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Sample records for british national health

  1. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  2. Does the private finance initiative promote innovation in health care? The case of the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petratos, Pythagoras

    2005-12-01

    The Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is a specific example of health care privatization within the British National Health Service. In this essay, I critically assess the ways in which various Private Finance Initiatives have increased health care efficiency and effectiveness, as well as encouraged medical innovation. Indeed, as the analysis will demonstrate, significant empirical evidence supports the conclusion that Private Finance Initiatives are a driving force of innovation within the British Health Care System.

  3. Patient choice and equity in the British National Health Service: towards developing an alternative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2010-09-01

    Choice and competition have been phased into many public health systems with the aim of achieving various and potentially exclusive goals such as improving efficiency, quality and responsiveness to users' needs. Yet their use to promote equity of access as evidenced recently in the British National Health Service (the NHS) is unprecedented. Giving users the power of exit over unresponsive providers is meant to address the failures of previous policies. This paper shows that there is a potential conflict between choice and equity, in terms of both the values and the outcomes each policy is likely to produce. Using a multidisciplinary and multidimensional framework, drawn from Bourdieusian sociology, feminist theory and economics, the study highlights the implications of the simplistic and one-sided conception of individual patient choice in relation to equity. It also uses the existing evidence on the impact of market competition and choice, in the UK and elsewhere, to emphasise the importance of socio-economic and psycho-social factors, which are left out of current policy considerations. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Internet infrastructures and health care systems: a qualitative comparative analysis on networks and markets in the British National Health Service and Kaiser Permanente.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séror, Ann C

    2002-12-01

    The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. to identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization. A qualitative comparative analysis focusing on the British National Health Service and the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization to show how system infrastructures vary according to market dynamics dominated by health care institutions ("push") or by consumer demand ("pull"). System control mechanisms may be technologically embedded, institutional, or behavioral. The analysis suggests that telecommunications technologies and the Internet may contribute significantly to health care system performance in a context of ideological diversity. The study offers evidence to validate alternative models of health care governance: the national constitution model, and the enterprise business contract model. This evidence also suggests important questions for health care policy makers as well as researchers in telecommunications, organizational theory, and health care management.

  5. Exploring the relationship between social class, mental illness stigma and mental health literacy using British national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between social class and mental illness stigma has received little attention in recent years. At the same time, the concept of mental health literacy has become an increasingly popular way of framing knowledge and understanding of mental health issues. British Social Attitudes survey data present an opportunity to unpack the relationships between these concepts and social class, an important task given continuing mental health inequalities. Regression analyses were undertaken which centred on depression and schizophrenia vignettes, with an asthma vignette used for comparison. The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, education and income were used as indicators of class. A number of interesting findings emerged. Overall, class variables showed a stronger relationship with mental health literacy than stigma. The relationship was gendered such that women with higher levels of education, especially those with a degree, had the lowest levels of stigma and highest levels of mental health literacy. Interestingly, class showed more of an association with stigma for the asthma vignette than it did for both the depression and schizophrenia vignettes, suggesting that mental illness stigma needs to be contextualised alongside physical illness stigma. Education emerged as the key indicator of class, followed by the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, with income effects being marginal. These findings have implications for targeting health promotion campaigns and increasing service use in order to reduce mental health inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Bipolar disorder ignored by the Mental Health National Service framework but not forgotten by the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister-Williams, R H; Watson, S

    2003-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness that has been largely ignored by the National Service Framework (NSF) for Mental Health. This is particularly notable because it is associated with a higher suicide rate than schizophrenia and has a greater burden of disability. The NSF offers little guidance on service models that specifically consider BD. This is of concern because of the complexities that are inherent in the management of BD. These deficiencies in the NSF may have far-reaching implications for resource allocation, service organization, and patient management and well-being. Moreover, the standards and performance targets laid out in the NSF will be difficult to meet if this important and common mental illness is not specifically catered for in mental health services. Local Implementation Teams would be well advised to take note of the recently published British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines for the management of BD.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Financial Difficulties and Mental Health in a National Sample of British Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas; Elliott, Peter; Roberts, Ron; Jansen, Megan

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has shown a relationship between financial difficulties and poor mental health in students, but most research is cross-sectional. To examine longitudinal relationships over time between financial variables and mental health in students. A national sample of 454 first year British undergraduate students completed measures of mental health and financial variables at up to four time points across a year. Cross-sectional relationships were found between poorer mental health and female gender, having a disability and non-white ethnicity. Greater financial difficulties predicted greater depression and stress cross-sectionally, and also predicted poorer anxiety, global mental health and alcohol dependence over time. Depression worsened over time for those who had considered abandoning studies or not coming to university for financial reasons, and there were effects for how students viewed their student loan. Anxiety and alcohol dependence also predicted worsening financial situation suggesting a bi-directional relationship. Financial difficulties appear to lead to poor mental health in students with the possibility of a vicious cycle occurring.

  8. Sharing the British National Health Service around the world: a self-interested perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Vega, Jeanette

    2013-10-25

    As the UK reiterates its commitment to protecting and growing its development aid budget amidst an adverse economic environment for the UK and Europe, we discuss the potential to use the country's National Health Service (NHS) model as a vehicle for promoting the country's economic as well as global health diplomacy and development priorities, through a coordinated cross-government plan of action. With the country's Prime Minister serving as a co-chair of the UN post-2015 development agenda panel,a this is a unique opportunity for the UK to put forward its health system architecture as a highly applicable and well-tested model for providing access to efficient and cost-effective care, with minimal financial hardship. Arguably, such a model tailored to the needs of specific countries could consequently lead to commercial opportunities for UK plc. in areas such as consulting, training, education and healthcare products. Finally, this approach would be consistent with the current thinking on the evolving role of UK aid, especially in the case of emerging powers such as India, where the focus has shifted from aid to investment in technical assistance and cooperation as a means of boosting bilateral business and trade.

  9. Opportunities and Barriers to Rural, Remote and First Nation Health Services Research in Canada: Comparing Access to Administrative Claims Data in Manitoba and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Jos?e G.; Wong, Sabrina; Katz, Alan; Sinclair, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Access to geographically disaggregated data is essential for the pursuit of meaningful rural, remote and First Nation health services research. This paper explores the opportunities and challenges associated with undertaking administrative claims data research in the context of two different models of administrative data management: the Manitoba and British Columbia models. We argue that two conditions must be in place to support rural, remote and First Nation health services research: (1) pa...

  10. Individual budgets for people with incontinence: results from a ‘shopping’ experiment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Mandy J.; Cottenden, Alan M.; Gage, Heather M.; Williams, Peter; Getliffe, Katharine; Clarke‐O’Neill, Sinead; Jamieson, Katharine M.; Green, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and context  Most people with urinary incontinence are given limited choice when provided with absorbent products through the British National Health Service (NHS), even though the available range is large. Objective  To investigate users’ preferences for four disposable designs (inserts, all‐in‐ones, belted/T‐shaped and pull‐ups) and towelling washable/reusable products, day and night. Design  Shopping experiment. Setting and participants  Community‐dwelling women and men in England with moderate‐to‐heavy urinary incontinence recruited to a larger trial. Intervention  Participants tested each design and selected products they would prefer with a range of different budgets. Main outcome measures  Design preferences (rankings); ‘purchasing’ decisions from designated budgets. Results  Eighty‐five participants (49 men) tested products, 75 completed the shopping experiment. Inserts, most frequently supplied by the NHS, were ranked second to pull‐ups by women and lowest by men. When faced with budget constraints, up to 40% of participants opted to ‘mix‐and‐match’ designs. Over 15 different combinations of products were selected by participants in the shopping experiment. Most (91%) stated a willingness to ‘top‐up’ assigned budgets from income to secure preferred designs. Discussion  Participants displayed diverse preferences. Enabling user choice of absorbent product design through individual budgets could improve satisfaction of consumers and efficiency of allocation of limited NHS resources. Conclusion  Recent policy for the NHS seeks to provide consumers with more control in their care. Extension of the concept of individual budgets to continence supplies could be feasible and beneficial for patients and provide better value‐for‐money within the NHS. Further research is warranted. PMID:22390825

  11. Individual budgets for people with incontinence: results from a 'shopping' experiment within the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Mandy J; Cottenden, Alan M; Gage, Heather M; Williams, Peter; Getliffe, Katharine; Clarke-O'Neill, Sinead; Jamieson, Katharine M; Green, Nicholas J

    2014-04-01

    Most people with urinary incontinence are given limited choice when provided with absorbent products through the British National Health Service (NHS), even though the available range is large. To investigate users' preferences for four disposable designs (inserts, all-in-ones, belted/T-shaped and pull-ups) and towelling washable/reusable products, day and night. Shopping experiment. Community-dwelling women and men in England with moderate-to-heavy urinary incontinence recruited to a larger trial. Participants tested each design and selected products they would prefer with a range of different budgets. Design preferences (rankings); 'purchasing' decisions from designated budgets. Results  Eighty-five participants (49 men) tested products, 75 completed the shopping experiment. Inserts, most frequently supplied by the NHS, were ranked second to pull-ups by women and lowest by men. When faced with budget constraints, up to 40% of participants opted to 'mix-and-match' designs. Over 15 different combinations of products were selected by participants in the shopping experiment. Most (91%) stated a willingness to 'top-up' assigned budgets from income to secure preferred designs. Participants displayed diverse preferences. Enabling user choice of absorbent product design through individual budgets could improve satisfaction of consumers and efficiency of allocation of limited NHS resources. Recent policy for the NHS seeks to provide consumers with more control in their care. Extension of the concept of individual budgets to continence supplies could be feasible and beneficial for patients and provide better value-for-money within the NHS. Further research is warranted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. HRD as an Emergent and Negotiated Evolution: An Ethnographic Case Study in the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambrook, Sally

    2001-01-01

    Using a contingency framework, three stages in the evolution of human resource development (HRD) in the National Health Service were identified: tell (training enacted within the classical management paradigm); sell (a competence approach to development for all employees); and gel (strategic HRD linked to corporate goals and future needs).…

  13. Making normative structures visible: the British National Health Service and the hospice movement as signifiers of compassion and hope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Flores, R.

    2011-01-01

    Compassion and hope are vital to individual and societal flourishing, not least through the solidarity and change that they facilitate. This article considers the importance of these two social phenomena for welfare institutions, and in particular for the hospice movement and the National Health

  14. Ethnic variations in sexual behaviours and sexual health markers: findings from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayal, Sonali; Hughes, Gwenda; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mohammed, Hamish; Copas, Andrew J; Gerressu, Makeda; Tanton, Clare; Furegato, Martina; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-10-01

    Sexual health entails the absence of disease and the ability to lead a pleasurable and safe sex life. In Britain, ethnic inequalities in diagnoses of sexually transmitted infections (STI) persist; however, the reasons for these inequalities, and ethnic variations in other markers of sexual health, remain poorly understood. We investigated ethnic differences in hypothesised explanatory factors such as socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and sexual behaviours, and whether they explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers (reported STI diagnoses, attendance at sexual health clinics, use of emergency contraception, and sexual function). We analysed probability survey data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3; n=15 162, conducted in 2010-12). Reflecting Britain's current ethnic composition, we included in our analysis participants who identified in 2011 as belonging to one of the following seven largest ethnic groups: white British, black Caribbean, black African, Indian, Pakistani, white other, and mixed ethnicity. We calculated age-standardised estimates and age-adjusted odds ratios for all explanatory factors and sexual health markers for all these ethnic groups with white British as the reference category. We used multivariable regression to examine the extent to which adjusting for explanatory factors explained ethnic variations in sexual health markers. We included 14 563 (96·0%) of the 15 162 participants surveyed in Natsal-3. Greater proportions of black Caribbean, black African, and Pakistani people lived in deprived areas than those of other ethnic groups (36·9-55·3% vs 16·4-29·4%). Recreational drug use was highest among white other and mixed ethnicity groups (25·6-27·7% in men and 10·3-12·9% in women in the white other and mixed ethnicity groups vs 4·1-15·6% in men and 1·0-11·2% in women of other ethnicities). Compared with white British men, the proportions of black

  15. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  16. UK national audit against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Sullivan, A K; Carne, C A; Warwick, Z; Menon-Johansson, A; Clutterbuck, D

    2012-10-01

    A national audit of practice performance against the key performance indicators in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and HIV Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health Standards for the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) was conducted in 2011. Approximately 60% and 8% of level 3 and level 2 services, respectively, participated. Excluding partner notification performance, the five lowest areas of performance for level 3 clinics were the STI/HIV risk assessment, care pathways linking care in level 2 clinics to local level 3 services, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs, information governance and receipt of chlamydial test results by clinicians within seven working days (the worst area of performance). The five lowest areas of performance for level 2 clinics were participating in audit, having an audit plan for the management of STIs for 2009-2010, the STI/HIV risk assessment, HIV test offer to patients with concern about STIs and information governance. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of the standards by commissioners of services because of their relevance to other national quality assurance drivers, and the need for development of a national system of STI management quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  17. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  18. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Karen

    2014-11-01

    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Childhood eating disorders: British national surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Dasha E; Lynn, Richard; Viner, Russell M

    2011-04-01

    The incidence of eating disorders appears stable overall, but may be increasing in younger age groups. Data on incidence, clinical features and outcome of early-onset eating disorders are sparse. To identify new cases of early-onset eating disorders (anorexia nervosa; 1.4% for bulimia nervosa; and 43% for eating disorder not otherwise specified. Nineteen per cent showed determined food avoidance and underweight without weight/shape concerns. Rates of comorbidity were 41%; family history of psychiatric disorder 44%; and early feeding difficulties 21%. Time to presentation was >8 months. A total of 50% were admitted to hospital, typically soon after diagnosis. Outcome data were available for 76% of individuals. At 1 year, 73% were reported improved, 6% worse and 10% unchanged (11% unknown). Most were still in treatment, and seven were hospital in-patients for most of the year. Childhood eating disorders represent a significant clinical burden to paediatric and mental health services. Efforts to improve early detection are needed. These data provide a baseline to monitor changing trends in incidence.

  20. Facing Up to the Eighties: Health and Welfare Needs of British Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    The British National Health Service faces a future in which demand for health services will outpace supply. A public nursing home service may prove to be an economical service. Alternative sources of revenue and cooperation between the public and private sector are needed. (JAC)

  1. Work-Family Life Courses and Subjective Wellbeing in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the 1946 British birth cohort study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rebecca; Stafford, Mai; Sacker, Amanda; McMunn, Anne

    Studies investigating the impact of combining paid work and family life on wellbeing have generally used information at one or a limited number of points in the life course, and have mainly focused on women. This study uses multi-channel sequence analysis to characterise work-family life courses across adulthood (ages 16-60) for more than 1500 men and women in the MRC National Study of Health and Development. Wellbeing at age 60-64 was captured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well Being Scale (WEMWBS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). A typology of 11 work-family groups was derived, across which there was greater variation for women. Adjusted for socioeconomic position, parental separation, adolescent internalising and externalising disorders, and health, men who had strong ties to paid work but no family had lower life satisfaction than those who combined work with parenthood and marriage (regression coefficient -2.89 (95 %CI: -5.04, -0.74); standard deviation for SWLS = 6.01). Women with weaker ties to paid work had lower life satisfaction, as did women who did not have children, compared to those who combined strong ties to paid work with marriage and parenthood. There were no significant associations between work-family life courses and WEMWBS or GHQ. This study shows that the way in which people combine work and family life may impact life satisfaction in early old age and highlights the need for policies that support combining work and family life.

  2. Treatment of mandibular third molars and pericoronitis in British military personnel: influence of guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Thomas; Konarzewski, Thomas; Grimshaw, Paul; Combes, James

    2016-12-01

    We studied the dental records of British military personnel who were less than 20 years old on enlistment, and had at least five years' service with at least five recorded dental inspections, at three military dental centres in the UK. The median (IQR) period from first to last inspection in 720 subjects was 15 (10-19) years, and the median frequency of inspection was every 14 (13-16) months. A total of 288/1250 mandibular third molars were extracted (23%). There were significant increases in the proportion of extractions stating caries in the mandibular third molar or multi-episode pericoronitis as indications (n=13, 14%, p pericoronitis by 20 (9%, p =0.02). Extractions of mandibular third molars because of caries in the adjacent second molar increased by 4 (4%, p=0.045). The median age at the time of extraction before introduction of the guidelines was 23 years compared with 25 years afterwards (p<0.001). Twenty-five of 114 (22%) extractions of mandibular third molars were in patients over the age of 30 after the introduction of guidelines compared with 1/174 (<1%) before. The introduction of the NICE guidelines on the management of third molars has significantly changed our practice. Whether or not these changes have resulted in a net benefit to patients is still a matter for debate. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, changes in the quality of health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population between 1991 and 1998 are analysed. It is found that at all given age levels, life expectancy increased during this period. Life expectancy at birth increased by 1 year for women and by 1.5 years for

  4. The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baltar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.

  5. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    OpenAIRE

    Aicken, C. R.; Estcourt, C. S.; Johnson, A M; Sonnenberg, P.; Wellings, K.; Mercer, C H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/...

  6. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicken, Catherine R H; Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-20

    Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one's sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain's resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, Pwomen 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, Pwomen: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, Pwomen reporting sex with multiple partners without condoms (last year: AOR 1.90, 95% CI 1.11-3.26), and, among both sexes, reporting seeking sex online (last year, men: AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.16-2.79; women: AOR 3.00, 95% CI 1.76-5.13). No association was observed with reporting STI diagnosis/es (last 5 years) or (after age adjustment) recent use of any STI service or non-Internet sexual health seeking. A minority in Britain used the Internet for the sexual health reasons examined. Use of information

  7. A conflict of responsibilities: a grounded theory study of clinical psychologists' experience of client non-attendance within the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, A E; Salter, D P

    2000-12-01

    Within psychotherapy process research, the effects of client non-attendance upon therapists has been neglected. The present study interviewed six clinical psychologists concerning their experiences of client non-attendance in health service practice in the UK. Their accounts were analysed using a grounded theory method. A core category was identified and termed 'responsibility'. This highlighted conflicting relationships between participants' responsibilities in several areas. A process model pertaining to non-attendance was also developed. Client non-attendance was seen to produce a level of disruption, experienced as an affective reaction and often experienced in terms of negative affect. In response, re-organizational strategies were used to restore equilibrium. Reasons are suggested as to why negative affective reactions were experienced. These include factors concerning therapeutic competency, but also reflect upon the profession's espousal of an 'all-knowing' expert identity. This is seen to be incongruent to the complexities of clinical practice.

  8. National Health Expenditure Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...

  9. National diet and nutrition surveys: the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Margaret; Barlow, Susan; Gibson, Sigrid; Harris, Caroline

    2006-06-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) are a series of government-funded surveys of food intake, nutrient intake and nutritional status of individuals, undertaken to support nutritional policy and risk assessment. This paper summarises a review that considered the extent to which NDNS met the needs of users and suggested options for the future. The Food Standards Agency has since progressed favoured options. This paper aims to help others wishing to obtain this type of information within their own populations. A detailed questionnaire was used to probe use of data and gather opinions from users, producers and managers of the NDNS. It asked about general information needs from NDNS and changes that might be made. This was followed by a two-day workshop which included discussion of the main issues and the generation of 19 possible future options for consideration by the Agency. Options to improve effectiveness included methods to prioritise breadth and depth of coverage and possible ways of improving response and compliance. Strategies to make surveys more efficient and timely, such as adopting a rolling programme, disaggregating survey components, integrating with other studies and improving data access, were also suggested. A rolling programme, in which data are collected continuously, was the favoured option to address some of the concerns and a strategy is now in place to achieve this. There is widespread support for the NDNS from its users. There is no alternative source for such high-quality data on food and nutrient consumption and nutritional status and physical measurements in the same individuals. Useful information, such as the potential value of using a rolling programme from the outset, can be gained from this British experience by others wishing to measure food and nutrient intakes and status in their own populations.

  10. From "Public Health" to "Safeguarding Children": British Health Visiting in Policy, Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement with…

  11. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  12. The RISC research project: injury in First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anne George

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The project, Injury in British Columbia’s Aboriginal Communities: Building Capacity while Developing Knowledge, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR, aims to expand knowledge on injury rates among First Nations communities in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Objective. The purpose is to improve understanding of community differences and to identify community-level risk and protective factors. Generally, injury incidence rates in the Aboriginal population in Canada greatly exceed those found in the non-Aboriginal population; however, variability exists between Aboriginal communities, which have important implications for prevention. Design. This study uses administrative records of deaths, hospitalizations, ambulatory care episodes, and workers’ compensation claims due to injuries to identify communities that have been especially successful in maintaining low rates of injury. Results. The analysis of risk and protective factors extends the work of Chandler and Lalonde who observed that community efforts to preserve and promote Aboriginal culture and to maintain local control over community life are strongly associated with lower suicide rates. Conclusion. The discussion on psychological and cultural considerations on healing and reducing the rates of injury expands the work of McCormick on substance use in Aboriginal communities.

  13. The RISC research project: injury in First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M Anne; McCormick, Rod; Lalonde, Chris E; Jin, Andrew; Brussoni, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    The project, Injury in British Columbia's Aboriginal Communities: Building Capacity while Developing Knowledge, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), aims to expand knowledge on injury rates among First Nations communities in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The purpose is to improve understanding of community differences and to identify community-level risk and protective factors. Generally, injury incidence rates in the Aboriginal population in Canada greatly exceed those found in the non-Aboriginal population; however, variability exists between Aboriginal communities, which have important implications for prevention. This study uses administrative records of deaths, hospitalizations, ambulatory care episodes, and workers' compensation claims due to injuries to identify communities that have been especially successful in maintaining low rates of injury. The analysis of risk and protective factors extends the work of Chandler and Lalonde who observed that community efforts to preserve and promote Aboriginal culture and to maintain local control over community life are strongly associated with lower suicide rates. The discussion on psychological and cultural considerations on healing and reducing the rates of injury expands the work of McCormick on substance use in Aboriginal communities.

  14. First Nations, Consultation, and the Rule of Law: Salmon Farming and Colonialism in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Dorothee

    2006-01-01

    Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…

  15. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  16. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Lynd, Larry; Marra, Carlo; Carleton, Bruce; Tan, Wan C; Sullivan, Sean; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health care costs associated with asthma would enable the estimation of the economic burden of this increasingly common disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct medical costs of asthma-related health care in British Columbia (BC). METHODS: Administrative health care data from the BC Linked Health Database and PharmaNet database from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed for BC residents five to 55 years of age, including the billing information for physician visits, drug dispensations and hospital discharge records. A unit cost was assigned to physician/emergency department visits, and government reimbursement fees for prescribed medications were applied. The case mix method was used to calculate hospitalization costs. All costs were reported in inflation-adjusted 2006 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Asthma resulted in $41,858,610 in annual health care-related costs during the study period ($331 per patient-year). The major cost component was medications, which accounted for 63.9% of total costs, followed by physician visits (18.3%) and hospitalization (17.8%). When broader definitions of asthma-related hospitalizations and physician visits were used, total costs increased to $56,114,574 annually ($444 per patient-year). There was a statistically significant decrease in the annual per patient cost of hospitalizations (P<0.01) over the study period. Asthma was poorly controlled in 63.5% of patients, with this group being responsible for 94% of asthma-related resource use. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of asthma is significant in BC, with the majority of the cost attributed to poor asthma control. Policy makers should investigate the reason for lack of proper asthma control and adjust their policies accordingly to improve asthma management. PMID:20422063

  17. Colonialism and National Integration: An Analysis of British Policies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of national integration in Nigeria has continued to occupy centre stage in public discourse and intellectual circles especially now that religious and ethnic rancour appears to be on the increase. Much of the blame has been laid on the multi-religious and ethnic character of the population that was forcibly ...

  18. The "Obnoxious Mobilised Minority": Homophobia and Homohysteria in the British National Party, 1982-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severs, George J.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the British National Party (BNP)'s opposition to gay men during the 1980s and 1990s. Drawing on the sociological concept of "homohysteria," it examines written material from BNP publications during those decades, looking specifically at the AIDS crisis, the party's belief in a "queer conspiracy," and the…

  19. What impact has tendering had on trainees? Results of a national survey by British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Trainees' Collaborative for audit, research and quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Helen; Hartley, Anna; Clarke, Emily; Foley, Elizabeth; Nandwani, Rak; Carlin, Elizabeth; Waters, Laura; Ahmed, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In April 2013, local authorities gained responsibility for commissioning sexual health services in England. With many services going out to tender and resultant change in services or service provider, there is anecdotal evidence that this has impacted on the education, training and morale of genitourinary medicine (GUM) trainees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of tendering on GUM trainees. An electronic survey designed by the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Trainees' Collaborative for Audit, Research and Quality Improvement Projects (T-CARQ) was distributed to GUM trainees and newly appointed consultants. Eighty-two individuals responded (74% GUM trainees, 25% newly appointed consultants, 1% locum appointed for service). Sixty-three per cent (45/72) had experience of training within a service which was being tendered. Of these, 59% (24/41) felt their training was not considered during the tendering process and 20% (8/41) felt that it was. Forty-four per cent (18/41) felt adequately supported. Thirty per cent (12/40) reported active participation in the tendering process. On a scale of 0 (no impact) to 5 (major impact), the median score for impact of tendering on training was 2. The positive/negative impact of tendering on different training elements was rated: other than management experience the overall impact on all parameters was negative, namely morale, senior support and education. In conclusion, this survey describes the variable impact of service tendering on GUM training. Our recommendations for maintaining training standards despite tendering include actively involving trainees and education partners, inclusion of specialist GUM training in service specifications, development of guidance for commissioners and services for the management of GUM training within tendering.

  20. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  1. National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Statistics Data Collection Systems National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Health Care Surveys National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey National Survey of Ambulatory ...

  2. Tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy use among First Nations persons residing within British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, A E Dennis; Khan, Nadia

    2004-08-01

    The rate of tobacco use is higher among First Nations (FN) peoples than among other Canadians. Cessation pharmacotherapy agents reduce tobacco use, but the appropriateness and effectiveness of these agents among FN smokers are not entirely clear. Rates of tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy use among FN smokers are unknown; such information would be useful for program planners and would indicate appropriateness of use. To examine cessation pharmacotherapy use, we extracted claims for nicotine gum, nicotine patch, and bupropion SR (Zyban) from the Non-Insured Health Benefits pharmacy database for FN persons living within British Columbia during 2001. A total of 3.8% (95% CI=3.6-4.0) of FN claimants filled a prescription for at least one tobacco cessation pharmacotherapy agent; 61.7% were female, and their mean age was 38.1 years. Most claims (60.5%) were for bupropion, followed by nicotine patch (40.7%) and nicotine gum (4.7%). A total of 4.6% of claimants used both nicotine patch and bupropion,.8% used nicotine gum and nicotine patch, and.5% used nicotine gum and bupropion. Pharmacotherapy agents appear to be used less often by FN smokers than by other Canadian smokers for several possible reasons. Additional research is needed related to FN populations and cessation pharmacotherapy use in terms of cultural appropriateness, barriers to use, and effectiveness.

  3. The development of national prejudice, in-group favouritism and self-stereotypes in British children

    OpenAIRE

    Rutland, Adam

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the development of national prejudice, ingroup favouritism and self-stereotyping in a sample of 329 British children. The aim was to test the prediction, derived from self-categorization theory (Oakes, Haslam & Turner, 1994; Spears & Haslam, 1997) and in opposition to cognitive-developmental theory (Aboud, 1988), that the supposed limited cognitive ability of young children to engage in individuated perception will not necessarily result in intergroup discrimination and se...

  4. Did the accuracy of oral amoxicillin dosing of children improve after British National Formulary dose revisions in 2014? National cross-sectional survey in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rann, Olivia; Sharland, Mike; Long, Paul; Wong, Ian C K; Laverty, Anthony A; Bottle, Alex; Barker, Charlotte I; Bielicki, Julia; Saxena, Sonia

    2017-09-27

    Inaccurate antibiotic dosing can lead to treatment failure, fuel antimicrobial resistance and increase side effects. The British National Formulary for Children (BNFC) guidance recommends oral antibiotic dosing according to age bands as a proxy for weight. Recommended doses of amoxicillin for children were increased in 2014 'after widespread concerns of under dosing'. However, the impact of dose changes on British children of different weights is unknown, particularly given the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the UK. We aimed to estimate the accuracy of oral amoxicillin dosing in British children before and after the revised BNFC guidance in 2014. We used data on age and weights for 1556 British children (aged 2-18 years) from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, the Health Survey for England 2013. We calculated the doses each child would receive using the BNFC age band guidance, before and after the 2014 changes, against the 'gold standard' weight-based dose of amoxicillin, as per its summary of product characteristics. Assuming children of different weights were equally likely to receive antibiotics, we calculated the percentage of the children who would be at risk of misdosing by the BNFC age bands. Before 2014, 54.6% of children receiving oral amoxicillin would have been underdosed and no child would have received more than the recommended dose. After the BNFC guidance changed in 2014, the number of children estimated as underdosed dropped to 5.8%, but 0.5% of the children would have received too high a dose. Changes to the BNFC age-banded amoxicillin doses in 2014 have significantly reduced the proportion of children who are likely to be underdosed, with only a minimal rise in the number of those above the recommended range. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  6. National health expenditures, 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Letsch, Suzanne W.; Levit, Katharine R.; Waldo, Daniel R.

    1988-01-01

    The 1987 national health expenditure estimates are examined from different perspectives in the following two articles. In the first article, revised expenditure estimates for 1984-87 are presented. A breakdown of the type of services and products purchased is included, as well as the source of funds used to finance health care. In the second article, health care expenditure estimates are used to explore marginal analysis as a policy tool for understanding health spending in relation to our Na...

  7. Factors influencing adult physical health after controlling for current health conditions: evidence from a british cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cheng

    Full Text Available This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs, personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs, after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness. Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health. Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  8. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  9. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot's model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia's five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer.

  10. Work-family life courses and metabolic markers in mid-life: evidence from the British National Child Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Lacey, Rebecca E; Kumari, Meena; Worts, Diana; McDonough, Peggy; Sacker, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found generally better health among those who combine employment and family responsibilities; however, most research excludes men, and relies on subjective measures of health and information on work and family activities from only 1 or 2 time points in the life course. This study investigated associations between work-family life course types (LCTs) and markers of metabolic risk in a British birth cohort study. Methods Multichannel sequence analysis was used to generate work-family LCTs, combining annual information on work, partnership and parenthood between 16 and 42 years for men and women in the British National Child Development Study (NCDS, followed since their birth in 1958). Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors in mid-life (age 44–45) were tested using multivariate linear regression in multiply imputed data. Results Life courses characterised by earlier transitions into parenthood were associated with significantly increased metabolic risk, regardless of attachment to paid work or marital stability over the life course. These associations were only partially attenuated by educational qualifications, early life circumstances and adult mediators. The positive association between weak labour markets ties and metabolic risk was weaker than might be expected from previous studies. Associations between work-family LCTs and metabolic risk factors did not differ significantly by gender. Conclusions Earlier transitions to parenthood are linked to metabolic risk in mid-life. PMID:26659761

  11. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  12. The health care experiences of British pensioners migrating to Spain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; Nolte, Ellen; Green, Judith; la Parra, Daniel; McKee, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Notwithstanding the importance of cross-border healthcare mobility for Member States very little research has been carried out to understand the experiences of those that move. This paper focuses on a type of patient mobility that has had a significant growth in the past decades. These are pensioners who have moved from Northern European countries to countries in the South. To explore the health care experiences of British pensioners who have migrated to Spain. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews complemented with natural group discussions. Fifty-eight British retirees living in Spain and four that had returned to the UK from Spain. Spanish Autonomous Communities of Valencia and Baleares and the UK. British pensioners reported high satisfaction with their experiences of Spanish health care, in contrast to their more negative experiences of other public services in Spain. The perceived high quality (assessed in terms of thoroughness of care and the cleanliness of facilities) and humanity of care provided were the pivotal features of health care encounters, at all levels of the health care system. Exceptions to the overall positive assessments were transport to health care facilities, personal care in hospitals, long term care, and the management of pain relief, which were compared unfavourably with the UK NHS. In contrast to the existing literature, which suggests widespread problems faced by migrant British pensioners in accessing health care, we identified high levels of satisfaction with services. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations...... for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves...... be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old...

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British Household Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations...... for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves...... be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old...

  15. The satisfaction of doing national work, the delight of change and a good salary: the health of British colonial nurses going to work in the concentration camps of the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Richard

    2009-12-01

    During the South African/Anglo-Boer War(1899-1902), the British established concentration camps in retaliation to Boer guerilla fighters. Thousands of Boer women and children and thousands of blacks and "coloured" people were interned within these camps. The conditions in the camps were unsanitary and led to the death by disease,mostly respiratory illnesses, of many of the inmates. There were outcries in Britain over the camps among Liberal members of Parliament and social reformers such as Emily Hobhouse. In response to this, the Secretary of War sent an all ladies commission to South Africa. Their final report cited unsanitary conditions and insufficient camp administration as contributing factors to the high death rates.Among their recommendations was to increase the nursing staff. The Colonial Nursing Association provided nurses for these jobs. This article uses a previously unused archival source, the case notes of the medical advisor to the Colonial Office. In 1901-1902, he examined a group of nurses going out to work in the concentration camps of South Africa. This article presents the results of the examinations of 89 nurses, three of whom were rejected, and places them in the context of medical concerns at the time.

  16. Considerations on the Scottish Referendum and a Discourse on the British Conundrum: Mill, Price and the Question of Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent referendum on Scottish independence was characterised by a fail­ing on behalf of the Better Together campaign to articulate a positive vision and concep­tion of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In particular, any per­suasive notion of Britishness was notable by its absence. This paper attempts to shed light on the question of nationalism, in the British context in particular, by turning to the history of political thought, and the philosophical reflections of two British liberals, Rich­ard Price and John Stuart mill. Their ideas are set out with reference to the civic/ethnic distinction and two main claims are presented. The first is that despite Price’s emphasis on a civic patriotism and mill’s embracing of many elements of ethnic nationalism, both their accounts ultimately cohere around the centrality of a “national history”. empirical doubts about the sustainability of the civic/ethnic divide are here reflected in philosophi­cal discussions of nationalism. The second claim is that Price and mill’s account draw at­tention to the historical difficulty of constructing a persuasive British nationality whilst simultaneously suggesting the only obvious prospect for its succesful reconfiguration, namely the articulation of a genuinely British national history.

  17. National Center for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning Prevention Vessel Sanitation Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Asthma Carbon Monoxide Clean Water for Health Climate and Public Health Health Studies Loud Noise Can Cause Hearing Loss National Environmental Public Health ...

  18. The British Schools' National Curriculum: English and the Politics of Teaching Poetry from "Different Cultures and Traditions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug, Roshan

    2011-01-01

    This polemic paper illustrates the correlation between the original principles underpinning the British National Curriculum which was introduced in the late 1980s and the current quality of the nation's schools' poetry from a variety of poets including those "from other cultures and traditions". It argues that the conception of the…

  19. Depression in the work of British health visitors: clinical facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, M

    1996-12-01

    The primary health care setting has been established as a key venue for identifying and working with depression. Despite this, and the high risk of depression experienced by women in the post-natal period, maternal depression has been little examined in the work of health visitors. This study focuses on clinical facets of this work, including the rate and content of depression amongst health visitor attenders, the capacity of health visitors to identify accurately the presence of depression, the relationship between depression and child abuse and child behavioural issues, variations in the practice of health visitors and work with other professionals. In a cohort of 701, 11% of women were depressed, with distinguishing symptoms including fatigability, disgust/hate of herself and a sense of failure. Health visitors were not generally accurate in their identification of depression, were significantly more likely to see depressed women at home (than at clinic), but there was little difference in mean frequency of consultations according to whether or not the women were depressed. Urban health visitors had a higher mean frequency of consultations, but rural health visitors showed a rather greater tendency to increase frequency of consultation with the presence of depression. Child abuse concerns and behavioural problems were significantly associated with depression and these were three times as frequent amongst depressed women with no children aged under one compared with women in their post-natal year. Depressed women were far more likely to be involved with other agencies, but the GP was by far the most likely other professional to be involved. Health visitors are in a strategic position to help women with depression, and it is important that they are able to identify its presence. The association with child abuse is very important and indicates the need for multi-professional involvement, particularly with social workers, to a greater degree than was evident. The

  20. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health & Education Health & Education Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... Gordon, the Director of the National Institute of Mental Health, is now on Twitter. Follow @NIMHDirector for updates! ...

  1. Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Bullying Victimization: Evidence From a Five-Decade Longitudinal British Birth Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takizawa, Ryu; Maughan, Barbara; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    .... ObjectiveThe authors examined midlife outcomes of childhood bullying victimization.MethodData were from the British National Child Development Study, a 50-year prospective cohort of births in 1 week in 1958...

  2. Trust in health care encounters and systems: a case study of British pensioners living in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; McKee, Martin; Green, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Research on trust in health care faces two enduring challenges. Firstly, there are conceptual ambiguities in distinguishing trust from related concepts, such as confidence or dependence. Second, the tacit understandings which underpin the ‘faith’ element of trust are difficult to explicate. A case study of British pensioners who have moved to Spain provides an opportunity to explore trust in a setting where they often have a choice of where to access health care (UK or Spain), and are therefore not in a state of dependence, and in which the ‘differences’ of a new field generates reflection on their tacit expectations of providers and systems. In accounting for decisions to use (or not to use) Spanish health care, British pensioners cited experiential knowledge of symbolic indicators of trustworthy institutions (they were hygienic, modern, efficient), which contributed to background confidence in the system, and interpersonal qualities of practitioners (respect for older people, embodied empathy and reciprocity) which evoked familiar relations, within which faith is implicit. In contrast, with limited recent access to the British system, their background confidence had been compromised by reports of poor performance, with few opportunities to rebuild the interrelational bases of trust. PMID:25470324

  3. Rupture and Adaptation: British Technical Expertise to the Singapore Polytechnic and the Transition to a Nation-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Loh Kah

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore Polytechnic underwent a period of both rupture and adaptation as British advisers worked with the post-colonial government to facilitate technical education reform and Singapore's transition to a nation-state. Established in 1958 and based on the metropolitan model, the Singapore Polytechnic constituted an imperial project for…

  4. Anti-War Children: Representation of Youth Protests Against the Second Iraq War in the British National Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Elizabeth; Walker, Oliver; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Debate over the role that young people should play in politics reflects different conceptions of childhood and adult concerns about loss of authority and political hegemony. Coverage of youth protests against the Second Iraq War by the British national press echoes adult discourse on the nature of childhood and exposes the limits set by adults on…

  5. Nursing and the health of the nation: schism or symbiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P A; Piper, S M

    1997-02-01

    In July 1992, the British government published its White Paper "The Health of the Nation, a Strategy for Health in England' (HON). The authors contend that this initiative has largely been accepted by the nursing profession with critical response to the HON being minimal. The authors argue that the medicalized negative interpretation of health and the narrow individualistic lifestyle-orientated definition of health promotion contained within the strategy ought to be rejected by nurses in favour of both a positive, holistic conception of health and a more humanistic health promotion methodology acknowledging the impact of structural-material factors influencing individual health related behaviour.

  6. Considerations on the Scottish Referendum and a Discourse on the British Conundrum: Mill, Price and the Question of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Huw Williams

    2014-01-01

    The recent referendum on Scottish independence was characterised by a fail­ing on behalf of the Better Together campaign to articulate a positive vision and concep­tion of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In particular, any per­suasive notion of Britishness was notable by its absence. This paper attempts to shed light on the question of nationalism, in the British context in particular, by turning to the history of political thought, and the philosophical reflections ...

  7. Considerations on the Scottish Referendum and a Discourse on the British Conundrum: Mill, Price and the Question of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Huw Williams

    2015-01-01

    The recent referendum on Scottish independence was characterised by a fail­ing on behalf of the Better Together campaign to articulate a positive vision and concep­tion of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In particular, any per­suasive notion of Britishness was notable by its absence. This paper attempts to shed light on the question of nationalism, in the British context in particular, by turning to the history of political thought, and the philosophical reflections ...

  8. ABSTRACT NOUNS IN THE SPEECH OF THE EMGLISHMEN (BASED ON FICTION WORKS AND BRITISH NATIONAL CORPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Veniaminovna Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying the use of abstract nouns in the Englishmen’s speech from the standpoint of sociolinguistics. The article introduces a new, sociolinguistic, approach to research of abstract nouns; it is also the first time they are studied in a language corpus. The first stage of the research was based on fiction literary works: abstract nouns were extracted of analysis from the statements of the characters belonging to the opposite social classes. Later, these data was compared with the results of the original corpus research based on the British national corpus: sentences with nouns were selected out of the conversational subcorpus of BNC and were further sorted into abstract, concrete and words denoting people. Then, their frequency and vocabulary was studied with regards to speakers’ age, gender and social standing. The results revealed that abstract words are used more often that concrete ones regardless of the speaker’s social characteristics, however, the size and content of vocabulary is different (it is generally more substantial in the speech of women and representatives of higher social classes. The results of this research can be used in elaborating a course of the English language or in teaching general linguistics, sociolinguistics and country studies. 

  9. The physical health of British adults with intellectual disability: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Hatton, Chris; Baines, Susannah; Robertson, Janet

    2016-01-20

    Adults with intellectual disability have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. However, little is known about the health of the 'hidden majority' of adults with primarily mild intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services. The aims of the present study were: to estimate the physical health status of a population-based sample of British adults with and without mild intellectual disability while controlling for any potentially confounding effects resulting from between-group differences in gender, age, socio-economic disadvantage and neighborhood social capital. Secondary analysis of data from Understanding Society, a new longitudinal study focusing on the life experiences of UK citizens. We identified 299 participants aged 16-49 (1.2 % of the unweighted age-restricted sample) as having intellectual disability, and 22,927 as not having intellectual disability. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate between group differences adjusting for potential confounding personal characteristics (e.g., gender). Unadjusted comparisons indicated that British adults with intellectual disability have markedly poorer health than their non-disabled peers on the majority of indicators investigated including self-rated health, multiple morbidity, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, obesity, measured grip strength, measured lung function and polypharmacy. Adjusting for between-group differences in age and gender had a marginal impact on these estimates. Further adjusting for between-group differences in socio-economic disadvantage and neighborhood quality had a more marked impact on estimates with the number of statistically significant differences reducing from 13 to 8 and statistically significant attenuation of odds on three indicators (self-rated health, SF-12 physical component and multiple morbidity). The 'hidden majority' of adults with primarily mild intellectual disability who do not use intellectual disability services have

  10. Exploring Public Health's roles and limitations in advancing food security in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Barbara A; Lang, Tim M; Caraher, Martin J; Ostry, Aleck S

    2014-07-22

    This research analyzes the roles and limitations of Public Health in British Columbia in advancing food security through the integration of food security initiatives into its policies and programs. It asks the question, can Public Health advance food security? If so, how, and what are its limitations? This policy analysis merges findings from 38 key informant interviews conducted with government and civil society stakeholders involved in the development of food security initiatives, along with an examination of relevant documents. The Population Health Template is used to delineate and analyze Public Health roles in food security. Public Health was able to advance food security in some ways, such as the adoption of food security as a core public health program. Public Health's leadership role in food security is constrained by a restricted mandate, limited ability to collaborate across a wide range of sectors and levels, as well as internal conflict within Public Health between Food Security and Food Protection programs. Public Health has a role in advancing food security, but it also faces limitations. As the limitations are primarily systemic and institutional, recommendations to overcome them are not simple but, rather, require movement toward embracing the determinants of health and regulatory pluralism. The results also suggest that the historic role of Public Health in food security remains salient today.

  11. New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages for the Mazama tephra layer from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallett, D.J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: dhallett@sfu.ca; Hills, L.V. [Univ. of Calgary, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Clague, J.J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Simon Fraser Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-09-15

    Charcoal fragments recovered from the Mazama air-fall tephra layer in cores from Dog and Cobb lakes, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, yielded accelerator mass spectrometry ages of 6720 {+-} 70 and 6760 {+-} 70 {sup 14}C years BP, respectively. These two new ages, together with other previously published radiocarbon ages on charcoal and twig fragments from Mazama air-fall deposits, indicate that the climatic eruption of Mount Mazama occurred 6730 {+-} 40 {sup 14}C years BP. (author)

  12. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: a national British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D L; Montgomery, S M; Thompson, N P; Ebrahim, S; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    2000-12-01

    Measles vaccination has been suggested as a risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Atypical age of measles infection has also been associated with Crohn's disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship of measles vaccination and age of measles vaccination with later inflammatory bowel disease. A prospective population-based national birth cohort was used, of those born in 1 wk in April 1970 in Great Britain. The data are from 7616 responding members of the 1970 British Cohort Study with complete vaccination data, who were traced at age 26 yr. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and diabetes mellitus (a control disease) was obtained by survey at age 26 yr, and confirmed by physicians. Vaccination data were from survey at age 5 yr. Measles and mumps infection data were obtained from the survey at age 10 yr. Adjustment was made for sex, household crowding in childhood, and father's social class at birth. No statistically significant association was found between measles vaccination status at 5 yr and Crohn's disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-1.63), ulcerative colitis (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.20-1.61), or diabetes (adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.33-1.74). There was a statistically significant trend (p = 0.040) with increasing age of measles vaccination for risk of Crohn' s disease, although this was based on very few cases vaccinated after age 2 yr. In this cohort, monovalent measles vaccination status is not associated with inflammatory bowel disease by age 26 yr. Older age at measles vaccination needs to be examined in other studies to confirm whether it is a genuine risk for Crohn's disease.

  13. Religious and National Identity as Predictors of Attitudes towards the 7/7 Bombings among British Muslims : An Analysis of UK Opinion Poll Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a 2006 opinion survey of British Muslims (N = 1000), this study examined the role of importance of Muslim and British identity as proximal predictors of whether respondents viewed the 2005 London bombings as justified. We further explored the extent to which religious and national

  14. National Health Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can: Educate the public about health risks Organize successful health promotion events and campaigns Get new ... Centers and Clearinghouses provide free public information and resources. Many offer toll-free numbers and websites. Their ... Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ...

  15. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurgel Jr., Garibaldi D.; Carvalho de Sousa, Islâandia M.; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles...... of universality, equity, and integrality. While the reform in Brazil aimed at improving equity and effectiveness, reforms in Europe aimed at improving efficiency in order to contain costs. The European reforms increased supply and utilization but never provided the large increase in efficiency that was hoped for......, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having...

  16. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  17. Mental health literacy of depression: gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Swami

    Full Text Available Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression.In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes.There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes.Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.

  18. Mental health literacy of depression: gender differences and attitudinal antecedents in a representative British sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2012-01-01

    Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression. In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes. Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.

  19. Consumption of whole-grain foods by British adults: findings from further analysis of two national dietary surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Rebecca; Thane, Christopher W; Bolton-Smith, Caroline; Jebb, Susan A

    2003-08-01

    To assess the consumption of whole-grain foods in different age and sociodemographic groups in Great Britain, using data from two national surveys. Cross-sectional analysis of the consumption of whole-grain foods. The 1986-87 Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults and the 1994-95 National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over. In 1986-87, 2086 British adults aged 16-64 years; 1189 British adults aged 65 years and over in 1994-95. In the 1986-87 survey population, consumption of whole-grain foods increased with age. Median consumption of whole-grain foods was 1 serving per week in 16-24-year-olds and 3 servings per week in the 35-64-year-olds In 1994-95, median consumption was 5 servings per week in adults aged 65 years and over. Overall, one-third of British adults ate no whole-grain foods on a daily basis, and less than 5% ate 3 or more servings per day. Manual occupation and smoking were consistently associated with a higher proportion of non-consumers and fewer servings per week of whole-grain foods, independent of age, sex, region and season (each ). The main sources of whole-grain foods were wholemeal bread and breakfast cereals, which accounted for more than three-quarters of all servings. Consumption of whole-grain foods in the adult UK populations is more prevalent in the non-smoking, higher socio-economic groups. Amongst consumers of whole-grain foods, the frequency is similar to that reported in the USA and Norway.

  20. The impact of tuition fees amount on mental health over time in British students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T; Elliott, P; Roberts, R

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between debt and mental health problems in students. This study aimed to examine the effect of differences in tuition fees amount on changes in mental health over time. A prospective cohort study followed 390 first-year British students who differed on their tuition fees level at 4 time points across their first 2 years at university. Participants completed measures of global mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol-related problems at up to four time points in their first two years at university. Mixed-factorial ANOVAs were used to assess the impact of tuition fees amount on changes in scores over time. There was no difference based on fees at Time 1 for anxiety, stress, depression and global mental health. At Time 2, those charged £0-2.9k or £3-4k improved while those charged £8-9k stayed the same. However, this trend reversed by Times 3 and 4. Undergraduates mental health is partially affected by the level of tuition fees; however, the recent increase in tuition fees does not appear to have had a lasting impact at present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. National Jewish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment & Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training ... Study: After Watching Disturbing Video, CPAP Usage Soars Read More Sleepless? 5 Expert Tips ...

  2. 75 FR 6044 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Transduction. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including...

  3. Childhood and adult socioeconomic position interact to predict health in mid life in a cohort of British women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Low childhood socioeconomic position (cSEP is associated with poorer adult health, even after adult socioeconomic position (aSEP is adjusted for. However, whether cSEP and aSEP combine additively or non-additively in predicting adult health is less well studied. Some evidence suggests that the combination of low cSEP and low aSEP is associated with worse health than would be predicted from the sum of their individual effects. Methods Using data from female members of the British National Child Development Study cohort, we developed continuous quantitative measures of aSEP and cSEP, and used these to predict self-rated health at ages 23, 33, and 42. Results Lower aSEP predicted poorer heath at all ages. Lower cSEP predicted poorer health at all ages, even after adjustment for aSEP, but the direct effects of cSEP were substantially weaker than those of aSEP. At age 23, the effects of cSEP and aSEP were additive. At ages 33 and 42, cSEP and aSEP interacted, such that the effects of low aSEP on health were more negative if cSEP had also been low. Conclusions As women age, aSEP and cSEP may affect their health interactively. High cSEP, by providing a good start in life, may be partially protective against later negative impacts of low aSEP. We relate this to the extended ‘silver spoon’ principle recently documented in a non-human species.

  4. Childhood and adult socioeconomic position interact to predict health in mid life in a cohort of British women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic position (cSEP) is associated with poorer adult health, even after adult socioeconomic position (aSEP) is adjusted for. However, whether cSEP and aSEP combine additively or non-additively in predicting adult health is less well studied. Some evidence suggests that the combination of low cSEP and low aSEP is associated with worse health than would be predicted from the sum of their individual effects. Using data from female members of the British National Child Development Study cohort, we developed continuous quantitative measures of aSEP and cSEP, and used these to predict self-rated health at ages 23, 33, and 42. Lower aSEP predicted poorer heath at all ages. Lower cSEP predicted poorer health at all ages, even after adjustment for aSEP, but the direct effects of cSEP were substantially weaker than those of aSEP. At age 23, the effects of cSEP and aSEP were additive. At ages 33 and 42, cSEP and aSEP interacted, such that the effects of low aSEP on health were more negative if cSEP had also been low. As women age, aSEP and cSEP may affect their health interactively. High cSEP, by providing a good start in life, may be partially protective against later negative impacts of low aSEP. We relate this to the extended 'silver spoon' principle recently documented in a non-human species.

  5. Alcohol, drugs, sex and violence: health risks and consequences in young British holidaymakers to the Balearics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Whelan, Gayle; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Blay, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violence are among the key youth health issues today. Whilst they are the focus of much prevention work in the UK, relatively little information is available to inform prevention in international holiday resorts, where young people can take the greatest risks with their health. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1033 British holidaymakers aged 16-35 in Ibiza and Majorca airports (Spain). Surveys covered frequency of alcohol and drug use at home and abroad, and drunkenness, sexual activity and experience of a range of negative experiences on holiday. Illicit drug use was more common in Ibiza. Over half (53.9%) of visitors to Ibiza reported using at least one drug on holiday (compared with 13.9% in Majorca) and over a third reported using more than one drug. However visitors to Majorca reported more frequent drunkenness and more negative outcomes (arguments, fighting, unintentional injury, illness and requiring medical attention). In both locations, frequency of substance use increased on holiday. A quarter of those travelling without a partner reported having had sex during their holiday, and of these a third did not consistently use condoms. Frequent drunkenness was associated with fighting, unintentional injury and sex with a new partner. Illicit drug use, particularly polydrug use, was associated with fighting and unprotected sex. Young holidaymakers face significant health risks on holiday. Understanding which resorts are associated with which types of health risk behaviour is critical in targeting health promotion and harm reduction measures appropriately.

  6. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  7. Migration and diabetes in British Columbia and Quebec: prevalence and health service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Stewart, Maggie; McDermott, Sarah; Kazanjian, Arminee; Vissandjee, Bilkis; DesMeules, Marie; de Groh, Margaret; Morrison, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study describes prevalence of diabetes among immigrants and health service utilization among diabetic immigrants in British Columbia (BC) and Quebec (QC). Immigrants to BC and QC between 1985 and 1999 were identified. Using age-standardized rate ratios, they were compared with a matched comparison group with respect to their diabetes prevalence and, among those with diabetes, physician service utilization. Immigrant women in both provinces and men in BC had higher rates of diabetes compared to the matched comparison group. Rates varied by region of birth and language ability. Diabetes prevalence rate ratios increased with length of stay in BC. Diabetic immigrants had lower rates of physician visits than diabetic comparisons. This gap decreased commensurate with immigrants' length of stay in BC. Diabetic immigrants who spoke neither official language had similar or higher rates of physician visits compared with immigrants who spoke one or both official languages. Genetic predisposition, lifestyle changes, acculturation, resettlement stress and differential health care access may explain increased prevalence of diabetes among many immigrants. These results can inform diabetes prevention and management programs tailored to the needs of specific immigrant groups. The gap in health service use between diabetic immigrants and comparisons does not appear to be related to language ability. Further studies are required to identify reasons.

  8. British University Certificate and Diploma Programs (All Fields Except Education, Teacher Training and Health). NAFSA Field Service Working Paper #7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinman-Madoff, Elaine

    This document presents information on programs in all areas of study, with the exception of education, teacher training and health programs, offered at 38 British higher education institutions, including the University of Cambridge, Leeds, Oxford, York and the Open University. The document covers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate…

  9. Word frequencies in written and spoken English based on the British National Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey; Wilson, Andrew (All Of Lancaster University)

    2014-01-01

    Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English is a landmark volume in the development of vocabulary frequency studies. Whereas previous books have in general given frequency information about the written language only, this book provides information on both speech and writing. It not only gives information about the language as a whole, but also about the differences between spoken and written English, and between different spoken and written varieties of the language. The frequencies are derived from a wide ranging and up-to-date corpus of English: the British Na

  10. Intelligence in Childhood and Risk of Psychological Distress in Adulthood: The 1958 National Child Development Survey and the 1970 British Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R.; Hatch, Stephani L.; Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    Lower cognitive ability is a risk factor for some forms of severe psychiatric disorder, but it is unclear whether it influences risk of psychological distress due to anxiety or the milder forms of depression. The participants in the present study were members of two British birth national birth cohorts, the 1958 National Child Development Survey…

  11. Imagining the future at the global and national scale: A comparative study of British and Dutch press coverage of Rio 1992 and Rio 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, I.; Porter, A.J.; Nerlich, B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and imagined futures are intricately linked, discussed by policy-makers and reported in the media. In this article we focus on the construction of future expectations in the press coverage of the 1992 and 2012 United Nations conferences in Rio de Janeiro in British and Dutch national

  12. Authoritarian parenting attitudes as a risk for conduct problems Results from a British national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne; Hollis, Chris; Dagger, David Richards

    2003-04-01

    This study examines the associations, and possible causal relationship, between mothers' authoritarian attitudes to discipline and child behaviour using cross-sectional and prospective data from a large population sample surveyed in the 1970 British Cohort Study. Results show a clear linear relationship between the degree of maternal approval of authoritarian child-rearing attitudes and the rates of conduct problems at age 5 and age 10. This association is independent of the confounding effects of socio-economic status and maternal psychological distress. Maternal authoritarian attitudes independently predicted the development of conduct problems 5 years later at age 10. The results of this longitudinal study suggest that authoritarian parenting attitudes expressed by mothers may be of significance in the development of conduct problems.

  13. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood.The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used.Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the individual's ability to adapt to and self manage

  14. British National Party representations of Muslims in the month after the London bombings: homogeneity, threat, and the conspiracy tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C; Finlay, W M L

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of articles written by prominent members of the British National Party. Each of these articles discussed Muslims and Islam in the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Two prominent discursive themes are discussed here. The first concerned the writers' constructions of the threat that Muslims and Islam pose to Britain. Central to this theme were constructions of Muslims as 'fascists', anti-white racists, and all potentially dangerous, although there was variability in this. Using the Koran as evidence, the articles present a vision of a faith which intends to take over the country; in this way, a homogenous, culturally essentialist version of Muslims is worked up. The second theme illustrates how the writers challenge those who believe that creating a British multicultural society is possible, and in doing so construct liberals and multiculturalists as also posing a threat to the country. The ways in which this represents a variety of conspiracy theory, and the implications of these constructions for social action, are discussed.

  15. Climate Change and Health in British Columbia: Projected Impacts and a Proposed Agenda for Adaptation Research and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Diana M. Allen; Takaro, Tim K; Bassil, Kate L.; Malcolm Ogborn; Aleck Ostry

    2010-01-01

    This is a case study describing how climate change may affect the health of British Columbians and to suggest a way forward to promote health and policy research, and adaptation to these changes. After reviewing the limited evidence of the impacts of climate change on human health we have developed five principles to guide the development of research and policy to better predict future impacts of climate change on health and to enhance adaptation to these change in BC. We suggest that, with s...

  16. Adult health outcomes of childhood bullying victimization: evidence from a five-decade longitudinal British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ryu; Maughan, Barbara; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-07-01

    The authors examined midlife outcomes of childhood bullying victimization. Data were from the British National Child Development Study, a 50-year prospective cohort of births in 1 week in 1958. The authors conducted ordinal logistic and linear regressions on data from 7,771 participants whose parents reported bullying exposure at ages 7 and 11 years, and who participated in follow-up assessments between ages 23 and 50 years. Outcomes included suicidality and diagnoses of depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence at age 45; psychological distress and general health at ages 23 and 50; and cognitive functioning, socioeconomic status, social relationships, and well-being at age 50. Participants who were bullied in childhood had increased levels of psychological distress at ages 23 and 50. Victims of frequent bullying had higher rates of depression (odds ratio=1.95, 95% CI=1.27-2.99), anxiety disorders (odds ratio=1.65, 95% CI=1.25-2.18), and suicidality (odds ratio=2.21, 95% CI=1.47-3.31) than their nonvictimized peers. The effects were similar to those of being placed in public or substitute care and an index of multiple childhood adversities, and the effects remained significant after controlling for known correlates of bullying victimization. Childhood bullying victimization was associated with a lack of social relationships, economic hardship, and poor perceived quality of life at age 50. Children who are bullied-and especially those who are frequently bullied-continue to be at risk for a wide range of poor social, health, and economic outcomes nearly four decades after exposure. Interventions need to reduce bullying exposure in childhood and minimize long-term effects on victims' well-being; such interventions should cast light on causal processes.

  17. Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressu, Makeda; Mercer, Catherine H; Graham, Cynthia A; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M

    2008-04-01

    A stratified probability sample survey of the British general population, aged 16 to 44 years, was conducted from 1999 to 2001 (N = 11,161) using face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. We used these data to estimate the population prevalence of masturbation, and to identify sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and attitudinal factors associated with reporting this behavior. Seventy-three percent of men and 36.8% of women reported masturbating in the 4 weeks prior to interview (95% confidence interval 71.5%-74.4% and 35.4%-38.2%, respectively). A number of sociodemographic and behavioral factors were associated with reporting masturbation. Among both men and women, reporting masturbation increased with higher levels of education and social class and was more common among those reporting sexual function problems. For women, masturbation was more likely among those who reported more frequent vaginal sex in the last four weeks, a greater repertoire of sexual activity (such as reporting oral and anal sex), and more sexual partners in the last year. In contrast, the prevalence of masturbation was lower among men reporting more frequent vaginal sex. Both men and women reporting same-sex partner(s) were significantly more likely to report masturbation. Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reporting between men and women.

  18. Social art cinema of the 1990s: commodifying the concept of British National Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongmee, Kim

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the ways in which "social art cinema" has been constructed as a form of national cinema in the context of the 1990s. It discusses how particular institutional issues of the period affected signification revolving around the genre and, consequently, how that affected the concept of national cinema. This research draws upon a range of agendas relating to financial and distribution structures, promotional activities and multi-media consumption that were involved in encouragin...

  19. Toward a New Era of Policy: Health Care Service Delivery to First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda D. Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The disproportionate burdens of ill health experienced by First Nations have been attributed to an uncoordinated, fragmented health care system. This system is rooted in public policies that have created jurisdictional gaps and a long-standing debate between federal, provincial and First Nations governments as to who is responsible for First Nations health care. This article examines: (1 the policies that shape First Nations health care in Canada and in the province of British Columbia (BC specifically; (2 the interests of the actors involved in First Nations health policy; and (3 recent developments in BC that present an opportunity for change to First Nations health policy development and have broader implications for Indigenous health policy across Canada and worldwide.

  20. Clinical Disorders in a Post War British Cohort Reaching Retirement: Evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary B.; Silverwood, Richard J.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Adams, Judith E.; Stephen, Alison M.; Nip, Wing; Macfarlane, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60–64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0–9); only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%–56.7%), obesity (31.1%, 28.8%–33.5%), raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1–28.26%), and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6–27.5%). A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. Conclusions Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  1. [National public health information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies.

  2. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical reportpresents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective usingdata from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the

  3. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-12-29

    Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Cross-sectional study. A representative sample of men aged 71-92 years in 2010-2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978-1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had 5.5 mm) affecting 1-20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1-2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3-5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Dietary intakes and nutrient status of vegetarian preschool children from a British national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, C.W.; Bates, C.J.

    2000-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary intakes and nutrient status were compared in meat-eaters and non-meat-eaters from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of children aged 1.5-4.5 years. METHODS: Children (n = 1351) were categorized as 'omnivores' or 'vegetarians', according to whether they consumed meat or meat products during a 4-day dietary record. Blood samples were also obtained for analysis of haematological and biochemical nutrient status. RESULTS: Three per cent of children were 'vegetarian'. They consumed higher proportions of milk and milk products, although this was significant only in older children (P = 0.007), owing to high consumption by the high proportion of Asian children. In vegetarians, energy intakes tended to be lower in both age groups. Percentage energy from protein and fat were lower, while that from carbohydrate was higher compared with omnivores. Cholesterol intakes were lower, significantly so for younger children (P vegetarians compared with omnivores. Energy-adjusted intakes of iron and zinc did not differ significantly from those of omnivores, although both intakes were low in many children (6-20% vegetarians, significantly so in younger children (P = 0.002). Antioxidant vitamin (A, C and E) status tended to be higher in vegetarians, while vitamin B12 intakes and status were more than adequate. Apart from poorer vitamin D intake and status in older Asian vegetarians, very few ethnic differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient intakes and status were generally adequate in preschool children who did not eat meat. Although serum ferritin levels were inferior (particularly in vegetarians under 3 years old), the lower intakes of fat, cholesterol and sodium, and higher antioxidant vitamin intakes and status indices were potentially beneficial. Given a balanced diet, adequate nutrient intakes and status can be maintained without consuming meat.

  5. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  6. Implementing information technology to improve workplace health: a web-based information needs assessment of managers in Fraser Health, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Jag S; Anderson, Keith; Keen, Dave; Yassi, Annalee

    2005-01-01

    A web-based questionnaire-survey was administered primarily to determine what information is useful to managers in Fraser Health, of British Columbia to support decision-making for workplace health and safety. The results indicated that managers prefer electronic quarterly reports, with targets, goals, and historical trends rated as "very important." Over 85.7% "agree" that if information was readily available in the "most beneficial" format, they would be able to improve workplace health. Recommendations include that managers be presented with clear and concise workplace health reports that facilitate analysis for decision-making.

  7. Using the British National Collection of Asters to Compare the Attractiveness of 228 Varieties to Flower-Visiting Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife-friendly gardening practices can help conserve biodiversity in urban areas. These include growing ornamental plant varieties attractive to flower-visiting insects. Because varieties vary greatly in attractiveness, there is a need to quantify it in order to give objective advice to gardeners. Here, we used the British national collection of asters to compare the attractiveness of varieties to flower-visiting insects. We counted and identified insects as they foraged on flowers in 228 varieties growing in discrete patches that flowered during the survey period, 14 September-20 October 2012. In each variety, we also determined the overall capitulum size, the central disc floret area, and the ray floret color (blue, red, purple, or white). We also scored attributes relevant to gardening: attractiveness to humans, ease of cultivation, and availability in the United Kingdom. There was great variation among varieties in their attractiveness to insects, ranging from 0.0 to 15.2 per count per square meter, and highly skewed, with most being unattractive. A similar skew held for the two main insect categories, honey bees and hover flies, which comprised 28 and 64% of all insects, respectively. None of the floral traits or attributes relevant to gardening correlated significantly with attractiveness to insects. Our study shows the practicality of using a national collection for quantifying and comparing the attractiveness of ornamental varieties to flower-visiting insects. These results imply that choosing varieties carefully is likely to be of conservation benefit to flower-visiting insects, and that doing so is a no-cost option in terms of garden beauty and workload. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A cross-cultural comparison of health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents living in urban areas: gender by country analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan

    2013-12-03

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14-18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.

  9. A critical discourse analysis of British national newspaper representations of the academic level of nurse education: too clever for our own good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines articles about the academic level of nurse education that appeared in British national newspapers between 1999 and 2009. British newspaper journalists regularly attribute problems with recruitment into nursing and nursing care to the increasing academic nature of nurse education. It is impossible to separate discourse about nurse education from the wider nursing discourse. Many journalists laud a traditional and stereotypical construct of nurse identity and suggest that increasing nurse education produces nurses who are 'too clever to care'. This article argues that whilst nurses lack a voice in the National press, they have little input into the construction of newspaper discourse about nurse education and subsequently, limited influence on resulting public opinion, government policy and the morale of nurses. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Forest health monitoring: 2007 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program produces an annual technical report that has two main objectives. The first objective is to present information about forest health from a national perspective. The second objective is to present examples of useful techniques for analyzing forest health data new to the annual national reports and new applications of techniques...

  11. Forest health monitoring: 2009 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2012-01-01

    The annual national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  12. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and personality disorder: evidence from the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Albina R; Moran, Paul; Bebbington, Paul; Brugha, Traolach; Bhugra, Dinesh; Coid, Jeremy W; Farrell, Michael; Jenkins, Rachel; Lewis, Glyn; Meltzer, Howard; Prince, Martin

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that most individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have comorbid personality disorders (PDs), particularly from the anxious cluster. However, the nature and strength of this association remains unclear, as the majority of previous studies have relied heavily on clinical populations. We analysed the prevalence of screen positive personality disorder in a representative sample of adults with OCD living in private households in the UK. A secondary analysis of data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. The prevalence of PD, as determined by the SCID-II questionnaire, was compared in participants with OCD, with other neuroses and non-neurotic controls. Within the OCD group we also analysed possible differences relating to sex and subtypes of the disorder. The prevalence of any screen positive PD in the OCD group (N=108) was 74%, significantly greater than in both control groups. The most common screen positive categories were paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, schizoid and schizotypal. Compared to participants with other neuroses, OCD cases were more likely to screen positively for paranoid, avoidant, schizotypal, dependent and narcissistic PDs. Men with OCD were more likely to screen positively for PDs in general, cluster A PDs, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive and narcissistic categories. The presence of comorbid neuroses in people with OCD had no significant effect on the prevalence of PD. Personality pathology is highly prevalent among people with OCD who are living in the community and should be routinely assessed, as it may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment.

  13. Personality disorders, common mental disorders and receipt of disability benefits: evidence from the British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, A K; Skogen, J C; Harvey, S B; Stewart, R; Hotopf, M; Moran, P

    2012-12-01

    Common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with occupational impairment and the receipt of disability benefits (DBs). Little is known about the relationship between personality disorders (PDs) and work disability, and whether the association between CMDs and work disability is affected by the presence of co-morbid PDs. The aim of this study was to examine the association between DB and individual categories of PDs, with special attention to the effect of co-morbid CMDs on this association. The association between DB and PD was examined using data from the 2000 British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. Probable PD caseness was identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) screening questionnaire. The impact of CMDs, assessed with the revised version of the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), was examined as a covariate and in a stratified analysis of co-morbidity. Other covariates included sociodemographic factors, long-standing illnesses and substance use. Probable PD was associated with DB, with the strongest associations found for borderline, dependent and schizotypal PD. Antisocial PD was not associated with DB. The relationship between PD and DB was strongly modified by CMD, reducing the association from an odds ratio (OR) of 2.84 to 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.79)]. In the stratified analysis, co-morbid PD and CMD showed a stronger association with DB than PD without CMD but, when fully adjusted, this effect was not significantly different from the association between CMD without PD. Individuals screening positive for PD are more likely to experience severe occupational outcomes, especially in the presence of co-morbid CMD.

  14. Innovation within a national health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Antony

    2017-05-01

    Tony is a practicing frontline National Health Service surgeon and director of medical innovation at Anglia Ruskin University and has founded 4 medical-technology start-ups. He has also cofounded the £500 million Anglia Ruskin MedTech Campus, which will become one of the world's largest health innovation spaces. In 2014, he was appointed as national clinical director for innovation at National Health Service England and in February 2016 became the first national clinical lead for innovation. In this role, he provides clinical leadership and support in delivering improved health outcomes in England, drives the uptake of proven innovations across the National Health Service, promotes economic growth through innovation, and helps make the National Health Service the go-to place on the planet for medical innovation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  16. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining Article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2010-06-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term 'British American Tobacco' was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, 'Dunhill' and 'Lucky Strike', was conducted. Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook.

  17. Influence of Poor Oral Health on Physical Frailty: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Older British Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Papachristou, Efstathios; Watt, Richard G; Tsakos, Georgios; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, A Olia; Moynihan, Paula; Sayer, Avan A; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2017-12-20

    To investigate the associations between objective and subjective measures of oral health and incident physical frailty. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study with 3 years of follow-up using data from the British Regional Heart Study. General practices in 24 British towns. Community-dwelling men aged 71 to 92 (N = 1,622). Objective assessments of oral health included tooth count and periodontal disease. Self-reported oral health measures included overall self-rated oral health; dry mouth symptoms; sensitivity to hot, cold, and sweet; and perceived difficulty eating. Frailty was defined using the Fried phenotype as having 3 or more of weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slow walking speed, and low physical activity. Incident frailty was assessed after 3 years of follow-up in 2014. Three hundred three (19%) men were frail at baseline (aged 71-92). Having fewer than 21 teeth, complete tooth loss, fair to poor self-rated oral health, difficulty eating, dry mouth, and more oral health problems were associated with greater likelihood of being frail. Of 1,284 men followed for 3 years, 107 (10%) became frail. The risk of incident frailty was higher in participants who were edentulous (odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-3.52); had 3 or more dry mouth symptoms (OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.18-3.48); and had 1 (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.18-4.64), 2 (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.09-4.84), or 3 or more (OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.11-6.64) oral health problems after adjustment for age, smoking, social class, history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus, and medications related to dry mouth. The presence of oral health problems was associated with greater risks of being frail and developing frailty in older age. The identification and management of poor oral health in older people could be important in preventing frailty. © 2017 The Authors The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics

  18. Childhood and maternal effects on physical health related quality of life five decades later: the British 1946 birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita D Mishra

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done on the relationships between childhood factors and adult physical health related quality of life, with the underlying pathways not fully elucidated. Data from 2292 participants of the British 1946 birth cohort were used to examine the relationship of childhood characteristics and family environment with principal component summary (PCS scores and the physical functioning (PF subscale of the SF-36 at age 60-64 years. Impaired physical functioning was defined as the lowest quartile scores in the PF subscale. Childhood factors (father in manual social class versus non-manual (β =  -2.34; 95%CI: -3.39, -1.28 and poor maternal health versus good/excellent maternal health (β =  -6.18; -8.78, -3.57 were associated with lower PCS scores at 60-64 years. Adult health behaviours (increasing BMI, lifelong smoking, and lower physical activity at 53 years were identified as strong risk factors for lower PCS scores. After adjusting for these factors and education level (N = 1463, only poor maternal health remained unattenuated (β =  -5.07; -7.62, -2.51. Similarly poor maternal health doubled the risk of reporting impaired PF (Odds ratio =  2.45; 95%CI: 1.39, 4.30; serious illness in childhood (OR = 1.44; 1.01, 2.06 and lower educational level attained were also risk factors for impaired PF (N = 1526. While findings suggest the influence of father's social class on physical health related quality of life are mediated by modifiable adult social factors and health behaviours; health professionals should also be mindful of the inter-generational risk posed by poor maternal health on the physical health related quality of life of her offspring almost five decades later.

  19. Health facility and health worker readiness to deliver new national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health facility and health worker readiness to deliver new national treatment policy for malaria in Kenya. ... Design: Cross-sectional survey. ... on the survey day, stock-outs in past six months, presence of AL wall charts, health worker\\'s exposure to in-service training on AL and access to new national malaria guidelines.

  20. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  1. Silencing and Languaging in the Assembling of the Indian Nation-State: British Public Citizens, the Epistolary Form, and Historiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2009-01-01

    Taking the case of postcolonial India, this paper explores ways in which present temporal junctures permit a probing of historical boundaries to speak of voices largely silenced from Indian historiography, namely those of British (Indian) public citizens who were committed to the assembling of "an India." In particular, the paper…

  2. Health behaviours, socioeconomic status, and mortality: further analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Dugravot, Aline; Shipley, Martin; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2011-02-01

    Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study. We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL), health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis), education, and income (supplementary analysis) were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (pdifferences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28-2.05) in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58-2.39) for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%-149%) in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%-29%) in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results. Health behaviours were strong predictors of mortality in both cohorts but their association with SES was remarkably different. Thus, health behaviours are likely to be major contributors of socioeconomic differences in health only in contexts with a marked social characterisation of health behaviours. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  3. British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  4. National eHealth strategy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide the application of information and communication technologies to support national health-care services is rapidly expanding and increasingly important. This is especially so at a time when all health systems face stringent economic challenges and greater demands to provide more and better care especially to those most in need. The National eHealth Strategy Toolkit is an expert practical guide that provides governments their ministries and stakeholders with a solid foundation and method for the development and implementation of a national eHealth vision action plan and monitoring fram

  5. Health: looking after the Nation's health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, GR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Health infrastructure is essential to the successful delivery of health services. With a normal planned lifespan of over 50 years, such capital investment endures for extended periods and major changes in the estate take a long time to achieve...

  6. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  7. Implementing change in the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M C; Cox, M A

    1999-01-01

    This paper will outline the current changes being imposed on the National Health Service. The literature on change management will be employed to propose some guidelines for health service managers. The National Health Service (NHS) spent much of the 1980s and 1990s learning about the transition from administration to management and must now make the transition from management to leadership. The emphasis is now focused less on doing and more on being.

  8. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maturity-associated variation in physical activity and health-related quality of life in British adolescent girls: moderating effects of peer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindus, Dominika M; Cumming, Sean P; Sherar, Lauren B; Gammon, Catherine; Coelho e Silva, Manuel; Malina, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Using a Biocultural Model of Maturity-Associated Variance in physical activity (PA) as a conceptual framework, the main and interactive effects of biological maturity status and perceived peer acceptance on PA and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescent girls were examined. Three hundred forty-two female British students in years 7 to 9 (13.2±0.83 years) participated in the study. All participants completed the PA Questionnaire for Adolescents and KIDSCREEN-10, a measure of HRQoL. Self-reported perceptions of peer acceptance were measured by items from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.Maturity status was estimated as the percentage of predicted adult (mature) height attained at the time of observation. Analysis of covariance suggested an influence of peer acceptance on maturity-associated differences in PA, but not on HRQoL. Girls early and "on time" in maturation with higher perceptions of peer acceptance reported greater involvement in PA than girls early and "on time" in maturation with lower perceptions of peer acceptance. A reverse association was observed for late-maturing girls. Peer acceptance is an important moderator of maturity-associated variation in PA.

  10. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  11. British American Tobacco on Facebook: undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) bans all forms of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. The comprehensiveness of this ban has yet to be tested by online social networking media such as Facebook. In this paper, the activities of employees of the transnational tobacco company, British American Tobacco, (BAT) on Facebook and the type of content associated with two globally popular BAT brands (Dunhill and Lucky Strike) are mapped. Methods BAT employees on Facebook were identified and then the term ‘British American Tobacco’ was searched for in the Facebook search engine and results recorded, including titles, descriptions, names and the number of Facebook participants involved for each search result. To further detail any potential promotional activities, a search for two of BAT's global brands, ‘Dunhill’ and ‘Lucky Strike’, was conducted. Results Each of the 3 search terms generated more than 500 items across a variety of Facebook subsections. Discussion Some BAT employees are energetically promoting BAT and BAT brands on Facebook through joining and administrating groups, joining pages as fans and posting photographs of BAT events, products and promotional items. BAT employees undertaking these actions are from countries that have ratified the WHO FCTC, which requires signatories to ban all forms of tobacco advertising, including online and crossborder exposure from countries that are not enforcing advertising restrictions. The results of the present research could be used to test the comprehensiveness of the advertising ban by requesting that governments mandate the removal of this promotional material from Facebook. PMID:20395406

  12. Stigmatisation, perceived barriers to care, help seeking and the mental health of British Military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Keeling, Mary; Thandi, Gursimran; Greenberg, Neil

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between mental health symptoms, stigmatising beliefs about mental health and help seeking is complex and poorly understood. 1636 UK Armed Forces personnel provided study data immediately after deployment (T1) and approximately 6 months later (T2). Stigmatising beliefs were assessed using an eight-item scale previously used in studies of UK military personnel. Symptoms of probable common mental disorder, probable post-traumatic stress disorder and subjective stressful, emotional, relationship and family problems were evaluated at T1 and T2. Help seeking during deployment was assessed at T1 and post-deployment help seeking at T2. Alcohol use and subjective alcohol problems were assessed at T2 only. Reporting a probable mental health disorder or potentially harmful alcohol use following deployment was both significantly associated with higher levels of stigmatising beliefs. The reported degree of stigma was associated with changes in mental health symptom levels; compared to those who were never classified as a probable mental health disorder case, recovered cases experienced significantly lower levels of stigmatisation, whereas new onset cases reported significantly higher levels. The way that individuals report mental health stigmatisation is not static; rather stigma fluctuates in proportion to the frequency and severity of psychological symptoms. These results suggest that public health stigma-reduction strategies which aim to promote engagement with mental health services should be focused towards people who are experiencing worsening mental health. Our results suggest that willing volunteers who have recovered from a mental-ill-health episode may be well placed to assist in the delivery of such a strategy.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648 and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158. The participants (14–18 year-olds were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3% was significantly (p < 0.001 higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%. The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week. Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001 higher among Saudi adolescents (64% compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%. The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively. The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05 gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001 gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.

  14. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  15. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…

  16. Addressing Youth Mental Health Issues in BC's K-12 Public Schools: A BCTF Submission. A Brief to the Select Standing Committee on Children and Youth from the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Teachers' Federation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF) has taken an active role in addressing both youth and teacher mental health issues in recent years, and will continue to do so. The BCTF is a participant in the British Columbia (BC) School-Based Mental Health Collaborative, has a web page with resources to support teachers in understanding mental…

  17. Effects of home on the mental health of British forces serving in Iraq and Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Jones, Norman; Davies, Mark; McAllister, Peter; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    .... This study reports the results of a survey of deployed personnel, examining the perceived impact of events at home and military support for the family on current mental health during the deployment...

  18. Nurse leaders' experiences of implementing regulatory changes in sexual health nursing practice in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Stevenson, Janine

    2013-05-01

    Most research about regulatory policy change concerning expanded nursing activities has emphasized advanced practice roles and acute care settings. This study is a contribution to the small pool of research concerned with regulatory policy implementation for nurses undertaking expanded nursing practice activities in a public health context. Using the regulatory changes in certified nursing practice in one Canadian province as our starting point, we investigated the experiences of nurse leaders in implementing this change. Using a qualitative interpretive descriptive approach informed by tenets of complexity theory, we examined the experiences of 16 nurse leaders as situated within the larger public health care system in which nurses practice. Two interrelated themes, (a) preparing for certification and (b) the certification process, were identified to illustrate how competing and contrasting demands between health care and regulatory organizations created substantial barriers to policy change. Implications for health service delivery and future research are discussed.

  19. The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shouls, S; Whitehead, M; Burström, B

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private...... households. The main measures are self perceived general health, limiting long-standing illness, poverty and working status....

  20. Sociodemographic associations of the dietary proportion of ultra-processed foods in First Nations peoples in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, Alberta and Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, Malek; Johnson-Down, Louise; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Sadik, Tonio; Chan, Hing Man; Willows, Noreen

    2017-12-18

    We investigated the food types consumed by 3276 First Nations citizens from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study (FNFNES) living on-reserve in Canada. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were classified into NOVA categories: fresh or minimally processed foods (MPF), processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods (UPF). Individuals were classified as traditional food (TF) eaters if they ate MPF of their First Nations culture. UPF accounted for 54.0% of energy intake; 23% of participants ate TF. Increasing age and household size, living in British Columbia and TF eating were associated with a lower intake of energy from UPF. Eating TF appeared to be protective against intake of UPF.

  1. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    ... to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking...

  2. 76 FR 44597 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: July 20...

  3. Effect of incentive payments on chronic disease management and health services use in British Columbia, Canada: Interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M Ruth; Law, Michael R; Peterson, Sandra; Garrison, Scott; Hurley, Jeremiah; Cheng, Lucy; McGrail, Kimberlyn

    2018-02-01

    We studied the effects of incentive payments to primary care physicians for the care of patients with diabetes, hypertension, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in British Columbia, Canada. We used linked administrative health data to examine monthly primary care visits, continuity of care, laboratory testing, pharmaceutical dispensing, hospitalizations, and total h ealth care spending. We examined periods two years before and two years after each incentive was introduced, and used segmented regression to assess whether there were changes in level or trend of outcome measures across all eligible patients following incentive introduction, relative to pre-intervention periods. We observed no increases in primary care visits or continuity of care after incentives were introduced. Rates of ACR testing and antihypertensive dispensing increased among patients with hypertension, but none of the other modest increases in laboratory testing or prescriptions dispensed reached statistical significance. Rates of hospitalizations for stroke and heart failure among patients with hypertension fell relative to pre-intervention patterns, while hospitalizations for COPD increased. Total hospitalizations and hospitalizations via the emergency department did not change. Health care spending increased for patients with hypertension. This large-scale incentive scheme for primary care physicians showed some positive effects for patients with hypertension, but we observe no similar changes in patient management, reductions in hospitalizations, or changes in spending for patients with diabetes and COPD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Le multiculturalisme comme aberration mortifère : « l’ethno-nationalisme blanc » du British National Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Sempéré

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Le British National Party est un parti politique britannique d’extrême droite qui a entrepris depuis quelques années de sortir de la marginalité. Si la stratégie électoraliste qu’il a mise en place depuis la fin des années 1990 ne lui vaut qu’une très légère progression dans les urnes, cette progression est bien présente, et elle témoigne sans aucun doute d’une bien plus large banalisation de ses idées. Au-delà de l’édulcoration tactique menée par sa propagande, le British National Party est pourtant resté le même, tant dans ses soubassements idéologiques que dans ses buts politiques. Cette permanence est visible au cœur même de son discours sur la question raciale et elle motive son rejet sans appel du multiculturalisme au nom de « l’ethnonationalisme blanc ». C’est le but de cet article que de la mettre en évidence, ainsi que d’en souligner les modalités propagandistes et les prolongements programmatiques. L’étude est synchronique et s’appuie sur la vitrine extérieure du parti, sa cyberpropagande.The British National Party is currently the biggest far right party in Great Britain. Since the late 1990’s, it has been trying to enter the political mainstream through a recalibration of its style and discourse, with electoral breakthroughs as its focal point. The tactical shift has not yielded large scale success so far, but the party has undeniably managed to gain ground at local elections. However, the normalization strategy engineered by its leader, Nick Griffin, has left its core neo nazi ideological tenets unimpaired. The paper examines the way racism remains its quintessential characteristic and naturally leads to the utter rejection of multiculturalism in the name of “white ethno-nationalism”. It demonstrates the mixture of essentialist and differentialist discourse strategies the BNP resorts to as well as the rhetorical and thematic figures it develops in support of its racism. It

  5. Health behaviours, socioeconomic status, and mortality: further analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL prospective cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stringhini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study.We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL, health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity, were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis, education, and income (supplementary analysis were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (p<0.001 in Whitehall II (odds ratio [OR] = 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11-4.36 than in GAZEL (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18-1.49; this was also true for unhealthy diet (OR = 7.42, 95% CI 5.19-10.60 in Whitehall II and OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.49 in GAZEL, p<0.001. Socioeconomic differences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28-2.05 in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58-2.39 for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%-149% in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%-29% in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results.Health behaviours were strong predictors of mortality in both cohorts but their

  6. The effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme on health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study investigates the effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on health care utilisation. Methods: We provide a short history of health insurance in Ghana, and briefly discuss general patterns of enrolment in Ghana as well as in Accra in a first step. In a second step, we use data from the ...

  7. The self-rated health of British adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah; Hatton, Chris

    2014-03-01

    People with intellectual disability have significantly higher age-adjusted rates of mortality and morbidity than their non-disabled peers. While self-rated health status is commonly used as an indicator of the health status of populations of interest, few studies have explored the self-rated health of adults with intellectual disability. We undertook secondary analysis of de-identified cross-sectional data from the first waves of two contemporary UK surveys: the Life Opportunities Survey (n=37,513) and Understanding Society (n=50,976). In the Life Opportunities Survey we identified 316 participants age 16-49 (1.7% of the age-restricted sample) as having intellectual disability. In Understanding Society we identified 415 participants age 16-49 (1.5% of the age-restricted sample) as having intellectual disability. Participants with intellectual disability were significantly more likely to report having fair or worse health than their peers (Life Opportunities Survey OR=8.86 (6.54-12.01), pdisadvantage and (in the Life Opportunities Survey) exposure to discrimination and violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Race, nation and education—An overview of British attempts to ‘manage diversity’ since the 1950s

    OpenAIRE

    Shain, Farzana

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent history of English education in connection with British state attempts to ‘manage diversity’. It offers a new analysis on points of coherence and tension between the role of education and state policies in relation to race and ethnicity. Drawing on the Prevent strategy as an example, the paper highlights the role that education has played in the construction of ethnic minorities as ‘problems’ to be managed or contained. It is argued that assimilation into a (supe...

  9. Chronic fatigue and affective disorders in older adults: evidence from the 2007 British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2013-03-05

    Although chronic fatigue is common in old age, the association between chronic fatigue and common affective disorders is largely unknown. To fill this research gap, the present study aims to determine the relationship between chronic fatigue and common psychiatric disorders among older adults aged 65 and older. A national representative sample of 1793 England community-dwelling respondents aged 65 and above was assessed in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule to measure chronic fatigue and common psychiatric disorders. Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, and four health-related variables based on the Short Form 12 were also measured. The prevalence of chronic fatigue was 18.6%. Bivariate analyses revealed that chronic fatigue was more common among women and non-white ethnicities. In addition, chronic fatigue was significantly related to depression, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder after adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, and four other health-related variables. The prevalence rate of chronic fatigue in our sample is higher than a previous study. The psychiatric comorbidity of chronic fatigue supports the notion that chronic fatigue has a strong impact on quality of life in old age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental health, work incapacity and State transfers: an analysis of the British Household Panel Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, W; Sutton, M.

    2010-01-01

    The UK has experienced substantial increases in the number of individuals claiming work incapacity benefit (IB) and the proportion of people claiming IB for mental health reasons. Following high-profile reports claiming that intervention would cost the State nothing, the Government has increased the availability of psychological therapies. The cost-neutrality claim relied on two statistics: the proportion of IB claimants diagnosed with mental and behavioural disorders; and estimates of the co...

  11. The sexual health of young British Pakistanis in London: social and cultural influences

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pakistanis are the second largest ethnic minority group in the UK. However, there is a paucity of sexual health research among this group. In contrast to their parents’ generation, other South Asians are beginning to have premarital (sexual) relationships. This change may be occurring among young Pakistanis. In this thesis I explore social and cultural influences on the relationships and sexual behaviours of Pakistani youth, in order to determine whether there is unmet sexual heal...

  12. Understanding the Health and Safety Risks for British Columbia’s Outbound Medical Tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Valorie; Bristeir, J.; Turner, J.; Snyder, J.; Casey, V.; Johnston, R.

    2011-01-01

    When patients choose to go abroad to privately purchase medical care they are engaging in ‘medical tourism’, which isthe most commonly used name for this practice. Several studies and reports suggest that there are a number of healthand safety risks to patients who choose to purchase private medical care abroad. Much of our existing knowledgeabout the health and safety risks of medical tourism for patients is, however, limited due to a lack of comprehensiveresearch and reporting. Acknowledgin...

  13. Electronic health records across the nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, Antonius A.M.; Cellucci, Leigh W.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this special issue is to describe and compare electronic health record initiatives across different nations. We decided to include personal health records as well because these records also span the international playing field. In total, seven studies are presented from four different

  14. Advance directives and the National Health Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    also has the authority to refuse consent. David McQuUid-Masorl is Professor of Law at the Centre for ... When applied to refusal of treatment, advance directives usually take the form of 'living wills' 0r enduring powers ... method for the appointment of proxies to make health care decisions.4. National Health Act provisions.

  15. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-03-27

    The focus will thus be on quality control, maintenance and documenting utilization. Mali currently has very little information ... Outputs. Reports. Building National Health Research Information System - COHRED : health research web; final technical report for the period March 27, 2008 - September 27, 2009. Download PDF.

  16. PEDSnet: a National Pediatric Learning Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Margolis, Peter A; Bailey, L Charles; Marsolo, Keith; Del Beccaro, Mark A; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Milov, David E; Vieland, Veronica J; Wolf, Bryan A; Yu, Feliciano B; Kahn, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    A learning health system (LHS) integrates research done in routine care settings, structured data capture during every encounter, and quality improvement processes to rapidly implement advances in new knowledge, all with active and meaningful patient participation. While disease-specific pediatric LHSs have shown tremendous impact on improved clinical outcomes, a national digital architecture to rapidly implement LHSs across multiple pediatric conditions does not exist. PEDSnet is a clinical data research network that provides the infrastructure to support a national pediatric LHS. A consortium consisting of PEDSnet, which includes eight academic medical centers, two existing disease-specific pediatric networks, and two national data partners form the initial partners in the National Pediatric Learning Health System (NPLHS). PEDSnet is implementing a flexible dual data architecture that incorporates two widely used data models and national terminology standards to support multi-institutional data integration, cohort discovery, and advanced analytics that enable rapid learning. PMID:24821737

  17. A national agenda for public health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnoff, W A; Overhage, J M; Humphreys, B L; LaVenture, M; Goodman, K W; Gatewood, L; Ross, D A; Reid, J; Hammond, W E; Dwyer, D; Huff, S M; Gotham, I; Kukafka, R; Loonsk, J W; Wagner, M M

    2001-11-01

    The American Medical Informatics Association 2001 Spring Congress brought together the public health and informatics communities to develop a national agenda for public health informatics. Discussions on funding and governance; architecture and infrastructure; standards and vocabulary; research, evaluation, and best practices; privacy, confidentiality, and security; and training and workforce resulted in 74 recommendations with two key themes: (1) all stakeholders need to be engaged in coordinated activities related to public health information architecture, standards, confidentiality, best practices, and research and (2) informatics training is needed throughout the public health workforce. Implementation of this consensus agenda will help promote progress in the application of information technology to improve public health.

  18. Health financing in Malawi: Evidence from National Health Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background National health accounts provide useful information to understand the functioning of a health financing system. This article attempts to present a profile of the health system financing in Malawi using data from NHA. It specifically attempts to document the health financing situation in the country and proposes recommendations relevant for developing a comprehensive health financing policy and strategic plan. Methods Data from three rounds of national health accounts covering the Financial Years 1998/1999 to 2005/2006 was used to describe the flow of funds and their uses in the health system. Analysis was performed in line with the various NHA entities and health system financing functions. Results The total health expenditure per capita increased from US$ 12 in 1998/1999 to US$25 in 2005/2006. In 2005/2006 public, external and private contributions to the total health expenditure were 21.6%, 60.7% and 18.2% respectively. The country had not met the Abuja of allocating at least 15% of national budget on health. The percentage of total health expenditure from households' direct out-of-pocket payments decreased from 26% in 1998/99 to 12.1% in 2005/2006. Conclusion There is a need to increase government contribution to the total health expenditure to at least the levels of the Abuja Declaration of 15% of the national budget. In addition, the country urgently needs to develop and implement a prepaid health financing system within a comprehensive health financing policy and strategy with a view to assuring universal access to essential health services for all citizens. PMID:21062503

  19. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms.

  20. Differences between British and Japanese perspectives on forensic mental health systems: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Akihiro; Tomoto, Aika; Omiya, Soichiro; Sato, Aiko; Iyo, Masaomi; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    AIM To clarify the differences in views on forensic mental health (FMH) systems between the United Kingdom and Japan. METHODS We conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with six leading forensic psychiatrists. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form. After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. RESULTS In the United Kingdom the core domain of FMH was risk assessment and management; however, in Japan, the core domain of FMH was psychiatric testimony. In the United Kingdom, forensic psychiatrists were responsible for ensuring public safety, and psychopathy was identified as a disease but deemed as not suitable for medical treatment. On the other hand, in Japan, psychopathy was not considered a mental illness. CONCLUSION In conclusion, there are considerable differences between the United Kingdom and Japan with regard to the concepts of FMH. Some ideas taken from both cultures for better FMH practice were suggested. PMID:28401045

  1. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel: Tests of the social causation, health selection and the indirect selection hypothesis using dynamic fixed effects panel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-02-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel regression models following the method suggested by Anderson and Hsiao. We propose using this method to estimate the associations over time since it allows one to control for all unobserved time-invariant factors and hence lower the chances of biased estimates due to unobserved heterogeneity. The results showed no proof of the social causation hypothesis over a one to five year period and limited support for the health selection hypothesis was seen only for men in relation to HH income. These findings were robust in multiple sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the indirect selection hypothesis may be the most important in explaining social inequality in health in adulthood, indicating that the well-known cross-sectional correlations between health and SEP in adulthood seem not to be driven by a causal relationship, but instead by dynamics and influences in place before the respondents turn 30 years old that affect both their health and SEP onwards. The conclusion is limited in that we do not consider the effect of specific diseases and causal relationships in adulthood may be

  2. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee; Research Career... applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...

  3. The Danish National Health Service Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John Sahl; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Krasnik, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: To describe the Danish National Health Service Register in relation to research. Content: The register contains data collected for administrative and scientific purposes from health contractors in primary health care. It includes information about citizens, providers......, and health services but minimal clinical information. Validity and coverage: The register covers everyone living in Denmark and data is available from 1990. No validity studies have been reported. Because the data is connected to reimbursement the coverage is assumed to be good. CONCLUSION: The strengths...

  4. Public versus private health care in a national health service

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt Richard; Sørgard, Lars

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the interplay between public and private health care in a National Health Service. We consider a two-stage game, where at stage one a Health Authority sets the public sector wage and a subsidy to (or tax on) private provision. At stage two the physicians decide how much to work in the public and the private sector. We characterise different equilibria depending on whether physicians coordinate labour supply or not, the physicians’ job preferences, and t...

  5. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  6. Analysis of four studies in a comparative framework reveals: health linkage consent rates on British cohort studies higher than on UK household panel surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Gundi; Burton, Jonathan

    2014-11-27

    A number of cohort studies and longitudinal household panel studies in Great Britain have asked for consent to link survey data to administrative health data. We explore commonalities and differences in the process of collecting consent, achieved consent rates and biases in consent with respect to socio-demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics. We hypothesise that British cohort studies which are rooted within the health sciences achieve higher consent rates than the UK household longitudinal studies which are rooted within the social sciences. By contrast, the lack of a specific health focus in household panel studies means there may be less selectivity in consent, in particular, with respect to health characteristics. Survey designs and protocols for collecting informed consent to health record linkage on two British cohort studies and two UK household panel studies are systematically compared. Multivariate statistical analysis is then performed on information from one cohort and two household panel studies that share a great deal of the data linkage protocol but vary according to study branding, survey design and study population. We find that consent is higher in the British cohort studies than in the UK household panel studies, and is higher the more health-focused the study is. There are no systematic patterns of consent bias across the studies and where effects exist within a study or study type they tend to be small. Minority ethnic groups will be underrepresented in record linkage studies on the basis of all three studies. Systematic analysis of three studies in a comparative framework suggests that the factors associated with consent are idiosyncratic to the study. Analysis of linked health data is needed to establish whether selectivity in consent means the resulting research databases suffer from any biases that ought to be considered.

  7. Who Killed the English National Health Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Powell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The death of the English National Health Service (NHS has been pronounced many times over the years, but the time and cause of death and the murder weapon remains to be fully established. This article reviews some of these claims, and asks for clearer criteria and evidence to be presented.

  8. ANNOTATION: Implementation of the National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Decree establishing the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was promulgated in 1999, however, actual implementation of the NHIS commenced in 2002. The goal of the NHIS is to provide easy access to qualitative healthcare services at an affordable price to all Nigerians. The NHIS operates on the principles of ...

  9. Building National eHealth Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilakopoulou, Polyxeni; Grisot, Miria; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the introduction of public e-health platforms at the national level in three Scandinavian countries. Specifically, we investigate these initaitives with a focus on understanding how inclusiveness was pursued in relation to the political orientation of platform developmen...

  10. Population and Reproductive Health in National Adaptation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews 44 National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) to assess the NAPA process and identify the range of interventions included in countries' priority adaptation actions and highlight how population issues and reproductive health/family planning (RH/FP) are addressed as part of the adaptation ...

  11. Knowledge and Attitude Towards National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was self-developed and structured questionnaire of Knowledge towards National Health Insurance Scheme Questionnaire (KNHISQ) designed in four-point Likert-scale format. Descriptive statistics of frequency count and ...

  12. The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Gary; Blazevich, Anthony J; Boreham, Colin; Cooper, Ashley R; Crank, Helen; Ekelund, Ulf; Fox, Kenneth R; Gately, Paul; Giles-Corti, Billie; Gill, Jason M R; Hamer, Mark; McDermott, Ian; Murphy, Marie; Mutrie, Nanette; Reilly, John J; Saxton, John M; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health is constantly evolving. Therefore, the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences convened a panel of experts to review the literature and produce guidelines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical Activity for Health, A is for All healthy adults, B is for Beginners, and C is for Conditioned individuals. All healthy adults aged 18-65 years should aim to take part in at least 150 min of moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, or at least 75 min of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or equivalent combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Moderate-intensity activities are those in which heart rate and breathing are raised, but it is possible to speak comfortably. Vigorous-intensity activities are those in which heart rate is higher, breathing is heavier, and conversation is harder. Aerobic activities should be undertaken in bouts of at least 10 min and, ideally, should be performed on five or more days a week. All healthy adults should also perform muscle-strengthening activities on two or more days a week. Weight training, circuit classes, yoga, and other muscle-strengthening activities offer additional health benefits and may help older adults to maintain physical independence. Beginners should work steadily towards meeting the physical activity levels recommended for all healthy adults. Even small increases in activity will bring some health benefits in the early stages and it is important to set achievable goals that provide success, build confidence, and increase motivation. For example, a beginner might be asked to walk an extra 10 min every other day for several weeks to slowly reach the recommended levels of activity for all healthy adults. It is also critical that beginners find activities they enjoy and gain support in becoming more active from family and friends. Conditioned individuals who have met the physical

  13. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  14. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  15. Health or Art? The Case for Dance in the Curriculum of British State Schools 1909-1919

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Dance, as an art form, has traditionally been associated with the programmes of study for physical education in British schools during the twenty-first century. This discussion examines its dual role--as a means of healthy exercise and artistic expression within the specific framework of the Liberal Reforms. It reveals the impact of a systematic…

  16. Secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in older British men: extent of inequalities before and after implementation of the National Service Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sheena E; Morris, Richard W; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy T; Thomas, Mary C; Whincup, Peter H

    2005-12-01

    Deficiencies in implementation of secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been identified. We explored the extent of medication use for secondary prevention of CHD since the introduction of the National Service Framework (NSF) for CHD and the influence of patient age, social class, region and time since diagnosis in older British men. Prospective study in 24 British towns using patient information on medication use in 1998-2000 and 2003. Subjects were men with medically recorded diagnosis of myocardial infarction or angina, aged 62-85 years in 2003. Prevalence of medication use (aspirin, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers) in 1998-2000 and 2003 was ascertained. Prevalence of use of all drugs increased in 2003 and was markedly higher in patients with a history of myocardial infarction than angina. Older age was related to lower prevalence of drug use, particularly statins. In 2000, older subjects (74-85 years) were 60% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 41-72 per cent] less likely to receive statins compared with younger subjects (62-73 years); this pattern changed very little between 2000 and 2003. Although social class appeared to have little relation to drug use, the prevalence of use of all medications decreased with increasing time since diagnosis. Although the uptake of medications for secondary prevention in CHD patients increased since the NSF in 2000, marked age inequalities in statin use were present both in 1998-2000 and 2003. Further action is needed to reduce these inequalities, because older patients are at particularly high risk of recurrent and fatal CHD.

  17. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rafighi, E; Poduval, S; Legido-Quigley, H; Howard, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth in...

  18. National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is an academic center tasked with leading federal, and coordinating national, efforts to develop...

  19. [Towards a National Universal Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Many changes have been done to set up a National Universal Health System, in response to the challenge that warranties efficiently and with quality the right of protecting health of more than 117 million people in Mexico, in spite of its social or working status. Several objectives have been taken to get this achievement: 1. Reinforcement of the Secretaria de Salud as health authority. 2. A standard attention model to join the different subsystems. 3. Functional and efficient integration of institutions 4. Improvement of the available resources 5. Reinforcement of clearness and outstanding bills 6. Prompt and personalized attention no matters working status. Thus here we present the strategies and policies taken to achieve this challenge.

  20. Leisure time physical activity and subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife Finnish, British and Japanese employees: a follow-up study in three occupational cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Jouni; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Tatsuse, Takashi; Yamada, Masaaki; Sekine, Michikazu; Lallukka, Tea

    2016-01-06

    The aim of this study was to examine whether leisure time physical activity contributes to subsequent physical and mental health functioning among midlife employees. The associations were tested in three occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan. Cohort study. Finland, Britain and Japan. Prospective employee cohorts from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (2000-2002 and 2007, n=5958), British Whitehall II study (1997-1999 and 2003-2004, n=4142) and Japanese Civil Servants Study (1998-1999 and 2003, n=1768) were used. Leisure time physical activity was classified into three groups: inactive, moderately active and vigorously active. Mean scores of physical and mental health functioning (SF-36) at follow-up were examined. Physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts, however, with varying magnitude and some gender differences. Differences were the clearest among Finnish women (inactive: 46.0, vigorously active: 49.5) and men (inactive: 47.8, active vigorous: 51.1) and British women (inactive: 47.3, active vigorous: 50.4). In mental health functioning, the differences were generally smaller and not that clearly related to the intensity of physical activity. Emerging differences in health functioning were relatively small. Vigorous physical activity was associated with better subsequent physical health functioning in all three cohorts with varying magnitude. For mental health functioning, the intensity of physical activity was less important. Promoting leisure time physical activity may prove useful for the maintenance of health functioning among midlife employees. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. [Private charity - public health service. Comparison between British and German birthing centers of the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumbohm, Jürgen

    In the eighteenth century, lying-in hospitals were founded in many European towns and cities. The way in which these institutions were financed differed greatly across Europe. In the UK, most of them were "charities" and relied on donations from wealthy benefactors, whereas on the continent they were usually funded by "public" money, be it from the state or local communities. The paper focuses on British charities and German hospitals, and explores the corollaries of the mode of financing. In the eighteenth century, a market emerged in Britain where numerous charities with different aims competed for donations from the well-to-do. For attracting benefactors, a charity had to convince potential donors that its clientele and purpose were particularly deserving, and that it used the money donated in a cost-efficient way. In Germany, it was mainly bureaucrats and governments who had to be persuaded, but public opinion did matter as well. In British lying-in charities, the main donors acted as governors, and benefactors could recommend persons for being admitted. In publicly funded German hospitals, the medical directors had much more power. In the competitive market, in which British charities acted, out-patient dispensaries (policlinics) became increasingly important, since they could argue that they were more cost-efficient and had lower mortality. In Germany, however, hospitals remained the dominant type of assistance in this field, in spite of the criticism they received. The different sources of finance appear to have been one of the reasons for this divergence. Teaching was the main purpose of most German lying-in hospitals. They either trained medical students or midwife apprentices or both. Since the patients served as teaching objects, all women were welcomed, and in fact most patients were single mothers. By contrast, most of the British institutions admitted only married women, because donors did not wish to encourage immorality. The charities staged the

  2. Le Regard de Cartier-Bresson sur les Anglais The British Nation in Henri Cartier-Bresson’s Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Cloarec

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 Henri Cartier-Bresson was sent to London to cover George VI’s coronation. The ceremony occurred at a moment of intense national exaltation after a decade of economic hardship and the constitutional crisis caused by Edward VIII’s decision to marry Mrs Simpson. However the photographer is not so much interested in the official images of the historical event as he is in its effects on the people who attend. Cartier-Bresson adopts a double decentering which gives the picture a fictional independence and invests it with benign mockery. Henri Cartier-Bresson was later to capture other important historical events such as George VI’s funeral in 1952 and Winston Churchill’s funeral in 1965. Both events testify to a unified nation which is otherwise shown to be profoundly marked by rigid social conventions. In particular, the artist seems fascinated by the formal compositions that emerge from the “social dance” of the upper class, but he also dramatises the accidental meeting of different social classes as being worlds completely apart.

  3. 75 FR 42105 - Memorandum of Understanding: Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... and the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, National... Institutes of Health, Chemical Genomics Center; and the Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research... Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Toxicology...

  4. National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womble, R.

    2010-04-02

    Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  9. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  10. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  11. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  12. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  20. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  1. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C

    2015-02-01

    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 61611 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Social, Behavioral, Health Services, and Policy Research on Minority... Minority Health and Health ] Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite 800... Institute on Minority Health, and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd...

  3. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with use of mental health services over five decades:a longitudinal nationally representative cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, S.; Takizawa, R.; Brimblecombe, N.; King, D.; Knapp, M.; Maughan, B.; Arseneault, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research supports robust associations between childhood bullying victimization and mental health problems in childhood/adolescence and emerging evidence shows that the impact can persist into adulthood. We examined the impact of bullying victimization on mental health service use from childhood to midlife. Method: We performed secondary analysis using the National Child Development Study, the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study. We conducted analyses on 9242 participants with complete...

  4. Childhood bullying victimisation is associated with use of mental health services over 5 decades: A Longitudinal nationally-representative cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; Takizawa, Ryu; Brimblecombe, Nicola; King, Derek; Knapp, Martin; Maughan, Barbara; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research supports robust associations between childhood bullying victimisation and mental health problems in childhood/adolescence and emerging evidence shows the impact can persist into adulthood. We examined the impact of bullying victimisation on mental health service use from childhood to midlife.Methods: We performed secondary analysis using the National Child Development Study, the 1958 British Birth Cohort study. We conducted analyses on 9,242 participants with complete dat...

  5. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  6. The Influence of Religious Coping and Religious Social Support on Health Behaviour, Health Status and Health Attitudes in a British Christian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Robinson, Sarita; Sumra, Altaf; Tatsi, Erini; Gire, Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has established a relationship between religion and health. However, the specific aspects of religion which may influence health are not fully understood. The present study investigates the effect of religious social support and religious coping on health behaviours, health status and attitudes to health whilst controlling for age and non-religious social support. The results indicate religious coping and religious social support positively impact on self-reported current health status, depression, health outlook and resistance susceptibility. However, negative religious coping was predictive of increased alcohol consumption. Overall congregational support and negative religious coping had the greatest impact on health.

  7. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  8. Can marital selection explain the differences in health between married and divorced people? From a longitudinal study of a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Y B

    1998-03-01

    In view of the rising divorce rates, the impact of divorce on health has an increasing importance in public health. The differentials in health between the married and the divorced may be explained by 'marital selection' and 'marital protection'. Using longitudinal data from a study of the 1958 British birth cohort, factors that select people into divorce were identified from the areas of socio-economic status, health, and attractiveness, which included physical attractiveness, health-related behaviour and temperament. Evidence for both positive and adverse selection is found. The different sets of selection factors for females and males appear to be in line with gender role expectations. The health differentials between married and divorced men were weak and can be explained away by the selection factors. Having controlled for the selection effects, there were still significant associations between divorce and physical and psychological health in women. Though these unexplained differentials cannot be definitely interpreted as the consequences of marital dissolution, this interpretation remains plausible.

  9. Politics and partnerships: challenges and rewards of partnerships in workplace health research in the healthcare sector of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Tomlin, Katrina; Sidebottom, Claire; Rideout, Karen; De Boer, Henrietre

    2004-01-01

    In British Columbia (BC), Canada, a partnership of researchers, healthcare employers, and healthcare unions reduced high injury rates through examining determinants of healthy workplaces and designing, implementing, and evaluating interventions. Over 51 million dollars (Canadian) was saved from the BC healthcare budget over two years, largely attributable to the collaborative effort. Challenges and rewards of the process were determined from interviews and workshops with researchers and community stakeholders, and by obtaining direct input to this report. Challenges included maintaining communication and trust between partners, preserving partnerships during restructuring and labor disputes, and maintaining involvement and support of front-line workers and senior management. As all partners recognized the importance of the research agenda, the stakeholders remained committed to working through the challenges, and have consequently achieved considerable success.

  10. Using the Web to Collect Data on Sensitive Behaviours: A Study Looking at Mode Effects on the British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Burkill

    Full Text Available Interviewer-administered surveys are an important method of collecting population-level epidemiological data, but suffer from declining response rates and increasing costs. Web surveys offer more rapid data collection and lower costs. There are concerns, however, about data quality from web surveys. Previous research has largely focused on selection biases, and few have explored measurement differences. This paper aims to assess the extent to which mode affects the responses given by the same respondents at two points in time, providing information on potential measurement error if web surveys are used in the future.527 participants from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, which uses computer assisted personal interview (CAPI and self-interview (CASI modes, subsequently responded to identically-worded questions in a web survey. McNemar tests assessed whether within-person differences in responses were at random or indicated a mode effect, i.e. higher reporting of more sensitive responses in one mode. An analysis of pooled responses by generalized estimating equations addressed the impact of gender and question type on change.Only 10% of responses changed between surveys. However mode effects were found for about a third of variables, with higher reporting of sensitive responses more commonly found on the web compared with Natsal-3.The web appears a promising mode for surveys of sensitive behaviours, most likely as part of a mixed-mode design. Our findings suggest that mode effects may vary by question type and content, and by the particular mix of modes used. Mixed-mode surveys need careful development to understand mode effects and how to account for them.

  11. A Method for Estimating the Extent of Regional Food Self-Sufficiency and Dietary Ill Health in the Province of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck Ostry

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We outline in this paper a suite of methods, and illustrate their use, to empirically determine food self-sufficiency at a relatively small (Local Health Areas level of geography. Further we have, after identifying regions of lowest food self-sufficiency in British Columbia (BC superimposed these on regions whose populations have relatively poor dietary ill health. Approximately one third of Local Health Areas in BC have both poor local food self-sufficiency and populations suffering from poor dietary health. These are located mainly (but not entirely in poor under-developed rural regions of the province regions which require attention from health and food planners to improve local food security. Finally, we have demonstrated a methodological way forward to empirically determine regions in the province of BC most at risk for food insecurity. This information should be of interest to health and food planners within the province. These methods may also be useful for researchers and planners in other jurisdictions.

  12. 77 FR 70444 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Health Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Health Information... Electronic Health Records (EHRs) AGENCY: Health Information Technology (HIT) Policy Committee, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS...

  13. Progress towards the United Nations 90-90-90 and 95-95-95 targets: the experience in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Viviane D; St-Jean, Martin; Rozada, Ignacio; Shoveller, Jean A; Nosyk, Bohdan; Hogg, Robert S; Sereda, Paul; Barrios, Rolando; Montaner, Julio S G

    2017-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up is central to the global strategy to control the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To accelerate efforts towards ending the AIDS epidemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released the 90-90-90 and 95-95-95 targets, which have recently been approved by the United Nations (UN). This study characterizes the province of British Columbia (BC)'s progress towards achieving the UN targets, predicts a trajectory up to 2030 according to each of the individual steps (i.e. %Diagnosed, %On ART and %Virologically Suppressed), and identifies the population sub-groups at higher risk of not achieving these targets. The analyses were based on linked individual-level datasets of people living with HIV (PLWH) in BC, aged ≥18 months, from 2000 to 2013. Using past trends in HIV prevalence and of each individual UN targets, we forecasted these outcomes until 2030 via generalized additive models. We ran a second set of analyses to assess the associations between individual demographic and behavioural factors and each of the individual steps of the UN targets. Lastly, we performed sensitivity analyses to account for uncertainty associated with prevalence estimates and suppression definitions. Among the estimated 10666 PLWH in BC in 2013, 82% were diagnosed, 76% of those diagnosed were on ART and 83% of those on ART were virologically suppressed. We identified that females, PLWH aged <30 years and those with unknown risk or who self-identify as having a history of injection drug use were the population subgroups that experienced the most challenge in engaging on ART and achieving viral suppression. Our model projections suggest that BC will achieve 90%-91%-90% and 97%-99%-97% by 2020 and 2030 respectively. As we approach 2020, BC is rapidly moving towards achieving the UN targets. However, region-specific challenges persist. Identification of remaining regional challenges will be essential to achieving the proposed UN targets and therefore

  14. CGH observes National Women’s Health Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    This week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is observing the 17th annual National Women’s Health Week. The goal of the National Women's Health Week is to empower women to make their health a priority. In celebration, the NCI Center for Global Health held a seminar on the Knowledge Summaries for Comprehensive Breast Cancer Control: Pathways for Advanced Cancer Planning.

  15. Medical Tourism and the Libyan National Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Taguri A

    2007-01-01

    resemble guestrooms in four-star hotels [2].Interventions aimed at medical tourism include cancer treatment, neurosurgery, organ transplantation, aesthetic treatment, dental treatments, eye surgery, kidney dialysis, « preventive health screening» and hip resurfacing [2]. Other opportunities are constantly being exploited. Examples include different services as aphaeresis tourism in India [4] and climatotherapy in Egypt [5].Medical tourism is a rapidly growing industry in many countries. India is becoming a «global health destination». Encouraged by the government, India is promoting the «high-tech healing» of its private healthcare sector as a tourist attraction [1,2]. More than 100 000 foreigners visited India for medical treatment in the year 2005. India estimates that medical tourism could bring as much as $2.2 billion per year by 2012. Besides India, popular international medical travel destinations include Singapore and Thailand. About 374, 000 visitors came to Singapore purely to seek healthcare in 2005, half of them from the Middle East [2]. South Africa promotes an attractive «medical safari» catchphrase: Come to see African wildlife and get a facelift in the same trip. Other countries include Tunisia which is attracting Italians, British and French besides the so- called traditional visitors from Libya and Algeria [6]. The list of countries currently promoting medical tourism include many others such as Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Cuba, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Jordan, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia and the Philippines [2,3]. Some hospitals in certain countries are gaining the confidence of their customers by obtaining hospital accreditation from international bodies in the United States [2]. Dubai, already known for its festival and other luxury attractions, is planning to open the Dubai Healthcare City by 2010. This is expected to be the largest international medical centre between Europe and Southeast Asia and it is hoped to become an internationally

  16. Influence of maternal and paternal IQ on offspring health and health behaviours: evidence for some trans-generational associations using the 1958 British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, E; Gale, C R; Deary, I J; Kivimaki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Batty, G D

    2013-05-01

    Individuals scoring poorly on tests of intelligence (IQ) have been reported as having increased risk of morbidity, premature mortality, and risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, poor diet, alcohol and cigarette consumption. Very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the health and health behaviours of their offspring. We explored associations of maternal and paternal IQ scores with offspring television viewing, injuries, hospitalisations, long standing illness, height and BMI at ages 4 to 18 using data from the National Child Development Study (1958 birth cohort). Data were available for 1446 mother-offspring and 822 father-offspring pairs. After adjusting for potential confounding/mediating factors, the children of higher IQ parents were less likely to watch TV (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for watching 3+ vs. less than 3hours per week associated with a standard deviation increase in maternal or paternal IQ: 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) or 0.78 (0.64, 0.95) respectively) and less likely to have one or more injuries requiring hospitalisation (0.77 (0.66, 0.90) or 0.72 (0.56, 0.91) respectively for maternal or paternal IQ). Children whose parents have low IQ scores may have poorer selected health and health behaviours. Health education might usefully be targeted at these families. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. General practitioners and national health insurance results of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.

  18. Awareness and Coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prepayment scheme for health through the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was commenced in Nigeria about ten years ago. Nigeria operates a federal system of government. Sub- national levels possess a high degree of autonomy in a number of sectors including health. It is important to assess the level of ...

  19. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  20. 76 FR 57615 - National Health Information Technology Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... September 15, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8711--National Health Information Technology Week... September 12, 2011 National Health Information Technology Week, 2011 By the President of the United States... of hospitals, private practices, and information specialists as they modernize our health information...

  1. The National Health Service reforms as an electoral issue in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, S

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of National Health Service (NHS) reforms left the Conservative Government with a major electoral problem. As Britain approached the 1992 general election, opinion polls revealed a popular perception that the Conservatives were planning to privatise the NHS. This perception was both fuelled and acted upon by the Labour Opposition which, at its 1991 annual conference, signalled its intention to make the health service a major item on the electoral agenda. In this article several issues associated with popular perceptions of the health reforms are explored including increased levels of copayment, the language of commerce, entrepreneurial activities within the NHS, and 'opting out'. The ways in which the Labour Party sought to place health on the electoral agenda are examined, together with the response of the government. Labour sought to portray the reforms as creeping privatisation while the Conservatives dismissed this as a crude propaganda ploy and have stressed their commitment to a more effective NHS. It is argued that the British experience exemplifies the perennial problems for any government seeking to introduce substantive changes to a national health system in a partisan political environment: the need to explain changes and legitimize them, and the danger that reforms will be politicized by an opposition eager for issues with immediate popular impact.

  2. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street Prince ...

  3. [The National Health Agency: the challenge of a unified national program rejecting technocratic and centralized approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrèges, Cécile; Lopez, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The creation of Regional Health Agencies precipitated the need for an overhaul of national health policy management. The National Steering Committee created as part of the HPST law is only a step in the right direction. We need to go beyond the coordination of national policy-makers in order to develop and implement an effective health policy. The creation of a National Health Agency (ANS) is generally considered to be the best way to develop a national steering mechanism capable of developing and implementing a global health policy. The purpose of this new body is not to act as a "super health agency" encompassing all existing health agencies. Rather, the ANS should aim to be an instrument of regulation acting on health care organization and funding and the quality and effectiveness of health care practices. In this sense, its role is to bring together state services and National health insurance services. However, there are two different conceptions of the agency's role ? as an autonomous technical entity based on the current model of the CNAMTS or as a body under the authority of the Ministry of Health. In both cases, the ANS may serve to increase the emphasis on technocratic and centralized approaches to health management. An intermediate solution between the ANS and the current status quo would involve increasing the authority of the Secretary-General of the Social Ministries over the central bodies of the Ministry of Health, the National health insurance services and the National Solidarity Fund for Autonomy. As part of this mission, the Secretary-General would oversee a specific body with national jurisdiction. While integrating a more coherent national policy as well as maintaining the decision-making bodies of the current administrative system, this intermediate solution would help to avoid a radical restructuring of existing national institutions at a time when current challenges in the area of population health require immediate attention.

  4. Cross-sectional survey of daily junk food consumption, irregular eating, mental and physical health and parenting style of British secondary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, J; Ford, T; Jodrell, D

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has established that poor diets and eating patterns are associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. This study explored the relationships between two specific eating behaviours (daily junk food consumption and irregular eating) and self-reported physical and mental health of secondary school children, and their association with perceived parenting and child health. 10 645 participants aged between 12 and 16 completed measures of junk food consumption, irregular eating, parental style, and mental and physical health through the use of an online survey implemented within 30 schools in a large British city. 2.9% of the sample reported never eating regularly and while 17.2% reported daily consumption of junk food. Young people who reported eating irregularly and consuming junk food daily were at a significantly greater risk of poorer mental (OR 5.41, 95% confidence interval 4.03-7.25 and 2.75, 95% confidence interval 1.99-3.78) and physical health (OR 4.56, 95% confidence interval 3.56-5.85 and 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.63-2.47). Authoritative parenting was associated with healthier eating behaviours, and better mental and physical health in comparison to other parenting styles. A worrying proportion of secondary school children report unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly daily consumption of junk food, which may be associated with poorer mental and physical health. Parenting style may influence dietary habits. Interventions to improve diet may be more beneficial if also they address parenting strategies and issues related to mental and physical health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 78 FR 18359 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...

  6. 78 FR 59944 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  7. 77 FR 6569 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  8. 78 FR 64221 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  9. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Marine...

  10. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research... Division. Organizing Institute: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Dates and Times: June...

  11. 76 FR 4925 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... the meeting will be provided. In Person: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Keystone..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of ] Environmental Health...

  12. 76 FR 59147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  13. 77 FR 60448 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including...:50 a.m. Agenda: Scientific Presentations Place: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  14. 75 FR 36427 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National... statements. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, Health...

  15. 78 FR 42967 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Program Nos. 93.233, National Center for Sleep Disorders Research; 93.837, Heart and Vascular Diseases Research; 93.838, Lung Diseases Research; 93.839, Blood Diseases and Resources Research, National...

  16. Building the capacity of health authorities to influence land use and transportation planning: Lessons learned from the Healthy Canada by Design CLASP Project in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Alice; Perrotta, Kim; Evans, Heather; Kishchuk, Natalie A; Gram, Claire; Stanwick, Richard S; Swinkels, Helena M

    2014-08-06

    The main objective of the Healthy Canada by Design CLASP Initiative in British Columbia (BC) was to develop, implement and evaluate a capacity-building project for health authorities. The desired outcomes of the project were as follows: 1) increased capacity of the participating health authorities to productively engage in land use and transportation planning processes; 2) new and sustained relationships or collaborations among the participating health authorities and among health authorities, local governments and other built environment stakeholders; and 3) indication of health authority influence and/or application of health evidence and tools in land use and transportation plans and policies. This project was designed to enhance the capacity of three regional health authorities, namely Fraser Health, Island Health and Vancouver Coastal Health, and their staff. These were considered the project's participants. The BC regions served by the three health authorities cover the urban, suburban and rural spectrum across relatively large and diverse geographic areas. The populations have broad ranges in socio-economic status, demographic profiles and cultural and political backgrounds. The Initiative provided the three health authorities with a consultant who had several years of experience working on land use and transportation planning. The consultant conducted situational assessments to understand the baseline knowledge and skill gaps, assets and objectives for built environment work for each of the participating health authorities. On the basis of this information, the consultant developed customized capacity-building work plans for each of the health authorities and assisted them with implementation. Capacity-building activities were as follows: researching health and built environment strategies, policies and evidence; transferring health evidence and promising policies and practices from other jurisdictions to local planning contexts; providing training and

  17. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  18. Using the National Provider Identifier for Health Care...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The establishment in recent years of a National Provider Identifier (NPI) offers a new method for counting and categorizing physicians and other health care...

  19. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  20. Public perceptions on national health insurance : moving towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public perceptions on national health insurance : moving towards universal health coverage in South Africa. Olive Shisana, Thomas Rehle, Julia Louw, Nompumelelo Zungu-Dirwayi, Pelisa Dana, Laetitia Rispel ...

  1. Public perceptions on national health insurance: Moving towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public perceptions on national health insurance: Moving towards universal health coverage in South Africa. Olive Shisana, Thomas Rehle, Julia Louw, Nompumelelo Zungu-Dirwayi, Pelisa Dana, Laetitia Rispel ...

  2. Earthquakes in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This pamphlet provides information about the causes of earthquakes, where earthquakes occur, British Columbia plate techtonics, earthquake patterns, earthquake intensity, geology and earthquake impact...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from WECOMA in the Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary and others from 2007-05-11 to 2007-06-14 (NODC Accession 0083685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0083685 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from WECOMA in the Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British...

  4. Improving Survival of Patients With Hodgkin Lymphoma Over 4 Decades: Experience of the British National Lymphoma Investigation (BNLI) With 6834 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Amy; Chadwick, Nick; Hancock, Barry

    2017-02-01

    The management of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has changed markedly over the last 50 years. This is due to the expanding understanding about the biology of the disease, the development of increasingly efficacious multimodal treatment, and the recognition of how to reduce late effects. The British National Lymphoma Investigation (BNLI) was formed in the 1970s to coordinate UK research in the diagnosis and treatment of lymphoma. We describe the improvement in trial patient survival over 4 decades. This analysis is of data on 6834 patients with a de novo diagnosis of HL registered onto studies with BNLI oversight from January 1, 1970, to December 31, 2009. Patients were subdivided in 4 groups according to their decade of registration; 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Because of the lengthy data collection period, there is a difference in duration of follow-up between decade groups, with median follow-up in the 1970s group of 28.2 years, 18.0 years in the 1980s group, 9.4 years in the 1990s group, and 5.4 years in the 2000s group. Comparison between data in all 4 groups is not possible beyond 13.4 years (maximum duration of follow-up in the 2000s group), and so a cutoff has been applied at 14 years. Data on overall survival, cause of death, primary treatment modality, and incidence of secondary malignancy were collected. Clear and statistically significant improvements in survival curves between the decades were present, with 10-year overall survival increasing from 62.4% in the 1970s to 89.6% in the 2000s. There was a suggestion that second malignancy and cardiac-related deaths have been reducing over time, but longer follow-up is needed for the later decades to confirm this trend. Results support existing registry data demonstrating that survival for HL has improved over the 4 decades analyzed. This data set is robust and validated, and it adds valuable understanding to the reasons behind the survival curves, which are a balance between efficacious therapies and decreased

  5. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  6. 76 FR 38401 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... facilities and professionals, public health, environmental, social and cognitive science professional... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will...

  7. Influence of biomedical sciences on National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health insurance becomes a viable alternative for financing health care amidst the high cost of health care. This study, conducted in 1997, uses a valuation method to assess the willingness of individuals from the working sector in Accra, Ghana, to join and pay premium for a proposed National Health Insurance Scheme ...

  8. Exploring the barriers to implementing National Health Insurance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the challenges of implementing the proposed National Health Insurance for South Africa (SA), based on the six building blocks of the World Health Organization Health System Framework. In the context of the current SA health system, leadership, finance, workforce, technologies, information and service ...

  9. The British Sign Language versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties.

  10. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties. PMID:23197315

  11. Are central hospitals ready for National Health Insurance? ICD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. South Africa (SA)'s planned National Health Insurance reforms require the use of International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for hospitals to purchase services from the proposed National Health Authority. However, compliance with coding at public hospitals in the Western Cape Province ...

  12. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  13. The National Survey of Children's Health: a new data resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Peter; Kogan, Michael D; Heppel, David; Blumberg, Stephen J; Cynamon, Marcie L; Newacheck, Paul W

    2004-09-01

    Federal and state maternal and child health programs are responsible for promoting and improving the health and well-being of children. To support achievement of this goal, the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) in partnership with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a new survey that will provide uniform national and state data on the health and well-being of children, as well as the characteristics of their families and neighborhoods. The National Survey of Children's Health was designed to produce reliable and representative state- and national-level estimates for Healthy People 2010 national prevention objectives, for each state's Title V needs assessment, and for Title V program planning and evaluation. In addition, it will provide a new data resource for researchers, advocacy groups, and other interested parties. It is anticipated that this survey will be repeated periodically, making trend analysis possible. This survey was conducted using the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) mechanism, which shares the random-digit-dial sampling frame of the National Immunization Survey (sponsored by the National Immunization Program and NCHS). Using the SLAITS platform, interviews on approximately 2000 children were conducted in each state and the District of Columbia. The parent or guardian most knowledgeable about the child completed a battery of questions on health and development, health insurance coverage, access to care, utilization of health care services, presence of a medical home, family functioning, parental health, and neighborhood characteristics. Data collection began in January 2003 and continued through April 2004. Summary reports and electronic data files will be available to the public by early 2005. This is the second state and national survey jointly completed by MCHB and NCHS. It is designed to complement the 2001 National Survey of Children

  14. Assessing the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    This report assesses the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. This study: (1) Reviewed national strategies for electronic health records in Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand, through written materials available before January 2006. (2) Identified the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research through interviews with 96 experts in the U.S., Australia, Canada, England, and New Zealand. (3) Delineated fundamental issues that must be confronted to maximize the contribution of national strategies for electronic health records to population health monitoring and research. National strategies for electronic health records reflect the political, healthcare, and market systems of individual countries. National strategies also reflect technical decisions and political judgments. National strategies are evolving, and passing through stages of conceptualization, design, pilot testing, and implementation. Only England has moved to implementation. Population health monitoring and research are secondary to the primary uses of clinical care and management in all national strategies for electronic health records. Only England has conceptualized, designed, and is implementing the use of electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. Canada's strategy includes communicable disease surveillance, but not broader population health monitoring for developing health statistics. This study identifies definitional, numerator, denominator, and overarching issues that must be evaluated in assessing the potential of national strategies for electronic health records for population health monitoring and research. It delineates success factors that increase the potential for those national strategies to contribute to population health monitoring and research. Finally, this study assesses barriers that must be overcome if

  15. Women’s Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuetao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV-infected women are disproportionately burdened by gynaecological complications, psychological disorders, and certain sexually transmitted infections that may not be adequately addressed by HIV-specific care. We estimate the prevalence and covariates of women’s health care (WHC utilization among harder-to-reach, treatment-experienced HIV-infected women in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods. We used survey data from 231 HIV-infected, treatment-experienced women enrolled in the Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA study, which recruited harder-to-reach populations, including aboriginal people and individuals using injection drugs. Independent covariates of interest included sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioural, individual health status, structural factors, and HIV clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to generate adjusted estimates of associations between use of WHC and covariates of interest. Results. Overall, 77% of women reported regularly utilizing WHC. WHC utilization varied significantly by region of residence (P value <0.01. In addition, women with lower annual income (AOR (95% CI = 0.14 (0.04–0.54, who used illicit drugs (AOR (95% CI = 0.42 (0.19–0.92 and who had lower provider trust (AOR (95% CI = 0.97 (0.95–0.99, were significantly less likely to report using WHC. Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women’s holistic health.

  16. Local enactments of national health promotion policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    Governments of welfare states are firmly committed to public health, resulting in a substantial number of public health policies. Given the multi-level structure of most welfare systems, the influence of a public health policy is related to its ability to spread geographically and move across...

  17. 75 FR 76986 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Health Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...This document is a request for comments regarding the recently released PCAST report and its implications for the nation's health information technology (HIT) agenda and ONC's implementation of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH Act).

  18. Mood Instability Is a Precursor of Relationship and Marital Difficulties: Results from Prospective Data from the British Health and Lifestyle Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Cecil Bowen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The DSM system implies that affective instability is caused by reactivity to interpersonal events. We used the British Health and Lifestyle Survey that surveyed community residents in 1984 and again in 1991 to study competing hypotheses: that mood instability (MI leads to interpersonal difficulties or vice versa. We analyzed data from 5,352 persons who participated in both waves of the survey. Factor analysis of the Eysenck Personality Inventory neuroticism scale was used to derive a 4-item scale for MI. We used depression measures that were previously derived by factor analyzing the General Health Questionnaire. We tested the competing hypotheses by regressing variables at follow-up against baseline variables. The results showed that MI in 1984 clearly predicted the development of interpersonal problems in 1991. After adjusting for depression, depression becomes the main predictor of spousal difficulties, but MI remains a predictor of interpersonal difficulties with family and friends. Attempts to investigate the reverse hypothesis were ambiguous. The clinical implication is that when MI and interpersonal problems are reported, the MI should be treated first, or at least concurrently.

  19. 76 FR 29769 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National... comment and questions. For Further Information Contact: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and...

  20. 78 FR 39738 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National... retention resources, and partnerships. The public can join the meeting via audio conference call on the date... INFORMATION CONTACT: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, Health Resources and Services...

  1. 77 FR 14530 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the National... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; New Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Environmental Science Formative Research Methodology Studies...

  2. Income inequities in end-of-life health care spending in British Columbia, Canada: A cross-sectional analysis, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Gillian E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to measure the income-related inequalities and inequities - the inequalities that remain after accounting for differences in health need - in expenditure on fully publicly covered (hospital and ambulatory and partially publicly covered (prescription drugs services for those in their last year of life in the province of British Columbia (B.C., Canada. We focused on a decedent population for three reasons: to minimize unmeasured need differences among our cohort and therefore isolate income effects; to explore inequities for a high-spending window of health care use; and, because previous studies have found conflicting relationships between income and decedent health care spending, to further quantify this relationship. Methods We used linked administrative databases to describe spending on health services by income for all 58,820 deaths of B.C. residents 65 and older from 2004 to 2006. Regression analyses examined the association between income and health care spending, adjusting for age, sex, health status, cause of death, and other relevant factors. We then used concentration indexes to measure both inequalities and inequities separately for three key types of services. Analyses were also run separately for men and women. Results On average, per capita expenditure on acute health care in the last year of life was $20,705 (CDN2006. In need-adjusted regression analyses, we found decedents in the highest income quintile had 11% lower hospital expenditures, 15% higher specialist expenditures and 23% higher prescription drug expenditures than decedents in the lowest income quintile. Concentration index analysis suggested that spending for all types of care was concentrated among those with higher income before adjusting for need. Need-adjusted equity results mirrored regression findings and suggested patterns of inequities that were more pronounced among male decedents than females. Conclusions Despite the

  3. 78 FR 24760 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... disorder, including angina, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, ] hypertension, and... Development of Diazeniumdiolate Derivatives for Cancer Treatment and Prevention in Humans AGENCY: National... treatment and prevention in humans.'' to JSK Therapeutics, Inc. (``JSKT''), a company incorporated under the...

  4. Mental Health under National Health Care Reform: The Empirical Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…

  5. An Overview Of The Nigerian National Health Bill | Saka | Savannah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Health Bill was developed in 2004 as an instrument for correcting the gaps in the 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria as it relates to the health sector. Since the first draft in 2004, the Bill was subjected to scrutiny and refinement by the respective Health Committees of the Senate and House of ...

  6. Prerequisites for National Health Insurance in South Africa: Results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. National Health Insurance (NHI) is currently high on the health policy agenda. The intention of this financing system is to promote efficiency and the equitable distribution of financial and human resources, improving health outcomes for the majority. However, there are some key prerequisites that need to be in ...

  7. Summary of a conference on national health expenditures accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Phoebe A.; Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    The following summary is of a conference to review national health expenditures accounting. Attendees focused on the annual article published by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) in the Health Care Financing Review that reports how much the United States spends on medical care.

  8. 76 FR 49645 - National Health Center Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Nation, over 19 million Americans look to community health centers for medical checkups, education... community health centers play in our health-care system. Every day, men, women, and children find help at... cost, while lifting up the quality of life for their patients. We see the results among Medicaid...

  9. 78 FR 26221 - National Mental Health Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... other adults recognize the signs of mental illness in children, improve mental health outcomes for young...;#0; ] Proclamation 8969 of April 30, 2013 National Mental Health Awareness Month, 2013 By the... with the burden of a mental health problem. They shoulder conditions like depression and anxiety, post...

  10. The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010: Process and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Eva I.; Caro, Carla M.; Lysoby, Linda; Auld, M. Elaine; Smith, Becky J.; Muenzen, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010 was conducted to update the competencies model for entry- and advanced-level health educators. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Structured interviews, focus groups, and a modified Delphi technique were implemented to engage 59 health educators from diverse work settings and experience…

  11. Impact of innovations in national public health markets in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Alexanderson, Kristina; Voss, Margaretha; Conceição, Claudia; Grimaud, Olivier; Narkauskaité, Laura; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Saliba, Amanda; Sammut, Marvic

    2013-11-01

    Social innovations can contribute to health and wellbeing. PHIRE (Public Health Innovation and Research in Europe) investigated the impacts at national level of innovation projects funded by the European Union Public Health Programme. Through the European Public Health Association, experts assessed the uptake of the eight public health projects, for 30 European countries. Their reports were assembled by country and, thereafter, national public health associations reviewed the reports. Following stakeholder workshops, or internal and external consultations, 11 national reports were produced which included discussion on the impacts of the public health innovations in national product markets. In 11 countries, there were reports on the eight innovations for 45 (51%) of the possible public health markets. The innovations contributed positively to policy, practice and research, across different levels and in different ways, in 35 (39%) market, while competing innovation activities were recorded in 10 (11%) markets. The workshops also discussed contributing factors and limitations in dissemination and timing for policy cycles. The impacts of European Union social innovations in public health markets can be identified through national discussions. Further attention should be given to understanding drivers and incentives for successful public health innovations.

  12. Marketing in Greek National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tseroni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The international financial situation in combination with an aging population and the appropriation of health services imposes the management of hospital services as a necessity for the survival of hospitals.Aim: To examine the perceptions of 450 upper administrative hospital executives (Nursing, Medicine and Administrative services in the wider region of Attica, on marketing, communication, and public relations in health-care.Population study: Four hundred and fifty (450 higher health executives from the three basic fields of services in health institutions (medical, nursing, administration constituted the total sample of the research. These people are employed at 9 of the 36 hospitals in the 3 Health Regions of Attica (H.Re.Materials and method:The type of design that was chosen (to gather data for the study of attitudes and perceptions of the health personnel of the health institutions of G.S.H (Greek System of Health is a cross- sectional survey.Results: The participating subjects, even though expressed some reservations at first, formed a favorable attitude towards marketing and its application in the field of health-care. Statistically important correlations emerged between the perceptions of executives and their socio-demographic background including age, sex, education, and profession, work experience in health-care and specifically in their current position in the services as well as statistically important differences between doctors, nurses and administrators as to their perceptions of some issues in marketing.Conclusions: From the comments in the survey it appears there is a need to apply marketing correctly when providing quality care, respecting the patients’ rights and using human and not financial criteria as a guide. Based on the results of the research, important proposals are being submitted in the areas of health-care research, education and clinical practice.

  13. 77 FR 26300 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including.... Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive...

  14. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  15. 77 FR 40076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P...

  16. 78 FR 59042 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, including... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle...

  17. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  18. 78 FR 26793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Keystone...

  19. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review...

  20. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P...

  1. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  2. 77 FR 61613 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P. O...

  3. 76 FR 52672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  4. 76 FR 27653 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences...

  5. 76 FR 19378 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...

  6. 77 FR 9673 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle...

  7. 76 FR 57065 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including.... Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...

  8. 77 FR 5261 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis..., Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review...

  9. 78 FR 18997 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including..., Neuropharmacology and Human Metabolism Groups. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  10. Identifying Distinct Geographic Health Service Environments in British Columbia, Canada: Cluster Analysis of Population-Based Administrative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lavergne, M. Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Definitions of ?urban? and ?rural? developed for general purposes may not reflect the organization and delivery of healthcare. This research used cluster analysis to group Local Health Areas based on the distribution of healthcare spending across service categories. Though total spending was similar, the metropolitan areas of Vancouver and Victoria were identified as distinct from non-metropolitan and remote communities, based on the distribution of healthcare spending alone. Non-metropolitan...

  11. general practitioners and national health insurance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. ... many creative experiments that may be evaluated over the coming years. ..... NHI is substantially delayed, attitudes may harden and an opportunity for change may be lost. Given that many GPs believed that NHI would lead to decreases in income and ...

  12. National health policy: back to the future. Ad Hoc Committee on National Health Policy American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    After an extensive review of the literature and discussion of both national and state proposed health plans, the committee arrived at the following conclusions: 1. The issues that prompted development of the 1971 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA) Position Statement on National Health Care have not been resolved or altered. 2. Few significant national health plans or policies are being supported by the Bush Administration other than managed-care plans. 3. A national health policy will be driven by the development of state health policies and plans. 4. Implementation of national or state health plans will affect both professions at all service provision sites, including public schools. 5. Five general models apply to all existing or proposed national and state health policies or plans: single payer (e.g., a Canadian-style plan) minimum basic benefits ("play or pay") expanded Medicare or Medicaid benefits rationed healthcare (e.g., Oregon plan) managed care (e.g., health maintenance organizations) 6. There will be continued efforts to eliminate Medicaid mandates. 7. ASHA needs to advocate for the inclusion of rehabilitative services as basic rather than optional services in all health plans. 8. ASHA must advocate for adequate access to quality care regardless of healthcare or education provider setting.

  13. Wildlife health initiatives in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Plumb, G.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone Science 15(2) • 2007 and conservation organizations ( see inset page 7, The Yellowstone Wildlife Health Program ). Wildlife and Human Health are Linked Much of the interest in disease ecology and wildlife health has been prompted by the emergence, or resurgence, of many parasites that move between livestock, wildlife, and/or humans. Wildlife diseases are important because of their impact on both the natural ecosystem and human health. Many human dis - eases arise from animal reservoirs (WHO 2002). Hantaviruses, West Nile virus, avian influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are examples of disease issues that have arisen over the last decade. Indeed, nearly 75% of all emerg - ing human infectious diseases are zoonotic (a disease that has spread to humans from another animal species). Many of these diseases have spilled over from natural wildlife reservoirs either directly into humans or via domestic animals (WHO/FAO/ OIE 2004). Unprecedented human population abundance and distribution, combined with anthropogenic environmental change, has resulted in dramatic increases in human–animal contact, thus increasing the intimate linkages between animal and human health (Figure 1). Linkage of human and animal health is not a new phenomenon, but the scope, scale, and worldwide impacts of contemporary zoonoses have no historical precedent (OIE 2004a). Zoonotic infectious diseases can have major impacts on wild and domestic animals and human health, resulting in

  14. National Built Environment Health Impact Assessment Model ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavioral (activity, diet, social interaction) and exposure (air pollution, traffic injury, and noise) related health impacts of land use and transportation investment decisions are becoming better understood and quantified. Research has shown relationships between density, mix, street connectivity, access to parks, shops, transit, presence of sidewalks and bikeways, and healthy food with physical activity, obesity, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some mental health outcomes. This session demonstrates successful integration of health impact assessment into multiple scenario planning tool platforms. Detailed evidence on chronic disease and related costs associated with contrasting land use and transportation investments are built into a general-purpose module that can be accessed by multiple platforms. Funders, researchers, and end users of the tool will present a detailed description of the key elements of the approach, how it has been applied, and how will evolve. A critical focus will be placed on equity and social justice inherent within the assessment of health disparities that will be featured in the session. Health impacts of community design have significant cost benefit implications. Recent research is now extending relationships between community design features and chronic disease to health care costs. This session will demonstrate the recent application of this evidence on health impacts to the newly adopted Los Angeles Regional Transpo

  15. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. Design British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. Setting UK health service and community. Methods The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Participants Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). Results The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. Conclusions The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to

  16. Can we move beyond burden and burnout to support the health and wellness of family caregivers to persons with dementia? Evidence from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Meredith B; Robinson, Carole A; Holtzman, Susan; Bottorff, Joan L

    2012-01-01

    After more than a decade of concerted effort by policy-makers in Canada and elsewhere to encourage older adults to age at home, there is recognition that the ageing-in-place movement has had unintended negative consequences for family members who care for seniors. This paper outlines findings of a qualitative descriptive study to investigate the health and wellness and support needs of family caregivers to persons with dementia in the Canadian policy environment. Focus groups were conducted in 2010 with 23 caregivers and the health professionals who support them in three communities in the Southern Interior of British Columbia. Thematic analysis guided by the constant comparison technique revealed two overarching themes: (1) forgotten: abandoned to care alone and indefinitely captures the perceived consequences of caregivers' failed efforts to receive recognition and adequate services to support their care-giving and (2) unrealistic expectations for caregiver self-care relates to the burden of expectations for caregivers to look after themselves. Although understanding about the concepts of caregiver burden and burnout is now quite developed, the broader sociopolitical context giving rise to these negative consequences for caregivers to individuals with dementia has not improved. If anything, the Canadian homecare policy environment has placed caregivers in more desperate circumstances. A fundamental re-orientation towards caregivers and caregiver supports is necessary, beginning with viewing caregivers as a critical health human resource in a system that depends on their contributions in order to function. This re-orientation can create a space for providing caregivers with preventive supports, rather than resorting to costly patient care for caregivers who have reached the point of burnout and care recipients who have been institutionalised. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Minorities and Mental Health: Moving Beyond the Stigma Mental illness is one of the most prevalent ... Populations ( R01 ) Understanding Factors in Infancy and Early Childhood That Influence Obesity Development ( R01 ) Addressing Health Disparities ...

  18. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mine Safety and Health Administration Follow NIOSH Facebook Instagram Flickr Pinterest Twitter YouTube more sites NIOSH NIOSH ... Office of the Director Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  19. National Health Care Reform and Solvency Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet

    2012-01-01

    Health insurance companies hold uncommitted assets, called surplus, for a number of reasons. In some cases, surplus is used to finance planned but unobligated capital expenditures such as information technology.

  20. National Health Policy and Maternal Health: The Vulnerable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore identified those special reproductive health care services needed by adolescents. And suggested that policy makers and health care providers should put in place policies that are adolescents friendly in particular because adolescents have special material health need due to their physiology and ...

  1. Impact on practice of a British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Sexually Transmitted Infections Foundation (STIF) course: an audit of the first four years in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamai, A; Howard, R; Kelly, R; Lambert, J

    2013-02-01

    In order to investigate the overall impact of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Sexually Transmitted Infections Foundation (STIF) course taught in Ireland since 2007, attendees were sent two questionnaires to investigate the overall impact of the course, its effect on clinical practice and the need for further education. Response rate was 19.4%. The majority found the course beneficial and that it did cover their practice needs (96.4%), with 83.6% saying that their confidence and technique in sexual history taking had improved. There was a 3.7% increase in the provision of HIV testing from precourse levels, although only 80% did so routinely; a 12.7% increase in syphilis testing; a 5.4% increase in testing for Chlamydia and a 12.7% increase for gonorrhoea. Some confusion seems to persist in relation to sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk factors. The second questionnaire tested STI knowledge. Most respondents scored well (average 81% correct answers); however, respondents who attended four years previously scored, on average, 7% worse than the others, suggesting the need for a periodic update in the area of STI education.

  2. 75 FR 58281 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... the hard work and dedication of our Nation's farmers, ranchers, and farmworkers. The food they produce... and health programs. I also urge Americans to honor our agricultural heritage and express appreciation...

  3. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe: Universality, Equity, and Integrality-Time Has Come for the Latter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Garibaldi D; de Sousa, Islândia M Carvalho; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana; de Assis da Silva Santos, Francisco; Diderichsen, Finn

    2017-10-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles of universality, equity, and integrality. While the reform in Brazil aimed at improving equity and effectiveness, reforms in Europe aimed at improving efficiency in order to contain costs. The European reforms increased supply and utilization but never provided the large increase in efficiency that was hoped for, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having chronic disorders and very unequal comorbidities, bring the issue of integrality in the forefront in all 3 countries, and neither the public purchaser provider markets nor the 2-tier system in Brazil delivers on that front. It will demand political leadership and strategic planning with population responsibility to deal with such challenges.

  4. Public Health Systems Research: Setting a National Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaway, Dennis; Halverson, Paul; Sotnikov, Sergey; Tilson, Hugh; Corso, Liza; Millington, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has recommended that policy decisions about improvement of national public health systems be guided by sound scientific evidence. However, to date there is no national research agenda to help guide public health systems. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was called upon to lead a collaborative consensus-based process to define key research questions and establish a framework to create opportunities to better coordinate, leverage, and identify public health resources, which are increasingly scarce. The public health systems research agenda that emerged from this process has 14 overarching priority research themes. This national agenda should stimulate and guide research to meet the urgent need to improve the nation’s public health systems. PMID:16449601

  5. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The focus will thus be on quality control, maintenance and documenting utilization. Mali currently has very little information on health research, and will therefore need to concentrate its efforts on data collection. The challenges and lessons learned during the two experiences will be documented for the benefit of other ...

  6. 76 FR 50234 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615...

  7. Resource implications of a national health target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Peter; Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; Ashton, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Background The Shorter Stays in Emergency Departments health target was introduced in New Zealand in 2009. District Health Boards (DHBs) are expected to meet the target with no additional funding or incentives. The costs of implementing such targets have not previously been studied. Method A survey...... of clinical/service managers in ED throughout New Zealand determined the type and cost of resources used for the target. Responses to the target were classified according to their impact in ED, the hospital and the community. Quantifiable resource changes were assigned a financial value and grouped...... into categories: structure (facilities/beds), staff and processes. Simple statistics were used to describe the data, and the correlation between expenditure and target performance was determined. Results There was 100% response to the survey. Most DHBs reported some expenditure specifically on the target...

  8. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dona Tomlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design: A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs. Methods: We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC, aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run, physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry, healthy eating (dietary recall and cardiovascular risk (CV risk. Results: zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05. No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01. There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05 but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions: While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.

  9. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of international agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in providing support for the implementation of the NHIS objectives was also analysed. Te study concludes by focusing on aspects of information management on health services especially ...

  10. The Health of Nations: Towards a New Political Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... The Health of Nations: Towards a New Political. Economy is highly critical of the structurally unjust world we live in and its failure to address the global burden of disease. In clear, concise language, Gavin Mooney ably explains the reasons for global ill health and offers viable solutions. The book is sharp.

  11. The Obstetrician/Gynaecologist and The National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Decree establishing the National Health Insurance Scheme was promulgated in 1999; however, actual implementation commenced in 2002 and has remained at a rudimentary stage. This is despite the very laudable reasons for establishing the NHIS, to provide a financial lifeline to health care delivery in Nigeria.

  12. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  13. Awareness and utilisation of national health insurance scheme by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the awareness, utilization and perception of healthcare workers towards National Health Insurance Scheme in a tertiary hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study among healthcare workers in a tertiary health institution in Ile-Ife Nigeria. The study population included all the staff in the ...

  14. Health Insurance: principles, models and the Nigerian National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Nigerian National Health Insurance scheme (NHIS) is planned to attract more resources to the health care sector and improve the level of access and utilization of healthcare services. It is also intended to protect people from the catastrophic financial implications of illnesses. However, whether it will work in ...

  15. Participation in the National Health Insurance Scheme Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme was established under Act 35 of 1999 by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is aimed at providing easy access to health care for all Nigerians at an affordable cost through various prepayment systems. It is totally committed to achieving universal coverage and ...

  16. Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Latner, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity has become a top priority in efforts to improve our nation's public health. Although much research is needed to address this health crisis, it is important to approach childhood obesity with an understanding of the social stigma that obese youths face, which is pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional…

  17. The Teaching of Undergraduate Health Psychology: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Aliza A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an online national survey to examine how undergraduate health psychology is taught, offer information about course design and content, and provide a needs analysis. Health psychology instructors (N = 126) answered questions about course format, teaching tools, importance of covering specific topics, and needed resources. A principal…

  18. The Swedish national public health policy report 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linell, Anita; Richardson, Matt X; Wamala, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    In 2003, the Swedish Parliament adopted a cross-sectorial national public health policy based on the social determinants of health, with an overarching aim--to create societal conditions that will ensure good health, on equal terms, for the entire population--and eleven objective domains. At that time the policy was globally unique, and serves as guidance for public health practice at the national, regional and local levels. The development of the public health policy and the determinants of health are presented regularly in various reports by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This supplement is a condensed version of the 174-page Public Health Policy Report 2010, the second produced since the national policy was adopted in 2003. In order to provide a holistic approach to analysing implemented measures and providing new recommendations within the eleven objective domains of the Swedish national public health policy, we have divided these in three strategic areas. These are: Good Living Conditions, Health-Promoting Living Environments and Living Habits, and Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, Doping, Tobacco and Gambling, each described in the respective introductions for Chapters 3-5. The production of the report was supported by a common analytical model that clarified the societal prerequisites for health in the eleven objective domains. These are factors that can be influenced by political actions in order to create a change. Economic analyses have also been developed to provide a priority basis for political decisions. Analyses of the development of public health determinants were based on data from the National Public Health Survey and data delivered from about 15 various national agencies. Measures that have been implemented between 2004 and 2009 are analysed in details, as the basis for new recommendations for future measures. The introduction describes Swedish public health policy in the new millennium and how it has developed, the role of the Swedish

  19. 78 FR 15728 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel; HIV/AIDS Research Education... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities , National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center...

  20. 75 FR 2550 - National Institute of Mental Health: Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... ] Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd...: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, Review of NIMH Research Education Applications...

  1. 75 FR 40844 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, HIV/AIDS Intervention Development...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd...

  2. 76 FR 55928 - National Institute of Mental Health Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    .... Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd...: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel; Translational Research for the Development of...

  3. 76 FR 2401 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel. Treatment Development for Eating...

  4. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  5. National Public Opinion on School Health Education: Implications for the Health Care Reform Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Crowe, James W.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated national public opinion on school health education and the implications for health-care reform initiatives. Telephone surveys of 1,005 adults nationwide indicated that the public at large believes in the importance of health education to reduce health problems among children, considering it the responsibility of parents and…

  6. Accelerating the Implementation of Regional and National Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Sazdovska, Sanja; Zisovska, Elizabeta; Salja Plavjanska, Afrodita

    2016-01-01

    The health care system is organized by public or private health institutions. Key stakeholders are: Ministry of Health, Agency for Quality and Accreditation of Health Institutions, Governmental National Bodies –National Committee on Safe Motherhood and National Center for Reproductive Health. Crucial documents are: Law on Health Protection; National Strategy on Safe Motherhood, 2010-2015; National Strategy for SRH, 2010-2020; National Strategy on HIV & AIDS, 2012-2016; Governmental Action ...

  7. Teleoncology uptake in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Melissa; Barnett, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Telehealth enables the delivery of specialized health care to patients living in isolated and remote regions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the current uptake of teleoncology in mainland British Columbia. Patient appointment data was extracted from the Cancer Agency Information System (CAIS) for the 2009 calendar year. Three types of practitioners used teleoncology in 2009: Medical Oncologists, Genetic Counsellors and Medical Geneticists. In total, 712 telehealth encounters were conducted; Medical Oncologists conducted 595 encounters (83.6%), Genetic Counsellors conducted 112 encounters (15.7%) and Medical Geneticists conducted 5 encounters (0.7%). The most common oncology appointments were Gastro-Intestinal (11.4%) and Lymphoma (11.0%) follow-up appointments with a Medical Oncologist. Telehealth encounters were conducted by 46 individual health care providers however, a single Medical Oncologist conducted 418 encounters and this accounts for more than half (58.7%) of all telehealth appointments in 2009. Radiation Oncologists on the mainland up to this point are not using the technology. The Local Health Areas with the highest number of oncology telehealth appointments were: Kamloops: 203 encounters (34.1%), Penticton: 84 encounters (14.1%), Cranbrook: 58 encounters (9.7%) and the Southern Okanagan: 33 encounter (5.5%). Use of telehealth in rural and remote areas of BC is limited and there is significant room for growth. Further research will be required to identify barriers and restrictions to the use of telehealth in order to increase teleoncology adoption in British Columbia.

  8. 78 FR 48163 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section... Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the...

  9. Growing a professional network to over 3000 members in less than 4 years: evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia's virtual nursing health services research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Noreen; Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-02-21

    Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals' use of a network designed to increase nurses' interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. "InspireNet", a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network's virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members' database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times each. At the time of writing, 21 research teams

  10. Growing a Professional Network to Over 3000 Members in Less Than 4 Years: Evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia’s Virtual Nursing Health Services Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals’ use of a network designed to increase nurses’ interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. Objective “InspireNet”, a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Methods Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Results Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network’s virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members’ database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times

  11. British Technology Education. An American View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the British Craft, Design and Technology (CDT) curriculum, which is comparable to American technology education. According to the author, CDT is characterized by creative thinking and experimentation. He states, however, that little national coordination or cooperation is evident. (CH)

  12. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  13. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  14. Committed to work but vulnerable: self-perceptions and mental health in NEET 18-year olds from a contemporary British cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Ajala, Nifemi; Ambler, Antony; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen; Hucker, Abigail; Odgers, Candice; Williams, Teresa; Wong, Chloe; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-02-01

    Labour market disengagement among youths has lasting negative economic and social consequences, yet is poorly understood. We compared four types of work-related self-perceptions, as well as vulnerability to mental health and substance abuse problems, among youths not in education, employment or training (NEET) and among their peers. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study, a nationally representative UK cohort of 2,232 twins born in 1994-1995. We measured commitment to work, job-search effort, professional/technical skills, 'soft' skills (e.g. teamwork, decision-making, communication), optimism about getting ahead, and mental health and substance use disorders at age 18. We also examined childhood mental health. At age 18, 11.6% of participants were NEET. NEET participants reported themselves as committed to work and searching for jobs with greater diligence than their non-NEET peers. However, they reported fewer 'soft' skills (B = -0.98, p mental health and substance abuse problems, but these did not explain the relationship with work-related self-perceptions. Nearly 60% of NEET (vs. 35% of non-NEET) youths had already experienced ≥1 mental health problem in childhood/adolescence. Associations of NEET status with concurrent mental health problems were independent of pre-existing mental health vulnerability. Our findings indicate that while NEET is clearly an economic and mental health issue, it does not appear to be a motivation issue. Alongside skills, work-related self-perceptions and mental health problems may be targets for intervention and service provision among this high-risk population. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Cross-National Diffusion of Mental Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C Shen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Following the tenets of world polity and innovation diffusion theories, I focus on the coercive and mimetic forces that influence the diffusion of mental health policy across nations. International organizations’ mandates influence government behavior. Dependency on external resources, namely foreign aid, also affects governments’ formulation of national policy. And finally, mounting adoption in a region alters the risk, benefits, and information associated with a given policy. Methods I use post-war, discrete time data spanning 1950 to 2011 and describing 193 nations’ mental health systems to test these diffusion mechanisms. Results I find that the adoption of mental health policy is highly clustered temporally and spatially. Results provide support that membership in the World Health Organization (WHO, interdependence with neighbors and peers in regional blocs, national income status, and migrant sub-population are responsible for isomorphism. Aid, however, is an insufficient determinant of mental health policy adoption. Conclusion This study examines the extent to which mental, neurological, and substance use disorder are addressed in national and international contexts through the lens of policy diffusion theory. It also adds to policy dialogues about non-communicable diseases as nascent items on the global health agenda.

  16. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 15... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive...

  18. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section... Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Worker... Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations...

  19. 78 FR 11658 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Newborn Screening Translational Research Network... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...

  20. 77 FR 21788 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice...., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  1. Challenges in Identifying Refugees in National Health Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semere, Wagahta; Yun, Katherine; Ahalt, Cyrus; Williams, Brie; Wang, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate publicly available data sets to determine their utility for studying refugee health. We searched for keywords describing refugees in data sets within the Society of General Internal Medicine Dataset Compendium and the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research database. We included in our analysis US-based data sets with publicly available documentation and a self-defined, health-related focus that allowed for an examination of patient-level factors. Of the 68 data sets that met the study criteria, 37 (54%) registered keyword matches related to refugees, but only 2 uniquely identified refugees. Few health data sets identify refugee status among participants, presenting barriers to understanding refugees' health and health care needs. Information about refugee status in national health surveys should include expanded demographic questions and focus on mental health and chronic disease.

  2. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  3. Valuing national effects of digital health investments: an applied method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer; Frazer, Cassandra; Gheorghiu, Bobby; Leaver, Chad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach which has been applied to value national outcomes of investments by federal, provincial and territorial governments, clinicians and healthcare organizations in digital health. Hypotheses are used to develop a model, which is revised and populated based upon the available evidence. Quantitative national estimates and qualitative findings are produced and validated through structured peer review processes. This methodology has applied in four studies since 2008.

  4. Committed to work but vulnerable: Self-perceptions and mental health in NEET 18-year-olds from a contemporary British cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Ajala, Nifemi; Ambler, Antony; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen; Hucker, Abigail; Odgers, Candice; Williams, Teresa; Wong, Chloe; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Labour market disengagement among youths has lasting negative economic and social consequences, yet is poorly understood. We compared four types of work-related self-perceptions, as well as vulnerability to mental health and substance abuse problems, among youths not in education, employment, or training (NEET) and among their peers. Methods Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) longitudinal study, a nationally representative U.K. cohort of 2,232 twins born in 1994–95. We measured commitment to work, job-search effort, professional/technical skills, “soft” skills (e.g., teamwork, decision-making, communication), optimism about getting ahead, and mental health and substance-use disorders at age 18. We also examined childhood mental health. Results At age 18, 11.6% of participants were NEET. NEET participants reported themselves as committed to work and searching for jobs with greater diligence than their non-NEET peers. However, they reported fewer “soft” skills (B = −0.98, p < .001) and felt less optimistic about their likelihood of getting ahead in life (B = −2.41, p < .001). NEET youths also had higher rates of concurrent mental health and substance-abuse problems, but these did not explain the relationship with work-related self-perceptions. Nearly 60% of NEET (vs. 35% of non-NEET) youths had already experienced ≥1 mental health problem in childhood/adolescence. Associations of NEET status with concurrent mental health problems were independent of pre-existing mental health vulnerability. Conclusions Our findings indicate that while NEET is clearly an economic and mental health issue, it does not appear to be a motivation issue. Alongside skills, work-related self-perceptions and mental-health problems may be targets for intervention and service provision among this high-risk population. PMID:26791344

  5. Pathway to Support the Sustainable National Health Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahavechaphan, Naiyana; Phengsuwan, Jedsada; U-Ruekolan, Suriya; Aroonrua, Kamron; Ponhan, Jukrapong; Harnsamut, Nattapon; Vannarat, Sornthep

    Heath information across geographically distributed healthcare centers has been recognized as an essential resource that drives an efficient national health-care plan. There is thus a need for the National Health Information System (NHIS) that provides the transparent and secure access to health information from different healthcare centers both on demand and in a time efficient manner. As healthiness is the ultimate goal of people and nation, we believe that the NHIS should be sustainable by taking the healthcare center and information consumer perspectives into account. Several issues in particular must be resolved altogether: (i) the diversity of health information structures among healthcare centers; (ii) the availability of health information sharing from healthcare centers; (iii) the efficient information access to various healthcare centers; and (iv) the privacy and privilege of heath information. To achieve the sustainable NHIS, this paper details our work which is divided into 3 main phases. Essentially, the first phase focuses on the application of metadata standard to enable the interoperability and usability of health information across healthcare centers. The second phase moves forward to make information sharing possible and to provide an efficient information access to a large number of healthcare centers. Finally, in the third phase, the privacy and privilege of health information is promoted with respect to access rights of information consumers.

  6. Expanding the g-Nexus: Further Evidence Regarding the Relations among National IQ, Religiosity and National Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study seeks to better understand how religiosity and health are positioned within the g-nexus. Specifically, the degree to which differences in average IQ across nations is associated with differences in national religiosity (i.e., belief rate) and national health statistics independent of differences in national wealth is examined.…

  7. Health literacy, health status, and healthcare utilization of taiwanese adults: results from a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Ken N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low health literacy is considered a worldwide health threat. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic covariates of low health literacy in Taiwanese adults and to investigate the relationships between health literacy and health status and health care utilization. Methods A national survey of 1493 adults was conducted in 2008. Health literacy was measured using the Mandarin Health Literacy Scale. Health status was measured based on self-rated physical and mental health. Health care utilization was measured based on self-reported outpatient clinic visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Results Approximately thirty percent of adults were found to have low (inadequate or marginal health literacy. They tended to be older, have fewer years of schooling, lower household income, and reside in less populated areas. Inadequate health literacy was associated with poorer mental health (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91. No association was found between health literacy and health care utilization even after adjusting for other covariates. Conclusions Low (inadequate and marginal health literacy is prevalent in Taiwan. High prevalence of low health literacy is not necessarily indicative of the need for interventions. Systematic efforts to evaluate the impact of low health literacy on health outcomes in other countries would help to illuminate features of health care delivery and financing systems that may mitigate the adverse health effects of low health literacy.

  8. National health management information system: issues of funding and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, A D; Soriyan, H A; Makanjuola, R O

    1997-02-01

    Information Technology has made a substantial inroad into Nigerian society, particularly since the late 1980s. It is, however, already being applied in the health sector. The Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), lle-lfe, Nigeria has adopted a systematic approach to the development of a Health Information System (HIS) for a typical specialist hospital. A review of the existing HIS in OAUIHC is presented, highlighting its attributes, problems, and limitations. In addition, the options of funding HIS on a national scale are identified and discussed. Finally, strategies to ensure ongoing support of a national HIS are presented.

  9. A new visual identity for the National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, P

    2000-03-01

    The following article gives a brief overview of the new visual identity being adopted by the National Health Service in England. It looks at the thinking behind the identity, the identity's component parts and provides sources for obtaining further information on the identity's application. It is compiled from a presentation by Stephanie Hood from the corporate identity team of the NHS Executive communications unit given on 22nd October 1999 at the National Designers in Health Network seminar, Time-out '99, Sheffield. Supporting information was obtained from the NHS Communications website http:¿nww.doh.nhsweb.uk/commsnet.

  10. Association of Mediterranean diet and other health behaviours with barriers to healthy eating and perceived health among British adults of retirement age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jose; McCrum, Leigh-Ann; Mathers, John C

    2014-11-01

    Health behaviours including diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, predict health risks at the population level. We explored health behaviours, barriers to healthy eating and self-rated health among individuals of retirement age. Study design 82 men and 124 women participated in an observational, cross-sectional online survey. Main outcome measures A 14-item Mediterranean diet score (MDPS), perceived barriers to healthy eating (PBHE), self-reported smoking, physical activity habits, and current and prior perceived health status (PHS) were assessed. A health behaviours score (HBS) including smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and MDPS was created to evaluate associations with PHS. Two-step cluster analysis identified natural groups based on PBHE. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate between group comparisons. PBHE number was associated with BMI (r=0.28, Pbad/fair, good, and very good, reported mean HBS of 2.0, 2.4 and 3.0, respectively (P<0.001). Compared with the previous year, no significant associations between PHS and HBS were observed. PBHE clusters were associated with BMI, MDPS and PHS and could be a useful tool to tailor interventions for those of peri-retirement age. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 79201 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114...

  12. A national research agenda for public health services and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The field of public health services and systems research (PHSSR) has emerged over the past decade to produce the evidence needed to address critical uncertainties about how best to organize, finance, and deliver effective public health strategies to all Americans. To advance these efforts, a national PHSSR research agenda-setting process was used to identify a broad inventory of information needs and uncertainties that public health stakeholders face in the domains of public health workforce, public health system structure and performance, public health financing, and public health information and technology. This paper presents the results of an expert review process used to transform the identified information needs into a concise set of research questions that can be pursued through new scientific inquiry in PHSSR. Established research frameworks were used to specify the contexts, mechanisms of action, and outcomes within the public health system that require further study. A total of 72 research questions were developed from the 113 original items in the PHSSR inventory of information needs. The questions include both persistent problems and newly emerging needs in public health practice and policy. The resulting research agenda provides a starting point for mobilizing the public health scientific enterprise around contemporary, high-priority uncertainties identified by broad cross sections of public health stakeholders. Regular updates to this agenda will be required to achieve continuous improvements in both the science and practice of public health. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. National Training and Education Standards for Health and Wellness Coaching: The Path to National Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches. PMID:25984418

  14. Financing health care for all - is national health insurance the first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that it will be more feasible to generate sufficient funds under central control through taxation supplemented by a national health insurance scheme, rather than through simply expanding the contribution to health care that comes out of general tax revenue. Given that private ownership of health care facilities ...

  15. Comparison of the EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire with combined heart rate and movement sensing in a nationally representative sample of older British adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa España-Romero

    Full Text Available To compare physical activity (PA subcomponents from EPIC Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ2 and combined heart rate and movement sensing in older adults.Participants aged 60-64y from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in Great Britain completed EPAQ2, which assesses self-report PA in 4 domains (leisure time, occupation, transportation and domestic life during the past year and wore a combined sensor for 5 consecutive days. Estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE, sedentary behaviour, light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA were obtained from EPAQ2 and combined sensing and compared. Complete data were available in 1689 participants (52% women.EPAQ2 estimates of PAEE and MVPA were higher than objective estimates and sedentary time and LPA estimates were lower [bias (95% limits of agreement in men and women were 32.3 (-61.5 to 122.6 and 29.0 (-39.2 to 94.6 kJ/kg/day for PAEE; -4.6 (-10.6 to 1.3 and -6.0 (-10.9 to -1.0 h/day for sedentary time; -171.8 (-454.5 to 110.8 and -60.4 (-367.5 to 246.6 min/day for LPA; 91.1 (-159.5 to 341.8 and 55.4 (-117.2 to 228.0 min/day for MVPA]. There were significant positive correlations between all self-reported and objectively assessed PA subcomponents (rho= 0.12 to 0.36; the strongest were observed for MVPA (rho = 0.30 men; rho = 0.36 women and PAEE (rho = 0.26 men; rho = 0.25 women.EPAQ2 produces higher estimates of PAEE and MVPA and lower estimates of sedentary and LPA than objective assessment. However, both methodologies rank individuals similarly, suggesting that EPAQ2 may be used in etiological studies in this population.

  16. The Health of Nations: Towards a New Political Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... have had on health in Venezuela. Part VI concludes with the need for urgent reform, both within individual countries and at the level of global institutions like the World Bank. Ames Dhai (amaboo.dhai@wits.ac.za). S Afr J BL 2013;6(2):72. DOI:10.7196/SAJBL.292. The Health of Nations: Towards a New ...

  17. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    National health accounts (NHAs) provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs for Dubai and Qatar, and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), for 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing measures used are as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). In Dubai, only 33% of current health expenditure (CHE) is funded by the government. However, the public sector is the main source of health funding in Qatar and most OECD countries, with an average of 79% and 72%, respectively. Households in Dubai spent about 22% of CHE, equivalent to an average US$187 per capita, ranking the highest among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and compared with 20% of CHE across OECD countries. Hospitals in Dubai accounted for 48% of CHE, which is much higher than Qatar (40%) and the OECD average (36%). The Dubai health care financing system differs substantially from that in OECD countries, as it is more private oriented. The findings point to several potential opportunities for growth and improvement. Policy areas that may be addressed using the information presented in this article are broad and include the following: shift from hospital care to ambulatory and day care, sustainability of health finance, shift the cost of health care to the private sector, introduce cost-containment measures, revise payment systems for health providers, and produce subnational accounts for non-communicable diseases. More investment in the translation of national health account data into policy

  18. Towards National eHealth Implementation--a comparative study on WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, Hossein; Jafarpour, Maryam; Bitaraf, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Experiences has shown that utilization of ICT in health sector requires national commitment and planned efforts to make the best use of existing capacity. Establishing the main directions as well as planning the detailed steps needed are key to achieving longer-term goals such as health sector efficiency, reform or more fundamental transformation. Collaboration between the health and ICT sectors, both public and private, is central to this effort. As the major United Nations agencies for health and telecommunications respectively, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have recognized the importance of collaboration for eHealth in their global resolutions, which encourage countries to develop national eHealth strategies; the National eHealth Strategy Toolkit is the proof of these recommendations. In this study a mapping of eHealth components in WHO/ITU National eHealth Strategy Toolkit and our national eHealth vision is presented.

  19. The political economy of health promotion: part 2, national provision of the prerequisites of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Governmental authorities of wealthy developed nations differ in their professed commitments and activity related to the provision of the prerequisites of health through public policy action. Part 1 of this article showed how nations identified as social democratic or liberal welfare states were those where such commitments are present. Nations identified as conservative or Latin welfare states were less likely to express such commitments. However, the political economy literature suggests that despite their expressed commitments to provision of the prerequisites of health, liberal welfare states fare rather poorly in implementing these commitments. The opposite is seen for conservative welfare states. Social democratic welfare states show both commitments and public policy consistent with this objective. Part 2 of this article documents the extent to which public policy activity that provides the prerequisites of health through public policy action differs among varying welfare state regimes. Despite extensive rhetoric concerning the prerequisites of health, nations identified as liberal welfare states do a rather poor job of meeting these goals and show evidence of adverse health outcomes. In contrast, social democratic welfare states fare better in providing such prerequisites--consistent with their rhetorical statements--with better health outcomes. Interestingly, conservative--and to a lesser extent Latin--nations fare well in providing the prerequisites of health despite their lack of explicit commitment to such concepts. Findings suggest that health promoters have to concern themselves with the broad strokes of public policymaking whether or not these policy activities are identified as health promotion activities.

  20. 76 FR 7225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  1. 76 FR 46823 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... of Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: September 1-2, 2011...

  2. 78 FR 68075 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel Review of Eating Disorders... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH...

  3. 77 FR 10758 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Child Health and Human Development... Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Building 6100... comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Child Health and ] Human...

  4. 75 FR 43528 - Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy.... ACTION: Notice. Authority: Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. 300hh-1. SUMMARY: To help the Nation achieve national health security and to implement the first quadrennial National Health Security Strategy...

  5. Eating Disorders: National Institute of Mental Health's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mark; Insel, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is to reduce the burden of mental and behavioral disorders through research, and eating disorders embody an important fraction of this burden. Although past and current research has provided important knowledge regarding the etiology, classification, pathophysiology, and treatment of…

  6. The national health insurance and traditional healing in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the proposed National Health Insurance system, the dominant view is that South Africa has a two-tier healthcare system – one private and the other public. The author challenges this view and presents data to show that significant numbers of South Africans use traditional healing methods for treatment for a range of ...

  7. Would national health insurance itnprove equity and efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arguments for and against national health insurance (NHI) for South Africa are illuminated by the experiences of other middle-income developing countries. In many Latin American and Asian countries the majority of their populations are covered by NHI, coverage having steadily increased over the last decade. Patterns of ...

  8. Nigeria's National Health Insurance Scheme: a critical reappraisal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For well over four decades, the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) remained on the drawing board. It is now a little over half a decade since the actual commencement of the implementation of the scheme. This review, therefore, chronicles the historical background to the introduction of the scheme, highlighting the ...

  9. Would national health insurance improve equity and efficiency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arguments for and against national health insurance (NHI) for South Africa are illuminated by the experiences of other middle-income developing countries. In many Latin American and Asian countries the majority of their populations are covered by NHI, coverage having steadily increased over the last decade. Patterns of ...

  10. Acceptability to general practitioners of national health insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine general practitioners' attitudes to national health insurance (NHI) and to capitation as a mechanism of reimbursement. To explore determinants of these attitudes. Design. Cross-sectional survey by means of telephone interviews; four focus group discussions. Setting. Cape Peninsula. Participants.

  11. Would national health insurance itnprove equity and efficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Arguments for and against national health insur- ance (NHI) for South Africa are illuminated by the experiences of other middle-income developing countries. In many Latin American and Asian countries the majority oftheir populations are cov- ered by NHI, coverage having steadily increased over the last decade.

  12. National aquatic animal health plans: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernoth, E M; Ernst, I; Wright, B

    2008-04-01

    Following a major pilchard (Sardinops sagax) mortality event in 1995, Australia recognised the need for a national approach to aquatic animal health, particularly with respectto disease response. Cooperation between industry and government led to the development of AQUAPLAN, Australia's National Strategic Plan for Aquatic Animal Health. Under AQUAPLAN, institutional arrangements for the national technical response to aquatic animal health emergencies were developed based on existing arrangements for terrestrial animal health. The number and range of Australian Aquatic Veterinary Emergency Plan (AQUAVETPLAN) manuals are rising steadily; these are manuals that outline Australia's approach to national disease preparedness and propose the technical response and control strategies to be activated. Additional resources include standard diagnostic techniques and a disease field identification guide. Simulation exercises provide training to respond to aquatic emergency animal disease events. While resource issues and addressing governance remain priorities for the further implementation of AQUAPLAN, the highest priority is the development of a formal arrangement between governments and private sectors on the response to an aquatic emergency animal disease event.

  13. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  14. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  15. [A national plan for action on the environment and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchkova, M

    1996-01-01

    Preserving the environment and human health is an irreversible part of the activity towards stable development. Acknowledging the necessity of such development, the European countries commence working out of plans that subordinate their policy to this object. Concerning the health policy the new strategy requires improving of the integrated system for environmental and health control-an administrative framework that reflects the partnership between health and environmental institutions and the other sectors at all levels of control. The main means and instruments for control of health and the environment are: 1) information system for health and environment; 2) identification and evaluation of the health and environmental risks; 3) a framework of the current legislation; 4) additional measures for control, including economical and fiscal instruments; 5) professional training and qualification; 6) public information and health education; 7) public participation; 8) researches and technological works. The correct functioning of the complex "taking decisions-control system" and the expected results depend on the adequate working out and application of the above mentioned means. The national action plan for environment and health is a fundamental project on a large scale for preserving the health and environmental interests of the country targeting at its stable progress.

  16. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  17. Public Health Staff Development Needs in Informatics: Findings From a National Survey of Local Health Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Chester, Kelley; Shah, Gulzar H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Public health practice is information-intensive and information-driven. Public health informatics is a nascent discipline, and most public health practitioners lack necessary skills in this area. Objective: To describe the staff development needs of local health departments (LHDs) related to informatics. Design: Data came from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey, conducted by Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & ...

  18. The need for a national emergency health services database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sherry; Young, Wendy; Schull, Michael J; Isaac, Winston

    2008-03-01

    In February 2007, the Health Council of Canada, in its third annual report, emphasized the need for pan-Canadian data on our health care system. To date, no studies have examined the strengths and weaknesses of emergency health services (EHS) administrative databases, as perceived by researchers. We undertook a qualitative study to determine, from a researcher's perspective, the strengths and weaknesses of EHS administrative databases. The study also elicited researchers' suggestions to improve these databases. We conducted taped interviews with 4 Canadian health services researchers. The transcriptions were subsequently examined for common concepts, which were finalized after discussion with all the investigators. Five common themes emerged from the interviews: clinical detail, data quality, data linkage, data use and population coverage. Data use and data linkages were considered strengths. Clinical detail, data quality and population coverage were considered weaknesses. The 5 themes that emerged from this study all serve to reinforce the call from the Health Council of Canada for national data on emergency services, which could be readily captured through a national EHS administrative database. We feel that key stakeholders involved in emergency services across Canada should work together to develop a strategy to implement an accurate, clinically detailed, integrated and comprehensive national EHS database.

  19. Evaluating the sub-national fidelity of national Initiatives in decentralized health systems: Integrated Primary Health Care Governance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eboreime, Ejemai Amaize; Abimbola, Seye; Obi, Felix Abrahams; Ebirim, Obinna; Olubajo, Olalekan; Eyles, John; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla Lynette; Mambulu, Faith Nankasa

    2017-03-21

    Policy making, translation and implementation in politically and administratively decentralized systems can be challenging. Beyond the mere sub-national acceptance of national initiatives, adherence to policy implementation processes is often poor, particularly in low and middle-income countries. In this study, we explore the implementation fidelity of integrated PHC governance policy in Nigeria's decentralized governance system and its implications on closing implementation gaps with respect to other top-down health policies and initiatives. Having engaged policy makers, we identified 9 core components of the policy (Governance, Legislation, Minimum Service Package, Repositioning, Systems Development, Operational Guidelines, Human Resources, Funding Structure, and Office Establishment). We evaluated the level and pattern of implementation at state level as compared to the national guidelines using a scorecard approach. Contrary to national government's assessment of level of compliance, we found that sub-national governments exercised significant discretion with respect to the implementation of core components of the policy. Whereas 35 and 32% of states fully met national criteria for the structural domains of "Office Establishment" and Legislation" respectively, no state was fully compliant to "Human Resource Management" and "Funding" requirements, which are more indicative of functionality. The pattern of implementation suggests that, rather than implementing to improve outcomes, state governments may be more interested in executing low hanging fruits in order to access national incentives. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating implementation fidelity in providing evidence of implementation gaps towards improving policy execution, particularly in decentralized health systems. This approach will help national policy makers identify more effective ways of supporting lower tiers of governance towards improvement of health systems and outcomes.

  20. Lessons from the National Mental Health Integration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kathy; Pirkis, Jane E; Owen, Alan; Burgess, Philip M; Posner, Natasha; Perkins, David A

    2005-05-01

    Three projects were funded under the national Mental Health Integration Program (MHIP) in 1999, each of which employed a different model aimed at improving linkages between disparate parts of the mental health system. A national evaluation framework guided local evaluations of these projects, and this paper presents a synthesis of the findings. For providers, the projects improved working relationships, created learning opportunities and increased referral and shared care opportunities. For consumers and carers, the projects resulted in a greater range of options and increased continuity of care. For the wider system, the projects achieved significant structural and cultural change. Cost-wise, there were no increases in expenditure, and even some reductions. Many of the lessons from the projects (and their evaluations) may be generalised to other mental health settings and beyond.

  1. Reviewing the topic of migration and health as a new national health target for Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzoska, Patrick; Ellert, Ute; Kimil, Ahmet; Razum, Oliver; Sass, Anke-Christine; Salman, Ramazan; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-01-01

    To review migration and health as a potential new national health target for Germany. The theme was evaluated along 13 standardized criteria preset by the Health Targets Network. For each of the criteria an expert opinion based on an extensive (but nonsystematic) review of literature is presented. Migrants differ in many health-related aspects from the majority population in Germany. Despite having some health advantages, their health status, on average, is lower than that of non-migrants. They also experience barriers in health care and cannot participate in the society on equal terms with the majority population. Different measures to improve the health situation of migrants are available, but their current implementation in the health system is limited in several ways. Present data on the health of migrants is inadequate and limits migrant-sensitive health reporting. The evaluation of potential health targets based on standardized criteria is a valuable tool for health policy formulation. The present documentation can assist other countries in evaluating migration and health as a national health target. It may also contribute to similar activities at the European level.

  2. National audit of continence care: adherence to National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance in older versus younger adults with faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Danielle; Husk, Janet; Lowe, Derek; Wagg, Adrian

    2014-11-01

    previous UK National Audits of Continence Care showed low rates of assessment and treatment of faecal incontinence (FI) in older people. the 2009 audit assessed adherence to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines on management of FI and compared care in older versus younger patients. fifteen older (65+) and 15 younger (18-65) patients with FI were to be audited in hospital (inpatient or outpatient), primary care (PC) and care home sites. data were submitted for n = 2,930 cases from 133 hospitals, n = 1,729 from 97 PC surgeries and n = 693 from 63 care homes. Bowel history was not documented in 41% older versus 24% younger patients in hospitals and 27 versus 19% in PC (both P older people, there was no documented focused examination in one-third in hospitals, one-half in PC and three-quarters in care homes. Overall, older people. Clinicians, including geriatricians, need to lead on improving care in older people including comprehensive assessment where needed. Improvement in some indicators in older people with successive audits suggests that ongoing national audit with linked information resources can be useful as both monitor and agent for change. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamadan Bin Mohammad Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: National health accounts (NHAs provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Methods: The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs for Dubai and Qatar, and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat, for 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing measures used are as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA. Results: In Dubai, only 33% of current health expenditure (CHE is funded by the government. However, the public sector is the main source of health funding in Qatar and most OECD countries, with an average of 79% and 72%, respectively. Households in Dubai spent about 22% of CHE, equivalent to an average US$187 per capita, ranking the highest among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, and compared with 20% of CHE across OECD countries. Hospitals in Dubai accounted for 48% of CHE, which is much higher than Qatar (40% and the OECD average (36%. Conclusion: The Dubai health care financing system differs substantially from that in OECD countries, as it is more private oriented. The findings point to several potential opportunities for growth and improvement. Policy areas that may be addressed using the information presented in this article are broad and include the following: shift from hospital care to ambulatory and day care, sustainability of health finance, shift the cost of health care to the private sector, introduce cost-containment measures, revise

  4. The Relationship between Health Behavior and General Health Status: Based on 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Chunhoo; Oh, So-Mi; Jang, Soobin; Park, Jeong-Su; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; SHIN, YONG-CHEOL; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between health behavior and general health status. Methods We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mental health was measured by stress recognition and depression. Dietary habit was measured by mixed grain diet. Life pattern was measured by sleeping time and working pattern. Physical activity was measured by walking and exercise. We defined general health status as Euro Qualit...

  5. Draft national health policy 2015: A critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruque U

    2016-01-01

    Revising a health policy of any country is a periodic procedure dependent on the change of demographic profile, current health status of the population including epidemiological changes in disease prevalence pattern, and progress made under the earlier policies. Along with it, newer research revelation of the natural history of the existing and emerging health problems, availability of newer technology as well as changing sociopolitical commitment to improve the health status of the population are the driving forces in the change of policy. Draft National Health Policy (NHP) 2015 is an attempt for the same. A review of the draft has been undertaken. The chapter on introduction is crisp and clear. Situation analysis of the draft is sketchy and without any reference of sources. Shifting the health goal is without any basis, and the objectives defined for the policy change are incongruous with the introduction. A detailed description does not give a clear picture but rather confuses the reader as it talks of comprehensive universal health-care services to be provided with a holistic concept but maximum emphasis is made in the implementation of a national program. Private health-care services are an area to reckon but except for mere references on the involvement in private-public mode, nothing concrete is observed, especially in the primary care level. Involvement envisaged in the secondary and tertiary levels is nebulous. The implementation health insurance program as well as regulatory mechanISM with the existing is also not defined exclusively in the context of a newer health policy.

  6. 76 FR 67748 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113...

  7. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards...

  8. 76 FR 50235 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615...

  9. 76 FR 77239 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive... Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615...

  10. 75 FR 55805 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  11. 77 FR 34387 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination... Health and Human Services (DHHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Health and Nutrition Examination...: Geraldine McQuillan, Ph.D., Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health...

  12. Differences in socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics between Pakistani and White British women in the Born in Bradford prospective cohort study: the influence of the woman's, her partner's and their parents' place of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J; Lawlor, D A; Fairley, L; Wright, J

    2014-06-19

    To examine differences between Pakistani and White British women in relation to socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics, and to determine whether these differences vary depending on the woman's, her partner's and both of their parents' place of birth. Prospective cohort study. Bradford, UK PARTICIPANTS: 3656 Pakistani and 3503 White British women recruited to the Born in Bradford study. Socioeconomic position (employment status; level of education; receipt of benefits; housing tenure), lifestyle characteristics (body mass index (BMI) at the start of pregnancy; smoking during pregnancy) and health-related pregnancy characteristics (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; gestational diabetes; fasting glucose, postload glucose and fasting insulin at ∼27 weeks gestation). Fewer Pakistani women were employed (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.19), the difference being markedly less for UK born women. UK born Pakistani women were more likely, and South Asian born less likely, to be educated post 16 than White British women. Smoking was uncommon among Pakistani women, though the difference comparing UK born Pakistani women to White British women was less than for other groups. BMI was lower among Pakistani compared to White British women (adjusted mean difference -1.12, 95% CI -1.43 to -0.81), the difference being greatest when partners were UK born irrespective of the woman's place of birth. Pakistani women had higher fasting and postload glucose (mean difference 0.20 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.24; 0.37, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.45), higher fasting insulin and were more likely to have gestational diabetes (GDM). Our results suggest that some socioeconomic, lifestyle and pregnancy characteristics could be beginning to change in response to migration to the UK, with generally beneficial changes, that is, improving education and employment prospects, lower BMI and no evidence that being UK born has further increased the risk of GDM, but some

  13. A real-world study of the effectiveness of DBT in the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Janet D; Fonagy, Peter; Pilling, Stephen; Jones, Alan; Wildgoose, Amanda; Bebbington, Paul E

    2012-06-01

    Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) has gained widespread popularity as a treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD), and its efficacy has been demonstrated in several trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of DBT delivered by staff with a level of training readily achievable in National Health Service care settings for individuals with a Cluster B personality disorder. Randomized control trial methodology was used to compare DBT to treatment as usual (TAU). Forty-two participants entered the trial. Diagnostic and outcome measures were undertaken at assessment, at 6 months, and at 1 year. The clinical outcomes in routine evaluation--outcome measure (CORE-OM) were utilized as the primary outcome measure. Both the DBT and TAU groups improved on the range of measures employed. The DBT group showed a slightly greater decrease in CORE-OM risk scores, suicidality, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity. However, the TAU group showed comparable reductions in all measures and a larger decrease in para-suicidal behaviours and risk. DBT may be an effective treatment delivered by community outpatient services for individuals with a Cluster B personality disorder. Further studies are needed to consider the impact of experience and adherence to DBT in improving outcome. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. HEALTH INITIATIVES IN NATIONAL PAN-AMERICAN SWIMMING FEDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Perez Diaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: National Swimming Federations (NFs supervise a large number of athletes and have the duty to protect their health that implies also the opportunity to improve public health. Objective: 1 To determine if the health professionals, the priorities, activities, and researches of the Pan-American NFs are focused on protecting athletes’ health and promoting the health of the population in general. 2 To determine if the FINA rules, projects and programs are applied. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among the 45 Pan-American NFs requesting information on the profile of the health professionals (dimension 1; D1, on programs, activities and research to promote health measures (dimension 2; D2, and on the importance of Pan-American NFs for the health of athletes and for the promotion of health in society in general (dimension 3; D3. We performed a similarity study according to the Rogers-Tanimoto coefficient (D1 and D2 and the chi-squared test (χ² (D3. Results: Thirty NFs answered the survey (response rate: 66.6%. For each dimension, the NFs were classified into five groups (A, B, C, D, E. Among the NFs, 33.3% have physicians and 33.3% have physical therapists. In each of the dimensions, Group A accounted for the majority of NFs but their results were lower. The groups with the highest rates in each dimension contained a maximum of two NFs. The health of the elite athletes was ranked as the fourth most important issue. The health of the recreational athletes and the health of the general population had the lowest priority. Drowning prevention programs were the most common. Conclusions: Pan-American NFs have few medical resources and only a few have injury prevention programs for elite athletes. There is a need to improve health promotion programs to achieve relevant social outcomes.

  15. 76 FR 63624 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, National Cooperative Drug Discovery and Development Group. Date... Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (Telephone... Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 6151...

  16. 78 FR 13358 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Telephone Conference Call..., National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 6151, MSC 9606... Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, National Cooperative Drug Discovery & Development Groups. Date...

  17. Education determines a nation's health, but what determines educational outcomes? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa; Hertzman, Clyde; Subramanian, S V

    2012-02-01

    This study is premised on the notion that public health policy should address not only health itself, but also primary determinants of health. We examined the effect of national policies on educational outcomes, in particular, on adolescent reading literacy (ARL). We compared the effect of traditional policy indicators--national income and educational spending--with income inequality, a measure of redistributive policies. We used Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) data that provide a rare opportunity to test policy effects after accounting for competing individual-, school-, and country-level explanations. Our sample consisted of 119,814 students, 5126 schools, and 24 countries. Multilevel/Hierarchical regression findings were striking: GDP had a significant, but negligible effect on ARL scores (β=0.002, SE=0.0008), while educational spending had no significant effect. By contrast, income inequality exhibited a larger inverse association (β=-1.15, SE=0.57). Among the wealthy nations in OECD, additional economic prosperity and educational spending is trumped by distribution of income for its effect on ARL. Our study yielded a striking result about education, a major determinant of health. Not only is income inequality a significant determinant of ARL scores, but direct spending on education and overall national economic prosperity are not.

  18. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  19. Women's Health, Economic Health: A Cross-National Study of Nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... a healthy woman makes to society is not a luxury, but a necessity for that society's economic growth and future. Data Presentation and Analysis. Health Evaluation. Government ...... Beijing, China, September. Nations Online, World Bank, 2010, Definition of Gross National Income. Per Capita Purchasing ...

  20. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  1. Sub-national health care financing reforms in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert; Budiyati, Sri; Yumna, Athia; Warda, Nila; Suryahadi, Asep; Bedi, Arjun S

    2017-02-01

    Indonesia has seen an emergence of local health care financing schemes over the last decade, implemented and operated by district governments. Often motivated by the local political context and characterized by a large degree of heterogeneity in scope and design, the common objective of the district schemes is to address the coverage gaps for the informal sector left by national social health insurance programs. This paper investigates the effect of these local health care financing schemes on access to health care and financial protection. Using data from a unique survey among District Health Offices, combined with data from the annual National Socioeconomic Surveys, the study is based on a fixed effects analysis for a panel of 262 districts over the period 2004-10, exploiting variation in local health financing reforms across districts in terms of type of reform and timing of implementation. Although the schemes had a modest impact on average, they do seem to have provided some contribution to closing the coverage gap, by increasing outpatient utilization for households in the middle quintiles that tend to fall just outside the target population of the national subsidized programs. However, there seems to be little effect on hospitalization or financial protection, indicating the limitations of local health care financing policies. In addition, we see effect heterogeneity across districts due to differences in design features. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ethical assessment of national health insurance system of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuri; Kim, Soyoon; Kim, Ganglip

    2012-09-01

    The current adverse effects of the health insurance system in Korea are considered to be problems that arise from an insufficient reflection of the notion of respecting human rights. The ethical principles most commonly suggested and used in public health are the 4 principles suggested by Beauchamp and Childress in 1994. From the perspective of the community, these 4 principles of medical ethics can be expanded to resolve problems surrounding existing social systems from a socialistic standpoint. This article describes a flexible, easy-to-use model for incorporating the 4 medical ethics principles into the National Health Insurance System (NHIS). First, the principle of respect for autonomy involves respecting the decision-making capacities of autonomous medical consumers and providers and enabling individuals to make reasoned and informed choices. Second is the principle of good practice. The government and medical institutions should act in a way that benefits the health care consumers. The principle of prohibiting bad practice involves avoiding causing health problems. The National Health Insurance Corporation and health care providers should not harm the health care consumers. Finally, the principle of justice is concerned with distributing benefits, risks, and costs fairly-that is, the notion that patients in similar positions should be treated in a similar manner. If these problems are solved, health system quality could be better and more accessible and sustainable. The ethical assessment of the NHIS could be a trial to match the 4 medical ethics principles and the NHIS. It can be applied internationally to relevant policy makers in different settings.

  3. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Rasu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Methods Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL. HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS <226 and above basic (HLS ≥226. Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI. A Pvalue of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA®11.0 statistical software. Results The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%. Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83% and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P < .05. The extrapolated national

  4. The National Health Act and refusal of consent to health services by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Health Act and refusal of consent to health services by children. David McQuoid-Mason. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Medical Journal Vol. 96(6) 2006: 530-532. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  5. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., and public health goals, including the reduction of tobacco use, sedentary behavior, and poor... list of national priorities on health promotion and disease prevention to address lifestyle behavior... centers that exist to promote healthy behavior and reduce disease risk (including eliminating programs and...

  6. Overview of the national mental health benchmarking project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Tim; Walter, Garry; Brann, Peter

    2011-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the National Mental Health Benchmarking Project (NMHBP) which explored the value of benchmarking within the four main program areas of public sector mental health (general adult, child and adolescent, older persons and forensic). The NMHBP involved a series of forums which enabled participating organizations to benchmark themselves against each other, with a view to understanding variability in performance against a range of key performance indicators (KPIs). Twenty-three mental health organizations took part in the NMHBP. The forums culminated in each mental health organization documenting its performance against relevant KPIs. The processes, impacts and outcomes of the NMHBP were evaluated via a multi-methods evaluation. There was considerable variability across program streams for many of the KPIs, much of which could be explained by contextual factors. Within program streams there was considerable intra-organization variability. Participants found the examination of intra-organization variability on particular indicators to be useful. The NMHBP has shown that benchmarking is possible. Managers and clinical leaders will need to champion benchmarking and highlight its utility in relation to quality improvement and service development if the accountability goals of the Fourth National Mental Health Plan are to be realized.

  7. Correspondence analysis of the Spanish National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenacre M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This report gives a comprehensive explanation of the multivariate technique called correspondence analysis, applied in the context of a large survey of a nation's state of health, in this case the Spanish National Health Survey. It is first shown how correspondence analysis can be used to interpret a simple cross-tabulation by visualizing the table in the form of a map of points representing the rows and columns of the table. Combinations of variables can also be interpreted by coding the data in the appropriate way. The technique can also be used to deduce optimal scale values for the levels of a categorical variable, thus giving quantitative meaning to the categories. Multiple correspondence analysis can analyze several categorical variables simultaneously, and is analogous to factor analysis of continuous variables. Other uses of correspondence analysis are illustrated using different variables of the same Spanish database: for example, exploring patterns of missing data and visualizing trends across surveys from consecutive years.

  8. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July 12, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m... of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health...

  9. The equality of resource allocation in health care under the National Health Insurance System in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreng, Victor B; Yang, Chi-Tien

    2011-05-01

    An ideal resource allocation in health care should ensure most people to access equal health care services while needed. Not only social welfare economists but also health policy makers concern with rational distribution of health care resources. Taiwan implemented a National Health Insurance (NHI) program in 1995, to reduce financial barriers for all residents with a universal health care system. Horizontal equity, an explicit goal of the NHI system, is to guarantee equal opportunity of access to health care. Accordingly, this study, utilizing cross-sectional data, proposes a multi-criteria decision-making approach with grey incidence analysis to measure horizontal equity of health care resource allocation of the NHI in Taiwan. From the findings of this empirical study, most resources are allocated in North Taiwan resulting in geographical disparity due to unbalanced health care resource allocation. And the large-scale hospitals are mostly congregated only at metropolitan regions; therefore, the access to health care services for patients in rural areas is still limited. Finally, the NHI in Taiwan is a single-payer for all hospitals, in which payment for health care suppliers can be adopted as an efficient strategy to induce the disparity of resource allocation and to redistribute national health care resource. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary health care in China: is China's health reform reform for the whole nation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Min; Yuan, Yong-Xu; Lu, Wei; Yang, Le

    2017-07-01

    Good primary health care can enhance national health status at relatively low cost. The barefoot doctor model in China was once considered to have been a successful health care policy. It was a model which was followed by other low-developed or developing countries. In recent decades, the Chinese government promulgated a number of new policies and health reforms to improve its health care system. This paper aimed to highlight the great significance of primary health care and appeal to the policymakers to change the priority to primary health care in order to be able to guarantee universal health care for the whole nation at least at primary care level. This study discussed Chinese primary health care by reviewing its history and development. Chinese government's efforts do not seem to be leading to a completely successful outcome for all the people of China as a result of the substantial imbalance of investments between tertiary level hospitals and grass-root level health care institutions. The government appears to have neglected the importance of primary health care in the implementation of health systems and resources.

  11. Strengthening Rehabilitation in Health Systems Worldwide by Integrating Information on Functioning in National Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John

    2017-09-01

    A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.

  12. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence appraisal and ageism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Doyle, Nick; Littlejohns, Peter; Docherty, Mary

    2012-05-01

    The requirements of the UK Equality Act 2010 and some high profile criticism for using a potentially ageist methodology have prompted the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to assess the processes and methodology it uses to make appraisal decisions. This paper argues that NICE has established rigorous systems to protect against ageist decisions, has no track record of ageism and is well placed to meet the requirements of new UK equality legislation.

  13. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A; Collins, Francis S

    2015-10-06

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation's population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation's health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity's impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce.

  14. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W. [British Columbia Ministry of Finance, Victoria, BC (Canada). Land Use Coordination Office

    1998-12-31

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province.

  15. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  16. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  17. 78 FR 7794 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological...

  18. 76 FR 13650 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3171, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541...

  19. 75 FR 78719 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-12-16

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  20. 76 FR 35225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-06-16

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  1. 75 FR 55807 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-09-14

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  2. 76 FR 5594 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The.... Agenda: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  3. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-09-21

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  4. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-16

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  5. 78 FR 48695 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2013-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell...

  6. 75 FR 3474 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  7. 77 FR 4572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-01-30

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  8. 75 FR 32797 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-06-09

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  9. 77 FR 60445 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-10-03

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  10. 76 FR 11500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-03-02

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  11. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-08-21

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  12. 77 FR 74198 - National Institute Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

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    2012-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Environmental Health Sciences Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell...

  13. 76 FR 7572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

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    2011-02-10

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  14. 78 FR 14562 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-03-06

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  15. 75 FR 61765 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O. Box...

  16. 78 FR 14312 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-03-05

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  17. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-11-07

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  18. 78 FR 8156 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-02-05

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  19. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-05-21

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  20. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-02-19

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  1. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  2. 77 FR 37423 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-06-21

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  3. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93...

  4. 75 FR 2876 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-01-19

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  5. 75 FR 34147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-06-16

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  6. 78 FR 25754 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-05-02

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  7. 76 FR 21387 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2011-04-15

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  8. 75 FR 3740 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-01-22

    ... Health Special Emphasis Panel, Eating Disorders. Date: February 23, 2010. Time: 1:30 p.m. to 4 p.m... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, Translational Research...

  9. 75 FR 8976 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-02-26

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  10. 78 FR 13358 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-02-27

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  11. 77 FR 48164 - National Institute Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: September 11, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: Discussion of...

  12. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-09-16

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  13. 77 FR 18252 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: May 22-23, 2012. Open: May 22, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda...

  14. 76 FR 72417 - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples

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    2011-11-23

    ... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) DNA Samples AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) will not be receiving DNA proposals in 2012... of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for...

  15. 77 FR 62246 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

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    2012-10-12

    ... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior... Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  16. 78 FR 35637 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

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    2013-06-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to July 15, 2013, 5:00 p.m., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  17. 76 FR 25696 - National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-05-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Committee on Rural Health...-seventh meeting. Name: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services. Dates and Times... meeting will be open to the public. Purpose: The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human...

  18. 75 FR 51081 - National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-08-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Committee on Rural Health...-sixth meeting. Name: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services. Dates and Times... meeting will be open to the public. Purpose: The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human...

  19. 75 FR 3744 - National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Committee on Rural Health...-fourth meeting. Name: National Advisory Committee on Rural Health and Human Services. Dates and Times.... Status: The meeting will be open to the public. Purpose: The National Advisory Committee on Rural Health...

  20. 76 FR 10040 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. (919...

  1. 78 FR 20931 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  2. 75 FR 49500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  3. 75 FR 44272 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-28

    ... Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research Extension (CHARTER... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, CNS HIV Anti...

  4. Health Policy Brief: Global Mental Health and the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratsley, Kelso; Mackey, Tim K

    2018-01-25

    Increased awareness of the importance of mental health for global health has led to a number of new initiatives, including influential policy instruments issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN). This policy brief describes two WHO instruments, the Mental Health Action Plan for 2013-2020 (World Health Organization, 2013) and the Mental Health Atlas (World Health Organization, 2015), and presents a comparative analysis with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). The WHO's Action Plan calls for several specific objectives and targets, with a focus on improving global mental health governance and service coverage. In contrast, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals include only one goal specific to mental health, with a single indicator tracking suicide mortality rates. The discrepancy between the WHO and UN frameworks suggests a need for increased policy coherence. Improved global health governance can provide the basis for ensuring and accelerating progress in global mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  6. Using the National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea for Monitoring Mortality and Life Expectancy at National and Local Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Yeon Yong; Kang, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jeehye; Kim, Ikhan; Lee, Juyeon; Yun, Sung Cheol; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon Ae; Khang, Young Ho

    2017-11-01

    This study explores whether the National Health Information Database (NHID) can be used to monitor health status of entire population in Korea. We calculated the crude mortality rate and life expectancy (LE) at birth across the national, provincial, and municipal levels using the NHID eligibility database from 2004 to 2015, and compared the results with the corresponding values obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service (KOSIS) of Statistics Korea. The study results showed that the ratio of crude mortality rate between the two data was 0.99. The absolute difference between the LE of the two data was not more than 0.5 years, and did not exceed 0.3 years in gender specific results. The concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) between the crude mortality rates from NHID and the rates from KOSIS ranged 0.997-0.999 among the municipalities. For LE, the CCC between the NHID and KOSIS across the municipalities were 0.990 in 2004-2009 and 0.985 in 2010-2015 among men, and 0.952 in 2004-2009 and 0.914 in 2010-2015 among women, respectively. Overall, the NHID was a good source for monitoring mortality and LE across national, provincial, and municipal levels with the population representativeness of entire Korean population. The results of this study indicate that NHID may well contribute to the national health promotion policy as a part of the health and health equity monitoring system. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. The state of research funding from the National Institutes of Health for criminal justice health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Bolano, Marielle; Wang, Emily A; Williams, Brie

    2015-03-03

    Over 20 million Americans are currently or have been incarcerated. Most are from medically underserved populations; 1 in 3 African American men and 1 in 6 Latino men born in 2001 are projected to go to prison during their lifetime. The amount of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to understand and improve the health of persons involved with the criminal justice system is unknown. To describe NIH funding for research on the health and health care needs of criminal justice-involved persons. Review of NIH grants (2008-2012) in the RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database. U.S. criminal justice system. Criminal justice-involved persons participating in NIH-funded clinical research. NIH research and training grants awarded, by number, type, research area, institute or center, and dollar amount. Of more than 250 000 NIH-funded grants, 180 (criminal justice health research. The 3 most common foci were substance use or HIV (64%), mental health (11%), and juvenile health (8%). The National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health funded 78% of all grants. In 2012, the NIH invested $40.9 million in criminal justice health research, or 1.5% of the $2.7 billion health disparities budget for that year. NIH-supported research that did not explicitly include current or former prisoners but may have relevance to criminal justice health was not included. Federal funding for research focused on understanding and improving the health of criminal justice-involved persons is small, even compared with the NIH's overall investment in health disparities research. The NIH is well-positioned to transform the care of current and former prisoners by investing in this critical yet overlooked research area.

  8. The relationship between elderly suicide rates and mental health funding, service provision and national policy: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi

    2008-06-01

    Elderly suicide rates may be influenced by mental health funding, service provision and national policy. A cross-national study examining the relationship between elderly suicide rates and (i) the presence of national policy on mental health, (ii) funding for mental health, and (iii) measures of mental health service provision was undertaken by utilizing data from the World Health Organization website. The main findings are: (i) there is no relationship between suicide rates in both sexes in both elderly age-bands and different measures of mental health policy, except they were increased in countries with a substance abuse policy; and (ii) suicide rates in both sexes in both elderly age-bands were higher in countries with greater provision of mental health services, including the number of psychiatric beds, psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, and the availability of training in mental health for primary care professionals. Cross-national ecological studies using national-level aggregate data are not helpful in establishing a causal relationship (and the direction of this relationship) between elderly suicide rates and mental health funding, service provision and national policies. The impact of introducing national policies on mental health, increasing funding for mental health services and increasing mental health service provision on elderly suicide rates requires further examination in longitudinal within-country studies.

  9. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  10. National survey of yoga practitioners: mental and physical health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-08-01

    To describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. A cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys. 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n=18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age: 19-87 years (M=51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor's degree). Mean years of yoga practice=11.4 (± 7.5). BMI=12.1-49.4 (M=23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M=6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8%), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Recovery practice in community mental health teams: national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, M; Clarke, E; Le Boutillier, C; Bird, V; Choudhury, R; MacPherson, R; Pesola, F; Sabas, K; Williams, J; Williams, P; Slade, M

    2016-10-01

    There is consensus about the importance of 'recovery' in mental health services, but the link between recovery orientation of mental health teams and personal recovery of individuals has been underresearched. To investigate differences in team leader, clinician and service user perspectives of recovery orientation of community adult mental health teams in England. In six English mental health National Health Service (NHS) trusts, randomly chosen community adult mental health teams were surveyed. A random sample of ten patients, one team leader and a convenience sample of five clinicians were surveyed from each team. All respondents rated the recovery orientation of their team using parallel versions of the Recovery Self Assessment (RSA). In addition, service users also rated their own personal recovery using the Questionnaire about Processes of Recovery (QPR). Team leaders (n = 22) rated recovery orientation higher than clinicians (n = 109) or patients (n = 120) (Wald(2) = 7.0, P = 0.03), and both NHS trust and team type influenced RSA ratings. Patient-rated recovery orientation was a predictor of personal recovery (b = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-0.85, Pmental illness (39%) or supporting a family member or friend with mental illness (76%) did not differ in their RSA ratings from other team leaders or clinicians. Compared with team leaders, frontline clinicians and service users have less positive views on recovery orientation. Increasing recovery orientation may support personal recovery. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Developing the African national health research systems barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Senkubuge, Flavia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-07-22

    A functional national health research system (NHRS) is crucial in strengthening a country's health system to promote, restore and maintain the health status of its population. Progress towards the goal of universal health coverage in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda will be difficult for African countries without strengthening of their NHRS to yield the required evidence for decision-making. This study aims to develop a barometer to facilitate monitoring of the development and performance of NHRSs in the African Region of WHO. The African national health research systems barometer algorithm was developed in response to a recommendation of the African Advisory Committee for Health Research and Development of WHO. Survey data collected from all the 47 Member States in the WHO African Region using a questionnaire were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analysed. The barometer scores for each country were calculated and the performance interpreted according to a set of values ranging from 0% to 100%. The overall NHRS barometer score for the African Region was 42%, which is below the average of 50%. Among the 47 countries, the average NHRS performance was less than 20% in 10 countries, 20-40% in 11 countries, 41-60% in 16 countries, 61-80% in nine countries, and over 80% in one country. The performance of NHRSs in 30 (64%) countries was below 50%. An African NHRS barometer with four functions and 17 sub-functions was developed to identify the gaps in and facilitate monitoring of NHRS development and performance. The NHRS scores for the individual sub-functions can guide policymakers to locate sources of poor performance and to design interventions to address them.

  13. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... different “British worlds” against each other....

  14. Haptoglobin Duplicon, Hemoglobin, and Vitamin C: Analyses in the British Women’s Heart and Health Study and Caerphilly Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. I. Guthrie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Haptoglobin acts as an antioxidant by limiting peroxidative tissue damage by free hemoglobin. The haptoglobin gene allele Hp2 comprises a 1.7 kb partial duplication. Relative to allele Hp1, Hp2 carriers form protein multimers, suboptimal for hemoglobin scavenging. Objective. To examine the association of haptoglobin genotype with a range of phenotypes, with emphasis on vitamin C and hemoglobin levels. Methods. We applied a quantitative PCR assay for the duplication junction to two population cohorts including 2747 British women and 1198 British men. We examined the association of haptoglobin duplicon copy number with hemoglobin and vitamin C and used the copy number to complete a phenome scan. Results. Hemoglobin concentrations were greater in those with Hp2,2 genotype, in women only (Hp1,1 13.45 g/dL, Hp1,2 13.49 g/dL, Hp2,2 13.61 g/dL; P=0.002, though statistically there was no evidence of a difference between the sexes (z value = 1.2, P=0.24. Haptoglobin genotype was not associated with vitamin C or any other phenotype in either cohort. Conclusions. Our results do not support association of haptoglobin genotype with vitamin C or with other phenotypes measured in two population cohorts. The apparent association between haptoglobin genotype and hemoglobin in the women’s cohort merits further investigation.

  15. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center: Advancing wildlife and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moede Rogall, Gail; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-11

    In 1975, the Federal government responded to the need for establishing national expertise in wildlife health by creating the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), a facility within the Department of the Interior; the NWHC is the only national center dedicated to wildlife disease detection, control, and prevention. Its mission is to provide national leadership to safeguard wildlife and ecosystem health through active partnerships and exceptional science. Comparisons are often made between the NWHC, which strives to protect the health of our Nation’s wildlife, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which strive to protect public health. The NWHC, a science center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with specialized laboratories, works to safeguard the Nation’s wildlife from diseases by studying the causes and drivers of these threats, and by developing strategies to prevent and manage them. In addition to the main campus, located in Madison, Wisconsin, the NWHC also operates the Honolulu Field Station that addresses wildlife health issues in Hawaii and the Pacific Region.

  16. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  17. Consumers' perspectives on national health insurance in South Africa: using a mobile health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Edda; Stuttaford, Maria C

    2014-10-28

    Building an equitable health system is a cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO) health system building block framework. Public participation in any such reform process facilitates successful implementation. South Africa has embarked on a major reform in health policy that aims at redressing inequity and enabling all citizens to have equal access to efficient and quality health services. This research is based on a survey using Mxit as a mobile phone-based social media network. It was intended to encourage comments on the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) and to raise awareness among South Africans about their rights to free and quality health care. Data were gathered by means of a public e-consultation, and following a qualitative approach, were then examined and grouped in a theme analysis. The WHO building blocks were used as the conceptual framework in analysis and discussion of the identified themes. Major themes are the improvement of service delivery and patient-centered health care, enhanced accessibility of health care providers, and better health service surveillance. Furthermore, health care users demand stronger outcome-based rather than rule-based indicators of the health system's governance. Intersectoral solidarity and collaboration between private and public health care providers are suggested. Respondents also propose a code of ethical values for health care professionals to address corruption in the health care system. It is noteworthy that measures for dealing with corruption or implementing ethical values are neither described in the WHO building blocks nor in the NHI. The policy makers of the new health system for South Africa should address the lack of trust in the health care system that this study has exposed. Furthermore, the study reveals discrepancies between the everyday lived reality of public health care consumers and the intended health policy reform.

  18. A healthy nation: strengthening child health research in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Neena; Clark, Howard; Wolfe, Ingrid; Costello, Anthony; Budge, Helen; Goodier, R; Hyde, M J; Lumsden, D; Prayle, A; Roland, D

    2013-01-05

    Despite a general acknowledgment that research in children is necessary and ethical, the evidence base for child-specific treatments is still sparse. We investigated children's biomedical and health services research in the UK in relation to training, infrastructure and activity, research evidence, and visibility. We show that excellent opportunities for career researchers exist through a competitive, national integrated academic training programme, but that the number of academic paediatricians has decreased by 18% between 2000 and 2011, falling from 11·3% to 5·9% of the consultant workforce. The potential for rapid delivery of studies in children through the National Health Service (NHS) is not being realised: clinical trainees are poorly equipped with core research skills; most newly appointed consultant paediatricians have little or no research experience; less than 5% of contracted consultant time supports research; less than 2·5% of the 2 million children seen in the NHS every year are recruited to studies; and ten of the 20 UK children's hospitals do not have a clinical research facility. Support through National Institute for Health Research networks is good for studies into drugs, but inconsistent for non-drug research; less than 5% of registered studies involve children and only one children's biomedical research centre has been allocated funding from 2012. Of the UK annual public and charitable biomedical research expenditure of roughly £2·2 billion, about 5% is directed at child health research. The scant evidence base is impeding the development of clinical guidance and policy-less than 20% of the outputs of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence are applicable to children. Paediatric representation on major research boards is weak. Parent and young people's advocacy is fragmented, and their views are insufficiently heeded by regulatory bodies. The strong UK Government commitment to biomedical research has not been translated

  19. Outsourcing in the Italian National Health Service: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, outsourcing has become one of the major issues in health care. Two major concerns are related to public health care outsourcing practice. The first one involves the suitability of the outsourcing strategy in the public sector, principally with reference to the outsourcing of essential clinical services. The second one relates to the actual benefits of the outsourcing practice in health care, in terms of cost reduction and increasing efficiency. This paper aims to contribute to the debate and literature on outsourcing through a national survey carried out in the Italian National Health Service. In order to achieve the research objective, a questionnaire was developed and, after a pilot test, it was mailed to all Italian public providers. The total response rate was around 42%. Results showed that outsourcing is a widespread phenomenon within health care, especially in the ancillary services area. Moreover, results showed many criticalities of the outsourcing practice in the Italian health-care sector. On the one hand, criticalities concerned the reasons for outsourcing, the characteristics of the outsourced services and the management of the relationship with the vendor. With reference to essential clinical service, outsourcing, as currently managed by health-care providers, may potentially weaken their ability to reach its own objectives. On the other hand, criticalities related to respondent-perceived benefits. Despite the overall positive outsourcing experience expressed in the survey, the results on perceived benefits showed that the effects of outsourcing did not always align to managers' expectations, especially in the cost containment and efficiency area.

  20. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Bawa, Walter Agbor; Suminski, Richard; Snella, Kathleen; Warady, Bradley

    2015-08-17

    Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs) were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL) and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER) visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). A P value of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA® 11.0 statistical software. The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%). Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83%) and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P healthcare utilization and expenditure. Individuals with below basic or basic HLL have greater healthcare

  1. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-05-08

    Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged 'health tourism,' could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. The experiences of those 'vulnerable migrants' (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over 'health tourism,' and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  2. Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards universal health coverage involves providing people with access to needed health services without entailing financial hardship and is often advocated on the grounds that it improves population health. The paper offers econometric evidence on the effects of health coverage on mortality outcomes at the national level. We use a large panel data set of countries, examined by using instrumental variable specifications that explicitly allow for potential reverse causality and unobserved country-specific characteristics. We employ various proxies for the coverage level in a health system. Our results indicate that expanded health coverage, particularly through higher levels of publicly funded health spending, results in lower child and adult mortality, with the beneficial effect on child mortality being larger in poorer countries.

  3. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Sibling Pairs Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Haberstick, Brett C.; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the design and phenotype and genotype data available for sibling pairs with varying genetic relatedness in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Add Health is a nationally-representative longitudinal study of over 20,000 adolescents in the U.S. in 1994-95 who have been followed for fifteen years into adulthood. The Add Health design included oversamples of more than 3,000 pairs of individuals with varying genetic resemblance, ranging from monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, full siblings, half siblings, and unrelated siblings who were raised in the same household. Add Health sibling pairs are therefore nationally representative and followed longitudinally from early adolescence into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews during the period 1994-2009. Add Health has collected rich longitudinal social, behavioral, environmental, and biological data, as well as buccal cell DNA from all sample members, including siblings pairs. Add Health has an enlightened dissemination policy and to date has released phenotype and genotype data to more than 10,000 researchers in the scientific community. PMID:23231780

  4. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  5. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  7. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd... Research Grants; 93.281, Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and...

  8. 77 FR 11139 - National Institute of Mental Health Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... applications Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001..., Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93...

  9. 75 FR 17150 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd... Research Grants; 93.281, Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and...

  10. 75 FR 12243 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd... Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93.282, Mental...

  11. 76 FR 36931 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center..., Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93...

  12. 77 FR 67827 - National Institute of Mental Health Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center..., Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93...

  13. 77 FR 35414 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... contract proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center....281, Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist...

  14. 78 FR 18357 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd... Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93.282, Mental...

  15. 76 FR 6487 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001..., Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93...

  16. 75 FR 32959 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    .... Place: National Institutes of Health, Contact Person: Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd... Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93.282, Mental...

  17. 78 FR 32259 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... proposals. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center....281, Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist...

  18. 75 FR 67379 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville..., Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001..., Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93...

  19. 78 FR 44576 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center....281, Scientist Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist...

  20. 75 FR 8372 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive... Development Award, Scientist Development Award for Clinicians, and Research Scientist Award; 93.282, Mental...