The keynote presentation of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society 9th Annual Meeting addressed the urgency, for pharmaceutical organizations, to implement strategies for effectively communicating drug risks to all concerned stakeholders and, in particular, the general public. The application of chronobiology to SP investigational protocols can improve the search of drug-induced adverse effects. The Distinguished Service Award Lecture reviewed a life-long journey through trials and tribulations in the quest of the ever-distant scientific truth. The revision process of Directive 86/609/EC for improving animal welfare should be conducted with the purpose of maintaining a fair balance among animal protection, human health and research imperatives in order to prevent the migration of pharmaceutical activities outside Europe. Additional topics of interest were the behavioral, metabolic and cardiovascular problems experienced by small animals housed at the standard laboratory temperature. A technology for the automated collection of blood and urine samples in rats implanted with telemetry sensors was presented. Non-clinical, clinical, regulatory and legal aspects of abuse liability were expertly reviewed. The 'degradability' of pharmaceuticals into environment-friendly chemicals should be an actively searched and optimized feature of future pharmaceuticals in order to prevent drug pollution of ecosystems. Transgenic and diseased animal models should be selected whenever they can facilitate the determination of drug-induced adverse effects. SP strategies to investigate the safety of drug combination products were exemplified and analyzed in depth. The future of SP was proposed to lie not in the performance of regulatory studies of pharmacodynamic nature but in developing and early applying an array of screening assays for clearing clinical candidates against known drug-induced organ function injuries. In conclusion, the 2009 SP Society annual meeting offered a wealth of
Turner, Bryan S
The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.
A joint meeting of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Biophysical Society was held at the School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, from 5th to 7th January 1999. It included a symposium on 'Structure and function of molecular motors' and the Annual General Meetings of both Societies. The following are abstracts of communications and posters presented at the meeting. PMID:17103658
Jackson, M E
The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384
Hartley, James; Benjamin, Michele
Background. In 1997 four journals published by the British Psychological Society - the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, the British Journal of Educational Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology, and Legal and Criminological Psychology - began publishing structured abstracts. Aims. The aim of the studies reported here was to assess the effectiveness of these structured abstracts by comparing them with original versions written in a traditional, unstructured, format. Meth...
Sharif, Mohammad O
This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successful in winning the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) Membership in Orthodonitcs (MOrth) cases prize in 2014. The first case describes the management of a 26-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class III skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an unerupted ectopic palatally displaced upper right permanent canine, an erupted palatally displaced upper left permanent canine, retained deciduous canines, generalised microdontia, an overall Bolton tooth size discrepancy, mild crowding in the upper arch, an increased overbite (complete to tooth tissue) and crossbites. Treatment involved a surgical exposure of the ectopic canine and the use of fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. The second case describes the management of a 12-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class 2 skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an increased overjet and overbite (complete to soft tissue), mild upper and lower arch crowding and an increased naso-labial angle. Treatment involved an initial phase of modified Clark Twin Block and sectional fixed appliances followed by complete fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months.
Sharif, Mohammad O
This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases that were successful in winning the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) Membership in Orthodonitcs (MOrth) cases prize in 2014. The first case describes the management of a 26-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class III skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an unerupted ectopic palatally displaced upper right permanent canine, an erupted palatally displaced upper left permanent canine, retained deciduous canines, generalised microdontia, an overall Bolton tooth size discrepancy, mild crowding in the upper arch, an increased overbite (complete to tooth tissue) and crossbites. Treatment involved a surgical exposure of the ectopic canine and the use of fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. The second case describes the management of a 12-year-old female with a Class II division 2 incisor relationship on a Class 2 skeletal base with reduced vertical proportions. This was complicated by: an increased overjet and overbite (complete to soft tissue), mild upper and lower arch crowding and an increased naso-labial angle. Treatment involved an initial phase of modified Clark Twin Block and sectional fixed appliances followed by complete fixed pre-adjusted edgewise appliances over a period of 24 months. PMID:27086722
<正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence
Howell, W M; Harmer, A; Briggs, D; Dyer, P; Fuggle, S V; Martin, S; Sinnott, P; Smith, J; Taylor, C J; Vaughan, R
Ongoing technological developments in antibody detection and characterisation allowing relative quantitation of HLA-specific antibody levels, combined with crossmatch results, now allow a graded assessment of patient potential donor immunological risk for allotransplantation, rather than a simple 'positive' or 'negative' categorization of crossmatch results. These developments have driven a thorough revision of the British Society for Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics and British Transplantation Society Guidelines for the Detection and Characterisation of Clinically Relevant Antibodies in Allotransplantation. These newly published revised Guidelines contain a number of recommendations as to best practice for antibody detection and crossmatching for the transplantation of a wide range of solid organs and tissues. These recommendations are briefly summarized in this article.
Used social network theory to analyze perceptions of the role played by social network members in the adjustment of African college students to British society. The composition of students' networks was largely other African students, and contact among them was dense. Students considered this contact supportive but sometimes stressful. Students'…
Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J
The British Thoracic Society guideline for the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules is published as a supplement to this edition of the journal. It provides recommendations for the management of an individual with single or multiple pulmonary nodules and is a comprehensive reference text.
King, P H
This paper describes certain aspects of the life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It attempts to highlight the reciprocity of the relationship between Melanie Klein and other members of that Society by showing how the climate of psychoanalytical opinion that was prevalent among members of that Society during the first decade of her stay in London, and which encouraged discussion of clinical work and interest in psychoanalytical discovery, provided a congenial setting for her to become firmly established as an active member of the British Society and to continue her contributions to psychoanalytic theory and clinical expertise. The paper also traces the development of Melanie Klein's main theoretical contributions, together with relevant criticisms of them as they emerged, against the background of the history of the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It describes the controversies that arose as to whether or not her ideas could properly be viewed within the framework of psychoanalytic theory, as formulated by Freud, and the attempted resolution of these controversies, together with some comments on the repercussions of these theoretical disagreements on relationships within the Society. An extensive list of references is included to facilitate a more detailed study of the subject.
Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence. A consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society, endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists
This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by
Set in 1912, the 3-act drama relates a celebration party in the prosperous Birling family for the engagement between Miss Birling and Mr. Gerald Croft, when it is interrupted by an unexpected visitor who addresses himself as"Inspector Goole". My essay details about character analyses of the family members through which one learns how the vices reflected in the family result in the tragedy and the looming collapse of British upper-class society.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of British Thoracic Society and American Thoracic Society guidelines for re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy after drug-induced liver injury, and to assess the ease of administration of each guideline on a scale of 1-10. Methods: The randomised prospective interventional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Pulmonology, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from December 2011 to November 2013. Patients with anti-tuberculous therapy drug-induced liver injury were selected. Hepatotoxic anti-tuberculous therapy was stopped and modified anti-tuberculous therapy was started. Patients were followed weekly till clinical and biochemical parameters got stabilised. After stabilisation, the patients were randomised to one of the two groups to receive re-introduction of anti-tuberculous therapy under the guidelines of British Thoracic Society (Group I) or those of American Thoracic Society (Group II). Means of the groups were analysed by Student's t test and proportions were compared by chi-square test. Multivariate analysis was done for age, body mass index and serum albumin for recurrence of drug-induced liver injury after the re-introduction. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Of the total 325 patients, 163(50.15%) were in Group I, while 162(49.84%) were in Group II. The frequency of recurrence of drug-induced liver injury in Group I was 16 (9.8%) and in Group II it was 18 (11.1%). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.7). Age was positively related with drug-induced liver injury, while body mass index and serum albumin were negatively associated. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between the two major guidelines though the American Thoracic Society guideline was easier to follow. (author)
Sánchez Bruni, Sergio F; Acosta, Gabriela B
Argentina Biomedical Science has been historically strong. The development of Human and Veterinary Pharmacology in our country as a pivotal discipline has been acknowledged worldwide because of the quality of its contributions. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology (SAFE) is a non- profit association whose research fields include Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. SAFE main goals are described as follow (a) To meet active researchers for studying concerns regarding Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology (b) To launch an initiative for development of the discipline in mainly our country and other collaborative countries worldwide (c) To spread the pharmacological know-how obtained from different research teams (d) To strengthen relations between pharmacologists (e) To facilitate the presentation and discussion of scientific papers. This current article shows the SAFE's more important scientific contribution to pharmacology through its former research scientists to the present. PMID:26816088
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Bai, Julio C; Biagi, Federico; Card, Timothy R; Ciacci, Carolina; Ciclitira, Paul J; Green, Peter H R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Holdoway, Anne; van Heel, David A; Kaukinen, Katri; Leffler, Daniel A; Leonard, Jonathan N; Lundin, Knut E A; McGough, Norma; Davidson, Mike; Murray, Joseph A; Swift, Gillian L; Walker, Marjorie M; Zingone, Fabiana; Sanders, David S
A multidisciplinary panel of 18 physicians and 3 non-physicians from eight countries (Sweden, UK, Argentina, Australia, Italy, Finland, Norway and the USA) reviewed the literature on diagnosis and management of adult coeliac disease (CD). This paper presents the recommendations of the British Society of Gastroenterology. Areas of controversies were explored through phone meetings and web surveys. Nine working groups examined the following areas of CD diagnosis and management: classification of CD; genetics and immunology; diagnostics; serology and endoscopy; follow-up; gluten-free diet; refractory CD and malignancies; quality of life; novel treatments; patient support; and screening for CD.
Aitkenhead, Matt; Baggs, Liz; Towers, Willie; Black, Helaina
During the IYS, the British Society of Soil Science is engaging in a large number of activities aimed at raising the awareness of soil within society. Regional Groups are organising Society participation in a number of events, a numberof which are large, annual events providing access to a mixed audience of stakeholders. The success of the Society in raising awareness in soil during the IYS will not lie solely in developing new events which take time and money to organise, advertise and host, but primarily in linking up with existing events that are already featured with the UK's annual calendar of trade shows, agricultural meetings and scientific conferences. Examples of such events include the Royal Highland Show in Edinburgh in June, the World Water Congress in May, and internationally Expo15 in Milan with other societies across Europe. In addition, BSSS is aware of many soil-related activities being organised by research organisations (e.g. Lancaster University, James Hutton Institute, CEH, University of Aberdeen) and is working with these organisations to provide a synergy of activities. This has the combined effects of reducing costs, increasing access to potential audiences and stakeholders, and avoiding overlap with events that were already organised. The IYS also finds BSSS one year on from their success in bidding to host the World Congress of Soil Science in 2022 in Glasgow. Activities by BSSS during 2015 are intended to develop a momentum towards this Congress and to raise awareness of British Soil Science and the Congress amongst industry, researchers, policymakers and the general public. This will provide a springboard for increasing sponsorship and funding for the World Congress, and will hopefully result in increased attendance and quality of experience for the delegates at the Congress.
One of the creations in building a learning-oriented society in the United Kingdom, the Industry University shoulders such a mission as applying new technologies to transform learning and transmit skills, thus it has been playing an im- portant role in those aspects like establishing a novel educational organizational model, stimulating greater needs for education, integrating educational resources, providing more educational opportunities, and disseminating culture of lifelong learning. British experience is of great inspiration to Chinese development of Open University based on its learning society construc- tion, for instance, 1） a common social resources platform shall be set up; 2） learning products shall meet learners＇ demands; 3） no efforts shall be spared to explore effective practical approaches conducive to learning; 4） learners＇ lifelong learning shall be combined with their personal development.
Hart, S R; Davidson, A C
To investigate the accuracy of clinical severity assessment of asthmatics and to compare emergency and subsequent ward management with British Thoracic Society (BTS) Guidelines, the records of all patients admitted for severe asthma (46) over a 5-month period to a District General Hospital were inspected. Variations from recommended management were revealed. Appropriate oxygen administration was often not provided in casually and patients frequently left hospital before their discharge criteria were attained: recommended diurnal variations in peak flow were exceeded in 26%. Eleven per cent of discharges were against medical advice, making provision of adequate management logistically difficult. Adherence to BTS guidelines on the need for arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis would have led to a failure to detect significant hypoxaemia in 25% of cases. This study identified substantial variations from BTS management guidelines. It is suggested that oximetry is necessary on arrival to guide selection for arterial blood gas analysis.
Barnes, Thomas R E
These guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology address the scope and targets of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenia. A consensus meeting, involving experts in schizophrenia and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from the participants and interested parties, and cover the pharmacological management and treatment of schizophrenia across the various stages of the illness, including first-episode, relapse prevention, and illness that has proved refractory to standard treatment. The practice recommendations presented are based on the available evidence to date, and seek to clarify which interventions are of proven benefit. It is hoped that the recommendations will help to inform clinical decision making for practitioners, and perhaps also serve as a source of information for patients and carers. They are accompanied by a more detailed qualitative review of the available evidence. The strength of supporting evidence for each recommendation is rated.
Eighteen abstracts of scientific papers are presented which were read at the Annual Meeting of the British Society of Neuroradiologists, held in Essex from 8-9 October 1993, dealing with the diagnostic evaluation of a variety of brain diseases. (orig.)
Towers, Willie; Allton, Kathryn; Hallett, Steve
The British Society for Soil Science (BSSS) http://www.soils.org.uk is an international membership organisation and UK based charity committed to promoting the study and profession of soil science in its widest aspects. The Society is committed to reaching out to the public at large to educate and inform on the importance of soils to us all. The Society has adopted a range of approaches to soil education, tailored to the needs and aims of different audience types. We have developed the 'Working with Soil' initiative http://www.soilscientist.org/workingwithsoil which provides practicing soil scientists and potential funders with a set of professional competencies aligned to specific aspects of work. From 2013 The Society has developed a program of courses aligned to these documents aimed at meeting the professional development needs of those undertaking such work. So far these have focused on fundamentals of field characterisation, sampling and mapping which have been very well received, especially by early career practitioners who have had less exposure to field work. We have also produced posters and leaflets that demonstrate a range of soil functions which support human society, for example 'Soils in the City' and 'Soils of Britain'. These were originally developed in a more traditional formal style. The materials have also proved popular with local authorities, regional horticultural clubs and higher education establishments, notably agricultural colleges where they have been used to support student learning in both timetabled and project work. We have subsequently produced a further set of materials aimed at a much younger audience. We deliberately chose slightly quirkier names for these, for example 'Soils and Time Travel' and 'Soils and Spaceship Earth' as a hook to capture the child's imagination. These were designed by a specialist company who used a less formal language, the use of cartoons and alternative images and a wider range of font styles and sizes
Macdonald, Lee T
Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'. PMID:26256312
Clark, A T; Skypala, I; Leech, S C; Ewan, P W; Dugué, P; Brathwaite, N; Huber, P A J; Nasser, S M
This guideline advises on the management of patients with egg allergy. Most commonly, egg allergy presents in infancy, with a prevalence of approximately 2% in children and 0.1% in adults. A clear clinical history and the detection of egg white-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay) will confirm the diagnosis in most cases. Egg avoidance advice is the cornerstone of management. Egg allergy often resolves and re-introduction can be achieved at home if reactions have been mild and there is no asthma. Patients with a history of severe reactions or asthma should have reintroduction guided by a specialist. All children with egg allergy should receive measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. Influenza and yellow fever vaccines should only be considered in egg-allergic patients under the guidance of an allergy specialist. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for allergists and others with a special interest in allergy. The recommendations are evidence-based but where evidence was lacking consensus was reached by the panel of specialists on the committee. The document encompasses epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and co-morbid associations.
Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of implantable cardiac electronic device infection. Report of a joint Working Party project on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC, host organization), British Heart Rhythm Society (BHRS), British Cardiovascular Society (BCS), British Heart Valve Society (BHVS) and British Society for Echocardiography (BSE).
Sandoe, Jonathan A T; Barlow, Gavin; Chambers, John B; Gammage, Michael; Guleri, Achyut; Howard, Philip; Olson, Ewan; Perry, John D; Prendergast, Bernard D; Spry, Michael J; Steeds, Richard P; Tayebjee, Muzahir H; Watkin, Richard
Infections related to implantable cardiac electronic devices (ICEDs), including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices, are increasing in incidence in the USA and are likely to increase in the UK, because more devices are being implanted. These devices have both intravascular and extravascular components and infection can involve the generator, device leads and native cardiac structures or various combinations. ICED infections can be life-threatening, particularly when associated with endocardial infection, and all-cause mortality of up to 35% has been reported. Like infective endocarditis, ICED infections can be difficult to diagnose and manage. This guideline aims to (i) improve the quality of care provided to patients with ICEDs, (ii) provide an educational resource for all relevant healthcare professionals, (iii) encourage a multidisciplinary approach to ICED infection management, (iv) promote a standardized approach to the diagnosis, management, surveillance and prevention of ICED infection through pragmatic evidence-rated recommendations, and (v) advise on future research projects/audit. The guideline is intended to assist in the clinical care of patients with suspected or confirmed ICED infection in the UK, to inform local infection prevention and treatment policies and guidelines and to be used in the development of educational and training material by the relevant professional societies. The questions covered by the guideline are presented at the beginning of each section.
Sheen, Aali J; Stephenson, B. M.; Lloyd, D. M., Coates, A., Knopp, J., Oram, S., & Rowbotham, S.; Robinson, P.; Fevre, D; Paajanen, H.; de Beaux, A; Kingsnorth, A.; Gilmore, O. J.; Bennett, D; Maclennan, I; O'Dwyer, P; Sanders, D.; Kurzer, M.
Introduction The aim was to produce a multidisciplinary consensus to determine the current position on the nomenclature, definition, diagnosis, imaging modalities and management of Sportsman's groin (SG). Methods Experts in the diagnosis and management of SG were invited to participate in a consensus conference held by the British Hernia Society in Manchester, UK on 11–12 October 2012. Experts included a physiotherapist, a musculoskeletal radiologist and surgeons with a proven track recor...
This paper records some of the important changes that have been forced on British universities regarding performance and accountability. It also proposes an analysis of postindustrialism, relating it briefly to the modernity/postmodernity debate. Finally, some positive conclusions concerning the future role of the university are provided. (GLR)
Full Text Available Argues that the connection between political fragmentation and offshore financial services illustrate an increasingly common vision of the political and economic future among leaders of the British Caribbean who seek to carve out a place for their countries and territories in the new global economy. Their success is based on standing outside regional federations and providing services to parties wishing to conduct business between or around economic blocs.
Hancock, P; Woodward, B J; Muneer, A; Kirkman-Brown, J C
Post-vasectomy semen analysis (PVSA) is the procedure used to establish whether sperm are present in the semen following a vasectomy. PVSA is presently carried out by a wide variety of individuals, ranging from doctors and nurses in general practitioner (GP) surgeries to specialist scientists in andrology laboratories, with highly variable results.Key recommendations are that: (1) PVSA should take place a minimum of 12 weeks after surgery and after a minimum of 20 ejaculations. (2) Laboratories should routinely examine samples within 4 h of production if assessing for the presence of sperm. If non-motile sperm are observed, further samples must be examined within 1 h of production. (3) Assessment of a single sample is acceptable to confirm vasectomy success if all recommendations and laboratory methodology are met and no sperm are observed. Clearance can then be given. (4) The level for special clearance should be methods contained within these guidelines. Surgeons are responsible both preoperatively and postoperatively for the counselling of patients and their partners regarding complications and the possibility of late recanalisation after clearance. These 2016 guidelines replace the 2002 British Andrology Society (BAS) laboratory guidelines and should be regarded as definitive for the UK in the provision of a quality PVSA service, accredited to ISO 15189:2012, as overseen by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). PMID:27083211
Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo; Billings, Mark
This article explores the manipulation of published financial reports in order to counter the potentially unfavourable impact of newly introduced regulation. In this case the reported capital ratio of a major building society was enhanced using a sale and leaseback transaction with a related party and a change in depreciation policy, methods which reflected limited alternatives. Analysis of the case is set in the context of the mid-term performance of the building society sector and address...
Ashbee, H. Ruth; Barnes, Rosemary A.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Malcolm D.; Gorton, Rebecca; Hope, William W.
The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the...
Hill, Adam T; Pasteur, Mark; Cornford, Charles; Welham, Sally; Bilton, Diana
The British Thoracic Society (BTS) has recently published a guideline for the management of non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis in children and adults. This paper summarises the key recommendations applicable to the primary care setting. The key points are: • Think of the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in adults and children who present with a chronic productive cough or unexplained haemoptysis, and in children with asthma which responds poorly to treatment; • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning is needed to confirm the diagnosis • Sputum culture should be obtained at the start of an exacerbation prior to initiating treatment with antibiotics; Treatment should be started whilst awaiting the sputum result and should be continued for 14 days; • Patients with bronchiectasis have significant morbidity. Management in primary care is aimed at improving morbidity, and includes; patient education, treatment and monitoring, as well as appropriate referral to secondary care including assessment for long term antibiotics.
Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel
Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…
Russell, Richard Kay; Wilson, Michelle L.; Loganathan, Sabarinathan; Bourke, Billy; Kiparissi, Fevrionia; Torrente, Franco; Mahdi, Gamal; Rodrigues, Astor; Thomas, Adrian; Akobeng, Anthony Kwaku; Fagbemi, Andrew; Hyer, Warren; Spray, Christine; McGrogan, Paraic; Heuschkel, Rob B
Abstract Background: Adalimumab is efficacious therapy for adults with Crohn?s disease (CD). Aim: To summarise the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland paediatric adalimumab experience. Methods: British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN) members with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients
The 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society covered numerous topics of educational and practical research interest. Biopolymers - the theme of the keynote address - were presented as essential components of medical devices, diagnostic tools, biosensors, human tissue engineering and pharmaceutical formulations for optimized drug delivery. Toxicology and SP investigators - the topic of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture - were encouraged to collaborate in the development of SP technologies and protocols applicable to toxicology studies. Pharmaceutical companies, originally organizations bearing all risks for developing their portfolios, are increasingly moving towards fully integrated networks which outsource core activities (including SP studies) to large contract research organizations. Future nonclinical data are now expected to be of such high quality and predictability power that they may obviate the need for certain expensive and time-consuming clinical investigations. In this context, SP is called upon to extend its risk assessment purview to areas which currently are not systematically covered, such as drug-induced QRS interval prolongation, negative emotions and feelings (e.g., depression), and minor chronic cardiovascular and metabolic changes (e.g., as produced by drugs for type 2 diabetes) which can be responsible for delayed morbidity and mortality. The recently approved ICH S9 guidance relaxes the traditional regulatory SP package in order to accelerate the clinical access to anticancer drugs for patients with advanced malignancies. The novel FDA 'Animal Rule' guidance proposes that for clinical candidates with well-understood toxicities, marketing approval may be granted exclusively on efficacy data generated in animal studies as human clinical investigations for these types of drugs are either unfeasible or unethical. In conclusion, the core messages of this meeting are that SP should consistently operate according to the 'fit
This meeting is being hosted by Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle, 20-22 April 2016 at The Sage, Gateshead. The full abstracts of the platform presentations are followed by the titles of those submissions accepted as posters. The order of abstracts is that of presentation. These papers are 'published in advance of the meeting. If any papers are subsequently withdrawn or not read to the society, an addendum to this effect will be published in the next issue of the journal. PMID:27045549
Dargie Henry J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The indications, complexity and capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR have rapidly expanded. Whether actual service provision and training have developed in parallel is unknown. Methods We undertook a systematic telephone and postal survey of all public hospitals on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to identify all CMR providers within the United Kingdom. Results Of the 60 CMR centres identified, 88% responded to a detailed questionnaire. Services are led by cardiologists and radiologists in equal proportion, though the majority of current trainees are cardiologists. The mean number of CMR scans performed annually per centre increased by 44% over two years. This trend was consistent across centres of different scanning volumes. The commonest indication for CMR was assessment of heart failure and cardiomyopathy (39%, followed by coronary artery disease and congenital heart disease. There was striking geographical variation in CMR availability, numbers of scans performed, and distribution of trainees. Centres without on site scanning capability refer very few patients for CMR. Just over half of centres had a formal training programme, and few performed regular audit. Conclusion The number of CMR scans performed in the UK has increased dramatically in just two years. Trainees are mainly located in large volume centres and enrolled in cardiology as opposed to radiology training programmes.
Baldwin, DS; Anderson, IM; Nutt, DJ; Bandelow, B; Bond, A; Davidson, JRT; den Boer, JA; Fineberg, NA; Knapp, M; Scott, J; Wittchen, HU
These British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines cover the range and aims of treatment for anxiety disorders. They are based explicitly on the available evidence and are presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision making in primary and secondary medical care. They may also serve
Moulin, DE; Boulanger, A; AJ Clark; Clarke, H.; Dao, T; GA Finley; Furlan, A.; Gilron, I; Gordon, A.; PK Morley-Forster; BJ Sessle; Squire, P; Stinson, J; Taenzer, P.; Velly, A
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain (NeP), redefined as pain caused by a lesion or a disease of the somatosensory system, is a disabling condition that affects approximately two million Canadians. OBJECTIVE: To review the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews related to the pharmacological management of NeP to develop a revised evidence-based consensus statement on its management. METHODS: RCTs, systematic reviews and existing guidelines on the pharmacological management of NeP ...
Endoscopy in patients on antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, including direct oral anticoagulants: British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guidelines
Veitch, Andrew M; Vanbiervliet, Geoffroy; Gershlick, Anthony H; Boustiere, Christian; Baglin, Trevor P; Smith, Lesley-Ann; Radaelli, Franco; Knight, Evelyn; Gralnek, Ian M; Hassan, Cesare; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc
The risk of endoscopy in patients on antithrombotics depends on the risks of procedural haemorrhage versus thrombosis due to discontinuation of therapy. P2Y12 receptor antagonists (clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) For low-risk endoscopic procedures we recommend continuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists as single or dual antiplatelet therapy (low quality evidence, strong recommendation); For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at low thrombotic risk, we recommend discontinuing P2Y12 receptor antagonists five days before the procedure (moderate quality evidence, strong recommendation). In patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, we suggest continuing aspirin (low quality evidence, weak recommendation). For high-risk endoscopic procedures in patients at high thrombotic risk, we recommend continuing aspirin and liaising with a cardiologist about the risk/benefit of discontinuation of P2Y12 receptor antagonists (high quality evidence, strong recommendation). Warfarin The advice for warfarin is fundamentally unchanged from British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) 2008 guidance. Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOAC) For low-risk endoscopic procedures we suggest omitting the morning dose of DOAC on the day of the procedure (very low quality evidence, weak recommendation); For high-risk endoscopic procedures, we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken ≥48 h before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). For patients on dabigatran with CrCl (or estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) of 30–50 mL/min we recommend that the last dose of DOAC be taken 72 h before the procedure (very low quality evidence, strong recommendation). In any patient with rapidly deteriorating renal function a haematologist should be consulted (low quality evidence, strong recommendation). PMID:26873868
Evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder : A revision of the 2005 guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology
Baldwin, David S.; Anderson, Ian M.; Nutt, David J.; Allgulander, Christer; Bandelow, Borwin; den Boer, Johan A.; Christmas, David M.; Davies, Simon; Fineberg, Naomi; Lidbetter, Nicky; Malizia, Andrea; McCrone, Paul; Nabarro, Daniel; O'Neill, Catherine; Scott, Jan; van der Wee, Nic; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich
This revision of the 2005 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the evidence-based pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders provides an update on key steps in diagnosis and clinical management, including recognition, acute treatment, longer-term treatment, combination treat
32nd Annual Conference of the Gesellschaft für Klassifikation e.V., Joint Conference with the British Classification Society (BCS) and the Dutch/Flemish Classification Society (VOC), Helmut-Schmidt-University
Lausen, Berthold; Seidel, Wilfried; Ultsch, Alfred
Data Analysis, Data Handling and Business Intelligence are research areas at the intersection of computer science, artificial intelligence, mathematics, and statistics. They cover general methods and techniques that can be applied to a vast set of applications such as in marketing, finance, economics, engineering, linguistics, archaeology, musicology, medical science, and biology. This volume contains the revised versions of selected papers presented during the 32nd Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (Gesellschaft für Klassifikation, GfKl). The conference, which was organized in cooperation with the British Classification Society (BCS) and the Dutch/Flemish Classification Society (VOC), was hosted by Helmut-Schmidt-University, Hamburg, Germany, in July 2008.
Positive attitudes toward sex offenders can lead to favourable treatment outcomes and with psychology students being among the most likely graduates to move into offender rehabilitation, it is important to investigate the attitudes of this group. Students from British psychology and non-psychology courses read vignettes depicting an adult and a juvenile committing a contact sexual offence on a child, and completed modified versions of the attitudes towards sex offenders [ATS] questionnaire. T...
José A.G. eAgúndez
Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the consensus view on the use of qualifying biomarkers in drug safety, raised within the frame of the XXIV meeting of the Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology held in Málaga (Spain in October, 2011.The widespread use of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is a goal that scientists have long been pursuing. Thirty years ago, when molecular pharmacogenomics evolved, we anticipated that these genetic biomarkers would soon obviate the routine use of drug therapies in a way that patients should adapt to the therapy rather than the opposite. This expected revolution in routine clinical practice never took place as quickly nor with the intensity as initially expected.The concerted action of operating multicenter networks holds great promise for future studies to identify biomarkers related to drug toxicity and to provide better insight into the underlying pathogenesis. Today some pharmacogenomic advances are already widely accepted, but pharmacogenomics still needs further development to elaborate more precise algorithms and many barriers to implementing individualized medicine exist. We briefly discuss our view about these barriers and we provide suggestions and areas of focus to advance in the field.
Summers, R J
This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the eighth in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G protein coupled receptors (MPGPCR) held as part of a joint meeting with the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists (ASCEPT) in Melbourne Australia from 7 to 11 December 2014. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.20/issuetoc.
The conference, titled “Towards an information society for all:an European perspective” has been an interesting occasion for a comparison at an European Level for information specialists committed to different areas, from documentation to training, from libraries to technologies, from economies to institutions, and allowed to focus on aspects related to information society seen from the point of view of people dealing with information services management, at different levels and names. In the...
The Council of the British Society for the Study of Infection (BSSI) has considered the present and future role of the Consultant Physician with an interest in infection. The BSSI is anxious to set standards and improve the quality of care delivered to patients with infection; to give advice on the prevention and management of infection and to provide such services economically to assist Health Managers in the purchase of infection-related medical services appropriate to the needs of the community they serve. New approaches to the care of infected patients are reviewed where the Clinical Specialist, Microbiologist and Consultant in Communicable Disease Control (CCDC)--in Scotland, Consultant in Public Health Medicine (CPHM)--work together in a team. As the U.K. moves closer to its European partners in 1992, it seems timely for each specialty to make a clear statement about its training programme and the requirements expected of a fully trained Consultant in each discipline. Comparisons between the ratio of Consultants with a special interest in infection and the population are made, where known, between U.K. and other European countries. A model job description for the U.K. clinical specialist is therefore being made available, the present inadequate numbers of consultants are stated and recommendations made to expand urgently the number of Consultant Physicians with an interest in infection.
Austin, Rupert; Eliyas, Shiyana; Burke, F J Trevor; Taylor, Phil; Toner, James; Briggs, Peter
In 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury called for a global phase-down of amalgam use, with a view to reduce environmental mercury pollution. This will significantly impact UK dentistry, given the still extensive use of amalgam in U.K. general dental practice. However, until now there has been little national discussion or debate. In Spring 2015, The British Society of Prosthodontics dedicated a significant part of its Annual Conference to debating the implications of this issue. Clinical case examples were discussed with audience interaction and voting facilitated using innovative Audience Response System Technology. A remarkable range of concerns and opinions were given. The debate elicited specific concerns amongst clinicians regarding the suitability of mercury-free alternatives to amalgam; particularly where cavities are large and extend beneath the gingival anatomy. There are also anecdotal reports of Dental Foundation (DF) dentists not being adequately taught the use of dental amalgam in undergraduate dental schools. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Many clinicians, especially those treating patients for whom moisture control is challenging, feel that amalgam should remain available for clinicians to choose in certain clinical circumstances for the restoration of posterior teeth, even in the event of a complete phase-down. PMID:27024898
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones en rehabilitación respiratoria (ReR, planteadas por la British Thoracic Society (BTS en pacientes con fibrosis quística (FQ se realizó un estudio transversal entre 224 fisioterapeutas colombianos para identificar el tipo de intervenciones y las características de los programas de ReR como componentes del cumplimiento de las guías clínicas basadas en la evidencia de la BTS. Un elevado porcentaje de profesionales respondieron “realizar siempre” intervenciones con alto nivel de evidencia (grado A como: técnicas de higiene bronquial (54,0% y ciclo activo de la respiración (35,3%. Se observaron también intervenciones con menor grado de recomendación (grado D como: uso de solución salina hipertónica y broncodilatador para evitar el broncoespasmo (33,9%, y técnicas de terapia manual o ejercicios de movilidad torácica y resistida (38,4% para corregir problemas posturales y respiratorios. En conclusión, se encontraron importantes discrepancias con las intervenciones y componentes sugeridos por BTS en pacientes con FQ.
Austin, Rupert; Eliyas, Shiyana; Burke, F J Trevor; Taylor, Phil; Toner, James; Briggs, Peter
In 2013, the Minamata Convention on Mercury called for a global phase-down of amalgam use, with a view to reduce environmental mercury pollution. This will significantly impact UK dentistry, given the still extensive use of amalgam in U.K. general dental practice. However, until now there has been little national discussion or debate. In Spring 2015, The British Society of Prosthodontics dedicated a significant part of its Annual Conference to debating the implications of this issue. Clinical case examples were discussed with audience interaction and voting facilitated using innovative Audience Response System Technology. A remarkable range of concerns and opinions were given. The debate elicited specific concerns amongst clinicians regarding the suitability of mercury-free alternatives to amalgam; particularly where cavities are large and extend beneath the gingival anatomy. There are also anecdotal reports of Dental Foundation (DF) dentists not being adequately taught the use of dental amalgam in undergraduate dental schools. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Many clinicians, especially those treating patients for whom moisture control is challenging, feel that amalgam should remain available for clinicians to choose in certain clinical circumstances for the restoration of posterior teeth, even in the event of a complete phase-down.
Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care.
Pitcher, David; Soar, Jasmeet; Hogg, Karen; Linker, Nicholas; Chapman, Simon; Beattie, James M; Jones, Sue; George, Robert; McComb, Janet; Glancy, James; Patterson, Gordon; Turner, Sheila; Hampshire, Susan; Lockey, Andrew; Baker, Tracey; Mitchell, Sarah
The Resuscitation Council (UK), the British Cardiovascular Society (including the British Heart Rhythm Society and the British Society for Heart Failure) and the National Council for Palliative Care recognise the importance of providing clear and consistent guidance on management of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices (CIEDs) towards the end of life, during cardiorespiratory arrest and after death. This document has been developed to provide guidance for the full range of healthcare professionals who may encounter people with CIEDs in the situations described and for healthcare managers and commissioners. The authors recognise that some patients and people close to patients may also wish to refer to this document. It is intended as an initial step to help to ensure that people who have CIEDs, or are considering implantation of one, receive explanation of and understand the practical implications and decisions that this entails; to promote a good standard of care and service provision for people in the UK with CIEDs in the circumstances described; to offer relevant ethical and legal guidance on this topic; to offer guidance on the delivery of services in relation to deactivation of CIEDs where appropriate; to offer guidance on whether any special measures are needed when a person with a CIED receives cardiopulmonary resuscitation; and to offer guidance on the actions needed when a person with a CIED dies. PMID:27277710
分析和研究中国女性的主体意识受英美文学中新女性形象的影响，及其在构建和谐社会中所体现的作用，并阐述了深度发展女性主体意识的途径。%The profound influence of the new women＇s image in British and American literature on Chinese women＇s subjective consciousness are analyzed and studied, as well as its role in construction of harmonious society. The ways to accelerate the development of such a society are expounded.
Full Text Available Mikhail Y Ledyaev, Olga V Stepanova, Anastasia M Ledyaeva Department of Pediatric Disease, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, Russian Federation Background: Automatic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM is a basic procedure performed in adults with arterial hypertension, but ABPM monitors have become widely used in pediatric practice only recently. The main problem is the lack of common normative data sets for ABPM in children and the small number of appropriate monitors that can be used for analysis of the 24-hour BP profile in this age group. The aim of this study was to validate the BPLab® ABPM monitor according to the 1993 British Hypertension Society (BHS-93 protocol, as well as to work out solutions regarding the feasibility of this device in pediatric practice. Methods: Our study included 30 children of both sexes and aged 5–15 years, ie, “older” children according to the BHS-93 protocol. Before starting the study, we obtained ethical approval from the regional scientific ethics committee. All participants and their parents signed their written consent for participation in the study. The data were simultaneously obtained by three experts, who had completed a noninvasive BP measurement training course. BP values were measured using the Korotkoff auscultatory method (Phase I for systolic BP and Phase V for diastolic BP. Discrepancies in the systolic and diastolic BP measurements (n=180; 90 for each expert were analyzed according to the criteria specified in the BHS-93 protocol. Results: The device was graded “A” for both systolic BP and diastolic BP according to the criteria of the BHS-93 protocol. Conclusion: The BPLab ABPM device may be recommended for extensive pediatric use. Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, children, device, validation
Nelson, Christopher J; Ausió, Juan
The 55th Annual Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences Conference on Epigenetics and Genomic Stability in Whistler, Canada, 14-18 March 2012, brought together 31 speakers from different nationalities. The organizing committee, led by Jim Davie (Chair) at the University of Manitoba (Manitoba, Canada), consisted of several established researchers in the fields of chromatin and epigenetics from across Canada. The meeting was centered on the contribution of epigenetics to gene expression, DNA damage and repair, and the role of environmental factors. A few interesting talks on replication added some insightful information on the controversial issue of histone post-translational modifications as genuine epigenetic marks that are inherited through cell division.
Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang
The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...... guidelines and governance practices. The case captures the intricacies of corporate management and provides a realistic overview of the complexities that often surround leadership approaches and executive decisions. Hence, it can be used in various graduate and executive courses in strategic management......, leadership development and corporate governance that all grapple with issues of responsible ethical behaviour. This case is part of the CBS free case collection (visit www.thecasecentre.org/CBSfreecases for more information on the collection). This case can be downloaded by educators as a clean pdf...
There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...
Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...
Full Text Available In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.
Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn
Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...
During the British election campaign of 2010, David Cameron produced the idea of the ‘Big Society’ as a cornerstone of his political agenda. At the core of the idea is a stronger civil society and local community coupled with a more withdrawn government. Although many commentators have dismissed thi
With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.
Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.
Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet
At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.
Marriott, R. A.
The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.
Forrester, Keith P.
British trade unions' engagement in workplace learning is currently shaped by discourses of globalization and the learning society. Unions' workplace learning representatives appear more focused on uncritical acceptance of learning for employability and less on learning for active citizenship and workplace democracy. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)
@@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.
Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts.
Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.
Owen L WOODMAN; Agnes E DODDS; Albert G FRAUMAN; Mosepele MOSEPELE
The world-wide move away from the didactic teaching of single disciples to integrated Problem-based Learning (PBL) curricula in medical education has posed challenges for the basic sciences. In this paper we identify two major challenges. The first challenge is the need to describe a core disciplinary curriculum that can be articulated and mapped onto the new structure. We illustrate how the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) Guidelines are used to evaluate the curriculum coverage in the medical course at The University of Melbourne. The second challenge is to ensure that foundational concepts are given adequate emphasis within the new structure, and in particular, that students have the opportunity to pursue these concepts in their self-directed learning. We illustrate one approach to teaching important pharmacological concepts in an integrated curriculum with a case study from the first year curriculum at The University of Melbourne. Finally, we propose the features of an integrated curriculum that facilitates the learning of basic pharmacology in a situation where PBL and integration sets the curriculum framework.
During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.
Montt, Cristóbal; Maas, Ineke
In this article, we study the occupational careers of British men during industrialisation. We ask whether careers became more successful during industrialisation and whether British society became more open.Using the Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories dataset we analysed the career of 6229
Pugsley, M. K.; Authier, S; Curtis, M J
Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. Thi...
Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...
This thesis argues that James Mill's History of British India is, on the one hand, intellectually linked to the Scottish Enlightenment, while, on the other hand, moves beyond that intellectual tradition in the post-French Revolution age. This thesis makes three central claims. First, it argues that in reacting to Montesqueiu's idea of oriental society, the contributors to the Scottish Enlightenment used ideas of moral philosophy, philosophical history and political economy in o...
Odams, H. J. R. (Helen Jean Rachel)
The title of this thesis is 'British Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire (1876-1908). The thesis explores the 'cultural dimension1 of relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain in this period, involving an examination of ideas about and representations of Ottoman society and its peoples. The overall aim is to stress the importance of these representations in in influencing and affecting relations between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Nineteenth-century writings about the...
Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.
Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...
Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.
Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J
Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE. PMID:22617368
Maickel, R. P.
The expertise and facilities available within the Medical Sciences Program section on Pharmacology were used along with informational input from various NASA sources to study areas relevant to the manned space effort. Topics discussed include effects of drugs on deprivation-induced fluid consumption, brain biogenic amines, biochemical responses to stressful stimuli, biochemical and behavioral pharmacology of amphetamines, biochemical and pharmacological studies of analogues to biologically active indole compounds, chemical pharmacology: drug metabolism and disposition, toxicology, and chemical methodology. Appendices include a bibliography, and papers submitted for publication or already published.
Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs
Abdel-Hady, Zakaryya Mohamed [زكريا محمد عبد الهادي
The Muslim community in Britain today face multiple challenges covering a wide range of spectrum from the basic right to exists, fighting the increasing trends of Islamophobia, having equal opportunities, to participate in public life, fully integrate within the society and be a positive member of the community. The recent events of September 11th in the US, July 7th in UK and the more recent row over the ban of the headscarf in UK and other European countries have placed tremendous challenge...
Chemical and Engineering News, 1973
Discusses the development and future of Prophet,'' a specialized information handling system for pharmacology research. It is designed to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge about mechanisms of drug action, and it is hoped that it will aid in converting pharmacology research from an empirical to a predictive science. (JR)
Shaw, David H.; And Others
Pharmacology embraces the physical and chemical properties of drugs; the preparation of pharmaceutical agents; the absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs; and the effects of drugs on living systems. These guidelines represent a consensus on what would constitute a minimally acceptable pharmacology course for predoctoral dental students. (MLW)
Science writer, historian and administrator J.G. Crowther (1899-1983) had an uneasy relationship with the BBC during the 1920s and 1930s, and was regarded with suspicion by the British security services because of his left politics. Nevertheless the Second World War saw him working for 'establishment' institutions. He was closely associated with the BBC's Overseas Service and employed by the British Council's Science Committee. Both organizations found Crowther useful because of his wide, international knowledge of science and scientists. Crowther's political views, and his international aspirations for the British Council's Science Committee, increasingly embroiled him in an institutional conflict with the Royal Society and with its president, Sir Henry Dale, who was also chairman of the British Council's Science Committee. The conflict centred on the management of international scientific relations, a matter close Crowther's heart, and to Dale's. Dale considered that the formal conduct of international scientific relations was the Royal Society's business rather than the British Council's. Crowther disagreed, and eventually resigned from the British Council Science Committee in 1946. The article expands knowledge of Crowther by drawing on archival documents to elucidate a side of his career that is only lightly touched on in his memoirs. It shows that 'Crowther's war' was also an institutional war between the Science Committee of the British Council and the Royal Society. Crowther's unhappy experience of interference by the Royal Society plausibly accounts for a retreat from his pre-war view that institutional science should plan and manage BBC science broadcasts. PMID:27076038
Channer, K S
The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...
Marshall, Margaret R.
British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)
Soans, Hanno, 1974-
1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).
Christopher Porterfield; Rohit Malhotra
Full Text Available Treatment of atrial fibrillation has evolved significantly in the last ten years, with ablation becoming a far more common form of treatment for this most common of arrhythmias. However, while ablation has become more common, certain populations derive continued benefit from the use of pharmacologic therapy for treatment. We review the use of pharmacologic therapy and novel considerations for treatment of atrial fibrillation.
WEI Zhi-quan; DENG Jia-gang; YAN Li
Mango leaves have been widely used in the clinical practice for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.Mangiferin,an effective constituent in the mango leaves,has multiple pharmacological actions involved in some basic pathological processes,such as inflammation,oxidative injury,tumor growth,micro-organism infections,metabolic regulations,and immunological regulations.The pharmacological effects of mangiferin from some published data are reviewed in this article.
Passie, Torsten; Seifert, Juergen; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M
Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.
Working from a feminist/critical cultural studies perspective, which perceives culture and society as imbued with political tensions, I pose two central questions in this article. First, how can community-based, consumer activism be understood as a strategy adopted by marginalised groups to assert rights claims? I focus on British women's…
Richman, Barbara T.
Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.
British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring
Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.
Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.
Ferreira, Joana Lima; Wipf, Joyce E
Anticoagulants are beneficial for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The development of target-specific oral anticoagulants is changing the landscape of anticoagulation therapy and created growing interest on this subject. Understanding the pharmacology of different anticoagulants is the first step to adequately treat patients with best available therapy while avoiding serious bleeding complications. This article reviews the pharmacology of the main anticoagulant classes (vitamin K antagonists, direct oral anticoagulants, and heparins) and their clinical indications based on evidence-based data currently available in the literature. PMID:27235611
This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs
Cosentino, Marco; Marino, Franca
The Second Insubria Autumn School on Neuroimmune Pharmacology was held at the University of Insubria in Varese (Italy) in November 16th-20th 2015, under the auspices of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology, the Italian Society of Pharmacology, and the Italian Association for Neuroimmunology. The School was dedicated to the repurposing of established drugs for novel indications, considering the enormous opportunities for drug repositioning provided by the prominent innovative and interdisciplinary approaches peculiar to neuroimmune pharmacology. More than 40 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows from 12 european universities, research institutes and hospitals attended the School, and lectures were given by 20 internationally acknowledged experts in the fields of basic and clinical neurosciences, immunology, and pharmacology. A poster session provided young researchers the opportunity to present their results, and the best poster was given the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology Young Investigator Award. PMID:26670166
This paper examines the relevance of laboratory models of drug abuse to drug taking in human societies, and discusses their significance relative to other explanatory frameworks. It argues that self-administration models are poor predictors of the prevalence of drug taking, and offer an inadequate basis for both explanation and intervention. Non-pharmacological factors that may be of greater importance derive from social perspectives (notably economic and market factors, socio-economic conditions, and cultural and subcultural processes) and psychological approaches (individual, social learning, cognitive and developmental). It is concluded that drug abuse should be understood within the same framework of explanation as other human behaviour and sentiment, having major cultural, social and cognitive dimensions as well as the strictly behavioural and pharmacological.
Systemic sepsis continues to be the most-difficult management problem in caring for the combat casualty. The complications of sepsis pervade all areas of injury to soldiers in the field, whether it is mechanical (missiles), thermal (burns), chemical, biological, or radiation injury. With the advent of tactical nuclear weapons, the problem of sepsis will be much higher in future wars than has previously been experienced through the world. The purpose of this chapter is a) to review the data suggesting pharmacological agents that may benefit the septic patient, and b) to emphasize the adjunctive therapies that should be explored in clinical trials. The pharmacological management of sepsis remains controversial. Most of the drugs utilized clinically treat the symptoms of the disease and are not necessarily directed at fundamental mechanisms that are known to be present in sepsis. A broad data base is emerging, indicating that NSAID should be used in human clinical trials. Prostaglandins are sensitive indicators of cellular injury and may be mediators for a number of vasoactive chemicals. Opiate antagonists and calcium channel blockers require more in-depth data; however, recent studies generate excitement for their potential use in the critically ill patient. Pharmacological effects of antibiotics, in concert with other drugs, suggest an entirely new approach to pharmacological treatment in sepsis. There is no doubt that new treatment modalities or adjunctive therapies must be utilized to alter the poor prognosis of severe sepsis that we have observed in the past 4 decades.
Hansen, Tom Giedsing
Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...
Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai
This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.
Olga Lidia Cuevas Pérez
Full Text Available Today there are countless examples that illustrate the nature of technoscience, including biotechnology and pharmacology. The clinical trial is the appropriate methodology used by clinical pharmacology to test the efficacy and safety of a treatment or intervention in humans. It constitutes the cornerstone of research. Once the preclinical research is completed, one of the biggest challenges currently facing the Cuban Pharmaceutical and Biotechnological Industry is precisely the clinical evaluation. Therefore, this work aims to provide a reflection on the most significant aspects of clinical trials and their impact on society.
Stone, J L
nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.
Singh, Basil R.
Explores the place of minority rights within two liberal societies, focusing on immigrants from former French and British colonies, by examining two court cases that address cultural and religious expression (wearing cultural/religious attire in schools). Examines how the societies' procedures and ideologies resulted in different outcomes for…
... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed,'' imported... that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the Yale Center for British Art, New...
Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan
This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists. PMID:22670644
Past research has neglected second generation onward immigrant families in Britain as they further acculturate into host society culture, as well as the experiences of majority ethnic-group families in relation to second generation immigrant families. The central focus of this study was an in-depth assessment of the similarities and differences in parenting practices, parent-child relationships, child psychological adjustment and parental social experiences in British-born Indian, Pakistani a...
Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.
An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.
Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume
Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation. PMID:24510755
Dodson, Charles Brooks
The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…
Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney
Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…
Linkin, Harriet Kramer
Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…
British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn＇t self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c
Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.
Leucht, S; Heres, S; Kissling, W; Davis, J M
We present the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia based on a simple algorithm that starts with the most important decisions starting from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and ends with maintenance treatment. It represents experts opinions, a formal guideline development process was not followed. Concerning acute treatment we present recommendations for the choice of drug in acutely patients, the treatment of agitated patients, persistent depression, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. Concerning maintenance treatment with antipsychotics we discuss indication, choice of drug, continuous versus intermittent treatment, duration of relapse prevention and dose.
The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...
He, Fu-yuan; He, Hong; Deng, Kai-wen; Zhou, Yi-qun; Shi, Ji-lian; Liu, Wen-long; Yang, Yan-tao; Tang, Yu
The paper, based on the previous publication as special impact of Chinese medicine theories on supramolcular chemistry, aims to analyze the natural origination for the Chinese medicine and to explain the special impact of "Qi chromatography" reaction on "imprinting templates" in supramolcular host of human being with Chinese medicine, in order to reveal the CM's properties of "medical element" with "imprinting templates" autonomisation generally took place in natural supramolecules, and also to discover that the CM's pharmacology are satisfied with its own approaches different form western pharmacology. It was decided, for CM's pharmacology guided by CM's theories, to "Qi chromatography" relations between the CM's ingredient groups and the meridian zang-fu viscera. The supramolcular chemistry played an all-through role in procession of making macro-regularities and special presentation on behavior of "Qi chromatography" impulse owning to the matching action of all kinds of ingredients on the meridian zang-fu viscera with similar "imprinting templates". The CM's pharmacology were guided by CM's theories, owing to its interpretation of supramolecular chemistry. The pharmacology was achieved to construct up completely on base of classical chemical single molecular bonds whereas the CM's pharmacology be configured to big building by way of "imprinting templates" as multi-weak bonds among "supramolecular society". CM's pharmacology was supramolcular pharmacology dealt with "molecular society" on the base of western pharmacology, and employed to double research approaches both math-physical quantitative representation on macroscope and qualitative analyses in microscope.
Devillier, P; Roche, N
Introduction Lung hyperinflation leads to breathlessness, limitation in exercise capacity and tolerance, and impaired quality of life. Thus, it is important to target this key and characteristic feature of COPD. Current knowledge Available pharmacological approaches rely mainly on bronchodilators, in particular beta2 agonists and anticholinergic agents. These treatments act through the reduction of expiratory airflow limitation. However, changes in classical indices of airflow obstruction do not accurately predict effects on hyperinflation and symptoms. The decrease in operating lung volumes (as reflected by inspiratory capacity or functional residual capacity) at rest and during exercise is one of the mechanisms by which these treatments improve quality of life and maybe also decrease the impact of exacerbations. The effect of beta2 agonists on hyperinflation might be amplified by concurrent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Perspectives The effect of new treatments targeting airways inflammation on hyperinflation remains to be explored. Conclusions Measuring the reduction in the degree of lung hyperinflation allows a better understanding of the symptomatic effect of COPD pharmacological treatments.
Cowie, Peter, Ed.
This publication resulted from a project of the British Film Institute (bfi). The aim was to emphasize that cinema takes a number of different forms, fulfills a variety of roles within different societies, and has different models of its social function. Toward this end, film-makers from all over the world were invited to write a diary about the…
As businesses are going global, it is inevitable to enter new markets. That means that the companies should be ready to perform business in different counties, which can bring misunderstanding due to diverse specifics of cultures. Hence, it will bring more understanding if one starts to analyze and compare corporate cultures and communication. The main goals of this thesis are to explore Italian and British corporate cultures and to compare types of their societies in order to recognize ...
The specific development of South African society was largely predetermined by the level of socio-historical development of the southern African region to colonial invasion, and transformation features introduced by the South African continent by the British colonialists. The colonial past of South Africa continues to be stored in memory and the psychology of the new generations of the native population. And for a better understanding of the socio-political difficulties faced by the peoples o...
Simpson, William A.
A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)
the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen reconstructs...
The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)
Decades of practice in psychiatriy and hundreds of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antipsychotics on symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, the knowledge acquired from non-interventional studies have supplemented the information needed in daily practice by raising the issue of efficiency by incorporating not only the effectiveness and safety of treatment but also its acceptability by the patient. Adherence to antipsychotic treatment has become the key issue of the prognosis. The pharmacological management of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia requires rapid therapeutic decisions to treat a patient who is likely to be sometimes unhelpful and agitated. The choice of treatment will have a significant impact on the prevention of psychotic relapses, on the overall prognosis and on the quality of life of the patient. In many countries of the recommendations and treatment algorithms for the management of acute psychosis were distributed, considering factors specific to the patient and his environment, his mental characteristics and local care setting.
Dar, M S; Ikram, M; Fakouhi, T
The galls of Quercus infectoria (Fagaceae), a commonly available plant in Iran, were studied pharmacologically. Two fractions were employed, a dried acetone-treated methanol extract dissolved in water (Fraction A) and a subfraction prepared by chloroform-methanol extraction (Fraction B). Fraction A was active as an analgesic in rats and significantly reduced blood sugar levels in rabbits. Fraction B had CNS depressant activity. Data obtained with a treadmill indicated a decreased activity ratio by Fraction B, suggesting a possible interference in motor coordination. It potentiated the barbiturate sleeping time significantly without changing the onset time or the loss of the righting reflex. In addition, Fraction B exhibited a moderate antitremorine activity by causing a delay in the onset and a decrease in the severity of tremorine-induced tremors. The local anesthetic action of Fraction B was evident due to the complete blockade of the isolated frog sciatic nerve conduction. PMID:1032663
Pepper, G A
The wide variety of first-line agents available for managing high blood pressure include diuretics, beta adrenergic receptor blockers, alpha adrenergic receptor blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. Supplemental agents used for second-line therapy and special indications, such as pregnancy and hypertensive emergencies, include angiotensin receptor blockers, central-acting agents, direct vasodilators, and adrenergic neuron inhibitors. Selection of agents for particular patients requires consideration of research-based evidence for positive long-term outcomes and of the unique patient profile of age, race, co-morbidities, and lifestyle. A thorough understanding of the pharmacology (mechanism, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and drug interactions, clinical use) of antihypertensive agents is an essential foundation for nursing practice in women's health. PMID:10584919
Lakin, S. J.
This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...
A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer
Lewis, Richard J; Dutertre, Sébastien; Vetter, Irina; Christie, MacDonald J
Conopeptides are a diverse group of recently evolved venom peptides used for prey capture and/or defense. Each species of cone snails produces in excess of 1000 conopeptides, with those pharmacologically characterized (≈ 0.1%) targeting a diverse range of membrane proteins typically with high potency and specificity. The majority of conopeptides inhibit voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels, providing valuable research tools for the dissection of the role played by specific ion channels in excitable cells. It is noteworthy that many of these targets are found to be expressed in pain pathways, with several conopeptides having entered the clinic as potential treatments for pain [e.g., pyroglutamate1-MrIA (Xen2174)] and one now marketed for intrathecal treatment of severe pain [ziconotide (Prialt)]. This review discusses the diversity, pharmacology, structure-activity relationships, and therapeutic potential of cone snail venom peptide families acting at voltage-gated ion channels (ω-, μ-, μO-, δ-, ι-, and κ-conotoxins), ligand-gated ion channels (α-conotoxins, σ-conotoxin, ikot-ikot, and conantokins), G-protein-coupled receptors (ρ-conopeptides, conopressins, and contulakins), and neurotransmitter transporters (χ-conopeptides), with expanded discussion on the clinical potential of sodium and calcium channel inhibitors and α-conotoxins. Expanding the discovery of new bioactives using proteomic/transcriptomic approaches combined with high-throughput platforms and better defining conopeptide structure-activity relationships using relevant membrane protein crystal structures are expected to grow the already significant impact conopeptides have had as both research probes and leads to new therapies. PMID:22407615
Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai
Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.
García Cabanes, María Cristina; Maneu Flores, Victoria; Palmero Cabezas, Mercedes; Formigós Bolea, Juan Antonio
Resumen del póster presentado en XXXI Congress of the Spanish Society of Pharmacology, Sevilla, September 16-18, 2009. Póster presentado en un congreso nacional de farmacología. Se detalla la realización de prácticas clínicas de farmacología para los estudiantes de la Diplomatura de Enfermería y se comenta la actitud de los estudiantes hacia las mismas.
Dronabinol (Delta 9-tetrahydocannabinol, THC), the main source of the pharmacological effects caused by the use of cannabis, is an agonist to both the CB1 and the CB2 subtype of cannabinoid receptors. It is available on prescription in several countries. The non-psychotropic cannabidiol (CBD), some analogues of natural cannabinoids and their metabolites, antagonists at the cannabinoid receptors and modulators of the endogenous cannabinoid system are also promising candidates for clinical research and therapeutic uses. Cannabinoid receptors are distributed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues including spleen, leukocytes; reproductive, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts; endocrine glands, arteries and heart. Five endogenous cannabinoids have been detected so far, of whom anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol are best characterized. There is evidence that besides the two cannabinoid receptor subtypes cloned so far additional cannabinoid receptor subtypes and vanilloid receptors are involved in the complex physiological functions of the cannabinoid system that include motor coordination, memory procession, control of appetite, pain modulation and neuroprotection. Strategies to modulate their activity include inhibition of re-uptake into cells and inhibition of their degradation to increase concentration and duration of action. Properties of cannabinoids that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, anti-inflammation, anti-allergic effects, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, anti-emesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and antineoplastic effects. PMID:15159677
Full Text Available Social life is produced. Social life takes place before the fact of thinking about it. Drawing upon elements coming from utopian Socialism. British economy and, especially, Hegel’s philosophy, Marx proposed a set of dialectic categories addressed to thinking and to explaining how social life is produced, including in these dynamics the production of ourselves. In this paper, the guidelines of Marx’ thoughts are shown starting from the reading and analysis of his own texts. Also, the pertinence of the relationship between Marx and the research of society is argued through the material objects which make any society real: the archaeological research.
La vida social se produce. La vida social es anterior al hecho de pensarla. Basándose en elementos procedentes del socialismo utópico, la economía británica y, sobre todo, la filosofía de Hegel, Marx propuso categorías dialécticas para pensar y explicar cómo se produce la vida social, y nosotros en ella. En este artículo se exponen las líneas básicas del pensamiento de Marx a partir de una lectura y análisis de sus propios textos, y se argumenta la pertinencia de la relación entre dicho pensamiento y la investigación de la sociedad a partir de los objetos materiales que la hicieron posible: la investigación arqueológica.
Khoo Kay Kim
This study attempts to explicate what happened to the Malays between the turn of the 20th century and the beginning of World War II. This is important to underscore the fact that, contrary to general impressions, Islam did not hold back the progress of the Malays, and that even before World War II, major changes were taking place in Malay society. Modernity in Malay society began to emerge even before World War I. Although the intrusion of British administration to a great extent contributed ...
Critical observations are made about British nuclear power policy, its financing and execution. The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: introduction, conventional wisdom; electricity, the energy user; the electricity establishment; the electric nucleus; forecasts and their fulfilment: money for megawatts; saving labour with electricity; power to the powerful; nuclear electricity, future imperative. (U.K.)
Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events . However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. . Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass . Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS
American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...
... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...
... 25th Annual ITNS Symposium The International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS) cordially invites transplant nurses and other transplant ... pocket guide, developed by the International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS), provides an overview of the interventions used ...
... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...
Back To Top Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate Patients and Families ... a Member Find a Specialist Calendar Contact Donate Scoliosis Research Society Dedicated to the optimal care of ...
This article is an entry to be published in an International Encyclopedia of Civil Society in 2009. Mutual organizations exist everywhere in developed and developing countreies as well. After a definition founded on social economy principles, the paper gives the historical background of mutual insurance companies, mutual benefit societies and building societies. Then we draw a panorama of the European mutual societies with international perspectives on the USA and some developing countries. S...
Philip E. Steinberg
Full Text Available Learned societies have become aligned with commercial publishers, who have increasingly taken over the latter’s function as independent providers of scholarly information. Using the example of geographical societies, the advantages and disadvantages of this trend are examined. It is argued that in an era of digital publication, learned societies can offer leadership with a new model of open access that can guarantee high quality scholarly material whose publication costs are supported by society membership dues.
Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA
Full Text Available The present paper analyses an anti-utopic society,emphasizing the importance of individual liberty over doing the right thing asdescribed and satirized by British writer Anthony Burgess in the book entitled AClockwork Orange. This matter of choice and free will is characteristic todystopian societies which represent a futuristic universe in which the oppressivecontrol of the state changes people’s lives. It depicts in a shocking manner theeffects a dystopian society has over the individual. Dystopian characters makeuse of human weaknesses in order to set forth and to prove the destructivepower of authoritarian rule. Dystopian societies demoralize people, deprivethem of the ability of taking decisions while their personal desires either good orevil, are taken over by the state.
Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)
In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.
Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.
Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.
Menuki, Kunitaka; Sakai, Akinori
Currently, bone resorption inhibitor is mainly used for osteoporosis. A number of these agents have been developed. These pharmacological action are various. Bisphosphonate inhibit functions of the osteoclasts by inducing apoptosis. On the one hand, RANK-ligand inhibitor and selective estrogen receptor modulator inhibit formation of osteoclasts. It is important to understand these pharmacological action for the selection of the appropriate medicine. PMID:26529923
Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh
Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were perform...
Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.
In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first
De Barros, Juanita
This paper examines the ambiguous place of medical assistants-dispensers-in a post-slavery British Caribbean colony, British Guiana, from the end of slavery in the 1830s to the early twentieth century. Although the latter were crucial to the functioning of the colonial medical system, local physicians resented them, complaining about the economic threat they posed and at times condemning them as quacks. These attacks were part of a wider discussion about the composition of the medical profession and the role of medical auxiliaries in colonial society, and to an extent, they echoed debates conducted in other jurisdictions in this period. But in the British Caribbean, this discussion was significantly different. There, long-standing views about obeah-an Afro-Creole medico-religious practice-as a particularly dangerous and uncivilised type of quackery was part of the discursive context. That those participating in this debate included African-descended physicians whose arrival in the medical profession was recent and contested demonstrates the vexed and complex nature of professionalisation in a post-slavery society.
”Art and psychoanalysis – 15 June 1988. Speakers: Professor Joseph Sandler and Professor Sir Ernst Gombrich”, part of the series “Dialogues on Contemporary Issues” hosted by the British Psycho-Analytical Society in the summer term of 1988
Rachel Dedman (ed.
Full Text Available The previously unpublished conversation between Ernst Gombrich and Joseph Sandler in 1988 constitutes an exciting meeting of minds in the field of art history and psychoanalysis, respectively. The two discuss ‘the artist’ as a term; the impulse inherent in the creation of art; taste; and the affective power of art, particularly in the light of the work of Freud and their shared friend, Ernst Kris. Gombrich seems both comfortable with the psychoanalytic theory they discuss, and also keen to steer the discussion in certain directions – quoting from Cicero, Van Gogh and I.E. Richards. At the point at which questions are opened up to the audience, the most interesting thing of note is the revelation that Gombrich was a member of ‘The Image Group’, which research has revealed was more accurately known as ‘The Imago Group,’ a society of psychoanalysts and dedicated analysands, of which Gombrich’s membership is unusual. As Gombrich is often considered reticent about psychoanalysis, this dialogue constitutes evidence that late in life he continued to engage in discussion about its application and interpretation in an artistic context.
Михаил Алексеевич Есипов
Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13
Armando Henrique Norman
Full Text Available This article explores some effects of the British payment for performance model on general practitioners’ principles and practice, which may contribute to issues related to financial incentive modalities and quality of primary healthcare services in low and middle-income countries. Aiming to investigate what general practitioners have to say about the effect of the British payment for performance on their professional ethos we carried out semi-structured interviews with 13 general practitioner educators and leaders working in academic medicine across the UK. The results show a shift towards a more biomedical practice model and fragmented care with nurse practitioners and other health care staff focused more on specific disease conditions. There has also been an increased medicalisation of the patient experience both through labelling and the tendency to prescribe medications rather than non-pharmacological interventions. Thus, the British payment for performance has gradually strengthened a scientific-bureaucratic model of medical practice which has had profound effects on the way family medicine is practiced in the UK.
Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and
Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P
Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types of pharm......Pharmacology has traditionally been excluded from the mandatory application of good laboratory practice (GLP) principles. Consensus has been reached through the process of the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH, Topic S7A) with regard to the definitions of the different types...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...... from GLP requirements. Secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies are expected to be conducted to GLP quality standards -- preferably to full, formal GLP compliance, when results are used for human safety assessment. At the present time, regulatory authorities will most likely...
Saha, T. K.
The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of
Full Text Available Global recession and the economic crisis have affected contemporary British society in predictable ways. But this age of austerity has also unveiled the continued sinister machinations of whiteness. While not necessarily homogeneous, austerity rhetoric, as it is currently conventionally deployed, works to perpetuate white masculinist privilege and further entrenches the normative value of whiteness, while simultaneously masking and marginalizing those ethnic minority populations traditionally othered from mainstream sociopolitical discourse. More specifically, recent austerity measures adversely affect the situation of women and the future of feminist theory and practice in British higher education. This paper investigates and problematizes the deployment of austerity discourse within higher learning for its perpetuation of the normativity and hegemony of a masculinist whiteness, which further disadvantages (white women and disrupts the practice of feminism(s in academia.
John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics
In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.
Tyler, Len; Evans, Ann
A study of the past can help us understand present-day management structures. Strong parallels can be seen between the present-day British National Health Service (NHS) and English feudal society in the early Middle Ages. Both systems are hierarchical, both show limited mobility between layers in the hierarchies and in both there is a strong element of central control coexisting with significant day-to-day delegation of responsibility. Ceremony plays a key role in relationships, such as through the swearing of liege homage in feudal society and through formal assessment and appraisal in the modern NHS. Although the NHS clearly does not show parallels for every element of feudal society, it is possible to draw practical lessons from the comparison, particularly relating to the ownership of problems, team-working and appraisal. PMID:12683435
British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.
This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…
Rose, F Clifford
In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles
This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…
This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…
A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-
Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…
In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.
The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)
Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…
Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.
The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth century
Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen
We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…
Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.
In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...
基于甘肃药学人才现状与高等药学教育培养结构分析，对甘肃药学教育改革提出构想设计，探讨本科培养阶段设立社区药学、临床药学、工业药学专业，研究生培养阶段设立药学管理、药学研究专业的培养目标和课程设置，为促进甘肃医药产业发展、卫生事业发展人才培养规划提出策略。%By analysis on the current situation of talents and cultivation structure of higher pharmaceutical education in Gansu province,the proposal was suggested for design conception on the reform of pharma-ceutical education in Gansu province, Community Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy as well as Industry Pharmacy should be set in undergraduates curriculum, Pharmacy Administration and Pharmacology Research should be set in graduates curriculum,some suggestions were given to design of these specialized course.To promote the development of medicine industry and health service,the author throws a sprat to catch a whale for Gansu pharmacological personnel training plans.
Chan, Yiu Man
Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)
... Webinars Publications & Resources Clinical Practice Guidelines SAMBA Link Digital ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ...
Full text: There is no doubt that the Internet is going to be the communications power tool of the future. Judging by the number of top line companies who have quality websites and the number of website addresses that appear in press and television advertisements, few organisations who mean business can afford to ignore this exciting, fast moving medium. The Internet - millions of computers which can 'talk to each other' via telephone lines - has been described as revolutionary in communication terms as the wheel was to transport. As we enter a new millennium, the Internet is becoming more than just a huge information resource, it is increasingly being developed to carry out business transactions - already we can shop for groceries, find a mortgage and send bouquets on line. British Energy's award-winning website was launched in the European Parliament in April, just two months after a London-based design company had accepted a tight audience-led specification that included clarity of design, promotion of the British Energy brand and, most importantly, ease of navigation. British Energy had identified its key objectives. Number one was the promotion of British Energy the brand in relation to its better-known subsidiary companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. As the Internet is a truly global medium, accessible 24-hours a day, it was recognised that it could be particularly important in reaching potential partners and customers. British Energy certainly made clear its global aspirations from the outset and therefore it was important that visitors to the site understood what the company was and from whence it came. The audience-led strategy is delivering quality information to the people British Energy are most keen to communicate with. The sharetracking feature, news desk and narrated video tour of Sizewell B, the Pressurised Water Reactor, are amongst the most popular aspects. In December, British Energy won the 'Best Annual Report' on the Internet award
Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Rashid, Rehana; Fatima, Nighat; Mahmood, Sadaf; Mir, Sadullah; Khan, Sara; Jabeen, Nyla; Murtaza, Ghulam
Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a simple phenolic acid. It is found in a large variety of edible plants and possesses various pharmacological activities. This article aims to review the modern trends in phytochemical isolation and extraction of PCA from plants and other natural resources. Moreover, this article also encompasses pharmacological and biological activities of PCA. It is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemia, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-ageing, anti-athro- genic, anti-tumoral, anti-asthma, antiulcer, antispasmodic and neurological properties. PMID:26647619
The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....
Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina
The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....
Pieramico, Valentina; Esposito, Roberto; Cesinaro, Stefano; Frazzini, Valerio; Sensi, Stefano L.
Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia. PMID:25228860
An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journe...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time.......An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...
A computer program that replaces a set of pharmacology and physiology laboratory experiments on live animals or isolated organs is described and illustrated. Five experiments are simulated: dose-effect relationships on smooth muscle, blood pressure and catecholamines, neuromuscular signal transmission, acetylcholine and the circulation, and…
Maickel, Roger P.
A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…
Li, Hsing-Tan; Wu, Hui-Ming; Chen, Hsin-Liang; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yi
Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (-)-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (-)-anonaine. PMID:23857128
Lee, Kwang Jae
Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...
Full Text Available This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.
Hansen, Jens; Zhao, Shan; Iyengar, Ravi
Systems pharmacology approaches can be used to identify and predict drug-induced adverse events. Disease-centered networks within the human interactome allow us to predict which drugs may produce a similar pathophysiology. Such predictions can be tested in animal models.
Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan
the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....
Ashley, Sean Matthew
Academics frequently serve as expert witnesses in legal cases, yet their role as transmitters of social scientific knowledge remains under-examined. The present study analyzes the deployment of social science within British Columbia's polygamy reference trial where research is used to support the assertion that polygamy is inherently harmful to society. Within the trial record and the written decision, the protection of monogamy as an institution is performed in part through the marginalization of qualitative methodology and the concurrent privileging of quantitative studies that purportedly demonstrate widespread social harms associated with the practice of polygyny.
This paper sheds new light on the British lady traveller Isabella Bird’s (1831-1904) trips to East Asia. Bird visited Japan in 1878. Subsequently she came to Korea, China and far eastern Russia in the mid-1890s. It is argued that her publications provide a unique perspective on globalization in the late nineteenth century. Bird observed how the East Asian societies were subject to major transformations as a consequence of their integration into the system of global capitalism. Contrary to oth...
Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory
To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929
Bateman, M. D.
Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.
Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...
English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.
<正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,
The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...
GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A
The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.
Silvestrelli, G; Corea, F; Micheli, S; Lanari, A
Pharmacological treatment and several drugs of abuse have been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). However, there is a paucity of data on the independent risk of vascular disease (VD) associated with pharmacological treatment and no controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in risk with abstinence. Information about IHD and CVD-related drug abuse is mainly limited to epidemiological studies focused on urban populations. The potential link between some pharmacological treatments (estrogen, some oncologic drugs and some atypical antipsychotics) and cerebrovascular adverse events was analyzed, but disagreement about an association persists. Drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamines and heroin, have been associated with an increased vascular risk. These drugs can cause abrupt changes in blood pressure, vasculitic-type changes, lead to embolization caused by infective endocarditis, and hemostatic and hematologic abnormalities that can result in increased blood viscosity and platelet aggregation. Long-term treatment strategies based on medication, psychological support, and outreach programs play an important role in treatment of drug dependency. In these last years public interest in risk factors for VD has been constantly increasing and the successful identification and management of pharmacological treatment and drug abuse can be challenging. One of the major public health issues for the future will be to focus more on new vascular risk factor recognition and management. The objective of this chapter is to review the relevance of IHD and CVD associated with various pharmacological treatments and drug abuse with focusing on ischemic disease. This chapter reports the clinical evidence of this association and analyzes the experimental role of new drugs as a growing risk factor of VD with the hypothetical new association. In conclusion, in this chapter great attention is paid to evaluating the scientific and real
R. M. W. Musson
Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.
In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition
The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates
Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...
Models that explain the economical and political realities of nowadays societies should help all the world's citizens. Yet, the last four years showed that the current models are missing. Here we develop a dynamical society-deciders model showing that the long lasting economical stress can be solved when increasing fairness in nations. fairness is computed for each nation using indicators from economy and politics. Rather than austerity versus spending, the dynamical model suggests that solving crises in western societies is possible with regulations that reduce the stability of the deciders, while shifting wealth in the direction of the people. This shall increase the dynamics among socio-economic classes, further increasing fairness.
Duff, Alistair S
We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc
Pang, Alex Soojung-Kim
Scientific expeditions have played an important role in the development of Western Science, but have received far less attention than theory-making or experiment. This is a cultural and social history of British solar eclipse expeditions and observing practices. An introductory chapter outlines the historiography of scientific practice, imperialism and science, and scientific expeditions, and explains the importance of solar eclipses to nineteenth-century science. The chapters follow expeditions from their planning, through their execution, and into the publication of results. Chapter 2 is an institutional and social history of British and American eclipse planning. British expeditions were organized by national societies, while American expeditions were planned by individual observatories and colleges. Chapters 3 and 4 move into the field. They show how the evolution of tourist culture, the expansion of imperial spheres of political control, the transfer of Western technological systems to colonial territories shaped the experience of going on an expedition, and even made accurate astrophysical observation possible. They also examine the roles women played on eclipse expeditions. Chapters 5 and 6 examine spectroscopic and visual observation. They study the effects of intellectual shifts, the introduction of photography, and the scaling up of instruments on observing practices. Chapter 6 shows how visual and photographic observations of the solar corona were made. Chapter 7 follows those pictures out of the field, and examines how they were copied and shared with other astronomers.
Abdul Haqq Baker
Full Text Available The recent landmark election results in 2010 witnessed the end of an era for Labour under Gordon Brown and the herald of a new political landscape with the Coalition government of the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. The challenges for the new coalition are no less daunting than they were under the former government. The need to examine aspects of British identity from political and cultural perspectives has never been more poignant, especially in the face of continuing threats from domestic and international extremism – both far right and religious. The defeat of the BNP in Dagenham last year, resulting in all of its twelve councilors failing to be reelected can be considered a positive outcome for British politics so far as right wing extremism is concerned. The increase in Muslim MPs is also considered by many as another positive for British politics. While these apparent achievements may reflect the more appealing façade of the political climate, a redefining of who and what represents Muslim identity in 21st century Britain is necessary in view of the increasing misunderstanding and rictus gap between wider non-Muslim society and Muslim communities.
The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the
... Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Room Assistance Society Overview Top 10 reasons why NAMS is your ... fully updated and referenced 5th edition of the Society’s leading professional resource, featuring the latest comprehensive clinical ...
... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...
Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)
Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.
Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus
... December 1 – 3, 2016. This year’s course includes didactic lectures by outstanding surgeons and educators who are ... held in high esteem by other medical societies. Education Evidence-Based Medicine article published in OBG Mangement ...
... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement of nurses in the art and science of pediatric endocrinology nursing. Learn More ...
... join the conversation today. Learn More The American Society of Nephrology (ASN) leads the fight against kidney diseases by educating health professionals, sharing new knowledge, advancing research, and advocating the highest quality care ...
Wei-dong LI; Yuan ZHANG; Cai-li ZHANG; Xiu-mei ZHANG
The general situation of pharmacology teaching in China was introduced and the educational reform in China in recent decade is summarized. The aim of the article is to provide those who are interested in teaching of pharmacology to be acquainted with the teaching of pharmacology, including the teaching of both principles and practice, in China.
Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W
This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacok
Jensen, Niklas Thode
of this development was the establishment of the Tranquebarian Society, the third learned society east of the Cape of Good Hope. The article examines the unique assemblage of scientific networks, people, instruments, institutions, and ideas of local and global origin that converged in Tranquebar, and it investigates...... the fusion of local problems and radical ideas of enlightenment, education, and improvement that united government, mission, and merchants in Tranquebar in the quest for ‘useful knowledge’....
Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.
The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…
This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...
This special issue of Journal of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan deals with the relation between nuclear technology and society, and is composed of four papers: (1) Nuclear energy and international politics - sociotechnics around plutonium utilization; (2) Risk recognition and benefit recognition of nuclear facilities and social acceptance; (3) Environmental risk management and radioactive waste problem; and, (4) Public administration around the relation between nuclear energy and society. (1) describes the historical development of nuclear energy since its birth, focusing on how the leading countries tried to control nuclear proliferation. Peaceful utilization of nuclear energy is closely connected with the Non-proliferation problem. (1) also discusses the relation of plutonium utilization of Japan with international society. (2) discusses how nuclear facilities can be accepted by society, analyzing the background of risk recognition, in particular, of psychological character of mass society. (3) introduces an new approach (risk-based or risk-informed regulation) of environmental risk management for radioactive waste disposal problem, focusing on HLW (high-level waste). (4) explains the approach from public administration to nuclear energy and general energy policy and introduces PPA (participatory policy analysis) as a means for policy making. (M.M.)
Upadhyay, Aparna; Singh, D K
Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi. PMID:22983291
Full Text Available Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.
Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina
Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.
Aparna Upadhyay; D K Singh
Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal sap...
Asperger syndrome is associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of communication and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of Asperger syndrome. This article discusses the various medications for the behavioral symptoms of Asperger syndrome, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, self-injury, depression, obsession and so on. Methylphenidate, SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizer were introduced.
Price, W A
Treatment of eating disorders is difficult regardless of the methods employed. Pharmacologic management in anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa is especially helpful when it is part of a multimodal treatment approach that includes individual, family and behavioral therapy. Care must be taken to guard against side effects, abuse and noncompliance in a group of patients that tends to be prone to all three. PMID:3284300
Swift, C G
The ageing of populations and individuals continues to be as vital, yet to some extent as neglected, a topic in pharmacology and therapeutics as was first realised about 30 years ago. In parallel with the realisation of the predicted demographic shifts in both the developed and developing world, there have since been major developments in the basic biological concepts of ageing, in the physiology of ageing, in the study of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a variety of age-associated disorde...
Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac
Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...
Du Rand, I A; Barber, P V; Goldring, J; Lewis, R A; Mandal, S; Munavvar, M; Rintoul, R C; Shah, P L; Singh, S; Slade, M G; Woolley, A
This new guideline covers the rapidly advancing field of interventional bronchoscopy using flexible bronchoscopy. It includes the use of more complex diagnostic procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound, interventions for the relief of central airway obstruction due to malignancy and the recent development of endobronchial therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. The guideline aims to help all those who undertake flexible bronchoscopy to understand more about this important area. It also aims to inform respiratory physicians and other specialists dealing with lung cancer of the procedures possible in the management and palliation of central airway obstruction. The guideline covers transbronchial needle aspiration and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, electrocautery/diathermy, argon plasma coagulation and thermal laser, cryotherapy, cryoextraction, photodynamic therapy, brachytherapy, tracheobronchial stenting, electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy, endobronchial valves for emphysema and bronchial thermoplasty for asthma.
De Dombal, F T; Price, A. B.; Thompson, H; Williams, G. T.; Morgan, A G; Softley, A; Clamp, S E; Unwin, B J
This presentation describes interim findings in a series of 319 patients referred from 41 hospitals on the basis of histopathological findings of 'early gastric cancer', 'dysplasia', or 'worrying mucosal appearances'. Data were recorded using a predefined proforma, and histopathological material circulated amongst a 'panel' of three further pathologists. After this process, 132 patients were classified as having early gastric cancer and 63 as dysplasia. There was good agreement between pathol...
Taylor, Jane R; Torregrossa, Mary M
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by intrusive, distracting, and disturbing memories that either perpetuate the illness or hinder successful treatment. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves such strong reemergence of memories associated with a traumatic event that the individual feels like the event is happening again. Furthermore, drug addiction is characterized by compulsive use and repeated relapse that is often driven by internal memories of drug use and/or by exposure to external stimuli that were associated with drug use. Therefore, identifying pharmacological methods to weaken the strength of maladaptive memories is a major goal of research efforts aimed at finding new treatments for these disorders. The primary mechanism by which memories could be pharmacologically disrupted or altered is through manipulation of memory reconsolidation. Reconsolidation occurs when an established memory is remembered or reactivated, reentering a labile state before again being consolidated into long-term memory storage. Memories are subject to disruption during this labile state. In this chapter we will discuss the preclinical and clinical studies identifying potential pharmacological methods for disrupting the integrity of maladaptive memory to treat mental illness. PMID:25977090
This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22651130
The Queen's Birthday Honours list announced on 16 June contained some familiar names from astronomy. Prof. Mark Bailey (1) of Armagh Observatory, currently a Vice-President of the RAS, was awarded an MBE and Dr Heather Couper (2), former President of the British Astronomical Association, a CBE. Prof. Nigel Mason (3) of the Open University and inaugural Director of the Milton Keynes Science Festival received an OBE. Prof. Jocelyn Bell-Burnell (4), President of the RAS from 2002-2004, was awarded a DBE - and an Honorary Doctorate from Harvard University. In addition, Prof. Lord Rees (5), Astronomer Royal, president of the Royal Society and President of the RAS from 1992-1994, was appointed to the Order of Merit.
Full Text Available The article deals with revealing the peculiarities of language teachers’ professional training in the context of British experience. The notions of philology, linguistics, philologist, linguist, language studies have been outlined and specified in the article. The titles of the curricula and their meanings in reference to language training have been analyzed. The reasons for an abundance of university curricula for language training have been justified. The content of Subject Benchmark Statement on Languages, Cultures and Societies has been defined. It has been stated that such processes as enhancing social values in the society, promoting integration processes and forming positive experience in the synthesis of classical and innovative approaches to training as well as the changes in the functions of training characterize the professional training of language teachers in Great Britain. On the example of De Montfort University the peculiarities of language teachers’ professional training, in particular, ESL teachers, have been illustrated. It has been concluded that the methodological basis of future language teacher’s professional training at British universities consists of personality-based, competency-based, integrative and differentiated approaches and is characterized by the orientation of the training content to forming and developing students’ core professional competencies and rational combination of theoretical practical components.
In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...
Kenneth O. MORGAN
Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...
Kay, William K.
There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...
@@ The Ray Wu Society for Life Sciences (RWS) is a non-profit professional society of Chinese-American and Chinese life scientists with the goal to promote scientific communication among the scientists between USA and China and the life science research in China. The members of the RWS, now numbered more than 300, are a group of elite biologists who have reached the level of assistant professor or equivalent in their careers and are experts of their respective fields including molecular biology and genetics, cell and developmental biology, me- dicine, pharmacology, plant biology, and biotechnology. RWS was founded in early 1998 by a group of life scientists who have come from China during the last 22 years. With the encouragement of Dr. Chris Tan, the Director of the Molecular Biology Institute in Singapore, who proposed to set up a fund in the name of Prof. Ray Wu of Cornell University to recognize his contribution to the academic exchange between China and the USA. A quick positive response was reflected from American Chinese scholars with a further proposal of forming a professional society. This initiative spread rapidly and widely throughout the existing networks of Chinese life-science professionals.
Full Text Available Ayurveda is the life science. Its objects are to maintain the health of healthy individual and cure of diseases mainly contributed by Aahara, Nidra and Brahmacharya. Being supported by these three sub pillars of life, the body is endowed with strength and growth. Present era is full of competition, everyone is struggling for existence. Man is working hard for day and night, besides that mental stress, addiction of alcohol, tobacco leads to insufficient sleep. The disease Nidranash (Insomnia is gradually increasing in society and has become one of the common problem. According to modern science, pharmacological treatment advice in this case shows various side effects. Through this study effort was taken up to find out non-pharmacologic therapy to cure this crippling disease. Aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of non pharmacological therapy Shirodhara in Nidranash. Study was conducted in 30 clinically diagnosed patient of Nidranash with help of symptoms of Nidranash and Sleep Efficiency Index (SEI. Procedure of Godugdha Shirodhara was carried out in three steps purvakarma, pradhankarma and paschatkarma with all precautions. On the basis of observed data, it was concluded that Godugdha Shirodhara has highly significant effect on Nidranash.
The women's suffrage petition presented to the House of Commons in June 1866 is credited with being the first move in the British campaign. Yet although given a pivotal position in the women's movement, it and its organisation have received scant attention. This thesis examines the origins of this petition, which was organised by members of the Kensington Society (1865-1868). It investigates the members of this society, and those 1,499 women who signed the petition. This thesis looks ...
the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....
Abbink, J.; Abbink, J.; Walraven, van K.; Bruijn, de M.E.
There has been a state of near-permanent revolt in Somali society since 1991. This chapter offers a cultural analysis of patterns of political and military activity from the precolonial era through the Italian and British colonial period, and State independence (1960-1991), to the present period of
Alani, A; Kelleher, M; Hemmings, K; Saunders, M; Hunter, M; Barclay, S; Ashley, M; Djemal, S; Bishop, K; Darbar, U; Briggs, P; Fearne, J
Cosmetic dentistry has become increasingly popular, largely as a result of social trends and increased media coverage. This understandable desire for the alleged 'perfect smile' needs to be tempered with an appropriate awareness of the significant risks associated with invasive cosmetic procedures such as veneers and crowns. Patients need to be properly informed that elective removal of healthy enamel and dentine can result in pulpal injury and poorer periodontal health in the longer term, particularly if they are young. The duty of candour means that they ought to be informed that aggressive reduction of sound tooth tissue is not biologically neutral and results in structural weakening of their teeth. Less invasive procedures such as bleaching on its own or for example, combined with direct resin composite bonding, can satisfy many patient's demands, while still being kinder to teeth and having much better fall-back positions for their future requirements. It is the opinion of the British Endodontic Society, British Society for Restorative Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry UK, Dental Trauma UK, British Society of Prosthodontics and the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry that elective invasive cosmetic dental treatments can result in great benefit to patients, but that some aggressive treatments used to achieve them can produce significant morbidities in teeth which were previously healthy. This is a worrying and growing problem with many ethical, legal and biologic aspects, but many adverse outcomes for patients who request cosmetic dental improvements are preventable by using biologically safer initial approaches to treatment planning and its provision. PMID:25952437
Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".
Patel, Mitesh; Shaw, Dominick
The aim of pharmacological therapy for asthma is to improve symptoms and lung function and minimize the risk of asthma attacks. The intensity of treatment is based on the level of asthma control and the potential risk of future deterioration. In the British asthma guidelines, treatments are divided into steps 1 to 5, with each step signifying a need for an increase in therapy in response to symptoms or to prevent exacerbations. Treatments comprise of inhaled or systemic medications. Inhaled therapy includes short-acting and long-acting medication to improve symptoms and inhaled corticosteroids that reduce airway inflammation. Systemic treatments include medications that act on specific biological pathways, such as the leukotriene or immunoglobulin E pathways, or systemic corticosteroids. In choosing a particular therapy, treatment benefits are balanced by the potential risks of medication-related adverse effects. This review will provide a practical guide to the key pharmacological therapies for adult asthma at steps 1 to 5 based on British guidelines and consider future options for new treatments.
Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV
Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.
Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.
Bang, U.C.; Semb, S.; Nøjgaard, Camilla;
The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...
Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.
Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.
According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…
Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael
Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…
Smith, Heather Jane
The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…
Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…
Authier, Simon; Curtis, Michael J; Soloviev, Maxim; Redfern, Will S; Kallman, Mary Jeanne; Hamlin, Robert L; Leishman, Derek J; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Koerner, John E; Vargas, Hugo M; Botchway, Alfred; Correll, Krystle; Pugsley, Michael K
As with other professional disciplines there is a growing need from within industry as well as global regulatory authorities for implementation of a certification process in order to assure that appropriate expertise is developed and quality standards are identified for professionals involved in the practice of Safety Pharmacology (SP). In order to meet this need, the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) has developed the Diplomate in Safety Pharmacology (DSP) certification process. There are many benefits to certification including authentication of the discipline within the overall pharmaceutical community and with regulatory authorities. It also encourages participation in SPS activities by other professionals (toxicologists, clinicians, academics) who wish to broaden their professional expertise. It provides an opportunity for candidates to strengthen their fundamental scientific knowledge, and stimulates the sharing of data, methods and model development in the form of publications and presentations on relevant topics in SP. Accreditation in SP occurs after candidates successfully complete a written certification examination conducted at the annual SPS meeting. The DSP exam consists primarily of material pertinent to the conduct of SP vital function core battery studies (i.e., cardiovascular, respiratory and central nervous systems), supplemental SP studies (i.e., renal/urinary, gastrointestinal, immunology, and hematology), Regulatory Guidelines (ICH Guidelines) as well as relevant cross-functional knowledge (e.g., physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, biochemistry, pathology, pharmacokinetics, dosing formulation, analytical methods, and statistics). Maintenance of the DSP certification results from the accrual of credits which are gained from a range of educational and scientific contributions. Eligibility requirements include a combination of at least a bachelor degree in science and two years of relevant professional SP experience and one poster presentation
Kabanov, Alexander V; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Khokhlov, Alexey R
Writing this editorial is especially pleasing. First, it provides us an opportunity to introduce new directives to the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology and to explain why the field of nanomedicine is likely an important part of its future growth and development. Second, it is an opportunity to showcase research in this area currently operative in Russia that may not be readily accessible to the readership. Third, it is a platform to better explain why the Journal Editorial leadership was enthusiastic about the science and its relationship to the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology strategic goals. All are brought to bear in this issue of the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. The issue includes articles presented at a recent joint US-Russian workshop entitled, "Health in the 21st Century: Nanomedicine and Self-Organization of Biological Systems" held at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), Moscow, Russia, December 10-11, 2007. The conjoint meeting was organized through the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, MSU and by the Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine and Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, NE). The speakers included established internationally regarded scientists from these institutions as well as graduate students and faculties at MSU. In addition to selected papers by workshop contributors, we have included several papers closely aligned to the theme of nanomedicine and nanopharmacology of the central nervous system in order to provide a biological anchor for this research. We understand that such works are new to many but hope that its organization and interdisciplinary approaches will appeal to this audience. All together, it is our hope that, by gathering basic and clinical scientists with the common interest of using nanotechnology in the delivery of therapeutic agents with a focus on nanopharmacology and complex supramolecular biological assembly, the
We shall discuss some aspects of science and technology, their increasing role in the society, the fast advances in modern science, the apparent decrease of interest of the young generation in basic sciences, the importance of proper science popularization for better public education and awareness in scientific fields.
The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included
This article presents a new interpretation of Marx's dialectical method. Marx conceived dialectics as a method for constructing a model of society. The way this model is developed is analogous to the way organisms develop according to the German embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer, and, indeed, Marx's
awareness of the important questions of our society reflected in scientific research and of the answers produced by these research activities. The CRIS2010 conference, entitled “Bringing Science to Society”, therefore seeks to highlight the role of Current Research Information Systems for communicating...
Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.
A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.
Stanfield, John H., II
Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)
Ulrich Christian Bang; Synne Semb; Camilla Nφjgaard; Flemming Bendtsen
The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP)based on experimental animal models and clinical trials.Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may be useful as prophylaxis against Post Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor Gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL) is a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, which relaxes the sphincter of Oddi.Studies show conflicting results when applied prior to ERCP and a large multicenter randomized study is warranted. Steroids administered as prophylaxis against PEP has been validated without effect in several randomized trials. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results.Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics betalactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted.
Andresen1, Bradley T.
Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transductio...
Levy, Mark L; Thomas, Mike; Small, Iain; Pearce, Linda; Pinnock, Hilary; Stephenson, Paul
The 2008 BTS/SIGN British Guideline on the management of asthma provides comprehensive updated evidence-based guidance on asthma management for healthcare professionals. This primary care-focussed summary has been produced to aid dissemination and implementation of the key guideline messages into primary care. The section on diagnosis emphasises the new integrated symptom-based approach with clinicians using their deductive skills to determine the probability that the patient has asthma. The various tools used for monitoring asthma are discussed. There are sections on both non-pharmacological and pharmacological management of chronic asthma in adults and children. Treatment options for children are subdivided into the under-5s and children aged 5-12 years. Poor asthma control is manifested by exacerbations and acute asthma. Personalised asthma action plans for guided self management should be provided and used when levels of asthma control change. There are sections on difficult asthma and the treatment of exacerbations and acute severe asthma. Various outcome measures for auditing the quality of asthma care are discussed.
Donal P McCrachen
Full Text Available This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military intelligence operation. In particular, the article looks at the problem issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists’ activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the attempt to make British Military Intelligence a scapegoat for British initial failures is also mentioned.
Hart, Bradley W
Historians of the eugenics movement have long been ambivalent in their examination of the links between British hereditary researchers and Nazi Germany. While there is now a clear consensus that American eugenics provided significant material and ideological support for the Germans, the evidence remains less clear in the British case where comparatively few figures openly supported the Nazi regime and the left-wing critique of eugenics remained particularly strong. After the Second World War British eugenicists had to push back against the accusation that their science was intrinsically dictatorial or totalitarian and, as a result, many of their early perceptions of the Nazis were ignored or rationalised away. Further, historians in recent years have focused more directly on the social reformist elements of eugenics, discussing the links between hereditary science and the birth control and feminist movements in addition to others. While undoubtedly making valuable contributions to the scholarly understanding of the eugenic milieu in the interwar years, these studies have neglected to recontextualize the sentiments of British eugenicists who did indeed view the Nazi government positively in the early years of the 1930s. This article argues that there was a significant, though not numerically sizable, faction in the British eugenics movement, though mostly outside the Eugenics Society itself, in the early 1930s that viewed the Nazi Germany as an admirable state for its implementation of eugenic principles. One of these figures was later interned by his own government for being too closely aligned with the German regime, though he argued that this affinity was driven by the quest for scientific truth rather than politics. Eugenics in Britain thus contained a greater diversity of views toward Germany than scholars have previously assumed, warranting more research into the individuals and organizations harbouring these views.
American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.
Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E
GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906
British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.
British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.
JohnD.Bennett; NasserEnnih; S.FelixToteu
History and objectives,The ambitious and forward-looking decision to establish a pan-African geological society was taken during the course of a conference on African geology held in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1970. A Steering Committee was convened at that meeting under the Chairmanship of Professor Russell Black of the Department of Geology, Haile Selassie University, Addis Ababa, and the provisional constitution drafted by his Committee was approved at a second conference on African geology in Addis Ababa in 1973. Thus was the Geological Society of Africa (GSA.t) born. Its first President was Professor M O Owawoye (Nigeria) and Dr S M E1 Rabba (Sudan) became its first Secretary General.
Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....
The Argentine Radiation Protection Society (SAR) is a non profit society, member of IRPA. It was originally launched in 1987 and a formal constitution was adopted in 1983. Presently, SAR has 220 active members, professionals and technicians dedicated to a variety of disciplines related to different radiation protection aspects: medicine, industry, research and teaching. The basic SAR objectives are: to promote research and knowledge exchange on radiation protection topics and related disciplines; to promote the comprehension of radiation protection criteria with regard to existence and handling of radioactive and fissile materials and any other radiation sources; to foster the conception of radiation protection as a professional discipline and to contribute to its permanent improvement; to promote the diffusion of the information related to all radiation protection and nuclear safety aspects, and radiation protection standards and recommendations, not only within the scientific, technical and academic areas, but also to general public
Jørgensen, Martin Bak
The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...... degree, what kind of groups and which types of aims are pursued via these channels and this type of engagement. The paper ends with some preliminary empirical findings of transnational engagement and organisation among Alevis and (Turkish) Assyrians in Denmark, Sweden, and Germany....
Conference of Vinton "Vint" Gray Cerf in the Intercontinental Hostel. Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist who is commonly referred to as one of the "founding fathers of the Internet" for his key technical and managerial role, together with Bob Kahn, in the creation of the Internet and the TCP/IP protocols which it uses. He was also a co-founder (in 1992) of the Internet Society (ISOC) which is intended to both promote the views of ordinary users of the Internet, and also serve as an umbrella body for the technical groups developing the Internet (such as the Internet Engineering Task Force). He served as the first president of the Internet Society from 1992-1995.
Ion Gh. Rosca; Dumitru Todoroi
Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, and for Society in general. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence Creativity should be devel...
Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has recorded phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social
As an independent industry, the emergence of the classification society was perhaps the demand of beneficial interests between shipowners, cargo owners and insurers at the earliest time. Today, as an indispensable link of the international maritime industry, class role has changed fundamentally. Start off from the demand of the insurersSeaborne trade, transport and insurance industries began to emerge successively in the 17th century. The massive risk and benefit brought by seaborne transport provided a difficult problem to insurers.
MacFadden, Bruce J
Visitors to natural history museums have an incomplete understanding of evolution. Although they are relatively knowledgeable about fossils and geological time, they have a poor understanding of natural selection. Museums in the 21st century can effectively increase public understanding of evolution through interactive displays, novel content (e.g. genomics), engaging videos and cyberexhibits that communicate to a broad spectrum of society, both within the exhibit halls as well as outside the museum.
Multi-agent simulation was used to study several styles of leadership in small societies. Populations of 50 and100 agents inhabited a bounded landscape containing a fixed number of food sources. Agents moved about the landscape in search of food, mated, produced offspring, and died either of hunger or at a predetermined maximum age. Leadership models focused on the collection and redistribution of food. The simulations suggest that individual households were more effective at meeting their ne...
Olesen, Anne Estrup; Brokjaer, Anne; Fischer, Iben Wendelboe Deleuran;
Drug absorption in patients with chronic pancreatitis might be affected by the pathophysiology of the disease. The exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is associated with changes in gastrointestinal intraluminal pH, motility disorder, bacterial overgrowth and changed pancreatic gland secretion....... Together these factors can result in malabsorption and may also affect the efficacy of pharmacological intervention. The lifestyle of chronic pancreatitis patients may also contribute to gastrointestinal changes. Many patients limit their food intake because of the pain caused by eating and in some cases...... food intake is more or less substituted with alcohol, tobacco and coffee. Alcohol and drug interaction are known to influence the pharmacokinetics by altering either drug absorption or by affecting liver metabolism. Since patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis experience severe pain, opioids...
Ferner, R E
Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect.
Satyendra Singh Baghel
Full Text Available Curcuma caesia Roxb. is a perennial, erect rhizomatous herb with large leaves. Fresh rhizomes are aromatic with intense camphoraceous odour, cultivated for its rhizomes, which are used in traditional medicine. The plant is reported to contain camphor, ar-turmerone, (Z-ocimene, ar-curcumene, 1, 8-cineole, elemene, borneol, bornyl acetate and curcumene as the major constituents. The plant has been reported to have antifungal activity, anti-asthmatic, smooth muscle relaxant, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic, locomotor depressant, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, anti-inflammatory properties. It is now considered as a valuable source of unique natural products for development of medicines against various diseases. This review gives a view mainly on the meditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of the plant.
Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.
Isaias, Pedro; McPherson, Maggie
Despite some spectacular e-learning failures in recent years, e.g. the British government's "e University", educational technologies have continued developing and have made advances in several learning paradigms. These new learning paradigms appear as new ways to deal with the old traditional learning concepts and philosophies throughout the…
Full Text Available In all the thrill of the modern definitions of the social function of everyday life, we often forget about the basic human organizations that created the social cohesion which survived over the history during difficult times. A sort of memory aneurysm prevents us from rediscovering those communicational structures that created the real human community, which generated it free of any ideologies and fanaticisms, which raised it in the modern social network. The parish, humble social community based on the confession of the same faith and the stretching of a given geography, was mocked, eluded and informally deformed. It remains, though, one of the greatest miracles of the sociology of social organization, one of the communicational categories preserved, it seems, despite the evolution of virtual communication. It is enough to cross, for instance, the great highways of modern Europe, as well as the British area to see that the names of cities, thousands of them, are related to the Christian culture of the place. A certain saint or boards which attest the Christian past of the place, marking points of the spiritual amperage of the area, are lumps in an informal network that proves that the parish remains one of the sociological categories of communication that remains deeply implemented in the mentality of the modern man. Even if it lacks the same spiritual or cultural connotation, it remains the model of the open society, placed in the interval of the new models, destructured from the very moment of their hermeneutical assertion.
Khoo Kay Kim
Full Text Available This study attempts to explicate what happened to the Malays between the turn of the 20th century and the beginning of World War II. This is important to underscore the fact that, contrary to general impressions, Islam did not hold back the progress of the Malays, and that even before World War II, major changes were taking place in Malay society. Modernity in Malay society began to emerge even before World War I. Although the intrusion of British administration to a great extent contributed to socio-economic changes in many parts of the Malay Peninsula, the Muslim intelligentsia were indefatigably urging the Malays to be sensitive to their environment; and one way of keeping abreast of change was to expose themselves to modern education. Malay journalism, Malay literature and the frequent exchange of ideas in the Malay media were characteristics of Malay society beginning from the early 20th century. Politics then was not yet to the fore. As in other societies, there were also conservative elements within that placed obstacles in the way of those who tirelessly pursued change from tradition to modernity.
Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond;
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...... for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of the complex pharmacology of these receptors will be critical to unlocking their ultimate therapeutic potential....
... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...
... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...
... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...
This book brings together the communications presented at the colloquium 'risk and society' held in Paris (France) on November 1998. During this colloquium, the various aspects of risk and of its management were discussed by medical specialists, historians, industrialists, engineers, philosophers, lawyers, politicians and administration representatives. The first theme concerns the controversies generated by the development of some activities (genetics, bio-technologies, nuclear and radiations use). The second theme concerns the management of risks and the way to conciliate the point of view of authorities and citizens (confidence of the public with respect to experts, scientists, industrialists, government and administrative representatives, role played by the media). The debates that took place during the colloquium have shown that the public opinion concerning the nuclear activities or the new technologies greatly depends on the ideological attitudes and on the public's likes and dislikes with respect to some categories of actors (distrust with respect to public decisions, fears with respect to changes and future, nostalgia of the past). The following aspects are reviewed: Notions of risk and hazard (risk and health, risk in today's society, medicine and society, the point of view of the industrialists and of the scientific and technical specialists); from the psychological aspects of the risk to its social aspects (survey of the risk assessment battlefield, social attenuation and amplification of risk, the feeling of risks in Europe, insecurity and delinquency, controversies around radioactivity and health); the negotiation and communication about risks (risk and public health, negotiation around risks, risks and information dissemination about the public debate, communication and crisis, evolution of risk communication, comparison between American and European approaches, the Seveso directive); the public debate and the evolution of risks management (the
N.T. van der Merwe
Full Text Available The subject of my contribution to the Taljaard Festschrift is focused on a cardinal aspect of the contemporary discussion in the area of theory of science, namely the relationship between science and society', and in this connection especially the role ascribed by certain scholars to paradigms in the practice of science. Because of its bridge function, the first task will be a global getting acquainted with some characteristic accents in contemporary theory of science. If this is successful, it can hopefully open up avenues for a view of the relationship of the remaining two components of the above mentioned subject.
This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.
New technologies based on the exploitation of so-called "second order" quantum phenomena - such as quantum entanglement - deserve a public-friendly, rational, and sexy name. Spookytechnology is that unifying term. From historical and motivational perspectives, this name has greater value than the many variations of quantum this and quantum that presently used. As many already believe, the pursuit of spookytechnology has profound implications for the development of the physical and information sciences and ultimately for society at large. Spookytechnology will find its place in the increasingly dense line of major technological revolutions of our time: quantum, info, bio, nano, spooky.
Please submit your announcement to this Bulletin as early as possible! Several were received too late for interested readers to make use of. After the event please send a summary of the doings and/or the Proceedings, if any. Systematics and Biogeography of the Austral Biota, Canberra, Australia, August 1990. The ninth meeting of the Willi Hennig Society will take place in Canberra, Australia, 24-27 August 1990. The invited and contributed papers will be a mix of theory, methodology, and pract...
Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university
Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Giannoglou, George D; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S
Refractory angina refers to a group of patients with stable coronary atherosclerotic disease and angina symptoms, unresponsive to traditional medical management, while considered to be suboptimal candidates for revascularization procedures. Up to 15% of angina patients are considered to have refractory angina and, taking into account the aging population and the improvements in the treatment of stable coronary artery disease, the incidence of this entity is expected to increase. This review describes traditional and novel pharmacotherapies for symptoms relief and for long-term management of refractory angina. Mechanisms of action and relevant clinical trials are discussed and current recommendations from major European and US cardiovascular societies are reported.
Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W.
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-toleranc...
American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...
Codispoti, Victoria L
In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands,...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...
This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...
Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Gilbert, Jackie; Abraham, Prakash; Boelaert, Kristien; Dayan, Colin; Gurnell, Mark; Leese, Graham; McCabe, Christopher; Perros, Petros; Smith, Vicki; Williams, Graham; Vanderpump, Mark
The management of primary hypothyroidism with levothyroxine (L-T4) is simple, effective and safe, and most patients report improved well-being on initiation of treatment. However, a proportion of individuals continue to suffer with symptoms despite achieving adequate biochemical correction. The management of such individuals has been the subject of controversy and of considerable public interest. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) and the European Thyroid Association (ETA) have recently published guidelines on the diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism. These guidelines have been based on extensive reviews of the medical literature and include sections on the role of combination therapy with L-T4 and liothyronine (L-T3) in individuals who are persistently dissatisfied with L-T4 therapy. This position statement by the British Thyroid Association (BTA) summarises the key points in these guidelines and makes recommendations on the management of primary hypothyroidism based on the current literature, review of the published positions of the ETA and ATA, and in line with best principles of good medical practice. The statement is endorsed by the Association of Clinical Biochemistry, (ACB), British Thyroid Foundation, (BTF), Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and Society for Endocrinology (SFE). PMID:26010808
Full Text Available The majority of the Karen people in Burma are in fact Buddhist, in spite of their widespread image as Christian, pro-British, anti-Burman, and separatist. In the last decade of British rule, two Buddhist interpretations of Karen history—virtually the first ethnic self-assertion by the Buddhist Karens—were published along with the first Christian version. Writing in Burmese for Burmese readers, the authors of these Buddhist versions sought to prove that the Karen were a legitimate people (lumyo comparable to the Burman and Mon in the Buddhist world, with dynastic lineages of their own kingship (min reaching back into the remote past, and a group faithful to their religious order (thathana. This linkage of ethnicity=kingship=religion was presented in order to persuade skeptical readers who believed that the Karen, lacking the tradition of Buddhist min, were too primitive to constitute an authentic lumyo of the thathana world. Analysis of these texts will shed light on the social formation of Karen identity among the Buddhists from the 1920s to the 1930s. This will also lead us to consider the historical processes whereby the quasi-ethnic idioms and logic innate to the Burmese-speaking world were transformed in the face of modern and Western notions of race and nation, and consequently the mutation of Burma into an ethnically articulated society.
McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia
The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use.
Full Text Available The family is part of social change and, as such changes and transform into steps with modern trends of society. Family function in a given society is structured according to the overall changes that occur in all areas of social life, not neglecting family life. The contemporary conditions impose requirements that must be met to move forward with the times that follow. In particular, should highlight the social changes that are related to the growth and advancement of the educational and professional standards, which will increase the overall impact on the family and its function. If you're looking for full responsibility of parents in the upbringing of children then it is necessary to see the conditions in which the family lives. For normal education and the rights of children with special meaning the number of members in the (quantity family. The tendency to a higher standard of economic life, a small number of children in the family and it is more than obvious that fewer family members or less have greater opportunity for parents to pay more attention to their children. One of the main roles of family, no matter where they are located in the city, village, developed or developing countries, by all means participate, intermediates and transfers the moral, social and other values in modern life.
Sielecki, Leonard E.
The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...
The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged
This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...
Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa
“The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...
This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...
This article explores how the figure of the ambitious young woman is mediated within contemporary female-centred British sports films. The article begins by briefly outlining the relationship between postfeminism and neoliberalism and highlights the relevance of these discourses to contemporary female-centred sports films. It then goes on to explore how postfeminist, neoliberal values are mediated in the construction of the ambitious young woman through an analysis of the British film Chalet ...
Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...
Lee, Kwang Jae
Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.
Karim, S M; Hillier, K
Prostaglandin research has been 1 of the most stimulating features of biomedical investigation in the past decade. Interest developed at a time of expanding knowledge of hormonal and neurohormonal behavior and research work received a tremendous impetus in the early 1960s with the elucidation in Sweden of the chemical structures of prostaglandins, followed by the discovery of their biosynthetic pathways. The original findings of large amounts of prostaglandin in the male accessory genital glands and their secretions, and subsequent discovery in the menstrual and amniotic fluids linked these substances with human production. As a result of further investigation, clinical applications of prostaglandins for the induction of labor and termination of early unwanted pregnancies have been developed. Apart from the functions of the prostaglandins in the reproductive area, they have been shown to have a widespread distribution in the body and produce many different pharmacological effects. Prostaglandins are thought to be involved in the regulation of blood pressure and through their vascular effects have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hypertension and peripheral vascular disease. Through their bronchodilator effect, some prostaglandins may become useful in the treatment of asthma. PMID:4611742
Lee, Kwang Jae
Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135
Amouzadeh, Hamid R; Engwall, Michael J; Vargas, Hugo M
Biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals (BPs) are molecules such as monoclonal antibodies, soluble/decoy receptors, hormones, enzymes, cytokines, and growth factors that are produced in various biological expression systems and are used to diagnose, treat, or prevent various diseases. Safety pharmacology (SP) assessment of BPs has evolved since the approval of the first BP (recombinant human insulin) in 1982. This evolution is ongoing and is informed by various international harmonization guidelines. Based on these guidelines, the potential undesirable effect of every drug candidate (small molecule or BP) on the cardiovascular, central nervous, and respiratory systems, referred to as the "core battery," should be assessed prior to first-in-human administration. However, SP assessment of BPs poses unique challenges such as choice of test species and integration of SP parameters into repeat-dose toxicity studies. This chapter reviews the evolution of SP assessment of BPs using the approval packages of marketed BPs and discusses the past, current, and new and upcoming approach and methods that can be used to generate high-quality data for the assessment of SP of BPs.
Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A
Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147
Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A
Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147
Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.
The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs
This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs
Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael
The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...
British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts
Mohsen M. Saleh
Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.
Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz
Chronic heart failure is one of the leading causes for hospitalization in the United States and Europe, and is accompanied by high mortality. Current pharmacological therapy of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is largely based on compounds that inhibit the detrimental action of the adrenergic and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems on the heart. More than one decade after spironolactone, two novel therapeutic principles have been added to the very recently released guidelines on heart failure therapy: the HCN-channel inhibitor ivabradine and the combined angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitor valsartan/sacubitril. New compounds that are in phase II or III clinical evaluation include novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, guanylate cyclase activators or myosine activators. A variety of novel candidate targets have been identified and the availability of gene transfer has just begun to accelerate translation from basic science to clinical application. This review provides an overview of current pharmacology and pharmacotherapy in chronic heart failure at three stages: the updated clinical guidelines of the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology, new drugs which are in clinical development, and finally innovative drug targets and their mechanisms in heart failure which are emerging from preclinical studies will be discussed.
Full Text Available In 1965 Professor Thomas Southcliffe Ashton (1889-1968, who had recently retired from the London School of Economics, was invited by the students of the Economic History Society at University of Exeter to be their president. He came to Exeter on 29 April 1966 to deliver his presidential address in which he talked about four economic historians he had known: William Ashley, George Unwin, J.L. Hammond and R.H. Tawney. This paper was the result.
The CERN & Society programme brings together projects in the areas of education and outreach, innovation and knowledge exchange, and culture and arts, that spread the CERN spirit of scientific curiosity for the inspiration and benefit of society. Today, CERN & Society is launching its "giving" website – a portal to allow donors to contribute to various projects and forge new relationships with CERN. "The CERN & Society initiative in its embryonic form began almost three years ago, with the feeling that the laboratory could play a bigger role for the benefit of society," says Matteo Castoldi, Head of the CERN Development Office, who, with his team, is seeking supporters and ambassadors for the CERN & Society initiative. "The concept is not completely new – in some sense it is embedded in CERN’s DNA, as the laboratory helps society by creating knowledge and new technologies – but we would like to d...
Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public
Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie
"Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research
Jerram, Dougal A.; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Troll, Valentin R.
The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly...
In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...... of both governmental and nongovernmental institutions from more than 20 states. Its theme was to discuss the problems that Afghanistan faces in the wake of the U.S.-led attack on al Qaeda training camps and the Taliban government; examine the challenges confronting the NATO International Security...... Assistance Force as it coordinates nation-building activities in Afghanistan; and suggest ways to address these issues. This volume compiles 11 of the papers presented at the conference; themes include the importance of historical precedents, coordination among relevant parties, and the development of an all...
Krapfl, Jon E
A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191
Fifteen years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, popular music is thriving in the former Soviet territories and covers a broad variety of genres. Among these are rock bands formed in the Soviet era, surviving legends of Soviet pop, and younger bands and performers of the 1990s and 2000s....... Local and foreign musics blend as new impulses arrive from without and arise from within the region. Thanks to the most recent wave of Russian emigrants, these popular musics have also spread to various localities around the world, as exemplified by the phenomenon of "Russendisko" in Berlin...... or the Russkii Rok-Klub v Amerike (Russian Rock Club of America). This special edition of Popular Music and Society aims to present research on contemporary popular music (broadly defined) in the former Soviet republics and their diasporas. A central issue will be how the musical landscape has changed since...
Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura
brought about by the boom of the internet and the advent of the post-modern globalised knowledge-based and network-organised society. Finally, the paper outlines how theoretical and strategic library development can benefit from academic considerations on the dialectics between openness and restrictedness......The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...
Prof. A. Blowers observed that the social context within which radioactive waste management is considered has evolved over time. The early period where radioactive waste was a non-issue was succeeded by a period of intense conflict over solutions. The contemporary context is more consensual, in which solutions are sought that are both technically sound and socially acceptable. Among the major issues is that of inter-generational equity embraced in the question: how long can or should our responsibility to the future extend? He pointed out the differences in timescales. On the one hand, geo-scientific timescales are very long term, emphasizing the issue of how far into the future it is possible to make predictions about repository safety. By contrast, socio cultural timescales are much shorter, focusing on the foreseeable future of one or two generations and raising the issue of how far into the future we should be concerned. He listed. the primary expectations from society which are: safety and security to alleviate undue burdens to future generations and flexibility in order to enable the future generations to have a stake in decision making. The need to reconcile the two had led to a contemporary emphasis on phased geological disposal incorporating retrievability. However, the long timescales for implementation of disposal provided for sufficient flexibility without the need for retrievability. Future generations would inevitably have sold stake in decision making. Prof. A.. Blowers pointed out that society is also concerned with participation in decision making for implementation. The key elements for success are: openness and transparency, staged process, participation, partnership, benefits to enhance the well being of communities and a democratic framework for decision making, including the ratification of key decisions and the right for communities to withdraw from the process up to a predetermined point. This approach for decision making may also have
Full Text Available Brain aging and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are major health challenges faced by modern societies. Brain aging is associated with cognitive and functional decline and represents the favourable background for the onset and development of dementia. Brain aging is associated with early and subtle anatomo-functional physiological changes that often precede the appearance of clinical signs of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging approaches unveiled the functional correlates of these alterations and helped in the identification of therapeutic targets that can be potentially useful in counteracting age-dependent cognitive decline.A growing body of evidence supports the notion that cognitive stimulation and aerobic training can preserve and enhance operational skills in elderly individuals as well as reduce the incidence of dementia. This review aims at providing an extensive and critical overview of the most recent data that support the efficacy of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions aimed at enhancing cognition and brain plasticity in healthy elderly individuals as well as delaying the cognitive decline associated with dementia.
Schuurmans, A.; Weel, C. van
OBJECTIVE: To compare guidelines (not the primary studies) for pharmacologic treatment of migraine as to methods of guideline development; recommendations, particularly on triptans; and quality of supporting evidence (with emphasis on comparative studies of triptans versus ergot alkaloids and nonste
Kringelum, Jens Vindahl
of pharmaceuticals, a process referred to as pharmacology profiling. Pharmacology profiling of chemical and protein based pharmaceuticals has been proven valuable in a number studies , however missing values in the drug-protein interaction matrix limits the profile for novel or less studied compounds....... This limitation complicates adverse effect assessment in the early drug-development phase, thus contributing to drugattrition. Prediction models offer the possibility to close these gaps and provide more complete pharmacology profiles, however improvements in performances are required for these tools to serve...... as an alternative to experimentally obtained measurements. Here I present several different tools that aid pharmacology profiling of the two main classes of pharmaceuticals; chemicals (small molecules) and proteins (biopharmaceuticals). Biopharmaceuticals have the inherent risks of eliciting an immune response due...
Vaiserman, Alexander M; Lushchak, Oleh V; Koliada, Alexander K
Life expectancy has grown dramatically in modern times. This increase, however, is not accompanied by the same increase in healthspan. Efforts to extend healthspan through pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes are now in the spotlight of geroscience, the main idea of which is that delaying of aging is far more effective than preventing the particular chronic disorders. Currently, anti-aging pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline. It is a preventive field of health care, as opposed to conventional medicine which focuses on treating symptoms rather than root causes of illness. A number of pharmacological agents targeting basic aging pathways (i.e., calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics etc.) are now under investigation. This review summarizes the literature related to advances, perspectives and challenges in the field of anti-aging pharmacology.
Young, Robert H
The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible
Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)
Das Chandan; Dash Sujit; Sahoo Durga Charan; Mohanty Arnabaditya; Rout Dolley
Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint,...
Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R.
Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pul...
Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return fo...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....
Full Text Available Christopher S Beevers¹, Shile Huang²¹Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; ²Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.Keywords: curcumin, pharmacological properties, signal transduction, cellular targets, cancer, inflammation
Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given
Dipesh Bhagabati; Anil Kumar
Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discr...
Abstract: Modern society needs the active engagement of individuals in every level of modern life because some of them do not have the opportunity and capacity to perform at the desired level and sometimes are likely to transmit prejudices to their environment. Modern society should offer new aspects in the intercultural communication, so that people will have the opportunity to over¬come their prejudices and prevent them from becoming a barrier in their life. Especially modern society re...
The rapidly changing nature of modern societies needs to enable the benchmarking of progress through statistical indicators. The book is taking up the challenge of using newly developed innovative information society indicators, tested and piloted in a representative survey held in all EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States in 2002 and in ten new associated states in 2003. The first part of the book concerns benchmarking Information society development in Bulgaria. The topics...
Barkin, Robert L
Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding
In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).
... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...
Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.
Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.
Henten, Anders; Falch, Morten
The Danish Government recently issued a new policy report, Digital Denmark, on the "conversion to a network society", as a successor to its Information Society 2000 report (1994). This is part of a new round of information society policy vision statements that are, or will be forthcoming from...... for a welfare society. However, globalisation and the spreading use of new information and communication technologies and services challenge this position. This article examines Denmark's performance in implementing its IS 2000 plans, the background to the Digital Denmark report, and its implications...... national governments everywhere. Denmark provides an interesting case study because it ranks high in the benchmark indicators of information network society developments. This position has been obtained largely by public sector initiatives and without erosion of the highly reputed Scandinavian model...
Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James
In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.
Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James
In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and The American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.
Bernardo, Miquel; Vieta, Eduard; Saiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Alamo, Cecilio; Bobes, Julio
Switching antipsychotics is common in the clinical practice setting and is associated with potential clinically relevant complications. An expert group selected by Spanish Society of Psychiatry and the Spanish Society of Biological Psychiatry has reviewed the evidence provided by randomized clinical trials and other relevant information to reach consensus recommendations for switching antipsychotics. In this article, we will review all the information that has led to those recommendations and which includes: indications and contraindications for switching antipsychotics, pharmacological issues, switching strategies, switching antipsychotics due to efficacy problems, switching antispychotics due to tolerability issues (including extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia, weight gain, metabolic disorders, hyperprolactinemia, sexual dysfunction, persistent sedation, and QT prolongation), switching antypsychotics due to lack of treatment compliance, and switching antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorders.
The paper aims to present the results of the Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a knowledge society training system, in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning software platform and several CBT objects/courses have been implemented. The conceived solution is called CBTCenter which is a complete E-Learning and CBT system, offering a variety of teaching and learning tools and services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quizzes, grades, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBTCenter is Labour safety - code name BB-001. The implementation of the CBT technology at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which take part in the educational process; the classroom space problem has been considerably reduced; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problems will decrease with the conversion of more and more conventional courses and materials into CBT objects/courses. (authors)
In British Council-managed ELT projects in Chinese universities,Chinese project counterparts areselected from among the English-language teaching staff of the University.They work alongside aBritish Council-recruited lecturer(BCL)in developing whatever it is the project has been set up tocreate:a syllabus,teaching materials,a course,etc.During the lifetime of the project eachcounterpart is sent for a year’s postgraduate training(typically an MA in applied Linguistics)at aBritish university,the rationale being that the combination of training on the job and in the UK willequip them to take over the running of the project and ensure its long-term sustainability.This paperlooks at the staff development of the counterparts prior to their UK training.
The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)
The tension observed on the British gas market has raised many worries and questions. The last meeting of the French gas association (AFG) aimed at shading light and at supplying some elements of analysis necessary for the correct understanding of the British gas market problem. The volatility of the spot market, its capacity to adjust the supply and demand and the role of long-term contracts in ensuring the security of supplies were explained and debated by a various panel of high level orators: P.W. Wright (Sheffield univ.), J. Harvard (deputy director, Gas Markets, Dept. of trade and industry), S. Caudron (manager business development, Statoil) and P. Vedrenne (managing director, Gaselys). They also examined the trends chosen by the British government to supply corrective measures. (J.S.)
The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....... interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks...
Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army.
The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...
The article’s focus is on how public libraries are affected by structural changes in the wake of the transition to the knowledge society. Their attempts to match the knowledge society are illustrated by processes of sensemaking and sensegiving made in public libraries in Canada, the UK and Denmark....
Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the debate…
Gersbach, Hans; Siemers, Lars-H. R.
We examine whether democratic societies can escape poverty traps. Unrestricted agenda setting with simple majority rules fail to educate a society, because education-enhancing redistribution will not occur. We show that a combination of suitable constitutional rules overcomes this impossibility result: rotating agenda setting and agenda repetition in combination with flexible majority rules or with a tax protection rule.
This article approaches the fundamental role which education has in the information society. The continuous evolution of information and communication technologies requires that all citizens have the necessary skills have to use these technologies and to access information for efficient individual functioning in the information society. In this context, the information literacy programmes have a growing importance.
This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…
Full Text Available This article approaches the fundamental role which education has in the information society. The continuous evolution of information and communication technologies requires that all citizens have the necessary skills have to use these technologies and to access information for efficient individual functioning in the information society. In this context, the information literacy programmes have a growing importance.
Full Text Available This study sets out to establish conceptual delimitations, more concordant to the theoretical acquisitions with regard to the knowledge society. The author considers it opportune to situate in the center of the definition of the concept of knowledge society the problem of prevalence in the typology of resources. Thus, the knowledge society appears as a form of organization in which scientific knowledge predominates, be that informatics as well. The concordances of essence are discovered through the discerning of the functional relationship knowledge society – global society. In the spectrum of meanings specific to this highway of post-postmodernist configuration of the world, the priorities of the project of the second modernity – the paradigmatic matrix of globalization – are approached. In fact, the study argues in favor of refocusing globalization on the humane, on its distinctive values which substantiate and lend sense to the evolutions of the world. Postreferentiality is the rational expression of humanity coming back to itself.
Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh
Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. Many of these Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers seem to be more efficacious compared to currently available Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers. This review describes and summarizes evidence on various Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers such as physical exercise, sleep, meditation and yoga, spirituality, nutrients, computer training, brain stimulation, and music. We also discuss their role in ageing and different neuro-psychiatric disorders, and current status of Cochrane database recommendations. We searched the Pubmed database for the articles and reviews having the terms 'non pharmacological and cognitive' in the title, published from 2000 till 2014. A total of 11 results displayed, out of which 10 were relevant to the review. These were selected and reviewed. Appropriate cross-references within the articles along with Cochrane reviews were also considered and studied. PMID:26393186
Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E
The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen
Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.
Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.
Jane Friesen; Benjamin Cerf Harris; Simon Woodcock
Is expanding the scope for parents to choose among competing schools an effective policy lever for improving the quality of education? What lessons can we take from British Columbia’s experience with greater school choice? In 2002, British Columbia implemented a new policy that makes it easier for parents to opt out of their neighbourhood school. Along with the province’s rich administrative and test score data, the introduction of this “open enrolment” policy provides a rare opportunity to e...
of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...
Mir, Rafia; Karim, Sajjad; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Wilson, Cornelia M; Mirza, Zeenat
Cone snails, also known as marine gastropods, from Conus genus produce in their venom a diverse range of small pharmacologically active structured peptides called conotoxins. The cone snail venoms are widely unexplored arsenal of toxins with therapeutic and pharmacological potential, making them a treasure trove of ligands and peptidic drug leads. Conotoxins are small disulfide bonded peptides, which act as remarkable selective inhibitors and modulators of ion channels (calcium, sodium, potassium), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, noradrenaline transporters, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and neurotensin receptors. They are highly potent and specific against several neuronal targets making them valuable as research tools, drug leads and even therapeutics. In this review, we discuss their gene superfamily classification, nomenclature, post-translational modification, structural framework, pharmacology and medical applications of the active conopeptides. We aim to give an overview of their structure and therapeutic potential. Understanding these aspects of conopeptides will help in designing more specific peptidic analogues. PMID:26601961
Camargo, Ricardo; Ried, Nicolás
Following Foucault's work on disciplinary power and biopolitics, this article maps an initial cartography of the research areas to be traced by a genealogy of pharmacological practice. Pharmacology, as a practical activity, refers to the creation, production and sale of drugs/medication. This work identifies five lines of research that, although often disconnected from each other, may be observed in the specialized literature: (1) pharmaceuticalization; (2) regulation of the pharmaceutical industry; (3) the political-economic structure of the pharmaceutical industry; (4) consumption/consumerism of medications; (5) and bio-knowledge. The article suggests that a systematic analysis of these areas leads one to consider pharmacological practice a sui generis apparatus of power, which reaches beyond the purely disciplinary and biopolitical levels to encompass molecular configurations, thereby giving rise not only to new types of government over life, but also to new struggles for life, extending from molecular to population-wide levels. PMID:25956710
XIA Shi-hai; FANG Dian-chun
Objective To review the recent research progress in pharmacological actions and mechanisms of ginkgolide B.Data sources Information included in this article was identified by searching of PUBMED (1987-2006) online resources using the key terms "ginkgolide B", "platelet activating factor", and "pharmacological".Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators of the field were selected.Results The key issues related to the pharmacological actions and mechanisms of ginkgolide B were summarized. The ginkgolide B possesses a number of beneficial effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. Meantime, their mechaniams were discussed.Conclusions The Ginkgolide B is the most potent antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF) and exhibits therapeutic action in a variety of diseases mainly by the PAF receptor.
Hedegaard, Maiken; Hansen, Kasper Bø; Andersen, Karen Toftegaard;
current knowledge of the relationship between NMDA receptor structure and function. We summarize studies on the biophysical properties of human NMDA receptors and compare these properties to those of rat orthologs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive pharmacological characterization that allows side......-by-side comparison of agonists, un-competitive antagonists, GluN2B-selective non-competitive antagonists, and GluN2C/D-selective modulators at recombinant human and rat NMDA receptors. The evaluation of biophysical properties and pharmacological probes acting at different sites on the receptor suggest...... that the binding sites and conformational changes leading to channel gating in response to agonist binding are highly conserved between human and rat NMDA receptors. In summary, the results of this study suggest that no major detectable differences exist in the pharmacological and functional properties of human...
Camila G. Dantas; Tássia L.G.M. Nunes; Tâmara L.G.M. Nunes; Ailma O. da Paixão; Francisco P. Reis; Waldecy de L. Júnior; Juliana C. Cardoso; Kátia P. Gramacho; Gomes, Margarete Z
The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereot...
Full Text Available Cassia tora, a popular Indian medicinal plant, has long been used in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The plant has been found to possess diverse number of pharmacological activities. The present paper gives an account of updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. The review reveals that wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant and it possess important activities like laxative, skin diseases, ringworm, eye diseases, liver complaint, dysentery and anthelmentic. Various other activities like antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antifungal & antimicrobial, hyperlipemia & hypotensive have also been reported. These reports are very encouraging and indicate that herb should be studied more extensively for its therapeutic benefits.
Full Text Available Herbal medicines are the significant and reliable sources for treating various diseases. Argyreia nervosa is traditionally used in wound healing, syphilius,diuretics,rheumatic affections, leucohorrhoea.,cerebral disorders, ulcers, as anti-tumour and to prevent contraception.Phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, steroids, ergoline alkaloids and triterpenoids were identified. Pharmacological studies proved its anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory, hypotensive, anti- inflammatory and nootropic effect.The present form of article highlights the phytochemical and pharmacological studies including traditional practice of Argyreia nervosa have been carried out so far.
Loewdin, P.O.; Oehrn, N.Y.; Sabin, J.R.; Zerner, M.C.
The 25th Sanibel Symposia, which included the 12th meeting of the Symposium on Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology, was held at the University of Florida Whitney Laboratory at Marineland on the Atlantic Coast of Florida, March 14-23, 1985. The three days (March 14-16) devoted to Quantum Biology and Quantum Pharmacology saw the presentation of more than 50 papers by the 90 participants representing about 20 different nations. These ''Proceedings'' comprise the contributions in both the invited talks and the poster sessions.
Rasmussen, Hilde Fossan
This MA thesis investigates Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes toward British English and American English. To the best of my knowledge no previous language studies have been conducted on both of these groups in Norway. British English had traditionally been the variety taught at European schools (Trudgill & Hannah 2008). On the other hand, Norwegians are arguably exposed to more American English than British English in their daily lives. The results show that British English still h...
António Pedro de Andrade Dores
Full Text Available The recent interest in the sociology of violence has arisen at the same time that western societies are being urged to consider the profound social crisis provoked by global financial turmoil. Social changes demand the evo- lution of sociological practices. The analysis herein proposed, based on the studies of M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins, Violence: A Micro-sociological Theory (2008, concludes that violence is subject to sociological treatments cen- tered on the aggressors, on the struggles for power and on male gender. There is a lack of connection between prac- tical proposals for violence prevention and the sociol- ogy of violence. It is accepted that violence as a subject of study has the potential, as well as the theoretical and social centrality, to promote the debate necessary to bring social theory up to date. This process is more likely to oc- cur in periods of social transformation, when sociology is open to considering subjects that are still taboo in its study of violence, such as the female gender and the state. The rise of the sociology of violence confronts us with a dilemma. We can either collaborate with the construc- tion of a sub discipline that reproduces the limitations and taboos of current social theory, or we can use the fact that violence has become a “hot topic” as an opportunity to open sociology to themes that are taboo in social the- ory (such as the vital and harmonious character of the biological aspects of social mechanisms or the normative aspects of social settings. ResumenEl interés reciente en la sociología de la violencia ha surgido al mismo tiempo que las sociedades occidenta- les están requiriendo considerar la profunda crisis social provocada por la agitación financiera global. Los cambios sociales demandan la evolución de las prácticas socioló- gicas. El análisis aquí expuesto, basado en los estudios de M. Wieviorka, La Violence (2005, and of R. Collins
British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 194
Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.
British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 194
Alali, Jaber; Ramji, Alnoor; Ho, Jin K; Scudamore, Charles H; Erb, Siegfried R; Cheung, Elsie; Kopit, Bina; Bannon, Clare A; Chung, Stephen W; Soos, John G; Buczkowski, Andrezj K; Brooks, Eileen M; Steinbrecher, Urs P; Yoshida, Eric M
BACKGROUND Every centre has contraindications to liver transplantation and declares patients unsuitable for medical or nonmedical reasons. To date, there has been no published review of any centre’s experience. METHODS A retrospective chart review was completed from 1997 to 2001, inclusive of all patients referred for liver transplant to the British Columbia Transplant Society who were declared unsuitable for transplantation, as well as the reasons for unsuitability. RESULTS One hundred fifty patients were considered to be unsuitable for transplantation. During this period, 167 transplants were performed and 737 patients were referred for candidacy. Data were missing on three patients; analysis was performed on the remaining 147. Patients’ ages ranged from 15 to 72 years, and 33.3% were female. The most common primary liver disease was hepatitis C (n=53, 35%), followed by alcoholic liver disease (n=35, 24%) and autoimmune liver diseases (n=23, 16%). Medical contraindications constituted 74 patients (49.0%) and the most common reasons for unsuitability were no need of a liver transplant (29 patients [39%]), exclusion due to hepatoma or extrahepatic malignancy (20 patients [27%]) and multisystem failure (12 patients [16%]). Nonmedical contraindications constituted 73 patients. Failure to meet minimal alcohol criteria comprised the largest group (n=39, 53.4%) followed by inadequate social support (n=12, 16.4%), failure to follow up medical assessment (n=10, 13.7%) and drug abuse (n=6, 8.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although many patients were declined for transplantation, the proportion is relatively small compared with the number of referred patients. Nonmedical reasons, including failure to meet alcohol criteria and lack of social support, remain a significant reason for unsuitability in British Columbia. Community intervention before transplant referral is recommended. PMID:16482235
Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis
Macdonald, Neil; Chiverrell, Richard; Todd, Beverley; Bowen, James; Lennard, Amy
The last two decades have witnessed some of the most severe droughts experienced within living memory in the UK, but have these droughts really been exceptional? Relatively few instrumental river flow, groundwater or reservoir series extend beyond 50 years in length, with few precipitation series currently available extending over 100 years. These relatively short series present considerable challenges in determining current and future drought risk, with the results affecting society and the economy. This study uses long instrumental precipitation series coupled with the SPI and scPDSi drought indices to reconstruct drought histories from different parts of the British Isles. Existing long precipitation series have been reassessed and several new precipitation series reconstructed (e.g. Carlisle 1757), with eight series now over 200 years in length, and a further thirteen over 150 years, with further sites currently being developed (e.g. Norwich, 1749-; Exeter, 1724-). This study will focuses on the eight longest series, with shorter series used to help explore spatial and temporal variability across British Isles. We show how historical series have improved understanding of severe droughts, by examining past spatial and temporal variability and exploring the climatic drivers responsible. It shows that recent well documented droughts (e.g. 1976; 1996 and 2010) which have shaped both public and water resource managers' perceptions of risk, have historically been exceeded in both severity (e.g. 1781) and duration (e.g. 1798-1810); with the largest droughts often transcending single catchments and affecting regions. Recent droughts are not exceptional when considered within a multi-centennial timescale, with improved understanding of historical events raising concerns in contemporary water resource management.
The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.
Provides an overview of the British Library's Initiatives for Access program which uses digital imaging. Highlights include digitization of microfilm, the electronic "Beowulf", electronic photographic viewing system, computer software that uses neural networks and fuzzy matching to provide links to search terms, and international projects. (LRW)
In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)
Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)
Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael
The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…
Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.
In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…
The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas
Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.
This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…
<正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.
Stobbe, T.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.
Agricultural land protection near the urban-rural fringe is a goal of many jurisdictions, and none more so than British Columbia, Canada, which uses a provincial-wide zoning scheme to prevent subdivisions and non-agricultural uses of the land. A preferential tax regulation scheme for farmers is also
Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)
The article reports the construction and testing of a short scale of alienation. The scale is used in a British secondary school to explore associations between the criterion measure and children's self concept of academic ability, self esteem, extraversion, and placement in high/low ability groupings. (Editor)
Around the beginning of the 17th century, the British established in India the supreme headquarters of itsaggression in the east-the East IndiaCompany. In the late 18th century, theybegan their aggression by means of"doing missionary work", "traveling forpleasure", and "seeking trade relations",and started invading Tibet.
Colonial education has been controversial and widely divergent interpretations have been offered from contrasting ideological perspectives. British imperial education policy was highly contended during the colonial era and remains a contentious issue amongst many contemporary historians and a critical review of the historiography of the subject is…
<正>The 2009 China Jingdezhen International Ceramics Fair in October drew a large crowd of visitors from around the world to the capital of porcelain to admire the beautiful displays from various countries.Among them,a 12-member British delegation from the Bath & North East Somerset Council headed by Councilor Francine Haeberling had an additional special reason for their visit.
A study of continuing vocational education in British universities found a variety of organizational approaches and assumptions that continuing education should be mainstreamed and self-financing. Essential elements include leader commitment, specialized units, clear academic identity, and continuous reflective review. (SK)
There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…
Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe
This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…
Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.
This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous sign
Cole, F H
This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners.
Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M
Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294
The third largest electric utility in Canada, B.C. Hydro services over 1.3 million customers in a area containing over 92 per cent of British Columbia's population. B.C. Hydro's mission is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. This annual report covers the business and financial performance of B.C. Hydro, and financial statistics
Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma
Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial data and…
Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard
Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…
This thesis examines the process of institutional change in British Columbia’s timber sector. It is composed of a series of essays which highlight the underlying political and economic factors that have shaped past and current reforms. Taking center stage in the analysis, are the resource rents avai
Milton, James; Meara, Paul
Examined the foreign-language-learning abilities of 14- to 15-year olds in Britain, Germany, and Greece. Comparison of results from tests of students' foreign vocabulary knowledge indicated that British students had only one-third to one-half of the foreign language vocabulary knowledge of Greek and German students. They also spent less time…
Reid, Ivan; And Others
Discussed are (1) how public sector higher education poses threats and opportunities for sociology; (2) the effects of budget cuts on various British universities; (3) the retention of courses in a public sector college in spite of the budget cuts; and (4) problems and potentials of strategies for dealing with retrenchment. (RM)
A compilation of data is presented on individual risk obtained from recent British population and mortality statistics. Risk data presented include: risk of death, as a function of age, due to several important natural causes and due to accidents and violence; risk of death as a function of location of accident; and risk of death from various accidental causes. (author)
Coates, Chad O.
Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…
Describes linguistic model known as British Contextualism in the Federal Republic of Germany as a basis for the practical language component in second language teacher training programs. Concept goes beyond orthodox structuralism by adding a level of context. (Author/BK)
Kersen, van J.F.
On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these deposi
This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…
Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd
While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for news gathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. This paper investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elec
In 2013 is in de Canadese provincie British Columbia nieuwe familierechtwetgeving in werking getreden: de Family Law Act, met daarin een regeling voor draagmoederschap, meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Gezien de discussie in Nederland over deze onderwerpen en de instelling van de Staatscommissie He
Walker, Susan P.
In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…
The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so t
Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted
This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…
Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine
This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…
Mejlgaard, Niels; Bloch, Carter Walter
This paper introduces a special section of Science and Public Policy on science in society in Europe. Based on extensive data collected for the Monitoring Policy and Research Activities on Science in Society in Europe (MASIS) project, contributions to this special section explore pertinent issues...... related to the location, role and responsibility of science across EU member states and associated countries. By developing analytical typologies and classifying countries, the collection of papers provides a novel and detailed picture of Europe. It reveals considerable variation regarding...... the interactions of science and society at the national level, and it offers a platform for international learning. The identification of patterns and trends concerning the place of science in society may also feed into emerging European discussions about ‘responsible research and innovation’....
... Andrews HDSA Researcher Spotlight- Dr. Amber Southwell Advocacy Huntington’s Disease Parity Act Affordable Care Act Social Security ... 08.30.16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD ...
... topic you’d like to present? Share your knowledge by presenting a webinar Learn More Join ASHT ... ago Follow Us Who we are The American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) is a professional organization ...
This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...
Environmental destruction has become an everyday reality in the contemporary world. Major concerns are being put forward regarding the dangers to the environment in general and to human societies in particular, with strong focus currently being put on climate change. Sociology has an important role to play in the analysis of environmental problems. The interaction between nature and society can be analysed through the concept of overdetermination. At the same time, the social construction on ...
Herbert Dawid; Gustav Feichtinger; Joshua R. Goldstein; Veliov, Vladimir M.
Aging organizations - regardless of whether they are firms, faculties, societies, political bodies, teams, or national academies - seek ways to rejuvenate. This paper demonstrates that the best way to keep an organization young is through a mixed strategy of recruiting both young and old, and that, contrary to intuition, recruiting those of middle age is the least effective strategy for maintaining a younger age structure. The aging of learned societies is a problem in many national academies...
Outlining the development of information society in Turkey and in world, this reasearch narrates the general facts and the assesments on those general facts concerning humanity and technology story from the first times of history to our times. In this study; it is struggled to prove where is points the people of our time arrive at by way of comparing information soicety and industrial society.
Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.
The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…
Full Text Available Several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (−-Anonaine, isolated from several species of Magnoliaceae and Annonaceae, presents antiplasmodial, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidation, anticancer, antidepression, and vasorelaxant activity. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological functions of (−-anonaine.
Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.
Austin, Vance L.
A review of the research on pharmacological interventions for students with attention deficit disorder finds that psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) are effective in improving focus and impulse control, but should be used in conjunction with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. Comprehensive medical screenings and guidelines…
Sachdeva, Ankur; Kumar, Kuldip; Anand, Kuljeet Singh
Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. Cognitive dysfunctions are an integral part of neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in healthy ageing. Cognitive Enhancers are molecules that help improve aspects of cognition like memory, intelligence, motivation, attention and concentration. Recently, Non Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancers have gained popularity as effective and safe alternative to various established drugs. ...
Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa; Lartigue, Lydia; Newmeyer, Donald D.
Cell death by apoptosis or necrosis is often important in the etiology and treatment of disease. Since mitochondria play important roles in cell death pathways, these organelles are potentially prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the mechanisms through which mitochondria participate in the cell death process and also survey some of the pharmacological approaches that target mitochondria in various ways.
Seema V. Pattewar
The main objective of this review is to provide advance information for the drug discovery research from the divine herb Kalanchoe pinnata, which contains a wide range of active compounds, including alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids and organic acids. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focussing on activities as immunomodulator, CNS depressant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antile...
Most of the cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. have not been fully evaluated for their pharmacological activity. A publication in this issue presents evidence that a plant cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a potent antagonist of anandamide, a major endogenous cannabinoid. It seems possible that many of the non-psychoactive constituents of this plant will be of biological interest.
Krishnaveni, A; T. Sant Rani
Herbal medicines are the significant and reliable sources for treating various diseases. Argyreia nervosa is traditionally used in wound healing, syphilius,diuretics,rheumatic affections, leucohorrhoea.,cerebral disorders, ulcers, as anti-tumour and to prevent contraception.Phytoconstituents such as flavanoids, steroids, ergoline alkaloids and triterpenoids were identified. Pharmacological studies proved its anticonvulsant, immunomodulatory, hypotensive, anti- inflammatory and no...
T. Huizer (Tom)
textabstractThis thesis deals with high-energy phosphate metabolism during myocardial ischemia. describes the effects of some pharmacological interventions on the energy metabolism of ischemic myocardium. The chapters of this thesis are based on 11 published papers, added as appendices.
Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The major
Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie
pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...
FANG Jun; LIAN Yan-hong; XIE Kang-jie; CAI Shu-nü
Objective To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982-2011),Pubmed (1982-2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982-2011).Study selection Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain,including anticonvulsants,antidepressants,local anaesthetics,N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,tramadol,opioids,calcitonin,capsaicin,beta-adrenergic blockers,clonidine,muscle relaxants,and emerging drugs,we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications,outlined the limitations and future directions.Conclusions Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain,we recommend tricyclic antidepressants,gabapentin,tramadol,opioids,local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.
Poplack, D.G.; Massimo, L.; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P
This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the Titles are: Genetic reasons for pharmacologic treatment failure: gene amplification; New approaches to overcome drug resistance; An overview of adverse late effects of cancer chemotherapy in children; the development of 9-substituted purines as immunomodulators; and High dose cisplatinum: a phase II study.
Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge
Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity), target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level. PMID:26901192
Perret, G. (U.E.R. de Medecine, Sante et Biologie Humaine, 93 - Bobigny (France)); Simon, P. (Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))
The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, ..beta..-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising.
Avinash K Bhandary
Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs
Peter Jeffrey Collins
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the historical development of ecospirituality, that is, a faith andpractice both generating and informed by an appreciation of environmental concerns,among the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers in Britain. Decisions made within andby such groups are significantly determined by their understanding of the moral andethical character of the environment and their relation to it. This ethical and moralcharacter might derive from a variety of sources; in contemporary concerns for theenvironment it resides primarily in the cultural, economic, and political context ofparticular social phenomena. Quakers, it would seem, are more or less typicalenvironmentalists in so far as their decision either to buy or refrain from buying this orthat item is informed by both moral and religious judgement. The historical trajectory ofQuaker consumption is characterised by a principle, plaining, that has enabled Quakersto frame their environmentalism in a more or less unique way. During the first hundredyears of the movement (1650-1750, Quakers adopted a system of discipline in whichcommittees (local, regional, and national imposed upon the membership a strict regimeof prescriptions and proscriptions. These lists of dos and don’ts, justified by referenceto Biblical and other texts, concerned virtually every aspect of life, and these decisionswere informed by specific environmental sensibilities central to Quaker faith andpractice. From 1750 to 1950, this intense and intrusive discipline, upheld throughgroup-surveillance, diminished. After 1950, the evolution of the group from a disciplinewhich itemised the plain to the internalisation of individual members of the process ofplaining was more or less complete. Discipline was increasingly a matter of selfsurveillance.Contemporary Quakers emphasise efficient and effective dissemination ofinformation, particularly relating to issues such as human rights and the environment.This process contributes
The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily from the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone, through an action in the brain, appears to be involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes that are cued by the daily change in photoperiod. This article reviews the pharmacological characteristics and function of melatonin receptors in the central nervous system, and the role of melatonin in mediating physiological functions in mammals. Melatonin and melatonin agonists, at picomolar concentrations, inhibit the release of dopamine from retina through activation of a site that is pharmacologically different from a serotonin receptor. These inhibitory effects are antagonized by the novel melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (N-0774), which suggests that melatonin activates a presynaptic melatonin receptor. In chicken and rabbit retina, the pharmacological characteristics of the presynaptic melatonin receptor and the site labeled by 2-(125I)iodomelatonin are identical. It is proposed that 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binding sites (e.g., chicken brain) that possess the pharmacological characteristics of the retinal melatonin receptor site (order of affinities: 2-iodomelatonin greater than 6-chloromelatonin greater than or equal to melatonin greater than or equal to 6,7-di-chloro-2-methylmelatonin greater than 6-hydroxymelatonin greater than or equal to 6-methoxymelatonin greater than N-acetyltryptamine greater than or equal to luzindole greater than N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine greater than 5-methoxytryptamine much greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine) be classified as ML-1 (melatonin 1). The 2-(125I)iodomelatonin binding site of hamster brain membranes possesses different binding and pharmacological characteristics from the retinal melatonin receptor site and should be classified as ML-2. 64 references.
Full Text Available Background: The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement is a device to standardize reporting and improve the quality of controlled trials. However, little attention is paid to the statistical components in the CONSORT checklist. The present study evaluates the randomized controlled trials [RCTs] published in five high impact pharmacology journals with respect to its statistical methods. Methods: Randomized Controlled Trials [RCTs] published in the years 2013 & 2014 in five pharmacology journals with high impact factor, The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (JCP, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (BJCP, European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (EJCP, Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics (JPP and Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP were assessed for adherence to the statistical components of CONSORT statement. Results: Of the 174 RCTs analysed, 103 described the method of sample size calculation. Of the five journals, maximum reports in JCP (34/50 and minimum in IJP (13/31 adhered to the CONSORT checklist [item 7a-sample size calculation]. Most reports mentioned the statistical methods used for analysis of data. (171/174 as per the checklist [item 12=statistical methods used]. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was the most commonly used test (88/174. The software used for statistical analysis was mentioned in 111 RCTs and SPSS was used more frequently (58/111. The exact p value was stated in 108 reports. Certain errors in statistical analysis were also noted (40/174. Conclusion: These findings show inconsistencies and non- adherence to the statistical components of the CONSORT statement especially with respect to sample size calculation. Special attention must be paid to the statistical accuracy of the reports.
Satpute, Sachin; Mehta, Manthan; Bhete, Sandeep; Kurle, Dnyneshwar
Background: The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement is a device to standardize reporting and improve the quality of controlled trials. However, little attention is paid to the statistical components in the CONSORT checklist. The present study evaluates the randomized controlled trials [RCTs] published in five high impact pharmacology journals with respect to its statistical methods. Methods: Randomized Controlled Trials [RCTs] published in the years 2013 & 2014 in five pharmacology journals with high impact factor, The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (JCP), British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (BJCP), European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (EJCP), Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics (JPP) and Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP) were assessed for adherence to the statistical components of CONSORT statement. Results: Of the 174 RCTs analysed, 103 described the method of sample size calculation. Of the five journals, maximum reports in JCP (34/50) and minimum in IJP (13/31) adhered to the CONSORT checklist [item 7a-sample size calculation]. Most reports mentioned the statistical methods used for analysis of data. (171/174) as per the checklist [item 12=statistical methods used]. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the most commonly used test (88/174). The software used for statistical analysis was mentioned in 111 RCTs and SPSS was used more frequently (58/111). The exact p value was stated in 108 reports. Certain errors in statistical analysis were also noted (40/174). Conclusion: These findings show inconsistencies and non- adherence to the statistical components of the CONSORT statement especially with respect to sample size calculation. Special attention must be paid to the statistical accuracy of the reports. PMID:27453829
The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...
Hunt, M E
A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.
Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther
This paper places America’s “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America’s experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America’s Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society. PMID:25893215
Baker, Graham J.
Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious value...
Vardhanabhuti, Varut; Nicol, Edward; Morgan-Hughes, Gareth; Roobottom, Carl A; Roditi, Giles; Hamilton, Mark C K; Bull, Russell K; Pugliese, Franchesca; Williams, Michelle C; Stirrup, James; Padley, Simon; Taylor, Andrew; Davies, L Ceri; Bury, Roger; Harden, Stephen
Accurate and timely assessment of suspected acute aortic syndrome is crucial in this life-threatening condition. Imaging with CT plays a central role in the diagnosis to allow expedited management. Diagnosis can be made using locally available expertise with optimized scanning parameters, making full use of recent advances in CT technology. Each imaging centre must optimize their protocols to allow accurate diagnosis, to optimize radiation dose and in particular to reduce the risk of false-positive diagnosis that may simulate disease. This document outlines the principles for the acquisition of motion-free imaging of the aorta in this context. PMID:26916280
Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.
Full Text Available Numerous issues related to culture, occupation, gender, caste, and health, to name a few, have faced harshness of society from time immemorial. Reasons are debatable, ranging from somewhat understandable to completely unacceptable. There is no doubt that society is dynamic and it has changed its view on many of the issues with passing time. Mental health is one such issue which society has neglected for quite a long time. Even today, mental health and mentally ill people face stigma and discrimination in their family, society, and at their workplace. People do not feel comfortable talking about mental health, even if they know that there cannot be any health without a healthy mind. But, as Albert Einstein has said “learn from yesterday, live for today, and hope for tomorrow”, everything is not lost. The mentally ill patients who were once abandoned and left on their own have now started to get humane care and attention. This article discusses this very pertinent topic of changing society and mental health.
Durmuş AKALIN; ÇELİK, Cemil
East Mediterranean is an important and strategic region at theintersection of Asia, Africa and Europe. Many states and societies havebeen inhabiting in Eastern Mediterranean. Ottoman Empire was themost significant country in this area in 19th century and before. Therewas peace and comfort in Eastern Mediterranean with Ottoman rulewhich the most prominant power in the region. But political tusslestarted up because of European (especially British and French) power’sinterest on the area. At the ...
Lingford-Hughes, A R; Welch, S; Peters, L; Nutt, D J
The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the treatment of substance abuse, harmful use, addiction and comorbidity with psychiatric disorders primarily focus on their pharmacological management. They are based explicitly on the available evidence and presented as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners alongside a detailed review of the evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in the treatment of these disorders, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of the evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after feedback from participants. The guidelines primarily cover the pharmacological management of withdrawal, short- and long-term substitution, maintenance of abstinence and prevention of complications, where appropriate, for substance abuse or harmful use or addiction as well management in pregnancy, comorbidity with psychiatric disorders and in younger and older people.
Osmundo Rocha Claudino
Full Text Available The emergence of the information society and the implications for the field of education form the object of analysis of this article, therefore, seeks to outline the profile of the model of informational society, since its main historical precedents to its conceptualization. The characterization of the knowledge society, driven by technological change, highlights the rearrangement of the teaching-learning process from the deterritorialization / virtualization, requiring new practical knowledge of the transaction. We conclude that educate in cyberculture implies recognizing the paradigmatic crisis of the educational system, review postures and understand the technological advances as allies of new practices that expand the role of educator and humanitarian vocation to resize a new habitat.
ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong
Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
Camila G. Dantas
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.
Full Text Available Verbascum thapsus L. [Khardhag or Common mullein], a member of the family Scrophulariaceae, is a famous herb that is found all over Europe, in temperate Asia, in North America and is well-reputed due to its medicinal properties. This medicinal herb contains various chemical constituents like saponins, iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is famous in various communities worldwide for the treatment of various disorders of both humans and animals aliments. A number of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihepatotoxic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity have been ascribed to this plant. The plant is used to treat tuberculosis also, earache and bronchitis. In the present paper botanical and ethnomedicinal description, pharmacological profile and phytochemistry of this herb is being discussed.
ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong
Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.
Rakesh C. Chaurasia
Full Text Available Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practicals the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Students apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no potential to tone-up adequate clinical skills in future study instead of wastage of time and money. Killing of innocent animals is crucial and should be socially discouraged. Thus Pharmacology practical are matter of debate in current scenario. Being attachment with past sentiment of traditional dispensing pharmacy and animal experimentations, they are difficult to delete completely. The present article highlights some of our efforts in undergraduate exercises. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 495-497
Collins-Yoder, Angela Smith
Angioedema (AE) is a unique clinical presentation of an unchecked release of bradykinin. The origin of this clinical presentation can be either genetic or acquired. The outcome within the patient is subcutaneous swelling of the lower layers of the epidermis. Symptoms are most often localized to the upper airway or the gastrointestinal tract. A typical course resolves in 5 to 7 days, but in some patients, the clinical manifestations exist up to 6 weeks. Hereditary AE is rare and genetically linked, and typically, the patient has episodes for many years before diagnosis. Episodes of acquired AE may be drug induced, triggered by a specific allergen, or idiopathic. Angioedema can elicit the need for critical care interventions, for advanced airway management, or unnecessary abdominal surgery. The treatment for these patients is evolving as new pharmacological agents are developed. This article addresses subtypes of AE, triggers, pharmacology, and information for interdisciplinary team planning of individualized case management. PMID:27258954
Liang ZHAO; Tian-hua REN; Diane D WANG
Biologics,including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones,have unique characteristics compared to small molecules.This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective,the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human(FIH) studies,and dosing regimen optimisation for phase Ⅱ/Ⅲ clinical trials.Subsequently,typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised,including drug-drug interactions,QTc prolongation,immunogenicity,and studies in specific populations.The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics,their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics,and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram.
Full Text Available ttendees will learn about the research and development which will be effected by scientists in the branch of Conscience Society creation in next decades of XXI century. Conscience is usually seen as linked to a morality inherent in all humans, to a beneficent universe and/or to divinity. It is increasingly conceived of as applying to the world as a whole and as a main feature of conscience society. It has motivated its numerous models, characteristics and functions of Conscience for creation the societal intelligent adaptable information systems in Conscience Society. The moral life is a vital part for the world to maintain a Conscience (civilized Society, so always keep in mind to: accept differences in others; respond promptly to others; leave some "free" time; care about others as if they were you; treat everyone similarly; never engage in violent acts; have an inner sense of thankfulness; have a sense of commitment. Creativity is a result of brain activity which differentiates individuals and could ensure an important competitive advantage for persons, for companies, for Society in general, and for Conscience Society in special. Very innovative branches – like software industry, computer industry, car industry – consider creativity as the key of business success. Natural Intelligence’ Creativity can develop basic creative activities, but Artificial Intelligence’ Creativity, and, especially, Conscience Intelligence’ Creativity should be developed and they could be enhanced over the level of Natural Intelligence. The basic idea for present communication represent the research results communicated at the last two annual AESM conferences  .
The UK coalition government has stated its ambition to create a "Big Society". This represents an attempt to alter the relationship between citizen and state, loosening the vertical ties that exist between government and the individual while strengthening the informal bonds of neighbourhoods and communities. This agenda runs through the…
Caviola, L.; Faber, NS
We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...
Caviola, Lucius; Nadira S. Faber
We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...
Lucius eCaviola; Nadira S. Faber
We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consisten...
In this review, the author describes the development of British infrared astronomy, from its beginnings around 1960 to the present time. The paper outlines the various techniques available and the different wavelength ranges which can be covered by these techniques e.g. balloons, mountain-based telescopes, the AAT in Australia, the 60-inch flux-collector on Tenerife, and the UKIRT telescope on Hawaii, and finally the IRAS satellite. The main groups involved in the British infrared work are UCL, Imperial College, and QMC, together with cooperative programmes with the Netherlands and the USA. The scientific results which have been obtained with these installations include studies of the relict radiation, HII regions, thermal radiation from dust and grains, and a dust shell around the star Vega, to mention but a few, interferometry, photometry and spectroscopy are also discussed, as in the long awaited development of infrared detector arrays. (UK)
Ensell, R.L.; Stroud, H.J.F.
The British Gas HICOM methanation process (formerly the HCM process) is an efficient, cost-effective way to make SNG from coal-derived gases. Using it with the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier, for example, can yield coal-to-SNG thermal efficiencies of about 70%. In the HICOM process, a methane-rich gas is made directly from the purified gasifier product gas by reaction with steam over a catalyst; the temperature rise is controlled by hot-gas recycling and split-stream operation. The main attributes of this route are that it eliminates the CO-shift stage, has a high thermal efficiency, requires no selective sulfur removal system, minimizes waste liquor treatment, and has a low capital cost.
Kaplan, M. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)
This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs.
Mohamed S Al-Moamary
Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.
Full Text Available This paper argues that rural regions of British Columbia, Canada, are currently the subject of a radical political-economic experiment dismantling traditional Fordist and Keynesian approaches to economic development and replacing them with neoliberal strategies. This experiment targets both corporate resource economies and local or community-based economies. The paper argues that current reforms aim to enhance flexibility in major resource sectors (particularly in forestry by "liberating" corporate actors from traditional obligations to environment, labour, and communities. This strategy is buttressed by concurrent reforms to community development policies to promote "entrepreneurial" forms of development that (it is assumed can be achieved independently of the dominant resource economy. Using field research from several case communities in coastal British Columbia, the paper argues that these developments are having a strong impact on traditional economic structures and practices, as neoliberal reforms seek to disaggregate corporate and community-level economies.
The arrival of a small group of Polish-Hungarian refugees in Liverpool in 1851 reveals a lot about contemporary political views in the United Kingdom. The refugees were members of General Wysocki's Polish legion, which had fought Russia and Austria during the Hungarian revolution in 1848-49. While British liberals had hailed the nationalist cause from a distance, they were made uneasy by the presence of the refugee republicans with radical ideas. For that reason, British liberals worked with the government to try to send the Hungarian refugees to the United States. On the other hand, tradesmen and artisans in Liverpool - who were drawn to the social democratic ideas of liberty expressed by the revolutionaries of 1848 - organized a successful campaign to grant the refugees asylum.
Describes the life history of the British Food Journal, its changing editorial team, ownership and editorial focus. The authors have used much wider source material than the archives of the journal, now in its 100th year. The journal was always closely identified with the safety of food, its adulteration and the government’s duty to safeguard the public. The second section reviews the profession and role of the public analyst, in particular the history and development of the Society of Public Analysts. The next and longest section of the monograph is devoted to an interesting examination of food safety, nutrition and food manufacturing issues over the last 100 years. Many of the points raised are illustrated by excerpts from papers written in BFJ and included as Appendices to the monograph. Food irradiation was first raised as a subject in the journal in 1928! Bread and milk as staples in the British diet are looked at in some detail in terms of their ingredients and health properties