education has been collecting demographic and academic performance information on every student in grades Kindergarten-12 since 1992. The amount of data held by the Ministry and now available for use is considerable: between 50 and 500 data elements have been collected from each of more than 500,000 students annually for the last 15 years. Most school districts also collect additional data on the performance of their students. School District Superintendents, ...

  11. Civilising offensives and ambivalence : the case of British Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilises Norbert Elias’s theory of the civilizing process to examine British society’s response to Gypsies and explore the perception of this group as in ‘need of corrective treatment’. It demonstrates how state policies towards Gypsies are presented as improving their welfare but are in fact characterised by ambivalence. It is argued that mechanisms employed with the expressed goal of ‘civilising’ behaviour actually exhibitdecivilising elements in terms of their effect upon Gyps...

  12. The blended accountability regime of British Columbia land trusts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Scholars maintain that public service activities of non-profit organizations require carefully constructed accountability mechanisms to ensure the public interest is upheld. I interviewed decision makers at public-service-oriented non-profit land trusts in British Columbia, and examined the constitutions and missions of these organizations, to investigate accountability experiences and attitudes in practice; I compared this practical perspective with accountability theory in the literature on...

  13. James Mill's 'History of British India' in its intellectual context

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeng-Guo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis argues that James Mill's History of British India is, on the one hand, intellectually linked to the Scottish Enlightenment, while, on the other hand, moves beyond that intellectual tradition in the post-French Revolution age. This thesis makes three central claims. First, it argues that in reacting to Montesqueiu's idea of oriental society, the contributors to the Scottish Enlightenment used ideas of moral philosophy, philosophical history and political economy in o...

  14. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 5th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Sixsmith, Andrew; Adams, Raymond G.; Sinden, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This fifth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2006 census and supplemental sources. Like the first four editions of the Fact Book, this edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; the mari...

  15. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 4th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Gutman, Gloria M.; Adams, Raymond G.; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito

    2006-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2001 census and supplemental sources. Like the first three editions of the Fact Book, the fourth edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; ...

  16. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  17. Gender violence news in British and American press

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspa...

  18. The Editor as Producer: Nineteenth-Century British Literary Editors

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Gretchen Christine

    2013-01-01

    To more fully understand nineteenth-century literary production, literary scholars must consider periodical editing as more than biographical footnotes to the lives of famous Victorian authors or secondary details in a text’s publishing history. In The Editor as Producer: Nineteenth-Century British Literary Editors, I seek to render more visible the work of the periodical editor, positing this figure as pivotal to the nineteenth-century literary scene. A single metanarrative of the ed...

  19. Restorative justice in British Columbia's youth probation service

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Christine Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has brought with it new youth criminal justice legislation: the Youth Criminal Justice Act. This federal legislation created more options for practitioners (e.g., police, courts and probation) but, more importantly, a much more definitive stance on the use of restorative justice measures when dealing with youth in conflict with the law. This paper examines the ways in which youth probation and restorative justice are conceptualized and put into practice by the British Columb...

  20. Social media guidance for British Geological Survey staff

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Noakes, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Social media guidance for British Geological Survey staff Social media is a great way to communicate BGS science, activities, achievements and services. This guidance is for BGS staff using social media as a way to communicate BGS science and technology. It is based on the Social Media Guidance for Civil Servants (Cabinet Office, 2012) the NERC Electronic Communications Policy (NERC, 2013) and the NERC Code of Conduct. This guidance was first published in Broadcasting the science sto...

  1. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Corder, K.; van Sluijs, E M F; Steele, R. M.; Stephen, A M; Dunn, V.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Griffin, S. J.; Ekelund, U.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual b...

  2. The Saving Behaviour of Children: Analysis of British Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Brown; Karl Taylor

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influences on the saving behaviour of children aged 11 to 15 using panel data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey Youth Questionnaire. Our empirical findings suggest that parental allowances/pocket money exert a moderating influence on the probability that a child will save, whilst hours of paid work undertaken by the child are positively associated with the probability that a child will save. The saving behaviour of parents, however, does not appear to influence the ...

  3. Early influences on saving behaviour: Analysis of British panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Taylor, K. B.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey and Understanding Society, we examine the saving behaviour of individuals over time. Initially, we explore the determinants of the saving behaviour of children aged 11–15. Our findings suggest that parental allowances/pocket money (earnings from part-time work) lower (increase) the probability that a child saves. There is also evidence that the financial expectations of the head of household have an influence on their offspring’s saving behav...

  4. The saving behavior of children: Analysis of British panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    We explore the influences on the saving behaviour of children aged 11 to 15 using panel data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey Youth Questionnaire. Our empirical findings suggest that parental allowances/pocket money exert a moderating influence on the probability that a child will save, whilst hours of paid work undertaken by the child are positively associated with the probability that a child will save. The saving behaviour of parents, however, does not appear to...

  5. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  6. Power Struggle of British and German on Mesopotamia

    OpenAIRE

    MALHUT, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Mesopotamai with natural resources and strategic location is one of important land of the Ottoman Empire. British started to gain influence with right to transport on Tigris and Euphrates in the 19. Century. At the end of 19. Century, German began to become effective with Baghdad railway Project. Because of this Project, the two countries embarked on the struggle for influence in Ottoman land. Another important factor in this struggle was a matter of the Mesopotamia’s irrigation. Thanks to t...

  7. British television, 1925 – 1936: attitudes and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Aldridge, Mark Peter Alfred

    2008-01-01

    This thesis assesses attitudes towards, and expectations of, British television between 1925 and 1936. This covers the period from the first public demonstration of an early form of the technology until the official launch of a full high-definition BBC service. The assessment is achieved via an analysis of four key factors. Chapter One covers the first of these, the private individuals working on television, with an emphasis on the publicity-hungry efforts of John Logie Baird. The second chap...

  8. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Benjamin L.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management ...

  9. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  10. Rebel alliances: the means and ends of contemporary British anarchisms

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines, classifies and evaluates the tactics and organisational methods of British and Irish anarchist groups, which operated in the period 1984-1999 (although reference is made to groupings and events outside of this period). The thesis explains how class struggle anarchism, which was a minority trend even within the libertarian milieu, has developed into a significant and lively (anti-)political movement. This thesis examines recent groups through their own publications and th...

  11. Tweeting Tsunami: Early Warning Networks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oldring, Amanda Olivia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Influential Twitter users can enhance disaster warning by diffusing risk awareness through networks. While Twitter networks are frequently active during disaster warning, little work in social network analysis has been applied to the Pacific Northwest Coast, encapsulating British Columbia in Canada, and Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. This region is vulnerable to tsunamis, and Twitter’s speed, reach, and volume could enhance early warning. This thesis locates ...

  12. Screening of newborn infants for galactosemia in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Lorne T.; Norman, Margaret G.; Applegarth, Derek A.; Hardwick, David F.

    1985-01-01

    With simple microbiologic and fluorescent tests, we detected two cases of classic galactosemia, confirmed by specific enzyme assays, in the first 25 000 newborn infants in British Columbia screened for this disorder. The results were equivocally abnormal for another 31 infants, and a second blood sample was requested from each, either for repeat screening or for enzyme assays. The two infants with galactosemia were in hospital with an undiagnosed acute illness and had only a trace of nongluco...

  13. Play now, pay later: legalized internet gambling in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sihota, Bharminder Singh

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the provincial government’s decision to expand online gambling services. In particular, the research identifies ways to decrease the problem gambling prevalence rate in British Columbia. Currently, BC has one of the highest problem gambling prevalence rates in Canada. With the increase in online gambling options, and a rise in the weekly deposit limit, the problem gambling prevalence rate could worsen. Using a case study analysis, this capstone looks at the best practices ...

  14. British Literature in Portuguese Literary Education during the Estado Novo

    OpenAIRE

    Gombár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the position of British literature versus national literature in literary education during the Estado Novo through the analysis of literature textbooks published at the time. The scope of the investigation, however, also includes a limited number of textbooks which may not have been officially authorised as a livro único (single textbook), but were used by schoolteachers in Salazar’s Portugal. Based on the corpus of these books, it seems that the vast majori...

  15. Cottonwoods in British Columbia: Problem analysis. FRDA report No. 195

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, D.S.; Mamias, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Black cottonwood and balsam poplar are the fastest growing trees in British Columbia and interest in their management has recently been renewed. This report assembled resource data on the amount, quality, distribution, and potential economic importance of cottonwood in B.C.; described the range of management regimes currently used and provided a summary of management options available; described the potential impacts of cottonwood harvest and management on other resources values; and summarized current cottonwood knowledge gaps and management problems and recommended research.

  16. Glorification of violence in British films depicting football hooliganism

    OpenAIRE

    Żyśko, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I tried to demonstrate that the British films depicting football hooliganism could be viewed as glorifying violence. A considerably great number of scenes and a great amount of time devoted to the presentation of violence, together with the unpunished, painless and heroic aspects of such presentations are just one side of the glorifying coin. The other side is occupied with the deeper meaning of particular scenes or the general overtones of the films which seem to develop a tend...

  17. British Policies regarding the European Union's emerging defense dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Kevin Karl.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the evolution and prospects of post-1945 British policies regarding multinational European security institutions, particularly the European Union (EU), the Western European Union (WEU), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Specifically, this thesis analyses the factors behind the Blair government's 1998 proposal to strengthen the European pillar of NATO and endow the EU with a defense dimension. This policy offers certain advantages for Britai...

  18. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Barroetavena Maria; Yavari Parvin; Hislop T Greg; Bajdik Chris D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumou...

  19. Negotiating Planning Gains through the British Development Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Claydon; Bryan Smith

    1997-01-01

    The British planning system provides for the exercise of discretion in the interpretation of policy and at the operational level processing planning applications. That discretionary space is utilised to negotiate, often over the provision of planning gains. Three applications for commercial uses drawn from different parts of England are taken as case study examples. They are examined within the context of an analytical framework which identifies the activity of negotiation, the influences on ...

  20. Comparing food costing approaches in British Columbia and Nova Scotia

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Clarissa Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Food security is a determinant of health and a basic human right. Food insecurity is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes varying from nutrient deficiencies to chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, the availability and affordability of a basic nutritious diet is a public health concern. Food costing is one method used to address affordability of a basic nutritious diet and is completed annually across Canada. In British Columbia, dieticians ...

  1. Immigration Status and Victimization: Evidence from the British Crime Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Papadopoulos

    2013-01-01

    This study, using data from the British Crime Survey (BCS), examines the microrelationship between immigration and victimization. We first find that, although immigrants are more likely to suffer property crimes than natives, this is well explained by the fact that immigrants exhibit demographic characteristics associated with higher victimization. Contrary to the above, immigrants are of lower risk of violent victimization. As violence is an expressive type of crime, where interactions betwe...

  2. European integration and changing British discourse on sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    NAKANO, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether British elites’ discourse on sovereignty has changed as European integration has progressed. Academic research has long recognized the existence of discourse change regarding sovereignty, and the process of European integration is likely to be a modern event that produces such change in elite understanding of sovereignty. The dissertation thus investigates the question of whether elite discourse on sovereignty has indeed changed in the context of European integ...

  3. 'Hysteria', 'functional' or 'psychogenic'? A survey of British neurologists' preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, C J; Trimble, M R

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic preferences of British neurologists for patients who lack a physical explanation for their symptoms were assessed by means of a postal questionnaire. Analysis of 168 completed replies showed 'functional', 'psychogenic' and 'hysteria' to be the most popular terms in use. The number of different terms a clinician would use rose in line with the volume of such patients they encountered, but was unrelated to clinician factors such as the extent of their clinical experience in psych...

  4. Very recent African immigrants and unemployment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshni, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...

  5. INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE BRITISH AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Ang; Rajabrata Banerjee; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2010-01-01

    Theory, historiography and empirical evidence suggest that agriculture is the key to economic development. This paper examines the extent to which productivity advances in British agriculture in the period 1620-1850 were driven by technological progress. Measuring technology by patents and new book titles on agricultural methods, the results indicate that technological progress has played a significant part in productivity advances. Furthermore, the results show that research effort has perma...

  6. Local and regional induction in the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Banks; Beamish, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electric currents induced in the shallow seas and deep ocean around the British Isles have a profound effect upon the electromagnetic fields observed at stations on the land. The configuration of anomalous currents changes with frequency, and causes corresponding changes in the geomagnetic transfer functions. Magnetic variations have been recorded at a dense network of sites in southern Scotland and northern England. Single­ station transfer functions have been used to generate hypoth...

  7. Dance in the British South Asian diaspora: redefining classicism

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez y Royo, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses South Asian dance forms and genres in Britain, one of the major locations of the South Asian diaspora. It addresses issues of "classicism," "neoclassicism" and "contemporaneity" in South Asian dancing, particularly important as in the British context availability of public funding depends on the artists demonstrating an innovative engagement with their own practice. The author focuses, as a specific case study, on the work, Moham, choreographed and danced as a solo by bha...

  8. Negotiating Chinese modernity: British imperialism and the late Qing reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dongqing; 王冬青

    2013-01-01

     This thesis offers a critical analysis of the intellectual and institutional transformations in late Qing China. The Western invasion of China in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the making of modern China. Focusing on the late Qing reforms in the fields of law, public rituals, education, and economy, this thesis investigates China’s efforts and strategies to negotiate with British imperialism in its search for modernity. Situating the late Qing reforms in a semi...

  9. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  10. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  11. Perceptual categorization of handling handshapes in British Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Sehyr, Z. S.; Cormier, K.

    2015-01-01

    Sign languages like British Sign Language (BSL) include a type of partially lexicalized construction which depicts handling or manipulation of objects. Object sizes gradiently vary, yet it is unclear if handling handshapes depict object handling in a categorical or gradient manner. The study examines whether deaf BSL signers perceive handling handshapes continuously or categorically, compared with hearing non-signers, and how sign language experience affects perception of handshapes in these ...

  12. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  13. British perceptions of the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1908

    OpenAIRE

    Odams, H. J. R. (Helen Jean Rachel)

    1996-01-01

    The title of this thesis is 'British Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire (1876-1908). The thesis explores the 'cultural dimension1 of relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain in this period, involving an examination of ideas about and representations of Ottoman society and its peoples. The overall aim is to stress the importance of these representations in in influencing and affecting relations between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Nineteenth-century writings about the...

  14. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  15. Resource variation and the structure of British bird communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, Bradford C.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the foraging microhabitats of British birds are reanalyzed with the aim of understanding how fluctuations in resource abundance affect niche relationships and community structure. At Marley Wood, overlap in the foraging sites of resident bird species increased during the late spring and summer and decreased during the fall and winter. Among bird species coexisting in the pine forests at Thetford Chase, spatial overlap and spatial niche widths were positively correlated with food abund...

  16. Management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, MG; Luther, R

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates and reports on the management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry. Design/methodology/approach – The data is generated by a large-scale postal questionnaire which was informed by preliminary interviews. Further interviews were carried out to aid interpretation of the responses. Descriptive statistics on the importance and frequency of use of individual practices provide the basis for discussion. Findings – Direct costing is wi...

  17. Social Characteristics of British Businessmen, c1800-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a first full-scale investigation of social characteristics of 381 leading British businessmen included in Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography through the creation of a systematic database. Two sets of characteristics are explored. One relates to personal circumstances of the businessman such as family tradition, place of birth and of business, social origins, formal education, apprenticeship, and occupational career; the other non-business aspects such as wealth and public...

  18. Nutrition claims in British women's magazines from 1940 to 1955

    OpenAIRE

    Burridge, Joseph David; Barker, Margo

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study examined dietary messages conveyed in articles and advertising in two popular British women's magazines, Woman and Home and Woman's Own, between 1940 and 1954. Methods A qualitative analysis of written content was performed, focusing on regularities evident in content, and addressing the construction of the role of women in relation to food provision, as well as assertions for nutritional health. The setting comprised a desk-based study. The study sample encompass...

  19. (Mis) Representing the 'other' : "Honour Killing" in the British press

    OpenAIRE

    Chafai, Habiba

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore how the phenomenon of “honour killing” is reported in British newspapers by looking at the different linguistic and discursive strategies used in the news coverage of two victims, ‘Banaz Mahmod’ and ‘Samaira Nazir’. More specifically, news reports from the Times, the Daily Telegraph, the Guardian, the Independent, the Sun, the Daily Mail and the Mirror were selected in order to examine the representation of “honour killing” among Muslim immigrants in...

  20. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so that more forest land can be preserved. Tree breeding is done by selection and progeny testing. Genetic gain is delivered through seed orchards where panmixia and seed production can be enhanced. Dr...

  1. The makeshift settlement: colonial policy in British West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A M

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examines the evolution of colonial policy within British West Africa, and is based largely on unpublished correspondence between the Colonial office and colonial governors, held in the Public Record Office in London. It argues that the colonial states were unable to generate or implement a satisfactory strategy for capitalist development. In the first twenty years of colonial rule, various projects were outlined, which assumed the introduction of private property in land, the enco...

  2. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHN, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  3. The Evolution of British Monetarism: 1968-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Aled Davies

    2012-01-01

    How far were monetary targets imposed on the post-1974 Labour Government by international and domestic financial markets enthused with the doctrines of ‘monetarism’? The following paper attempts to answer this question by demonstrating the complex and contingent nature of the ascent of British ‘monetarism’ after 1968. It describes the post-devaluation valorisation of the ‘money supply’ which led investors to realign their expectations with the behaviour of the monetary aggregates. The collaps...

  4. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  5. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  6. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the…

  7. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  8. The rationality and reliability of expectations reported by British households: micro evidence from the British household panel survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, James; Martin R. Weale

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of individuals' expectations of their financial circumstances, as reported in the British Household Panel Survey, as predictors of outcomes and identifies what factors influence their reliability. As the data are qualitative bivariate ordered probit models, appropriately identified, are estimated to draw out the differential effect of information on expectations and realisations. Rationality is then tested and we seek to explain deviations of realisations from...

  9. From Glyndebourne to Glastonbury:The Impact of British Music Festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Mckay, George; Webster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Festivals are at the heart of British music and at the heart of the British music industry. They form an essential part of the worlds of rock, classical, folk and jazz, forming regularly occurring pivot points around which musicians, audiences, and festival organisers plan their lives. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the purpose of this report is to chart and critically examine available writing about the impact of British music festivals, drawing on both academic and ‘gre...

  10. Channel 4 and British film: an assessment of industrial and cultural impact, 1982-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an historical investigation of Channel 4’s influence on the British film industry and on British film culture between 1982 and 1998. Combining archival research with interview testimony and secondary literature, this thesis presents the history of a broadcaster’s involvement in British film production, while also examining the cultural and industrial impact of this involvement over time. This study of the interdependence of film and television will aim to bring together aspects...

  11. Pop art redefined British pop arts of the 1960s: towards a social and institutional history

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson Gilbert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This thesis uses new histories of exhibitions, cultural institutions, individuals and artworks to problematize and reconfigure current conceptions of British Pop art, arguing for the deployment of the term ‘British Pop arts’, as opposed to ‘British Pop Art’, to reflect the varied usage of the artistic practice across Britain during the 1960s. The central conclusion of this historical account is the recognition of a wider Pop arts network, albeit formed of disparate and often conflictual subje...

  12. Comprehensive Monitoring of Wildlife Mortality on British Columbia Highways Using the WARS System (1978 to 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been operating its Wildlife Accident Reporting System (WARS) for almost three decades. Detailed information on motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality is systematically collected on a daily basis on major highways throughout British Columbia. Since its inception, WARS has become an increasingly valuable tool for highway planning and operational purposes. With WARS, BCMoT is able to support the British Columbia Government’s commitmen...

  13. Landscape, race and memory : biographical mapping of the routes of British Asian landscape values.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya P Tolia-Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the migration routes of British Asian women living in London are examined. It is shown that British Asians connect with a myriad of landscapes abroad, including East Africa, India and Pakistan. These connections to past landscapes are mapped and considered here as valued environments of British Asian women in Britain. Through the mapping of their biographies, it is apparent that memories of other landscapes are embedded in environmental practices in Britain, therefore contributi...

  14. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  15. ‘Drawing comic traditions': British television animation from 1997 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Norris,, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the shifts within mainstream British television animation between 1997 and 2010 and it discusses how British animation’s close relationship with live-action television comedy reveals a map of contemporary attitudes and tastes. The British animated texts in this period reacted to their shifting industrial and broadcasting landscape. The historical moment of the late 1990s was determined by the successes of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which profoundly affecte...

  16. TOLERATION OF CATHOLICS IN QUEBEC AND BRITISH PUBLIC FINANCES, 1760 TO 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Geloso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of the institutional decisions made by the British when they conquered the French colony of Quebec in 1760 by examining why toleration was the chosen policy course. Past experiences and the dire state of British public finances pushed the British government to adopt toleration of Catholics and of French legal institution in the colony as a policy designed to preserve the empire financially and strategically.

  17. Have you ever been in Bosnia? British military travelers in the Balkans since 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Tens of thousands of British military personnel traveled in former Yugoslavia as peacekeepers between 1992 and 2007. The settlements where British forces established their military presence and supply chain were conceptually far from former Yugoslavia’s tourist sites, but military travelers made sense of them by drawing on the commonplaces of previous travel accounts and the lessons of pre-deployment training. British military travelers constructed themselves as often frustrated helpers ...

  18. Factor prices and productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

  19. British business in Brazil: maturity and demise (1850-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paiva Abreu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the long-term trends of ''British business'' in Brazil since 1850. It covers investment and other manifestations of the British presence such as those related to trade as well as financial intermediation. Primary interest is in British involvement in Brazilian private sector activities, whether by direct investment or by the flotation of sterling securities for firms operating in Brazil. The article also considers the role of London as a financial market where Brazilian public loans were floated, the relevance of Britain as a market for Brazilian commodities and as a supplier to Brazil, and British intermediation in Brazilian trade with third countries. It is divided in chronological sections: imperial years (1850-1889; stagnation and boom (1889-1914; first signs of decline (1914-1930, and the divestment period (1930 to the mid-1950's. The final section presents the conclusions and mentions post-1950 trends.Este artigo considera as tendências de longo prazo das relações econômicas e financeiras britânicas com o Brasil desde 1850. Abrange investimentos e outas manifestações da presença britânica no Brasil, tais como as relacionadas a comércio e intermediação financeira. O interesse fundamental é no envolvimento britânico com as atividades do setor privado no Brasil, seja através de investimento direto, seja na intermediação financeira em benefício de firmas privadas que operavam no Brasil. O artigo também menciona o papel de Londres como centro financeiro no qual eram lançados empréstimos públicos brasileiros, a relevância do Reino Unido como mercado para as exportações brasileiras e como supridor de importações para o Brasil, e a intermediação britânica no comércio brasileiro com terceiros países. O artigo é dividido em seções cronológicas: os anos imperiais (1850-1889; estagnação e boom (1889-1914; primeiros sinais de declínio (1914-1930; os anos de redução de investimentos (1930

  20. The Paleoindian Bison Assemblage from Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan C. Driver; Vallieres, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    A small assemblage of bison bones from the Palaeoindian (10,700 to 9500 BP) components at Charlie Lake Cave, British Columbia is dominated by elements from the middle and lower limbs. The skeletal element frequencies are not typical of a kill site. The lithic assemblage, the lack of evidence for burning, and the ratio of long bone shaft fragments to epiphyses suggest that the assemblage was not produced at a residential site nor at a specialized processing area. We propose that the assemblage...

  1. Reconstruction of British Nuclear Fuel's Drigg marine outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the House of Commons Environment Committee expressed reservations over some of the waste-management procedures followed by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd at their Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sellafield in Cumbria. These reservations prompted the company to implement a Pound 20 million programme of improvements aimed at maximizing site usage, reducing trench leachate arisings and redirecting to the Irish Sea. This paper provides information and test results associated with design considerations and initial dilution testing, respectively, of a computer-controlled long sea outfall system designed to discharge leachate to the Irish Sea. Information is also provided on difficulties experienced during construction of the outfall. (Author)

  2. Results of monitoring at the British library excavation

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Brian; Vardanega, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The main phase of excavation for the basements of the British Library at St Pancras, London, was completed in 1987. The project included basements extending up to 25 m deep, through the London Clay and into the Lambeth Group. The excavations were formed using both the top-down method and open excavation with ground anchors. Existing major buildings lie within 25 m of the site and London Underground tunnels lie below and adjacent to the site. The purpose of this paper is to present the results...

  3. Privatization and culture change: British Nuclear Fuels case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and explains the process of organizational change experienced by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) during the late 1980s. BNFL went through a major transformation in management values and practices to survive in the new business environment characterized by government deregulation and fiercer global market competition. The paper describes both the historical and the prevailing management behaviour as well as the strategy utilized by BNFL's top management in their change process. The key factor in the process of change seems to lie in top management commitment and a fully integrated set of actions involving different sub-systems of the organization. (author)

  4. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  5. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Laraine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  6. GATEWAY FOR PRIVATE HOME HEALTH CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Altejos

    2015-01-01

    This feasibility study assesses the private home health care market in British Columbia for a business concept called Gateway to Home Health Care, or simply “Gateway.” Gateway is a new business concept recommended by the author to solve the increasing incongruence between growing health care demands and the limited care options in B.C. To conduct a feasibility study, the report examines the long-term care (LTC) industry and focuses on the role of the privatehome health care market in B.C. It ...

  7. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, S.; Nardone, A.; Field, N.; Mercer, CH; Tanton, C; Macdowall, W.; Johnson, AM; Sonnenberg, P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4%...

  8. Sizewell B - analysis of British application of US PWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the staff's evaluation of major design differences and issues developed by the British in their application (Sizewell B) of US PWR technology. One design change, the addition of steam-driven charging pumps, was assessed to have a relatively high value compared to the other changes. However, the assessment is based on a number of assumptions for which inadequate data exist to make an unqualified judgment. Other changes to the US design (as typified by the SNUPPS design) were found to have relatively low or moderate safety benefits for US application

  9. Contracts for small hydro development : British Columbia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of small hydroelectric projects in British Columbia during the past decade was discussed. During that time, at least 10 small hydroelectric projects have been completed by non-utility independent power producers. This paper discusses how proponents of small hydro can become off-grid communities, or how mining/forestry companies can reduce their dependence on costly diesel generation. The paper also outlines alternative contractual arrangements for energy sales, engineering services, equipment supply, and plant construction, and describes their applicability, advantages, disadvantages and costs

  10. The Media, Public Opinion and British Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Akor, Ambrose

    2011-01-01

    The Media, Public Opinion and British Foreign PolicyBy Ambrose AkorDoctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2011The University of ManchesterAbstractAre foreign policy officials responsive to policy preferences of the mass media and the public in making their decisions? That question has dogged scholars for decades but there has been little agreement among them on what is the true nature of mass media- and public opinion-foreign policy link. In terms of mass media impact, there are two media theories which ...

  11. The search for Somali leadership and the potentials of Somaliland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2010-01-01

    Community organization and mobilization relate to the aspects on whether the community is able to organize to exploit diverse resources cultural, social, economic and political in the host environment. The Somali Diaspora can pursue a hybrid strategy combining its own cultural and traditional...... institutional citizenship support to pursue proper community mobilization. Second, Somali Diaspora mobilization requires mobilizing structures and practices in the form of networks and associations people create and join to articulate and express their wishes. Such associations and networks could be host...... country oriented as well as associations based on kinship trans-national oriented relations. Third, Somali Diaspora need framing ideas to define Somalis as a distinct group in the process of structuring community cohesion. In this process, the community might create “master frames” that construct the...

  12. The snakes of Somaliland and the Sokotra Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, H.W.

    1949-01-01

    The systematic status of the snakes recorded from the area has been reinvestigated, often in the light of new material. Allometric growth is shown to occur in several species and taxonomic errors arising from its previous non-recognition are rectified. The same feature is also used to determine the

  13. Dissidenze statali contemporanee. Guerra, internazionalizzazione e sviluppo informale nel Somaliland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ciabarri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Il termine somalizzazione sembra in questo inizio secolo aver completamente sostituito l’espressione balcanizzazione, suo omologo perfetto per i secoli XIX e XX, per alludere ad un rischio a cui molte crisi internazionali (Siria, Libia, Mali, Afghanistan… vi è in effetti un lungo elenco potrebbero tendere: il rischio cioè del precipitare nell’anarchia e nel disordine totale, nella lotta settaria, così rappresentata, senza logica e senza sbocco. L’articolo intende analizzare da un punto di vista etnografico uno specifico paesaggio sociale all’interno di queste aree di crisi, in particolare all’interno dell’area somala, per mettere in luce, piuttosto che la disconnessione e l’eccezionalità di queste zone, le forme della loro connessione con il mondo degli Stati più ampio. Il commercio informale transfrontaliero, e la sovrapposizione tra movimenti di beni, di persone e di denaro, è preso ad esempio in questo studio di caso per mostrare le profonde ambiguità e contraddizioni di queste forme di relazione. Dinamiche regionali che intrecciano percorsi di persone e merci, che alimentano confini reali e ideologici, che avvicinano o allontanano gli attori in campo in forme inattese e che sono irriducibili rispetto a macro discorsi fondati sul pericolo di radicalizzazioni islamiche o violenze settarie sono qui proposte come determinanti decisive per poter comprendere i percorsi verso il conflitto e verso la pace nelle aree contemporanee di dissidenza e vuoto statale.

  14. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  15. Toolkit for community energy planning in British Columbia. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This toolkit presents the basic concepts and issues regarding the implementation of community energy planning in British Columbia. It is intended primarily for local elected officials, municipal and regional planners and engineers, real estate developers and those interested in community sustainability and energy opportunities. The objectives are to: (1) describe how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community, (2) show that designing for energy supports community livability objectives, (3) describe how energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, (4) communicate the idea that community energy planning can play an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions, thereby slowing down climate change, and (5) provide practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. This toolkit described the strategies that are related to each of these components. In addition, 6 case studies of specific initiative programs dealing with community energy planning in British Columbia were presented. These included the challenges facing developers of energy efficient sustainable buildings and municipalities, the Lillooet solar municipal pool, the community energy planning in Kamloops, improving the transportation system a small urban centre called Quesnel, BC's energy aware award winners, and the Shoal Point development on Victoria Island's Fisherman's Wharf. The efforts of each of these projects provide an opportunity to build a community that is more socially, environmentally and fiscally responsible and sustainable.

  16. The Role of the British Crown on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United Kingdom is a limited parliamentary monarchy, in which state sovereignty is exercised jointly by two basic political institutions: Royal Crown and Parliament. The credit for a successful political co-governance of these institutions, which are simultaneously bearers of popular sovereignty, are usually addressed to the Queen's lack of executive power to exercise power alone and hence all the restraint in the race for primate of governance. It goes even further considering that the Queen is quite weak and has only ceremonial functions, which do not disturb the Parliament. However, a careful researcher may notice that the Queen continues to affect the British Government in general and in particular on defence issues. Declassification of communication between Prince Charles and the Government in 2013, pointed out a continuing impact of the Queen and her son on many political issues, including those of defence and security. Since Britain has no codified constitution in a single document, it is not easy to determine the real power and competences of the Queen. It is even more difficult, because customary law and precedent prevail. Therefore, the real definition of the role of the Queen in general in the British Government, can be done by studying the culture, structure and constitutional practice. On their basis I will try to determine the real impact of the Queen in matters of defence and security, whether through her prerogatives in relation to the Government and Parliament, or through moral and informal influence in relation to the Prime Minister and particular ministers.

  17. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism. PMID:11147093

  19. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 109m3, up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 103m3, an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  20. Subtitle Translation of Humour in British TV Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jun-fei

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the translation of three categories of British humour-universal, cultural and linguistic humour in the light of GTVH(General Theory of Verbal Humour) and Relevance Theory. GTVH benefits the study of humour translation by providing an analytical framework of six Knowledge Resources which include Language (LA), Narrative Strategy(NS), Target (TA), Situation(SI), Logical Mechanism(LM) and Script Opposition (SO). The hierarchy of Knowledge Resources is used to make an analysis of the internal structure of humour and Relevance theory functions as a translation theory to check whether the translation is appropriate to achieve optimal relevance. Taking the translation examples from British TV sitcoms“Yes, Prime Minis-ter”and“Little Britain”,the thesis probes into the most important Knowledge Resources in these three kinds of humour respec-tively, analyzes the loss and gain of humour reproduction in fansubbers’translation and makes a few adjustments to some inappro-priate translation versions to“achieve the maximization of relevance”.

  1. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version. PMID:23981147

  2. Protest movements against nuclear energy and the British state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main aspects which explain the comparative weakness of the British anti-nuclear movement are identified. First, debate over nuclear energy has been conducted within a public enquiry framework and second there has been a lack of stimuli for opposition to emerge and develop. The main part of this paper analyses the political conflict over nuclear energy from 1974 to 1989 divided into four phases. Phase one (1974-1978) saw the emergence of nuclear power as a political issue and the early encounters between pro and anti-nuclear forces at the Windscale Inquiry in 1977. Phase two (1978-1981) saw the rise of a more radical anti-nuclear lobby as a national movement. Phase three (1982-1987) was characterized by the Sizewell-B inquiry. Phase four saw a major crisis in the British nuclear industry not from anti-nuclear protest but from the Governments privatisation policy. The paper concludes with a discussion of the value of the policy style concept for an explanation of the role of the state in the nuclear conflict. (UK)

  3. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies, a

  4. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British higher…

  5. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly qu

  6. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas employment…

  7. Oxford Guide to British and American Culture for Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Jonathan, Ed.; Kavanagh, Kathryn, Ed.

    The guide to American and British culture, for upper secondary- and university-level students, is intended for use by learners of English as a second language. It is designed to explain specific aspects of British and American life and traditions not generally included in English language dictionaries. The guide has a dictionary format, with terms…

  8. Britishness, Belonging and the Ideology of Conflict: Lessons from the "Polis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edyvane, Derek

    2011-01-01

    A central aspiration of the "Britishness" agenda in UK politics is to promote community through the teaching of British values in schools. The agenda's justification depends in part on the suppositions that harmony arising from agreement on certain values is a necessary condition of social health and that conflict arising from pluralism connotes a…

  9. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  10. Benchmarking Course Completion Rates: A Method with an Example from the British Columbia Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We report findings on the methodological phase of a research project designed to assess the progress of the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) toward a 1997 goal of increasing distance education course completion rates to British Columbia system levels by adapting existing "off-line" courses for online delivery (a virtualization strategy).…

  11. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  12. A Common Language: British and American English, Conversations Between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph

    This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…

  13. Nineteenth Century British and American Chemistry Textbook Writers: Some Differences of Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some themes that I have discussed before at this seminar in previous years, namely the different perceptions of the best ways to teach chemistry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century between British and American chemists. In this paper I will examine the biographies of a number of nineteenth century British and…

  14. Are depressive symptoms more common among British South Asian patients compared with British White patients with cancer? A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Karen; Ibrahim, Kausher; Kumar, Sawan; Mitchell, Alex J; Rudd, Nicky; Symonds, R Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional survey investigated whether there were ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among British South Asian (BSA) patients with cancer compared with British White (BW) patients during 9 months following presentation at a UK Cancer Centre. We examined associations between depressed mood, coping strategies and the burden of symptoms. Design Questionnaires were administered to 94 BSA and 185 BW recently diagnosed patients with cancer at baseline and at 3 and 9 mont...

  15. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  16. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  17. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  18. The Differences of Chinese and British Culture in the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晨辰

    2015-01-01

    Culture is the kernel and connotation of the country and it is also the irreplaceable soul for the country. The modern Olympic Games is the comprehensive and international sport competition which is with a long history, a large scope and the top level all over the world. It is expressed the culture of the country in the every aspect of the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games. In this paper, it is explored the difference of Chinese and British culture in the oral command, theme, design concepts of the main stadium, emblem and sport events of the Olympic Games through the introduction and comparison of the 4th, 14th London Olympic Games, 29th Beijing Olympic Games and the 30th London Olympic Games.

  19. Review of the British scientific sounding rocket and balloon programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the UK scientific sounding rocket programmes which have utilised Skylarks for 21 years, Petrels for 10 years and Fulmars for 2 years. The SRC's ongoing programme is now based on the Petrel and Fulmar rockets, and approved proposals by 5 UK scientific groups covering 1978 and 1979 are outlined. The British scientific balloon programme, which serves 14 scientific groups within UK universities, involves a planned 10 flights per annum using balloons of 3 M cu ft to 31 M cu ft capacity and payloads up to 2 tons in weight. The review outlines the balloon programme of flights planned mainly from Palestine in Texas and Alice Springs/Mildura in Australia. (author)

  20. The teaching of high energy physics in British universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is given of a survey of the teaching of high energy physics in British universities. The subject changes quickly, and there is a continual conflict between new and old material. Different courses may deal with this in different ways. To find out what is actually being taught to students, details were obtained from all 50 university physics departments in the United Kingdom (UK) by means of a questionnaire. This covered the course structure - whether it was optional or compulsory or contained both elements - the number of lectures given, and the topics covered in the syllabus. The replies give a comprehensive picture of the state of undergraduate teaching of high energy physics in the UK. (Author)

  1. Universal health care: lessons from the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Donald W

    2003-01-01

    Britain's National Health Service (NHS) was established in the wake of World War II amid a broad consensus that health care should be made available to all. Yet the British only barely succeeded in overcoming professional opposition to form the NHS out of the prewar mixture of limited national insurance, various voluntary insurance schemes, charity care, and public health services. Success stemmed from extraordinary leadership, a parliamentary system of government that gives the winning party great control, and a willingness to make major concessions to key stakeholders. As one of the basic models emulated worldwide, the NHS-in both its original form and its current restructuring-offers a number of relevant lessons for health reform in the United States. PMID:12511379

  2. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  3. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  4. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts : British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of British Columbia's petroleum industry is presented. The industry injects more than one billion dollars annually into the BC economy. The province is the second largest natural gas producer in Canada. Seven thousand people are engaged in upstream activities such as exploration, production and development, while the downstream sector of the industry employs about 25,000 people in refining, pipeline transportation, natural gas distribution and retail gasoline operations. There is an extensive pipeline network with nearly 24,000 kilometres of pipeline serving local, national and international markets. From 1993 to 1997, the number of oil and gas wells drilled in BC nearly doubled from 324 wells to 616 wells. More than half of the natural gas produced in BC is exported, mostly to the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Some gas also goes to eastern Canada, the U.S. midwest and California. 3 figs

  5. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1989-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the Energy Select Committee put questions to representatives of British Nuclear Fuels PLC (BNFL) about the annual report and accounts 1989-90. Questions concerned the late publication of the accounts, BNFLs role in the downfall of the nuclear privatisation, government assistance to the nuclear industry, the price BNFL charges for fuel reprocessing and the process of laser isotope separation of uranium. The committee also asked about the rate of return in BNFL's assets as a percentage, Sellafield's potential as a site for a deep repository for radioactive wastes and the 6000 boreholes that MREX will drill at Sellafield. The commercial case for reprocessing is made. Feasibility studies for possible new reactions at Sellafield and Chapel Cross have been carried out. On the whole the Energy Committee were satisfied with the replies from BNFL. (UK)

  6. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  7. THE EMBODIMENT OF BRITISH WITCHCRAFT CULTURE IN HARRY POTTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阅

    2015-01-01

    The series novel Harry Potter was created by English woman writer J.K.Rowling. It contains the rich mythical factor, the witchcraft fantasy component and the folk cultural factor. It has inherited England traditional culture, fantastic novel and children literature. This essay mainly discuss the reason of Harry Potter regarded with great favor in the west from the perspective of traditional culture of British and Europe. It started from the witchcraft culture and Christian Culture. These two points are expounded the western culture details by means of the analyzing on culture background. Both of them layed the culture foundations for the success of the series. At last,the depiction of the heroism of nobody is in sharp contrast with the traditional heroism, thereby reflected the commendable, which makes people realised to carish the worth of peaceful life.

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British Household Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  10. Emmonsia crescens infection in a British water vole (Arvicola terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantrey, Julian C; Borman, Andrew M; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Kipar, Anja

    2006-06-01

    Emmonsia crescens, a dimorphic fungus of the order Onygenales, is primarily a pathogen of lower animals and rarely humans. Inhaled conidia of E. crescens fail to germinate in the lungs, and instead simply enlarge in lung tissue to become giant adiaspores. We present here the case of fatal Emmonsia crescens infection in a wild-caught British water vole (Arvicola terrestris). Histopathological examination of the animal, which died in captivity, revealed a multifocally extensive granulomatous reaction containing oval adiaspores scattered irregularly throughout the lungs. Mycological examination of fungus cultured from lung tissue and PCR amplification and sequencing of rDNA gene fragments of the cultured organism confirmed the diagnosis of massive infection by E. crescens. PMID:16772233

  11. The future of bereavement care in British general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, W R

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses the future of bereavement care in British general practice by providing an insight into existing practice and then speculating on influences that may shape developments. There have been calls for the specialty to build on this traditional role and expand its bereavement service. Specific suggestions for the content of such a service are summarised. This emphasis reflects the increasing awareness in bereavement by other health organisations. This image of an expanding service needs to be contextualised within a primary care system that is feeling more pressurised due to increasing workload. This will continue to inhibit extensive service development. In addition it is important for the profession to consider the appropriateness of this activity. This complex debate has received little attention and research is required to inform and provide the necessary direction. PMID:9233164

  12. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item covers a meeting held between members of the United Kingdom government's energy committee and representatives of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to discuss their Annual Report and Accounts for the year 1988-89. The committee explored the reasons for escalating predictions of the costs of nuclear power and why decommissioning costs are so difficult to estimate accurately so as to include them in cost per kilowatt hour of generated electricity. The relationship between BNFL and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) was explored, as was the MoD's relationship with the United States Department of Defense. BNFL's financial position should improve when the thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield becomes operational, and the Chapelcross and Calder Hall reactors may contribute income from electricity generation. (UK)

  13. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  14. Assimilation of Indian immigrant adolescents in British society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S M

    1984-09-01

    Assimilation into British society was studied with first- and second-generation Indian immigrant adolescents and English boys and girls (N = 395, age range 14-16 years). They were administered a questionnaire designed by Danziger to monitor changes in their cultural perspectives, such as sex role specialization, autonomy in everyday life, and parents' perceived expectations. Analysis of variance revealed that no changes occurred among second-generation Indian girls, who enjoyed less autonomy in their daily lives than English girls and boys did. Second-generation Indian girls also perceived greater expectations from both parents to play a more responsible role in household activities. Few significant changes were found for Indian boys. PMID:6512721

  15. Hodgkin's disease in childhood: the British National Lymphoma Investigation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of the British National Lymphoma Investigation in the treatment of 68 children with Hodgkin's disease is reported over a 14 year period from 1970. The presenting histology was reviewed by a single histopathologist; 87% of the cases were classified as nodular sclerosis (NS) and further subdivided into NSI (53%) and NSII (35%). Primary treatment consisted of local (involved field) or prophylactic (extended field) irradiation, combination chemotherapy alone or low dose irradiation and chemotherapy. An overall 5 year survival of 87% was achieved and a 5 year relapse-free survival of 64%. Eight deaths were reported during the study, all of which occurred in children who presented with NSII histology. Each child was in relapse and undergoing chemotherapy at the time of death. This histological subtype was also associated with both a lower complete remission rate and a reduced response to second line chemotherapy. (author)

  16. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels and their determinants in older British men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Lucy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been concern about the levels of carbon monoxide exposure, particularly among older people, little is known about COHb levels and their determinants in the general population. We examined these issues in a study of older British men. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4252 men aged 60–79 years selected from one socially representative general practice in each of 24 British towns and who attended for examination between 1998 and 2000. Blood samples were measured for COHb and information on social, household and individual factors assessed by questionnaire. Analyses were based on 3603 men measured in or close to ( Results The COHb distribution was positively skewed. Geometric mean COHb level was 0.46% and the median 0.50%; 9.2% of men had a COHb level of 2.5% or more and 0.1% of subjects had a level of 7.5% or more. Factors which were independently related to mean COHb level included season (highest in autumn and winter, region (highest in Northern England, gas cooking (slight increase and central heating (slight decrease and active smoking, the strongest determinant. Mean COHb levels were more than ten times greater in men smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day (3.29% compared with non-smokers (0.32%; almost all subjects with COHb levels of 2.5% and above were smokers (93%. Pipe and cigar smoking was associated with more modest increases in COHb level. Passive cigarette smoking exposure had no independent association with COHb after adjustment for other factors. Active smoking accounted for 41% of variance in COHb level and all factors together for 47%. Conclusion An appreciable proportion of men have COHb levels of 2.5% or more at which symptomatic effects may occur, though very high levels are uncommon. The results confirm that smoking (particularly cigarette smoking is the dominant influence on COHb levels.

  17. Electricity and Static: Franklin and his British compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mankin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les découvertes en électricité de Benjamin Franklin ont mobilisé des chercheurs depuis des décennies. Cet essai ne traite pas de ces découvertes au sens strict, mais étudie le contexte dans lequel Franklin a présenté certains de ses travaux scientifiques et politiques en 1751, ainsi que leur réception en Grande-Bretagne. L’essai suggère que Franklin ne fut ni l’enfant des Lumières britanniques ou européennes, ni un de leurs jouets. Bien que célébré très généralement par son siècle, Franklin demeurait comme une force étrangère à laquelle les Lumières britanniques devaient faire face, tant sur le plan intellectuel que politique. Peut-être que cette situation explique pourquoi il fut un adversaire si redoutable pour l’Etat britannique.Franklin’s discoveries in electricity have rewarded scholarly attention for many decades. This short essay is not about electricity in the strict sense, but about the context in which Franklin presented some of his work in science and in politics in 1751, and about the way that work was received in Britain. The aim of the essay is to suggest that Franklin was neither a child of the British or European Enlightenment nor one of its toys. And though he may have been touted very generally as an inspiration, he was closer to a foreign force with which, intellectually as well as a politically, it had to contend. This may help in explaining why he proved so considerable a foe to the British state.

  18. An Early Pleistocene Till, Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, R. W.; Roed, M.; Smith, S.; Sanborn, P.; Greenough, J.; Layer, P. W.; Huscroft, C.; Mathewes, R.; Benowitz, J.; Tessler, D.

    2011-12-01

    During construction of a road cut related to the Westside Road Interchange Project in West Kelowna, British Columbia, a till was encountered below one of the Lambly Creek valley basalts. The basalts are composed of a number of flows, ranging in age from 0.97 +- 0.05 Ma to 1.62 +-0.25 Ma based on new and available 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt ground mass. Paleomagnetic data from all major units at the study site fall within one of the normal subchrons of the late Matuyama Reversed Chron and are in general agreement with the radiometric dates. Chemical signatures of the basalt are nearly identical to similar flows belonging to the Chilcotin Group of plateau lavas. This newly identified Chilcotin flow, combined with coeval flows at other locations imply that Chilcotin volcanism was more active during the Quaternary than previously thought. The underlying till is up to four metres thick and is mantled by a minimal Ah horizon in a paleosol. The till overlies laminated and cross bedded fluvial silty sand up to five metres thick that displays injection features and minor faulting. A layer of stratified gravel underlain by gray banded clay of unknown thickness underlies the sand. The till represents the earliest evidence of glaciation in the Okanagan Valley. Till fabric analysis indicates a southeasterly flow of this glacier. The present study site has yielded radiometric ages and polarities similar to those described by Mathews and Rouse for the Dog Creek locality, 320 km to the northwest in south-central British Columbia, where basalts occur below and above glacial deposits. The newly identified glacial till, here referred to as the Westbank First Nations till, is discussed in relation to other Early Pleistocene glaciations in the Cordillera and to the global paleoclimate record. Key Words: Early Pleistocene glaciations, Cordilleran glaciations in western Canada, magnetostratigraphy of glacial sediments, Lambly Creek basalt, Chilcotin Group, Ar/Ar ages of basalts

  19. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Duthie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  20. Where the Runners Went: British Motivations Behind Postal Policy and Allocation in Colonial India

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat, Sheetal

    2012-01-01

    British presence has had a profound influence on economic development in British and independent India, and the debate on the nature of this influence has been raging for decades. At one end is the imperialist view that India benefitted from British rule and at the other is the nationalist view that India is still struggling from the burden of misrule. This debate has been enriched by in-depth research on the railways, among other topics; yet the closely related postal network has received ...

  1. Supplement use by UK-based British Army soldiers in training

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Anna; Hughes, Jason; Izard, Rachel M.; Greeves, Julie P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of supplements is widespread at all levels of civilian sport and a prevalence of 60–90 % is reported among high-performance UK athletes, including juniors. The prevalence of supplement use among UK-based British Army personnel is not known. The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of supplement use in UK-based British Army soldiers under training (SuTs) and associated staff. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was carried out in 3168 British Army SuTs and sold...

  2. British Columbia Power Export Corporation: Operational review for operating year, October 1989 to September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Power Export Corporation (POWEREX) is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Columbia Hydro, established in 1988 as the single agency responsible for implementing the provincial policy of international electricity trade. POWEREX objectives are to conduct long term firm electricity trade utilizing private sector financing, operating capabilities, and generating sources. Short term electricity transactions are handled by the part of POWEREX called the Powerex Pool Operation. An operational review of POWEREX for 1989-90 is presented, giving information on export contracts, license approvals, export sales negotiations, pool operation revenues and sales, British Columbia Hydro generation and integrated system performance, and operational planning. 15 figs

  3. Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart and the British interregnum in Netherlands Timor, 1812-1816

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Farram

    2008-01-01

    The term ‘British interregnum’, in relation to Indonesia, refers to two short periods in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when the British took control of most of the Netherlands Indies from the Dutch, only to hand it back a few years later. The British did this as a result of their wars with France. The first occupation occurred in 1795-1797 after a pro-France regime had been established in Holland. After peace was declared in 1802, the occupied territories were returned to...

  4. Anglo Libyan relations and the British military facilities 1964-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Straw, Sean William

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of the Anglo-Libyan relationship and the British military facilities in the Labour Government’s foreign and defence policy from 1964 to 1970. This relationship, built upon a “shared tradition” of strategic self interest, was given form in the 1953 treaty which permitted British deployments. The military presence enabled the British to maintain their wider strategic interests East of Suez as well as provide security for the Idris regime in Tripoli. As the Labour G...

  5. Trumpeter swan lead shot poisoning investigation in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator) and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) populations wintering in northwest Washington State and on the Sumas Prairie, British Columbia,...

  6. The Study of British College Education Tradition and Its Enlightment to Modern Chinese Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian YANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the heritage of the British classical university, British college is the main perpetrators and function carrier of British university personnel training. British college owns academic communities sharing a common interest, and is a cultural field of poetic dwelling, the self-government and self-consistent life style and the grace and liberal cultural atmosphere created the essence of the cultural community of the shaping elite. In this one continuous line of cultural community, the process of student continuing to pursue knowledge, is the process of their sharing a common history, a common culture and the shared feelings, shared experience and atmosphere. In short, they share a common lifestyle, and they have a common understanding of the soul of the nation. Civilization survives in the college which is as a cultural community. Thenational citizens cultivated by the college education as the human resources help the development of countries, which create a virtuous circle.

  7. Two British Columbia University Colleges and the Process of Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative investigation identified a condition of frenetic change experienced by two colleges in British Columbia, Canada, accompanying their change from community colleges to university colleges. Explored how economic globalization influenced the formation and functioning of these institutions. (EV)

  8. Bumble Bees Influence Berry Size in Commercial Vaccinium spp. Cultivation in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the abundance, diversity, and dispersion patterns of managed and wild bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) populations in commercial highbush blueberry and cranberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum L., Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) fields in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, and assessed their ...

  9. British domestic synchronous clocks 1930-1980 the rise and fall of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pook, Leslie Philip

    2015-01-01

    This book complements available one-make books on domestic synchronous clocks. It is also a history of science book that sets British domestic synchronous clocks, their manufacturers and technology in their social context. Part I covers the historical background, British domestic synchronous clock manufacturers and brands, how synchronous clocks work, domestic synchronous clock cases, practical advice on the servicing of domestic synchronous clocks, and analysis of the marketing and reliability of British domestic synchronous clocks. This analysis provides an explanation of the rise and eventual fall of their technology. Part II contains galleries of a selection of British domestic synchronous clocks, and of the movements with which they are fitted. There is a front and back view of each clock, together with a brief description. Views of each movement include views with the movement partly dismantled, together with a brief technical description of the movement. This profusely illustrated book is primarily fo...

  10. A survey of palaeobotanical evidence for dyeing and mordanting from British archaeological excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A. R.

    There is a growing body of records from British archaeological deposits of macrofossil remains of plants indicative of dyeing and mordanting of textiles. These records are brought together and the nature of the evidence, including some interpretative problems, considered.

  11. British Association of Clinical Anatomists: Abstracts of papers presented at the Annual General Meeting, 1983

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The Annual General Meeting of the British Association of Clinical Anatomists for 1983 was held at the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 14th January 1983. The following are abstracts of the papers presented.

  12. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories: 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest...

  13. Infectious disease control in the Ionian Islands during the British Protection (1815-1864).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Thalassinou, E; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Anogiatis-Pelé, D; Hatzakis, A

    2013-09-01

    This review presents the medical and social role of British military doctors in the formation of the British sanitary campaign in the Ionian Islands during the period 1815-1864. They were the core of a health system based on the old sanitary model of the Venetian Republic, which was the former ruler of the region. The British innovation and reorganisation of the old lazarettos (a quarantine system for maritime travellers), the new marine sanitary procedures, the determination of quarantine duration for major infectious diseases along with the introduction of the vaccination system resulted in a satisfactory defence against epidemics in Greece during the 19th century. The British military physicians applied and established West European medical ideas, as well as the principles of preventive medicine, for the first time in the Greek territory and this is a historical example of a successful sanitary campaign based on the experience of military physicians and their collaboration with civilian physicians. PMID:23720505

  14. Archive of Geosample Information from the British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF), National Oceanography Centre, is a contributor to the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  15. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  16. Contraband, free ports, and British merchants in the Caribbean world, 1739-1772

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Hunt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of contraband to legitimate trade in the eighteenth century Caribbean world during the War of Jenkins’ Ear and Seven Years’ War. It focuses on the informal networks of the British South Sea Company and the trade of informal actors. The article explores how British legislators shifted Jamaican and Dominican colonial economies away from contraband trade by opening free ports in 1766. The British Parliament passed the Free Port Act of Jamaica and Dominica following Danish and Dutch colonial efforts to crack down on contraband trade in the Caribbean world. This transition from contraband to legitimate trade enabled British merchants to engage in free trade by importing and exporting an assortment of commodities and enslaved people to and from Jamaica to other colonies in the Caribbean world.

  17. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot’s model an...

  18. Construction of Identity in British and Indian Cinema: a Postcolonial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Valančiūnas, Deimantas

    2013-01-01

    The object of the dissertation is British and Indian popular (commercial) cinema and the construction of identity there. The problem of identity construction in Indian and British films was researched employing three approaches found in the postcolonial theory: the critique of colonial discourse, anticolonial nationalism and the construction of national identity and the problematics of diasporic identity. The comparative analysis of the films from the two industries of the countries which wer...

  19. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Doekes, G; Venables, K M; Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...

  20. The prevalence of periodontal disease in a Romano-British population c. 200-400 AD

    OpenAIRE

    Raitapuro-Murray, T.; Molleson, T. I.; Hughes, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate to severe periodontitis in an ancient British cohort c. 200-400 AD. Design Observational study to assess periodontal and other oral disease parameters. Setting Natural History Museum, London. Subjects and methods 303 skulls from a Romano-British burial site in Poundbury, Dorset were examined for evidence of dental disease. Main outcome measures The primary outcome measure was presence of moderate to severe periodont...

  1. Estimation of coronary risk factors in British schoolchildren: a preliminary report.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong , N .; Balding, J; Gentle, P; Kirby, B.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys from several countries have identified the presence of risk factors known to be associated with coronary heart disease in children. Data on the distribution of coronary risk factor variables in British children are scarce. This study was therefore designed to test the feasibility of collecting coronary risk factor data from British children and to conduct a preliminary examination of the problem. One hundred and seven children (mean age 12.8 yr) had their height, weight, triceps skinf...

  2. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...

  3. Anti-Black Racism in British Popular Music (1880-1920)

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, John

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the British Empire in the second half of the XIXth century was accompanied by a rise in the diffusion and the legitimacy of racist ideas in Britain. Intellectuals wrote of the “scientific” differences between the races, and racial hierarchies were generally accepted by educated people. What of the uneducated? Comic books and children’s magazines about the “heroes” of the British Empire certainly did not hesitate to use racist stereotypes abundantly. Popular racism again...

  4. Consumers Brand Relationships and Attitudes Towards Branded Clothes: A Comparison Between British and Greek Young Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekou, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation is concerned with consumers brand relationships and attitudes towards branded clothes comparing British and Greek young consumers. With this study the researcher tries to investigate whether Greek and British young consumers develop weak or strong relationships with particular brands, as well as the factors that influence the development of such relationships. Thus, in order to investigate these factors the study does not exclusively draw upon the theory of re...

  5. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Elena S. Jones; Michael P. Gillingham; Dale R. Seip; Douglas C. Heard

    2007-01-01

    Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds) and mountain (Parsnip herd) ecotypes in central British Colum...

  6. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper; William Browne

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Key aims of the formal inspections of British zoos are to assess compliance with minimum standards of animal welfare and promote improvements in animal care and husbandry. We compared reports from two consecutive inspections of 136 British zoos to see whether these goals were being achieved. Most zoos did not meet all the minimum animal welfare standards and there was no clear evidence of improving levels of compliance with standards associated with the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. ...

  7. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Harris; Chris Draper

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Since 1984, British zoos have been required to meet the animal welfare standards set out under the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. Zoos are regularly assessed by government-appointed inspectors, who report on animal welfare standards in each zoo. This is the first analysis of those reports from a representative sample of British zoos. We highlight a number of concerns about the inspection process itself, and identify areas where changes would lead to improvements in both the inspection...

  8. Flowering in British Lemna: A rare, cyclic or simply overlooked phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Bramley, Jon

    1997-01-01

    It is largely presumed that reproduction in British Lemna, as in other British Lemnaceae, is almost entirely asexual, with new daughter fronds being produced from the side pouches of older mother fronds. Sexual reproduction is considered to be a rather rare event or even absent and because of this rarity the sexual features of Lemna, such as anthers and fruit, are often considered to be of little taxonomic value. It was with some surprise, therefore, that widespread flowering was observed in ...

  9. Ideas, forms and development in the British workers' theatre, 1925-1935

    OpenAIRE

    Saville, I.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis traces the development of British workers' theatre in the period 1925 - 1935, focussing on the institution which eventually constituted itself as the Workers' Theatre Movement, and relating the particular character of this organisation to the nature of British theatre as a whole. Whereas previous studies have ascribed the weakness of this movement, to its political immaturity, or to its failure to make use of highly developed literary forms, the failings of the Workers' Theatre Mo...

  10. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored. PMID:19848549

  11. Großbritannien: Die marktwirtschaftliche Strategie (British Labour Market Performance: The Market-Oriented Approach)

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    1998-01-01

    "In recent years, the United Kingdom has been remarkably successful in reducing unemployment. The standardized unemployment rate fell from 10 percent in 1993 to 6 percent in 1998, and most observers agree that further reductions can be achieved in the years to come. Also with respect to employment, the British economy outperformed the German and most other European economies. The decline in British unemployment cannot be attributed to changes in the national definition of unemployment, but is...

  12. The Effect of Family Disruption on Children's Personality Development: Evidence from British Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Prevoo, Tyas; Ter Weel, Bas

    2014-01-01

    This research documents the effects of different forms of family disruptions - measured by separation, divorce and death - on personality development of British children included in the 1970 British Cohort Study. There are statistically significant correlations between family disruptions prior to the age of 16 and personality development in early childhood. Parental divorce has the largest negative effect on a child's personality development. Family disruptions have smaller effects on persona...

  13. The relationship between food consumption and socio-economic status: evidence among British youths

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among British youths. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975- 2000. Daily calories-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study and the...

  14. Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS): current practice among British surgeons.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteley, M. S.; Smith, J. J.; Galland, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) has recently caused considerable interest among British surgeons. There are no data indicating which, if any, patients benefit from SEPS. A series of 47 British surgeons, identified as having taken up SEPS, were sent a questionnaire asking about their current practice; 26 were returned completed (55% response rate). Of those surgeons replying, 22 (85%) had performed their first SEPS procedure within the previous 21 months, 18 (69%) within t...

  15. 'British Small Craft': the cultural geographies of mid-twentieth century technology and display

    OpenAIRE

    Fenner, James Lyon

    2014-01-01

    The British Small Craft display, installed in 1963 as part of the Science Museum’s new Sailing Ships Gallery, comprised of a sequence of twenty showcases containing models of British boats—including fishing boats such as luggers, coracles, and cobles—arranged primarily by geographical region. The brainchild of the Keeper William Thomas O’Dea, the nautical themed gallery was complete with an ocean liner deck and bridge mezzanine central display area. It contained marine engines and navigation...

  16. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  17. An Extended Industry Analysis of the Water Facilities Design Industry in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Imtiaz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extended industry analysis of British Columbia’s water facilities design industry. The paper analyzes the industry using two models to determine the competitive position, profitability, linkages and competitive scopes of typical engineering consulting firms with water facilities design practices in British Columbia. Strategies to be pursued are then recommended based on these analyses. The extended industry analysis is first conducted using the Five Forces model. This m...

  18. The North Atlantic Oscillation, climate change and the ecology of British insects

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth-Smith, Angus

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Evidence is accumulating that climate change is having a significant effect on a wide range of organisms spanning the full range of biodiversity found on this planet. This study investigates the ecological role of climate change, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and habitat change on British insect populations. Despite the NAO having a considerable effect on British weather, the role of t...

  19. The British Columbia Positive Women's Survey: a detailed profile of 110 HIV-infected women

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, C M; Lobb, D J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about...

  20. Hysteria and neurasthenia in pre-1914 British medical discourse and in histories of shell-shock

    OpenAIRE

    Loughran, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Histories of shell-shock have argued that the diagnosis was subdivided into the categories hysteria and neurasthenia, and that the differential distribution and treatment of these diagnoses was shaped by class and gender expectations. These arguments depend on the presentation of hysteria and neurasthenia as opposed constructs in British medical discourse before 1914. An analysis of the framing of these diagnoses in British medical discourse c.1910?1914 demon...

  1. Book Review: Making British law: committees in action by Louise Thompson

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In Making British Law: Committees in Action, Louise Thompson presents a history and statistical analysis of the work of bill committees – formerly known as standing committees – and their influence over the process of making British law. Thompson offers a well-evidenced argument that goes beyond the statistics to persuasively account for the role and importance of MPs in shaping government legislation through bill committees, writes Richard Berry.

  2. Abuse and neglect of seniors in British Columbia: an empirical and theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    McMullen, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of elder abuse in British Columbia by profiling the parties involved in elder abuse situations and empirically testing Gordon and Brill?s (2001) Integrated Theoretical Model of Elder Abuse as an explanation of the relevant risk factors. The data were collected from a purposive sample of cases reported to the British Columbia Coalition for the Elimination of Abuse to Seniors from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. The sample (N=392) was comprised of cases ...

  3. Jewish terrorist activities and the British government in Palestine, 1939-1947

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Bruce

    1986-01-01

    From 1939 to 1947 two Jewish terrorist organizations, the Irgun Zvai Leumi and the Lohamei Herut Israel (known to Jews by its Hebrew acronym, Lehi, and to the British as "The Stern Gang") challenged Britain's rule over Palestine. Those eight years began with the publication of the White Paper in May 1939 and ended in September 1947 with the decision taken by the British Government to surrender its League of Nations Mandate and withdraw from Palestine. This thesis examine...

  4. The social construction of identities by British-Muslim pupils aged 14-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Louise

    1998-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis examines the social construction of ethnic and gender identities by British-Muslim pupils, from a critical, feminist, discursive position. The research draws upon critical, feminist conceptualisations of identity which challenge positivistic Social Psychological theories of ethnic identity for constructing British-Muslim young people in racist and sexist ways. The aims of this study were to (i) identify ways in which young people conceptualise their identi...

  5. Pricing Attributes of Wines from Emerging Suppliers on the British Columbia Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Veronica; Wojciech J. FLORKOWSKI; Carew, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We examine British Columbia (BC) wine consumers’ valuation of wine imported from emerging suppliers (Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia and Hungary) using hedonic pricing technique. BC Liquor Distribution Branch retail sales data covering weekly sales of table wine imported into the province of British Columbia from all five countries for the period April 20th, 2002 to May 8th, 2004 are applied to estimate the influence of wine attributes on prices. The results indicate that grape variety, ...

  6. An Evaluation of Change Management at British Airways: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Khicha, Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Organizational change and innovation are essential for a company's growth and development. Having understood the importance of managing organizational change and innovation, many researchers have formulated theories related to change management. These theories have been critically analyzed in this paper along with an example of British Airways. The innumerable changes taking place at British Airways give a deeper understanding of change is implemented in organizations. This paper confirms the...

  7. Examination of the Factor Structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire among British and Trinidadian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    David Barron; Viren Swami; Tony Towell; Gerard Hutchinson; Morgan, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Much debate in schizotypal research has centred on the factor structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), with research variously showing higher-order dimensionality consisting of two to seven dimensions. In addition, cross-cultural support for the stability of those factors remains limited. Here, we examined the factor structure of the SPQ among British and Trinidadian adults. Participants from a White British subsample (n = 351) resident in the UK and from an African Carib...

  8. Aesthetic Values and Visual Resource Management in British Columbia’s Community Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ashley Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The Community Forest Agreement established in 1998 in the province of British Columbia was initiated to provide communities with increased access to and control over timber supply areas proximate to them. Following the initiation of this agreement, many communities throughout British Columbia sought to obtain Community Forest licenses in an attempt to exercise local control over forested lands adjacent to their communities, and to integrate a variety of values into the management of those for...

  9. Marketing in the 2010 British General Election - perspectives, prospect and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, Paul R.; Harris, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This editorial article discusses how televised debates transformed the British General Election campaign of 2010 and impacted upon political leader standing in the election. Papers are introduced in a number of areas including political branding, analysis of attack advertising and its implications, channel experience effectiveness measurement, consumption and co-creation in the sensitive policy area of immigration, the Europeanisation of British political marketing, and how UK expatriates cou...

  10. Social Structures in the Regular Combat Arms Units of the British Army: A Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kirke, C. M. S. G.

    2006-01-01

    An original model is presented for describing, analysing, and predicting soldiers’ behaviour in current regular combat arms units in the British Army. It was derived, using social anthropological techniques, during participant observation by a serving British Army officer, and provides more coherent insights than other models of unit life. Its central principle, created for this study, is a plurality of >social structures’. These >social structures’ are separate bodies of ideas...

  11. 2005年British Columbia钼矿可能启动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓波

    2005-01-01

    Roca Mines希望到2005年下半年其位于南部British Columbia最大的钼工程能每年开采高达200~250万磅的钼。公司首席执行官Scott Broughton指出,British Columbia对小矿开采的项目若能被迅速通过,则会加速此时间表的进程。

  12. I Say 'tomeydo', You Say 'tomahto': American and British English pronunciation in EFL Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Norlin, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Within the last few hundred years, English has gone from being a rather small peripheral language to what it is today – a world language, spoken by millions of people worldwide. The best-known dialects to Swedish learners of English are British English (RP, Received Pronunciation) and American English (GA, General American). Traditionally, British English has been the variety taught in Swedish schools, but due to the recent and growing influence of American English, more and more pupils are u...

  13. British Columbia Petroleum Corporation annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Petroleum Corporation is a provincial Crown agency whose principal mandate is to facilitate and monitor the sale of natural gas, and to act as a central source of information specific to the natural gas industry for the benefit of all industry participants. The Corporation's activities for the year ending March 31, 1993 are summarized. With the devolution of the Corporation's marketing functions in 1990 to CanWest Gas Supply Inc. and the deregulation of the natural gas market, the Corporation no longer markets natural gas and byproducts, but performs a number of administrative functions on behalf of the province. These include issuing acquisition orders and determining the respective netback prices for the purpose of calculating royalties; collection of a production-related levy; collection of data regarding all sale transactions; monitoring of all production, sales and marketing costs; and information gathering for all sectors of the industry. In 1992/93, a total of 27 companies remained with the Corporation, representing 111 individual gas purchase agreements for a combined deliverability of 1,769,300 m3/d. At fiscal year end, a total of 713 acquisition orders were being monitored and 20 findings of producer support were issued in response to netback sales applications. Industry volume throughputs increased 8.7% over the previous year and the average netback price rose to $44.87 per 1,000 m3. Financial statements are included. 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  16. Understanding parental stressors: an investigation of British tennis-parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Chris; Knight, Camilla

    2009-02-15

    In this study, we examined the stressors experienced by British tennis-parents. The parents (n = 123) completed an extensive survey focused on the internal and external demands that they had encountered through having a child compete in the sport. The survey consisted of open-ended questions related to competition, coaching, organizational, personal, and developmental issues. Inductive and deductive content analysis resulted in the development of seven core themes of tennis-parental stressor: competition, coaches, finance, time, siblings, organization-related, and developmental. Parents experienced a diverse number of competitive stressors indicating the particular difficulties they faced before, during, and after matches involving their child, opponents, other parents, and officials. They also reported a wide range of organizational stressors that paralleled the financial, social, and personal investments that accompanied their support roles. The results of this research reinforce the importance of parents possessing the necessary skills to cope with the psychological, developmental, and logistical demands of competitive tennis. Implications with respect to induction workshops and education for coaches and parents are presented, as well as consideration for governing bodies to enhance their communication channels and logistical support. Future research recommendations are posed to build upon the study of this domain in youth sport. PMID:19191064

  17. British Philosopher Gilbert Ryle’s Perspective on Behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BANCIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Published in 1890, William James’ manual, The principles of psychology, followed by Psychology (lectures in 1892, form the foundation of behaviorism. The same year, Animal life and intelligence by C. Lloyd Morgan correlates with James’ view, extending it to wildlife. The next step was taken by Lloyd Morgan, with the publication of An introduction to comparative psychology (1894, in which the issue of trial and error learning in animals receives a systematic approach, thus pointing research to a specific area and interpretive apparatus that will ultimately lead to the full crystallization of behaviorism’s ideas in the past century. The most prestigious version of behaviorism, that of psychological behaviorism, has strong historical roots; in this way, one can invoke the works of Aristotle (On Nature. Another version of behaviorism, like that suggested by Gilbert Ryle, is logical behaviorism. Long before that, however, classical British empiricists, led by John Locke (1632-1704 and David Hume (1711-1776, used associationist prescriptions to reveal cause-effect coupling in mental phenomena.

  18. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  19. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. PMID:26243802

  20. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  1. Funding, Performance and Participation in British Olympic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Goranova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport funding, performance and mass participation. Elite sport development has become a key component in countries’ sport systems. National governing bodies continuously invest money and resources in developing effective sport structures for future current athletes. It could be suggested that with continuously rising sport competition, the British Elite sport funding system needs to be revised to optimize the support for elite athletes in more sports with potential to win medals and in that way increase competitiveness and dominance across a wider range of sports, as well as to minimize the threat for the nation to be surpassed by its rivals (Duffy et al. 2006. A historical database of funding (UK Sport, performance (Olympic medals and participation (Active People Survey statistics has been constructed. All Olympic sports from Sydney 2000 to London 2012 with Team GB representation have been included. Bivariate correlation was used to test the relationship between variables and results indicate no strong correlation to exist. We discuss the implications and limitations of our findings in the context of current sport policy in the UK before making suggestions for future research in this area.

  2. The Life Cycle of a British Islamist: A Jungian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Alschuler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Edward Edinger, in 'Ego and archetype: Individuation and the religious function of the psyche,' designates as "unconscious religion" the psychological role played by political movements when religious institutions cease to provide containers for the spiritual strivings of individuals. I include Islamism as a political movement. Edinger's description of unconscious religion closely resembles the experience of a young British-born Muslim, Ed Husain, in 'The Islamist: Why I joined radical Islam in Britain, what I saw inside and why I left.' Husain follows a path from being a traditional Muslim to a fanatical Islamist to a spiritual Muslim. Edinger applies Jungian psychology to describe four alternative consequences for persons whose religious institutions respond inadequately to their "religious instinct." These alternatives are: Adherence to an unconscious religion, psychological inflation, alienation, and individuation. In the case study, surprisingly, Ed Husain experiences all four of these alternatives in sequence, constituting a life cycle. The article concludes, optimistically, that this may be a natural sequence for those who embrace fanatical Islamism.

  3. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  4. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinski, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Energy and Minerals Div.

    2002-07-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs.

  5. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  6. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development. PMID:26930031

  7. Privatization of British electricity supply industry: Critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until 1989, despite the partially disintegrated organization of the British electricity supply industry (ESI) and the attempt of the Energy Act of 1983 to pull down entrance barriers to the power generation business, ESI operated like an integrated monopoly. Between 1989 and 1990, ESI has been subjected to a reorganization process and transfer to the private sector with the declared aim of improving short and long run micro-economic efficiency. For this purpose, the attempt of introducing competition in the phases of the production process where possible and of regulating those which are structurally non competitive, has been made. The new configuration of ESI in terms of organizational structure, property regime and regulatory system is analyzed. Areas of improvement of the regulatory system and delayed key decisions of the public operator, are identified. However, any evaluation of the process as a whole can only relate to a minor part of the present situation; thus it subtends a scenary for the future, where the role of the regulatory authority is crucial

  8. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  9. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  10. British nuclear power: protest and legitimation 1945 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis traces the development of British civil nuclear power policy between 1945 and 1982. Throughout particular attention is paid to the methods of legitimation which have been used to justify this policy in the public arena. By tracing this legitimation process, and public responses to it, the modern anti nuclear movement and crisis of public acceptability are placed within an historical context. It is argued that public concern and disquiet have always required the active legitimation of nuclear policy from the inception of the technology. The initial base of this legitimation was largely symbolic and associated nuclear power with the future of civilisation and a second of Elizabethan splendour for Britain. Symbolic legitimacy was underpinned by the twin pillars of expert hegemony and political authority. As these became increasingly prominent due to internal disputes within the industry secrecy was applied as a means of preserving legitimacy. Having tried conventional avenues of opposition the anti nuclear movement then embarked upon a campaign of direct action. The links between this campaign and the pervasive sense of public unease which had always existed are explored. It is argued here that the anti nuclear movement produces and sustains a cogent critique of nuclear power. Campaigning around this critique wins the movement increasing legitimacy as its arguments are increasingly accepted. (author)

  11. Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart and the British interregnum in Netherlands Timor, 1812-1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Farram

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘British interregnum’, in relation to Indonesia, refers to two short periods in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when the British took control of most of the Netherlands Indies from the Dutch, only to hand it back a few years later. The British did this as a result of their wars with France. The first occupation occurred in 1795-1797 after a pro-France regime had been established in Holland. After peace was declared in 1802, the occupied territories were returned to the Dutch. Hostilities soon resumed, however, and with the annexation of Holland by the French in 1810, the British once more moved into the Netherlands Indies. Following France’s defeat in Europe, the Dutch territories were restored once again in 1816. This paper deals with British rule in Timor, one of the far-flung outposts of the Netherlands Indies, and the central role played by a native of that island, Jacobus Arnoldus Hazaart, in helping the British administer the territory.

  12. RADICALIZATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE PRINCIPALS' PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  13. Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Ysbrand John

    This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

  14. J.G. Crowther's War: Institutional strife at the BBC and British Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan

    2016-06-01

    Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts. PMID:27076038

  15. The urban explosion of black majority churches : their origin, growth, distinctives and contribution to British Christianity / by Babatunde Aderemi Adedibu

    OpenAIRE

    Adedibu, Babatunde Aderemi

    2010-01-01

    British church history in the last sixty years is best described as a “coat of many colours”. This image is appropriate because of the growth and proliferation of Black Majority Churches in urban areas of the British Isles. The advent of these churches has contributed to the prevailing pluralistic theological landscape. This thesis aims to evaluate the current status of Black Majority Churches with respect to their origin, growth, distinctives and contributions to British Ch...

  16. How to Write a Horror Film:The Awakening (2011) and Development Practices in the British Film Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Peirse, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This article reveals how screenwriter Stephen Volk’s idea for a sequel to The Innocents (1961, Jack Clayton) became, over the course of fifteen years, the British horror film The Awakening (2011, Nick Murphy). It examines practitioner interviews in order reflect upon creative labour in the British film industry, while also re-orientating the analysis of British horror film to the practices of pre-production. The research reveals that female protagonist Florence Cathcart was a major problem fo...

  17. Framing the Philpotts:anti welfarism and the British newspaper reporting of the Derby house fire verdict

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the newspaper reporting of the Mick Philpott manslaughter verdict of 2013. Philpott is an unemployed British man who in May 2012 set fire to his house, accidentally killing six children. This article argues that the Philpott verdict provided a valuable propaganda opportunity for British politicians and elements of the British media to link the crime to ‘welfare reform’ at a time when the coalition government had begun to target welfare benefits for cuts. In particular, i...

  18. AN EXPLORATION INTO THE INFLUENCES OF CULTURE ON THE RELATIONSHIPS OF CHINESE AND BRITISH CONSUMERS WITH BRANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ochen, Eunice

    2006-01-01

    According to studies of culture such as Hofstedes (1991) cultural dimensions, Chinese and British culture are very different. The Chinese culture is viewed as more traditional whereas the British culture is seen as more modern. Brands play a key role in the products choices that consumers make and their attitudes towards them. This dissertation explores the influence of culture on the relationships that Chinese and British consumers have with brands. The study begins by reviewing lit...

  19. The relationships between body composition characteristics and cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of older British men.

    OpenAIRE

    Papachristou, E.; Ramsay, S. E.; Lennon, L T; Papacosta, O; Iliffe, S.; Whincup, P H; Wannamethee, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research has established obesity as one of the main modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment. However, evidence on the relationships of total and regional body composition measures as well as sarcopenia with cognitive functioning in the older population remains inconsistent. METHODS: Data are based on 1,570 participants from the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a cohort of older British men from 24 British towns initiated in 1978-80, who were re-examined in 201...

  20. Identities in the third space? Solidity, elasticity and resilience amongst young British Pakistani Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mythen, Gabe

    2012-09-01

    Over the last decade the issue of identity has been prevalent in discussions about British Muslims, with the events of 9/11 serving as a touchstone for media debates about religious, national and cultural affiliations. The 7/7 terrorist attacks in the UK led to young British Pakistanis being subjected to intense public and institutional scrutiny and wider political concerns being expressed about the failure of multiculturalism. Young British Pakistanis have thus had to negotiate and maintain their identities in an environment in which they have been defined as a threat to national security whilst simultaneously being pressurized to align with 'core British values'. Within this context, we convey the findings of a qualitative study involving British Pakistanis living in the North-west of England. In presenting the experiences and perspectives of participants, three interconnected processes salient to the maintenance of identity are delineated: solidity, elasticity and resilience. Having unpacked these processes, we draw upon Bhabha's third space thesis to explore the political potentiality of and the limits to hybridic identities. PMID:22950460

  1. Irish (Republic) versus British (North West) orthopaedic trainees: what are the differences?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Banks, L N

    2012-02-01

    British Trainees have gradually had their working week curtained over the last 8 years. The Republic of Ireland Trainees have not been subjected to the European Working Time Directive prior to 2009 and have therefore worked on average, more hours than their British counterparts. We wanted to see if the differing schemes had an impact on recruiting and training orthopaedic surgeons. We surveyed Republic of Ireland orthopaedic specialist registrars (SpRs) and North West (NW) British SpRs\\/specialist trainees (ST3 and above) to see if there were any discernable differences in working patterns and subsequent training exposure. A standard proforma was given to Irish Trainees and to NW SpRs\\/STs at their National or regional teaching (January\\/February 2009). 62% of Irish and 47% of British NW Trainees responded. Irish trainees were more likely to have obtained a post-graduate degree (p = 0.03). The Irish worked more hours per week (p < 0.001) doing more trauma operative lists (p = 0.003) and more total cases per 6 months than the NW British (p = 0.003). This study suggests that more hours worked, equals more operative exposure, without detriment to the academic side of training. Obviously it is not possible to say whether fewer operations make for a poorer surgeon, but the evidence suggests that it may be true.

  2. Proceedings of the Franco-British Marine Energies Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this French-British seminar on Marine Energies. Content: 1 - Session I - Wave and Tidal, Prospects and Policy: Introduction (Pierre David); Wave and Tidal Resources - the scale of the opportunity (Benoit Dal Ferro); UK Policy and European Programmes (Gary Shanahan); French Policy on New and Renewable Energies (Jean-Louis Bal); Marine Energies and French Policy (Jacques Ruer, Vincent de Laleu); New Paths Towards Sustainable Energy (Dominique Dupard); 2 - Session II - Centres of Excellence in Research, Testing and Infrastructure: Introduction (George Smith, Eric Vandenbroucke); R and D - Universities and Companies in the UK (Abubakr Bahaj); METRI, A European infrastructure for research and testing on hydrodynamic behaviour of structure and ages of materials in marine environments (Yone Le Guen); 1/10 Scale Wave Tank Testing (Andrew Mill); Full Scale Testing (Neil Kermode); Long Term Monitoring (Alan Taylor); Experimental Methods and Numerical Simulation (Jean Marc Rousset); Modelling (Jerome Brossard, Rob Rawlinson Smith); Mediterranean Testing Centres (Guy Facon); 3 - Session III - Practitioners and Business Development - Wave Energy: Introduction (Alain Clement, Max Carcas, Aurelien Babarit, Marie Ruellan, David Langston, Nigel Crow, Guillaume Dreau, Bill Cooper, Chris Jenner); 4 - Session IV - Practitioners and Business Development - Current Energy: Introduction (Cyrille Abonnel, Peter Fraenkel, Herve Majastre, Didier Imbault, Jean Philippe Pagot, Chris Huxley-Reynard, Fiona Auty, Gareth Hughes, David Adrian, Michael Starling); 5 - Session V - Economics and Financing of Wave and Marine Energy Conversion: Introduction (Delphine Eyraud, Gilles Cochevelou); Role of French Cluster (Francis Vallat); Funding Panorama (Gianni Operto); The Technologist's Experience (Max Carcas); The Utility's Perspective (Jon Boston); French Methods and Policies for Development (Thierry Chrupek

  3. Foucault's contributions for understanding power relations in British classical political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Guizzo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategic role played by British classical political economy in constructing new technologies of power. Michel Foucault drew attention to a change that political economists promoted concerning the role of the state, which has been overlooked by historians of economic thought. This paper explores the main arguments provided by the most important British political economists of the 18th and 19th centuries on what concerns population management, State's role and economic dynamics in order to examine Foucault's considerations. Although British classical political economy consolidated the mechanism of markets and economic individuality, thus creating a system of truth that changed economic norms and practices, its discourse also established a political conduct that was responsible for creating mechanisms of control that disseminated new forms of power relations.

  4. Developing leadership in nurse managers: the British Columbia Nursing Leadership Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Maura; Bouthillette, France

    2008-01-01

    The British Columbia Nursing Administrative Leadership Institute for First Line Nurse Leaders (BC NLI) is a collaborative partnership among British Columbia's Chief Nursing Officers, the Ministry of Health Nursing Directorate and the University of British Columbia School of Nursing. This initiative consists of a four-day residential program and a year-long leadership project between BC NLI participants and their organizational mentors. The evidence-based curriculum covers universal leadership and management concepts, but it also addresses leadership issues of relevance to nurse leaders in today's complex healthcare environments. The BC NLI is part of a provincial health human resources endeavour to ensure sufficient nursing leaders - for now and in the future. This paper will discuss the development, implementation and evaluation of the BC NLI. Unique aspects of the program, such as its online networking component, will be described, and its role in nursing leadership research will be briefly examined. PMID:18815472

  5. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, George

    2013-01-01

    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. PMID:24037899

  6. The Aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: a Perspective from the British Embassy in Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, R J; Franklin, K C

    2016-04-01

    The British Embassy in Tokyo was at the heart of providing information in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Richard Oppenheim, who was present at the time, and Keith Franklin, who joined the Embassy shortly afterwards, give their perspectives on communicating information on radiation to the public and what lessons can be learned. Richard Oppenheim was head of the Climate Change and Energy team at the British Embassy in Tokyo from 2011 to 2015 and part of the Embassy team responding to the crisis. He travelled to Sendai on 12 March 2011. Keith Franklin has been on secondment to the British Embassy in Tokyo from the National Nuclear Laboratory since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. PMID:27386586

  7. The Increasing British Climate Ambitiousness: A Mere Reflection of ''The Dash for Gas''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors ask three main questions: First, why were the initial British climate positions more on the reluctant side? Second, why did the British climate positions become more ambitious towards the mid-1990s? And third, why the rapid, seemingly doubling of reduction ambitiousness in the spring of 1997? These questions are addressed in turn: First, with regard to the initial British climate reluctance, although ''malign'' emissions projections and related high potential reduction costs played a significant role, political and cultural factors must clearly be drawn into the picture. Secondly, increasing ambitiousness from the mid-1990s was largely a reflection of the dash-for-gas factor. Thirdly, although the stepped-up ambitiousness in 1997 was, of course, underpinned by the dash-for-gas process, other factors, such as the new Labour Government coming into office, need also to be taken into account here. (author)

  8. British-Pakistani women’s perspectives of diabetes self-management:The role of identity

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Jackson, Cath; Knapp, Peter; Cheater, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives. To explore the effects of type 2 diabetes on British-Pakistani women’s identity and its relationship with self-management. Background. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent and has worse outcomes among some ethnic minority groups. This may be due to poorer self-management and an inadequate match of health services to patient needs. The influence that type 2 diabetes has on British-Pakistani women’s identity and subsequent self-management has received limited attention. Design...

  9. On Conflicts Between the British and Native Indians in A Passage to India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯书华

    2014-01-01

    E. M. Forster is an English novelist, short story writer, essayist and critic whose most famous work A Passage to India well illustrates his views about religion, human relationship, colonialism, cultural and racial conflicts between British people and Indians. In the colonial country and period, their friendship is impossible if they do not treat each other as equals in the background of different cultures, religions and spiritual conceptions.This essay, based on the novel A Passage to India, mainly analyzes conflicts between the British and Native Indians.

  10. The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalzell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.

  11. Mass care and the University of British Columbia: A new approach to disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Reg

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a major earthquake affecting the lower mainland of British Columbia, the University of British Columbia (UBC) would be expected to provide emergency services and support to a population of over 51,000 students, 14,000 faculty and staff and over 10,000 UBC community residents and private companies who live and work on the Point Grey peninsula. This paper will detail how UBC would provide shelter, food, accommodation and support (together known as mass care) to this demographic. PMID:27318287

  12. A moral panic? The problematization of forced marriage in British newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha, Sundari; Gill, Aisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the British media’s construction of forced marriage as an urgent social problem in a context where other forms of violence against women are not similarly problematised. A detailed analysis of four British newspapers over a ten-year period demonstrates that media reporting of forced marriage constitutes a moral panic in that it is constructed as a cultural problem that threatens Britain’s social order rather than as a specific form of violence against women. Thus, the curr...

  13. Current Developments at the Intersection of Fantasy Fiction and British Children's Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Höfel, Anne-Kathrin

    2009-01-01

    The present study inquires into the current developments at the intersection of fantasy fiction and British children’s literature between 1990 and 2007. A survey of the historical development of children’s literature up to the 1980’s is followed by the research report. Not only is the situation of British as well as other English-speaking and non-English western European contemporary research in children’s literature and children’s literature criticism presented, but also the influential rep...

  14. Epidemiology and strain identification of Blueberry scorch virus on highbush blueberry in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Wegener, Lisa Andreen

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of Blueberry scorch virus (BlScV) in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) was studied over four consecutive years (2001 to 2004) in British Columbia. BlScV was first identified in British Columbia in 2000 and was identified in 40 commercial blueberry fields in 2001, and by 2004, it had spread to 122 fields. BlScV was also detected in cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and black huckleberry (V. membranaceum). The rate of BlScV spread in three commercial blueberry fields was deter...

  15. Imperial Archives: French and British Museology from the 'Land of Lost Gods'

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Brian

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the ways that museological activities in France and Britain (in the Louvre and the British Museum) were aligned with the human sciences to offer new commentaries about the development and maintenance of civilisation—both ancient and modern. During what I partly anachronistically refer to as the ‘revolutionary’ decades—the 1790s to the 1810s (a reference I stick to because it falls in the middle of Eric Hobsbawm’s ‘Age of Revolution’)—British and French commentator...

  16. English Captain by Thomas Wintringham (1939. Memory and oblivion of a British Volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis ARIAS GONZÁLEZ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Wintringham became the commanding officer of the British Battalion in the International Brigades during the Battle of Jarama; he wrote a book about his experiences in the Spanish Civil War which is more than memories are usual because it offers original points of view about it and a real image of his complex personality. His very hectic life was affected by this experience such as his left-wing political belief —from dogmatic communism to Labour Party—. His Spanish adventures marked him for ever and this event and this book turned him into one of the most important British military intellectuals.

  17. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV: framework for guideline development and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Margaret; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; Fifer, Helen; FitzGerald, Mark; Grover, Deepa; Hardman, Sarah; Higgins, Stephen; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-03-01

    SummaryThe Clinical Effectiveness Group of the British Association for Sexual Health has updated their methodology for the production of national guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections and related conditions. The main changes are the adoption of the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations and the introduction of a specific Conflict of Interests policy for Clinical Effectiveness Group members and guideline authors. This new methodology has been piloted during the production of the 2015 British Association for Sexual Health & HIV guideline on the management of syphilis. PMID:26464503

  18. Monarchy, Spirituality & Britishness: The Anglican Diaspora in Grasse 1880-1950

    OpenAIRE

    Teulié, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    In March 2011, the British film The King’s Speech, the story of King George VI’s courageous fight against his stammering, was awarded 12 Oscars, including best film, and several acting honours. This came as a surprise to those who thought Americans did not care about British Royalties. Yet journalist Sarah Sands wrote in the Evening Standard of Tuesday 1st March 2011 an interesting article entitled “Royals are still our Best Sign of Being British”. She states that “The King’s Speech celebrate...

  19. Jane Dawson & Alice Entwistle. A History of Twentieth-Century British Women’s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer EMIG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A gigantic task well executed, this is what Dowson and Entwistle’s book turns out to be. It takes the bull (or should it be the cow, the mad cow of Jo Shapcott’s amusing poems? by the horns and tries to come up with a possible history of the many diverse and often uncollected female voices in Britain in the twentieth century. Dowson and Entwistle’s definition of “British Women’s Poetry” is flexible: “The following poets are British born, published in Britain and/or judged to have made a sign...

  20. RAF Wings Over Florida: Memories of World War II British Air Cadets

    OpenAIRE

    Largent, Willard

    2000-01-01

    In the early 1940s, prior to the United States' entry into World War II, through the joint efforts of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, British soldiers were sent to the United States for flight training. This collection gives first-person accounts of the men who learned the art of flying in a place far from their homeland, Florida. The stories provide a wonderful contrast between the two cultures and are told in the voices of British cadets, American cadet...