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Sample records for british industrial revolution

  1. Analysis of the British Industrial Revolution in cinema: Oliver Twist

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente Diez, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    La Revolución Industrial británica fue un fenómeno histórico que incluso a día de hoy continúa atrayendo miradas. Sus dimensiones fueron tales que actualmente sus consecuencias aún son visibles. El objetivo de este proyecto es analizar el impacto social de la Revolución Industrial británica y las causas que llevaron a este punto como retrata Oliver Twist, la película seleccionada. Desde la perspectiva de las injusticias laborales y las desigualdades sociales, el estudio se centra en las conse...

  2. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  3. French revolution or industrial revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...

  4. French revolution or industrial revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...

  5. Patents for invention: setting the stage for the British industrial revolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTINE MACLEOD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de las patentes para el desarrollo económico en general y para la industrialización inglesa en particular sigue siendo una cuestión sin resolver a pesar de la intensa investigación histórica que ha tenido lugar en los últimos veinticinco años. Este artículo reexamina este debate a la luz de estas investigaciones y de la historia revisionista de la revolución industrial inglesa. El artículo se centra en la naturaleza y en el funcionamiento del sistema de patentes inglés durante el siglo XVIII y parte del siglo XIX, concretamente hasta la reforma de 1852. En primer lugar se reinterpreta la tendencia al alza en el número de patentes desde 1762 y coincidiendo con los supuestos años clásicos de la revolución industrial. En segundo lugar, se investiga que parte de la actividad inventiva tuvo lugar fuera del sistema de patentes, esto es, no fue capturado en las estadísticas. En tercer lugar, se sugiere que debemos pensar en el sistema de patentes como una tecnología que, como cualquier otra, fue conformada por las circunstancias en que tuvo lugar su invención y desarrollo. Este sistema fue el producto de un periodo en el que la propiedad se redefinió como un derecho privado exclusivo. A menos que reconozcamos que una patente crea, ante todo, un derecho de propiedad privada estaremos equivocando el punto de vista. Las patentes tenían que ver tanto con la inversión como con la invención. En conclusión, este artículo revierte el famoso argumento de Douglass North, y ofrece, en su lugar, el argumento de que fue la revolución industrial la que creó el marco para el surgimiento del sistema de patentes.

  6. A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture Since 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay traces the thought processes behind the composition of artists for the exhibition A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture since 1965 (1987-88. The exhibition introduced American museum audiences to the burgeoning activity in London in the 1980s and which foreshadowed even greater intensity in the following decade.

  7. Representing revolution: icons of industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2006-03-01

    Appreciating pictures entails a consideration not only of the people, objects and landscape that their artists have chosen to portray, but also an imagining of what has been excluded. The term 'Industrial Revolution' has been given multiple meanings, and this article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) explores some of these by exposing the messages concealed inside some of the most enduring images of the Revolution.

  8. 工业革命时期英国的结社法研究%The British Combination Act during the Industrial Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金燕

    2012-01-01

    The British Combination Acts were set by the government to restrict the combination of workers. Before the eighteenth century, there were no Combination Acts but few articles in labor laws that restricted combination in Britain. The first Combination Act was passed in 1720, and amended for several times in the following years. During the British Industrial Revolution period, the Combination Act was a great obstacle hindering the combination of workers and the development of trade union movement. It was finally replaced by the Trade Union Act in 1871, which brought legal status for trade union and developed to a certain degree the trade union movement.%英国的结社法是政府为限制工人结社而制定的法律。在18世纪之前,英国并没有特别针对结社的立法,多半是在一些劳工法令中有限制劳工结社的条款。1720年英国通过了第一个结社法,此后历经数次修正。工业革命时期英国的结社法对于工人结社以及工会运动的发展起到了很大的阻碍作用。1871年,结社法不复存在而代之以工会法,工会取得合法地位,工会运动得到了一定发展。

  9. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  10. Solar solution: the next industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn A. Sandén

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial revolution 200 years ago freed society from the limitations of bioenergy and brought tremendous growth but also huge environmental problems. Now, a new generation of modular technologies based on advanced materials enables efficient conversion of solar energy and carries the seeds of a new industrial revolution.

  11. British national identity and the French Revolution : E. Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France and its impact

    OpenAIRE

    田原, 光広

    2003-01-01

    Although he had pursued a liberalist career as a Whig politician, Edmund Burke became the first modern conservative when he published Reflections on the Revolution in France to argue against the French Revolution and defend the British constitution. In this work, Burke significantly tried to seek British national identity in order to refute the political theory behind the French Revolution. The purpose of this paper is to examine Burke's political arguments and elucidate concretely the charac...

  12. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  13. Was there an ‘Industrious Revolution' before the Industrial Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Robert C.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    It is conventionally assumed that the pre-modern working year was fixed and that consumption varied with changes in wages and prices. This is challenged by the twin theories of the ‘industrious' revolution and the consumer revolution, positing a longer working year as people earned surplus money...... estimates of the actual working year, we find two ‘industrious' revolutions among rural workers; both, however, are attributable to economic hardship, and we detect no signs of a consumer revolution. For urban labourers, by contrast, a growing gap between their actual working year and the work  required...

  14. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  15. Was there an ‘Industrious Revolution' before the Industrial Revolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Robert C.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    estimates of the actual working year, we find two ‘industrious' revolutions among rural workers; both, however, are attributable to economic hardship, and we detect no signs of a consumer revolution. For urban labourers, by contrast, a growing gap between their actual working year and the work  required......It is conventionally assumed that the pre-modern working year was fixed and that consumption varied with changes in wages and prices. This is challenged by the twin theories of the ‘industrious' revolution and the consumer revolution, positing a longer working year as people earned surplus money...... to buy novel goods. In this study, we turn the conventional view on its head, fixing consumption rather than labour input. Specifically, we use a basket of basic consumption goods and compute the working year of rural and urban day labourers required to achieve that. By comparing with independent...

  16. Hypercars: The next industrial revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B.; Barnett, John W.; Lovins, L. Hunter

    1996-01-01

    The auto industry -- one-seventh of the GNP, and the highest expression of the Iron Age -- is about to trigger the biggest transformation in industrial structure since the microchip. Ultralight cars molded from net-shape advanced composites can be several-fold lighter than present steel cars, yet safer, sportier, and more comfortable, durable, and beautiful. Modern hybrid-electric drives boost efficiency approximately 1.3-1.5x in heavy steel cars, but approximately 5-20x in ultralight, very slippery plafforms. Synergistically combined into ultralight-hybrid 'hypercars,' these elements can yield state-of-the-shelf family cars that average 150-300+ mi/gal -- twice that with state-of-the-art technologies -- yet can also be superior in all other respects, probably including cost: carbon-fiber monocoques can actually be cheaper to mass-produce that steel unibodies. Designing cars more like aircraft and less like tanks requires not only an approximately 400-500 kg curb mass and very low air and road drag, but also an aerospace philosophy of engineering integration. Mass, cost, and complexity turn out to compound with heavy hybrids but to decompound with ultralight hybrids, owing partly to radical simplification. Excellent aerodynamics, preferable including advanced techniques for passive boundary-layer control, will be the key to successful design integration. Transforming automaking is a competitive and environmental imperative, could form the nucleus of a green industrial Renaissance, and would enhance national security by, among other things, saving as much oil as OPEC now extracts. However, this transformation faces serious cultural barriers. For example, hypercars will be more like computers with wheels than like cars with chips -- they'll have an order of magnitude more code than today's cars -- but Detroit is not a software culture. Just the transition from stamped and welded steel to integrated and adhesive-joined synthetics is difficult enough. Nonetheless

  17. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  18. INVENTION, INNOVATION SYSTEMS, AND THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur Daemmrich

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the interplay of major inventions and changes to innovation systems during three historical industrial revolutions as the basis for understanding whether a new revolutionary era...

  19. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  20. Illiteracy in Devon During the Industrial Revolution, 1754-1844

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)

  1. GLOBALIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVENESS: FROM INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Marginean

    2009-01-01

    The world is experiencing a new revolution – the knowledge revolution – fuelled by the technological change. In the same time, globalization and competitiveness are two concepts used to explain modern trends in economic development. This paper analyzes the relationship between globalization, technology and competitiveness. Globalization and technology are linked and they have generated great shifts in the national competitiveness of countries. In a broad sense, industrial revolution can be se...

  2. Making sense of modernity's maladies: health and disease in the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael

    2006-09-01

    The industrialization and urbanization of Britain during the 19th century gave the medical profession something to think about. In particular, were the radical changes taking place in society responsible for the sudden rise in endemic and epidemic disease? This article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) examines the reactions of two key figures in the history of British public health, James Philips Kay and Thomas Southwood Smith, to this question. Their outlooks typify the tendency of Victorian medical practitioners to construct economies of health that saw disease as a consequence of the violation of natural laws and cycles rather than as a product of industrial modernity.

  3. Goblins, Morlocks, and Weasels: Classic Fantasy and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanger, Jules

    1977-01-01

    Examines three fantasy classics written at the time of the Industrial Revolution to illustrate the effects of drastic social change on fantasy writing; suggests the possible impact of these fantasies on their readers. (GT)

  4. Using Josiah Wedgwood to Teach the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phyllis A.; Sprinkle, John H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Uses Josiah Wedgwood and the pottery industry in England to illustrate the theme of technological development in a unit on the Industrial Revolution. States that infusing the biography of a specific individual can enliven history instruction. Presents two lessons on Josiah Wedgwood and shows how historians use the material culture to understand…

  5. Industrial revolution - industry 4.0: Are German manufacturing SMEs the first victims of this revolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sommer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Industry 4.0 represents a special challenge for businesses in general and for SMEs in particular. The study at hand will examine companies´ awareness, readiness and capability to meet this challenge taking into account the special role of SMEs. Methodology: The results of nine studies dealing with this range of topics are examined in the framework of a systematic review and compared with regard to the objective of the study at hand. Findings: The review showed that, as a rule, there is an awareness concerning the relevance of the topic. The readiness and the capability to meet this challenge exist in parts; however, they strongly depend on the enterprise size. The smaller SMEs are, the higher the risk that they will become victims instead of beneficiaries of this revolution.Originality/value: Considering different studies concerning Industry 4.0 the article gives an insight into the dependence of the Industry 4.0 readiness in reference to the company size. This deepens the knowledge in adaption deficits German SME still have and opens different approaches for further research and action plans.

  6. Industrious Selection: Explaining Five Revolutions and Two Divergences in Eurasian Economic History within a Unified Growth Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Chi Pui

    2016-01-01

    We develop a unified growth theory with Industrious Selection to explain the Five Revolutions in the development process (Agricultural Revolution, Structural Transformation, Industrial Revolution, Industrious Revolution, Demographic Revolution) and the Two Divergences in Eurasia (Little Divergence, Great Divergence) in AD0-AD2000. Industrious Selection refers to industrious (hardworking and cooperative) individuals gradually dominating the population composition through labor-leisure optimiza...

  7. Writing and Thinking about the English Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Jacqueline H.

    1988-01-01

    Notes that writing can be a more effective tool for social studies learning if assignments require students to generate their own thoughts rather than restate someone else's ideas. Offers a two-day lesson on the reform of child labor practices during the English Industrial Revolution. A wide variety of writing activities are featured. (JDH)

  8. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  9. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  10. Mobilizing private finance to drive an energy industrial revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Eni Chair in Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania, 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Kidney, Sean [ClimateRisk Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Mallon, Karl; Hughes, Mark [ClimateRisk Ltd, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    While uptake of renewable energies as a solution to climate change is widely discussed, the issue of public vs. private financing is not yet adequately explored. The debates over the Kyoto Protocol and its successor, culminating in the COP15 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, maintained a strong preference for public over private financing. Yet it is also clear to most observers that the energy revolution will never happen without the involvement of private finance to drive private investment. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the ways in which private financing could be mobilized to drive the energy industrial revolution that is needed if climate change mitigation is to succeed. (author)

  11. From domestic manufacture to Industrial Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2006-01-01

    The classical story of industrialization always begins with agriculture: the modernization of rural institutions, involving both the enclosure of ‘open fields' and a shift from peasant farming to larger scale capitalist farming, generates a rise in agricultural productivity, which in turn fuels i...... of farmers and thus to the transfer of labour from agriculture to industry...

  12. The Early Industrial Revolution: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Univ., Lowell. Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    This lesson, which is based on a field trip to Lowell, Massachusetts, focuses on Lowell's preeminence as a textile weaving center beginning late in the 18th century. The lesson offers advice for managing the tour group, provides historical background on Lowell, the textile industry, and the United States and the world in general at the time, and…

  13. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology.

  14. Growth in an English population from the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, S; Brickley, M; Ives, R

    2008-05-01

    The rapid urbanization of the Industrial Revolution in 18th-19th century England presented new health challenges. Our aim is to investigate using English skeletal remains whether the living conditions for an urban working class group in the Industrial Revolution negatively impacted upon their skeletal growth compared with a population from a rural agrarian parish. The Industrial Revolution skeletal material is from St Martin's Churchyard, Birmingham (SMB), West Midlands. It dates primarily from the first half of the nineteenth century when Birmingham was a major manufacturing center. The rural group is from Wharram Percy (WP), North Yorkshire, and dates from 10th-19th century AD. The methodology involves plotting diaphyseal bone lengths versus dental age for subadults. No overall difference was found between the two populations in bone length-for-age among the 2- to 18-year cohort. However the younger parts of the SMB cohort were smaller than at WP; the opposite was true of the older parts of the cohort. Growth rate, as inferred from crosssectional data, appeared greater at SMB than at WP. The only result consistent with expectations is the larger bone dimensions in young children from WP, but this likely reflects prolonged breastfeeding at WP not differences in urban and rural environments. That the deleterious health effects that we know accompanied the major transition in human society from a rural agrarian to an urban industrialized living environment should be little manifest in skeletal endochondral growth data is discouraging for those who would use such methodology to monitor health in earlier populations.

  15. About the new industrial production management concept as the company strategy in the fourth industrial revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new industrial production management requires a review of the third industrial revolution results and accounting for mass adoption of information and communication technologies to create the organizational basis of the fourth industrial revolution. The future changes will affect all components of the organization and management components of industrial enterprises, forming the potential of new competitive advantages in a global economy. The research included the identification of key factors of formation, development and destruction (absorption related branches of knowledge the industrial production management as the theory and practical activities, given the critical approach to its nature and processes. Revealed common signs of the industrial production management need as a field of knowledge in the framework of previous and current industrial revolutions. It is shown that the industrial production management effectively solves the problem of subsistence economy, and substantiates that the modern digital economy also has the characteristics of subsistence economy. It is important the necessity of formulation of a new organizational thinking, the implementation of which is possible in the modern interpretation of the project office. The article represents the theoretical basis for developing practical recommendations for the formation of the new concept of industrial production management to take advantage of the impact of engineering component on the economic results and the creation of project offices for the development of traditional and created markets in the organization of a new production mode (based on the digital economy.

  16. Immigration and the American industrial revolution from 1880 to 1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Charles; Mogford, Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we measure the contribution of immigrants and their descendents to the growth and industrial transformation of the American workforce in the age of mass immigration from 1880 to 1920. The size and selectivity of the immigrant community, as well as their disproportionate residence in large cities, meant they were the mainstay of the American industrial workforce. Immigrants and their children comprised over half of manufacturing workers in 1920, and if the third generation (the grandchildren of immigrants) are included, then more than two-thirds of workers in the manufacturing sector were of recent immigrant stock. Although higher wages and better working conditions might have encouraged more long-resident native-born workers to the industrial economy, the scale and pace of the American industrial revolution might well have slowed. The closing of the door to mass immigration in the 1920s did lead to increased recruitment of native born workers, particularly from the South, to northern industrial cities in the middle decades of the 20th century.

  17. Privatisation: saving the British coal industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C.

    1995-11-01

    Britain`s coal industry was privatised at the end of 1994, after about forty eight years of state ownership. This paper beings with a very brief sketch of the history of coal mining in Britain, including the events which led up to privatisation. It then explains the privatisation scheme and assesses its implications. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  19. Aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvie, D.

    1996-02-01

    An economic model, using OLS regression, of aggregate productivity in the post-war British coal industry is presented. Some of the methods used by Weisskopf, Bowles and Gordon (1983) in their `social model` of aggregate productivity in the US economy are drawn upon; however, all `social` variables included in this coal productivity model are found not to be significant. The results suggest that pit closures have been an important source of aggregate productivity growth throughout the period; this does not imply, however, that `unproductive`, or `uneconomic`, pits are intrinsically so, rather their status as such may be the result of a political process. Average colliery size and the industry`s capital stock were also found to be important explanatory variables. Attention was paid to the effects of the national miners` strikes during the period; these were found to be structurally insignificant. 45 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Telecommunications is Dead, Long Live Networking : The Effect of the Information Revolution on the Telecom Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, James

    1997-01-01

    The author looks at how the drivers of the information revolution are transforming the structure of the telecommunications industry. The end of natural monopoly, the breakdown of the old pricing mechanisms, the increasing competition from new operators and new products, and the globalization of the industry are forcing radical change. This spells trouble for incumbent telecommunications op...

  1. The Industrial Revolution in the Twentieth Century, with a Focus on Japan and the East Asian Followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the suitability of the term "revolution," the national versus transnational focus, and characterizations of the industrial revolution. Considers a late-development model of industrialization and its application to East Asia. Focuses on issues in Japanese industrialization, such as the role of the Japanese government, militarism…

  2. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  3. The 3. industrial revolution according to Jeremy Rifkin: vision or utopia?; La 3. revolution industrielle selon Jeremy Rifkin: vision ou utopie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-11-15

    Is the civilization of hydrogen on its way? This is what Jeremy Rifkin claims, who is announcing the 3. industrial revolution, based on electricity produced in an entirely decentralized manner from renewable energy and stored in the form of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis. This article analyses the three main 'pillars' of this industrial revolution and concludes that it is much more a matter of utopia than a 'vision'. (author)

  4. SOURCING PATTERNS WITHIN BRITISH AND AMERICAN NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF THE 2011 EGYPTIAN REVOLUTION: THE RISE OF NON-ELITE PRIMARY DEFINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Fitzgerald

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have noted the dominance of official sources within the news process and their unique ability to shape media narratives. This research addresses the role and implications of news sources in contributing to the overwhelmingly positive portrayal of the anti-Mubarak opposition protesters within British and American newspaper coverage of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. Furthermore, this paper will assess how the position of global political elites towards the protests in Egypt possibly opened up the editorial space within the news coverage of the revolution for the anti-Mubarak opposition movement to emerge as the dominant voice within the reporting.

  5. The Readiness of the European Union to Embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kuruczleki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has become a crucial factor of production in the developed economies and, as humans are the carriers and utilisers of knowledge, skilled human resource is gaining similarly large relevance. These advancements are elements of the substantial changes that characterise the fourth industrial revolution – a phenomenon worth studying in detail. The European Union has been explicitly concerned about the shift to the knowledge economy since the Lisbon Summit of 2000. More than one and a half decades later the eu’s readiness to embrace the knowledge-driven fourth industrial revolution can be examined. We undertake that by creating an index based on various related data.

  6. Vulnerability of the British swine industry to classical swine fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphyre, Thibaud; Correia-Gomes, Carla; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gamado, Kokouvi; Auty, Harriet K.; Hutchinson, Ian; Reeves, Aaron; Gunn, George J.; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2017-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB. Despite the consistently low vulnerability of the British swine industry to large CSF outbreaks, we identified concerns with respect to the role played by the non-commercial sector of the industry. The model further revealed how various epidemiological features may influence the spread of CSF in GB, highlighting the importance of between-farm biosecurity in preventing widespread dissemination of the virus. Knowledge of factors affecting the risk of spread are key components for surveillance planning and resource allocation, and this work provides a valuable stepping stone in guiding policy on CSF surveillance and control in GB. PMID:28225040

  7. Consumer demand in the Industrial Revolution : The Netherlands, 1815-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonenkamp, Jan P.M.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2005-01-01

    The industrial revolution is mostly seen as a supply side phenomenon. Ever since Gilboy stated that factors of demand may have been equally important, scholars have stressed the importance of investments and technological change. This paper re-considers Gilboy’s ideas, using the dataset of the Dutch

  8. The Fifth Wave: Using the Internet To Teach the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of websites pertaining to the Industrial Revolution. Topics include the Boott Cotton Mills in Massachusetts, coal mining in the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, labor conflicts of the Progressive Era, Andrew Carnegie, and the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. (CMK)

  9. The Revolution in Banking and the Financial Services Industry. Series on Public Issues No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Donald R.

    It is the premise of this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, that a revolution in the banking and financial services industry is altering not only the fundamental nature of the services offered but the character of the organizations themselves. The purpose of the essay is…

  10. Role-play and the Industrial Revolution: an STS approach to the teaching of steam engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabka, Diego; Pereira de Pereira, Alexsandro; Lima Junior, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Role-play is an interesting, although underexplored, way of teaching physics in high school. This paper presents a science-technology-society (STS) approach to the teaching of heat engines based on a role-play of the Industrial Revolution. Enacting the role-play, students are presented not only to scientific concepts, but also to the social and technological controversies of industrial development.

  11. The struggle for market power: industrial relations in the British coal industry, 1800-1840

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Alan Jaffe

    2003-07-01

    During the Industrial Revolution, class relations were defined largely through the struggle to control the terms of exchange in the market. Integrating aspects of economic and social history as well as industrial sociology, this book examines the sources of the perception of the market on the part of both capital and labour and the elaboration of their alternative market ideologies. Of particular import is the argument that working-class culture expressed a fundamental acceptance of the utility of the market, a point that is supported by a detailed analysis of the labour process, workplace bargaining, and early-nineteenth-century trade unionism. Nonetheless, the working class's definition of 'proper' market relations differed substantially from that of capitalists. Contents: Introduction; 1. Capital and credit; 2. The perception of the market and industrial policy; 3. Managerial capitalism; 4. Family, community, and the labor market; 5. Work and the ideology of the market; 6. Religion, ideology, and trade unions; 7. The transformation of market relations: Tommy Hepburn's union, 1831; 8. Epilogue: class struggle and market power; Conclusion: the labor process and the market; Appendix; Select bibliography; Index.

  12. Technological Competitiveness of Ukraine under Conditions of a New Industrial Revolution and Development of Convergent Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyushenko Igor Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of increasing the technological competitiveness of Ukrainian enterprises under conditions of a new industrial revolution through the development and introduction of advanced converged technologies. The classification of industrial revolutions, namely, industrial, technological, information and Industry 4.0, is presented, and it has been determined that the key factor of the latter is cyber physical systems for introduction of the client-oriented “Internet of Things”. It has been justified that the formation of Industry 4.0 in developed countries will occur through advanced production technologies (APT, which main characteristics are technological substitution, automation, customization, localization and economic efficiency. It has been found that in 2020 the main priority APT will be: systems of production process control; multidimensional modeling of complex products; intelligent production systems and robotics; systems of creation and transformation (growing of material objects and 3D-printing; materials effective in creating perspective actuating devices (compositional and those that exhibit their properties in small-size structures. It has been proved that the recovery of Ukraine’s industry is not possible on the old industrial base, and the creation of a new industry based on APT of Industry 4.0 is possible in the following areas: ICT (primarily in the field of software development; new composite materials with specified properties; industrial nanobiotechnologies (biomedicine and pharmacy, new agricultural technologies; mathematical modeling for creation of intelligent production systems; space research and development (in particular, development of the first stages of heavy missiles. The necessity of elaborating state programs of competitiveness development on the basis of APT, foresight research oftechnology priorities, promoting high-tech exports in Ukraine has been substantiated.

  13. The Industrial Revolution and Birth of the Anti-Mercantilist Idea:Epistemic Communities and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whiteneck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to offer a new perspective on the linkage between global leadership and the role of epistemic communities in international relations. The issue of bilateral trade liberalization between Great Britain and its trading partners rose to prominence on the global agenda in the 1700s by the efforts of British political economists and merchants. These efforts were prompted by changes in economic relations brought about by the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the mercantile system. While this group was small in number and its interactions rudimentary by 20th Century standards, it nonetheless met the qualifications specified by many scholars. It is further argued that such communities are linked to the exercise of global leadership in the long cycle model's phases of agenda setting and coalition building. They arc started and based in the global leader, and arc nurtured by the relatively open social and political structures of that leader. Evidence supporting this argument strengthens the long cycle model's explanatorypower with regard to agenda setting, coalition creation, and the role of innovative solutions to global problems, and makes preeminence in knowledge -based communities another dimension of global leadership.

  14. Microelectronics Revolution And The Impact Of Automation In The New Industrialized Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Vitor

    1984-08-01

    A brief review of some important historical points on the origin of the Factories and the Industrial Revolution is presented with emphasis in the social problems related to the automation of the human labor. Until the World War I, the social changes provoked by the Industrial Revolution caused one division of the World in developed and underdeveloped countries. After that period, the less developed nations began their industrialization mainly through the Multinationals Corporations (MC). These enterprises were very important to the production and exportation of utilities and manufactures in general, mainly in those products which required intensive and direct human labor. At present time, with the pervasiveness of microelectronics in the automation, this age seems to reaching an end because all continous processes in industry tend economicaly toward total automation. This fact will cause a retraction in long-term investments and, beyond massive unemployment, there is a tendency for these MC industries to return to their original countries. The most promising alternative to avoid these events, and perhaps the unique, is to incentive an autonomous development in areas of high technology, as for instance, the microelectronics itself.

  15. Innovative horizons of the Third industrial revolution: economy, power sector, ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Melnyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze factors contribute to the transformation of economic systems in conditions of the Third industrial revolution. The result of the analysis. The definition of the third industrial revolution (T. i. r. as the multidimensional complex phenomenon is given. Its key features are characterized. They are: the transition to renewable energy sources and raw materials, mass introduction of additive technologies and network manufacturing systems, digital base of fixing and transmission of information, the formation of the horizontal production and consumption patterns, solidary forms of economic relations. The reality of perspectives of renewable energy sources introduction are confirmed with the facts of their development dynamics. Since 2000, the volume of alternative power has doubled: on the sun 7 times, and on the wind 4 times. Under each doubling of energy production its costs is reduced on the sun by 24%, and on the wind 17%. It is shown the functional possibilities of additive technologies: unlimited design versions; free provision of complexity; free provision of variability, minimal waste; production for individual demand; exclusion assembly step; direct materialization of information. Basic groups of the T. i. r. innovations in energy, raw material, technological, organizational and economic sections are characterized. Conclusions. The Third industrial revolution allows to transit to renewable resources and additive technologies. It creates the foundation for a significant reduction in specific resource consumption for conventional unit of human vital functions. The conditions for horizontal production-consumption structures and solidary forms of economic relations are created as well.

  16. Constructing Learning: Adversarial and Collaborative Working in the British Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dan; Felstead, Alan; Fuller, Alison; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna; Kakavelakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two competing systems of work organisation in the British construction industry and their consequences for learning. Under the traditional "adversarial" system, conflict, hostility and litigation between contractors are commonplace. Such a climate actively militates against collective learning and knowledge sharing between…

  17. Wireless and empire geopolitics radio industry and ionosphere in the British Empire 1918-1939

    CERN Document Server

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2009-01-01

    Although the product of consensus politics, the British Empire was based on communications supremacy and the knowledge of the atmosphere. Focusing on science, industry, government, the military, and education, this book studies the relationship between wireless and Empire throughout the interwar period.

  18. Smart factory in the context of 4th industrial revolution: challenges and opportunities for Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, B. C.; Zamfirescu, C. B.

    2017-08-01

    Manufacturing companies, independent of operation sector and size, must be able to produce lot size one products, just-in-time at a competitive cost. Coping with this high adaptability and short reaction times proves to be very challenging. New approaches must be taken into consideration for designing modular, intelligent and cooperative production systems which are easy to integrate with the entire factory. The coined term for this network of intelligent interacting artefacts system is cyber-physical systems (CPS). CPS is often used in the context of Industry 4.0 - or what many consider the forth industrial revolution. The paper presents an overview of key technological and social requirements to map the Smart Factory vision into reality. Finally, global and Romanian specific challenges hindering the vision of a true Smart Factory to become reality are presented.

  19. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: a successful public health campaign despite industry opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, J; Glantz, S

    2003-09-01

    To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws.

  20. A composite perspective on British living standards during the Industrial Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo Albarrán, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Few topics in economic history have received more attention than the profound transformations undergone by Great Britain during the 18th and 19th century. Even though the positive outcomes of this process for human living standards nowadays are not disputed, the same does not apply to the century sp

  1. A composite perspective on British living standards during the Industrial Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo Albarrán, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Few topics in economic history have received more attention than the profound transformations undergone by Great Britain during the 18th and 19th century. Even though the positive outcomes of this process for human living standards nowadays are not disputed, the same does not apply to the century

  2. Industrial Revolution. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bob

    In this lesson plan, each student acts as a Member of Parliament (MP) in England in 1832 who must analyze the effects of what some people are referring to as the "Industrial Revolution." Students will write a bill, write a speech, and participate in debates. Students are provided with background information, detailed instructions, online…

  3. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Student Worksheets. Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The worksheets contained in this bulletin are designed for use in conjunction with the teaching strategies for Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." The worksheets correspond to specific strategies with accompanying questions on the appropriate strategy page. Included are activities for the seven subthemes: (1)…

  4. Global History. A Curriculum Guide. Second Semester. Theme V: The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact. Teacher Strategies. Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Designed to assist teachers and supervisors in the implementation of the global history course, this bulletin presents learning activities which include the rationale, performance objectives, and teaching strategies related to Theme V entitled, "The Industrial Revolution Had Global Impact." This theme has seven subthemes: (1)…

  5. Occupational exposure to wood dust in the british woodworking industry in 1999/2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nigel; Dilworth, Martin; Summers, Nick

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to inhalable wood dust and compliance with the British Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999 were assessed at a representative cross-section of the British woodworking industry. Median exposures ranged from 1.5 to 2.8 mg/m(3) across the selected industry groups, the lowest being in sawmilling and planing of wood. Overall, 27% of values exceeded the maximum exposure limit (MEL) at that time of 5 mg/m(3). These results showed that the percentage of exposures above the MEL was less than in a survey carried out 10 years earlier. A wide variation of exposures was identified at different machines and tasks. At least 90% at bandsawing and cross-cut sawing were woodworking activities.

  6. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA WINE INDUSTRY: CAN IT COMPETE WITH THE BIG GUYS?

    OpenAIRE

    Cartier, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In 1989, the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was implemented and dramatically changed the course of the wine industry’s development in British Columbia (BC). The FTA forced the industry to make the transition from being highly protected, and inefficient, to a competitive market contender. Although considered initially to be a victim of the FTA, by 2010, the BC wine industry contributed $295.8 million to the BC economy, or 0.15% of provincial GDP, and provided 5,100 direct an...

  7. Strategic Alliances in the European Industries of the Third Industrial Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Calvo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of the alliances has compelled experts to revise their preconceptions about the internationalization of companies and to include this strategy in their models as Uppsala model was forced to acknowledge. This article focuses on one of the alliances forged in Europe, very deviated from the practices of the majority because it was a company with exclusively European partners. It adopts the perspective of a peripheral country (Spain in the global economy and from the special status of at least one of the partners in a monopoly. Finally, the article follows case study methodology, which aims to delve into the complexity of the processes and the phenomena at hand. The article responds to the need for an alternative approach to industry analysis that is particularly important for technology-based industries and the most turbulent high-tech industries.  The first section examines the creation of European Silicon Structures as a strategic alliance in the European semiconductor industry. Parts two and three look at the case of Spain and the role of demand using the example of Telefonica. Conclusions are presented in the final section.

  8. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  9. Opportunities and threats of the fourth industrial revolution and their reflection in the selection of innovative growth strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Illiashenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. Analysis and systematization of possible effects of the fourth industrial revolution both positive and negative, development of recommendations for innovative development strategies formation which would allow the use of opportunities for social and economic growth and will prevent treats. The results of the analysis. Based on a systematic analysis of the literature and practice of management allocated the positive and negative effects of the introduction of innovative technologies (both existing and forecasted, created in line with the fourth industrial revolution. The results of their systematization can be used as basis for the formation of an information base to determine the priorities of innovation. It is shown that distribution of the changes caused by the fourth industrial revolution and the completion of the fifth technological way and the transition to the sixth provide chances to individual institutions and national economies to move to outstripping innovative development. On the example of Ukraine and modern forms of work organization (freelance for the various sectors of activity it is shown that domestic experts have leading positions in global markets, they are successfully implementing the technology generated by the fourth industrial revolution. It demonstrates the significant potential of transition to the sixth technological way. The generalized scheme of formation of Ukrainian innovative development priority directions in line with the concept of technological advance is developed. It is shown that Ukraine has considerable potential for innovation growth which is relevant to the terms of the fourth industrial revolution. In particular, the 2015 world rankings in knowledge and innovation, it had high enough position: knowledge creation – 14; innovation effectiveness – 15; spending on education – 18; number of applications for patents – 19; number of graduates in science and technology – 20

  10. Lung function impact from working in the pre-revolution Libyan quarry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draid, Marwan M; Ben-Elhaj, Khaled M; Ali, Ashraf M; Schmid, Kendra K; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-05-07

    The purpose of this study was to determine the lung impact from working within the Libyan quarry industry, and if the length of work impacted the degree of degradation. Eighty three workers from eight silica quarries in the Nafusa Mountains of Libya opted to participate. These quarries were working the upper cretaceous geological structure. Eighty-five individuals who lived in Gharyan City with no affiliation to quarry operations participated as controls. Spirometry variables evaluated were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume at 1.0 second (FEV1), FVC/FEV1 and Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Control and exposed groups had no differences in terms of height, weight, or smoking status (p = 0.18, 0.20, 0.98, respectively). Prior to adjustment for other variables, FVC, FEV1, and PEF are all significantly lower in the exposed group (p = 0.003, 0.009, 0.03, respectively). After adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking status, there remain significant differences between the control and exposed groups for FVC, FEV1, and PEF. This analysis demonstrated that exposure to quarry dust has a detrimental effect on lung function, and that pre-revolution Libyan quarry workers were being exposed. This study shows that any exposure is harmful, as the reduction in lung function was not significantly associated with years of exposure.

  11. A very British phenomenon? Industrial politics and the decline of the Japanese coal mining industry since the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.R. Garside

    2005-07-15

    This paper describes how the Japanese government gradually abandoned its support for coal mining after 1945. Drawing parallels with the British experience during the 1930s, this article shows how coal miners and owners in Japan were able to slow the pace of economic adjustment from the 1950s. The government's initial reluctance to act reflected its willingness to put industrial politics to the fore, preferring to avoid alienating political support and aggravating a vocal unionised sector of the labour force. It eventually accepted and acted upon the need for draconian retrenchment.

  12. Opportunities and threats of the fourth industrial revolution and their reflection in the selection of innovative growth strategies

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Illiashenko; N.S. Illiashenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article. Analysis and systematization of possible effects of the fourth industrial revolution both positive and negative, development of recommendations for innovative development strategies formation which would allow the use of opportunities for social and economic growth and will prevent treats. The results of the analysis. Based on a systematic analysis of the literature and practice of management allocated the positive and negative effects of the introduction of innovat...

  13. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Rifkin

    2006-07-01

    car is parked most of the time, it can be plugged in, during non-use hours, to the home, office, or the main interactive electricity network, providing premium electricity back to the grid. If just 25 percent of drivers used their vehicles as power plants to sell energy back to the grid, all of the power plants in the country could be eliminated. In order for millions of people to become producers, as well as consumers of energy, it will be necessary to redesign the power grid. That is where the software and computer revolution converge with the new hydrogen energy regime. The same design principles and smart technologies that made possible the Internet, and vast, decentralized global communication networks, will be used to reconfigure the world's power grids so that people can begin to share energy peer-to-peer, just like they now share information, creating a new, decentralized form of energy use. The coming together of decentralized communications technology and distributed hydrogen energy technology marks the next great turning point in the way people organize the energy of the planet. Hydrogen has the potential to end the world's reliance on imported oil and help diffuse the dangerous geopolitical game being played out between Muslim militants and Western nations. It will dramatically cut down on carbon dioxide emissions and mitigate the effects of global warming. And because hydrogen is so plentiful and exists everywhere on earth, every human being could be 'empowered', making it the first truly democratic energy regime in history. We are on the cusp of a third industrial revolution and a new energy era. Hydrogen is our common future. (author)

  14. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: Impetus Behind the Globalization Process(SANAYİ DEVRİMİ: Küreselleşme Sürecinin Arkasındaki İtici Güç

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davut ATEŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments related to the origins of globalization process that we are more blatantly experiencing for the last few decades. But few of them focus on the effects of industrial revolution. In this paper, I will try to set a direct connection between industrial revolution and globalization process. For this aim, transformations as a result of industrial revolution in Europe will be reviewed within the context of capitalist mode of production, marketing and consumption. Thus, I will argue that industrial revolution that resulted in the emergence of industrial capitalism is one the most important factors behind globalization.

  15. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21-23 out of 80 sampled lakes) and Prince Rupert (0 out of 35 sampled lakes) airsheds. While critical loads have been widely used to underpin international emissions reductions of transboundary pollutants, it is clear that they can also play an important role in managing regional

  16. Development of an exposure matrix for respirable crystalline silica in the British pottery industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, G L

    1998-04-01

    Processes associated with occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica in the British pottery industry were investigated to develop estimates of worker exposures from 1930 to 1995. Information was derived from more than 1300 air samples, published literature and unpublished reports of dust control innovations and process changes. A matrix was developed specifically to support a mortality study of 5115 pottery workers in North Staffordshire, UK. Matrix values range from 2 micrograms/m3 for pottery support activities performed in the 1990s to 800 micrograms/m3 for firing activities in the 1930s. Although exposure estimates within decade varied, median concentrations for all process categories displayed an overall trend towards progressive reduction in exposure during the 65 year span. Potential methods to validate the matrix as well as sources of error are discussed.

  17. Role of Industry University in British Construction of Learning-Oriented Society and Insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    One of the creations in building a learning-oriented society in the United Kingdom, the Industry University shoulders such a mission as applying new technologies to transform learning and transmit skills, thus it has been playing an im- portant role in those aspects like establishing a novel educational organizational model, stimulating greater needs for education, integrating educational resources, providing more educational opportunities, and disseminating culture of lifelong learning. British experience is of great inspiration to Chinese development of Open University based on its learning society construc- tion, for instance, 1) a common social resources platform shall be set up; 2) learning products shall meet learners' demands; 3) no efforts shall be spared to explore effective practical approaches conducive to learning; 4) learners' lifelong learning shall be combined with their personal development.

  18. The Third Industrial Revolution and Bus/Coach Technological Innovation%第三次工业革命和客车技术创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁薇; 裴志浩

    2014-01-01

    The authors expound the main features and important foundations of the third industrial revolution, anal-yse the influences of the third industrial revolution on the human society, and mainly introduce the effect of the third industrial revolution on the bus/coach iudustry technology innovation about the new energy, active safety and vehi-cle networking.%阐述第三次工业革命的主要特点及其重要基础,分析第三次工业革命对人类社会的影响,重点介绍第三次工业革命对客车行业新能源、主动安全、车联网等技术创新的影响。

  19. Industrial Revolution Countermeasure%“第三次工业革命”带来的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠武

    2013-01-01

    In modern history,there has been two industrial revolutions in human society,the steam engine and integration of electronic technology.The consequences of these two revolutions have changed mode of production and way of life in hu-man society.In other words,the industrial revolution refers to “the emergence of a kind of new technology that is powerful enough to change mode of production and way of life in human society,and to drive a qualitative leap of the productivity”. In his book“The Third Industrial Revolution-How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy,Economy and the World”,the futurologist Jeremy Rifkin puts forward the judgement that a new industrial revolution is coming:the future will present three main trends in industrial development,low carbonization,composite technology and humanity.Today,a revolution of technology and industry form is quietly rising.It includes digital manufacturing,3-D printing technology (also known as“additive manufacturing technology (AM)”),manufacturing service,reconstructing value chain system,and so on.Fa-cing the third industrial revolution ,it is essential to take right countermeasures,such as:by objective judgment of Guang-dong's development stage,to understand our start-point correctly;by promoting the transformation and upgrading of eco-nomic and social development,to achieve faster,better,more benefical,and more potential economic growth on a much more grand scale;by attaching great importance to marine development,to form the new development pattern of mutual prosperity on both the marine economy and the land economy;by vigorously implementing the strategy of ecological civiliza-tion,to make sure to protect and improve the ecological environment effectively by accurately playing the role of the govern-ment,and attaching great importance to the construction of innovative environment to make innovation a strong driving force of speeding up the industrialization process,promoting the transformation and upgrading

  20. After the outbreak: how the British Columbia commercial poultry industry recovered after H7N3 HPAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Victoria A

    2007-03-01

    In spring 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H7N3, occurred in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The active outbreak lasted more than 90 days; 42 commercial poultry farms were identified as infected premises, and more than 17 million birds were culled. Through the depopulation of HPAI-positive farms and the strategic depopulation of adjacent test-negative farms, a total of 410 commercial poultry farms were emptied. The goals for the commercial poultry industry were to expedite restocking, reduce nonproductive downtime, negotiate equitable financial compensation, review and restructure emergency disease response plans, and identify and implement mitigation strategies. After the outbreak, multijurisdictional reviews identified the strengths and weaknesses of the outbreak control strategy. Lessons learned were incorporated into current emergency disease response protocols for both industry and government. The industry-led challenge to initial compensation values, especially for specialty poultry and breeder birds, resulted in a review of the federal Health of Animals Act. The British Columbia poultry industry, in collaboration with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, developed an Enhanced Biosecurity Initiative that included the identification of mandatory on-farm biosecurity standards for commercial producers, an educational biosecurity self-assessment guide, and provisions for a producer self-quarantine to be enacted upon the first suspicion of disease.

  1. Promotion by the British pharmaceutical industry, 1983-8: a critical analysis of self regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, A; Collier, J

    1990-02-03

    Since 1958 the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI) has attempted to regulate the promotion of prescription medicines through its code of practice. This regulation is described and analysed for the six years 1983-8 using the reports on 302 complaints considered by its code of practice committee and annual reports. The complaints came mainly from doctors (143, 48%) and competing companies (103, 33%). The committee found a total of 379 breaches of the code in 192 (63%) of the complaints. Additional breaches were detected by informational scrutiny of advertisements by the ABPI secretariat. Analysis showed that 270 (71%) of these breaches involved possible breaches of the Medicines Act. The rules that forbid misleading or unsubstantiated information and misleading claims or comparisons were broken most often. The committee found the most frequent offenders to be Organon (32 breaches), Smith Kline and French (23), Glaxo (21), A H Robins (18), Bayer (17), Merck Sharp and Dohme (17), and Lederle (16). Often the promotion of one product led to several breaches. The promotional wars over histamine H2 receptor antagonists accounted for 33 breaches. It is estimated that in 1983-8 about 100 breaches of the code were detected a year. In the 18 years 1972-88 the Medicines Act was breached probably over 1200 times. Health ministers, by not enforcing the regulations controlling promotion, have abrogated their responsibility to the ABPI, but the evidence suggests that the code has failed to deter promotional excesses. The ABPI's wish to secure compliance with the code seems weaker than its wish to pre-empt outside criticism and action: its self regulation seems to be a service to itself rather than to the public. It is suggested that the code of practice committee should become publicly accountable, that the majority of its members should represent the health professions and the public, and that effective sanctions are needed.

  2. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Townsend, Grant; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ∼10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ∼1850). Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles.

  3. Discussion about"The Fourth Industry Revolution"%关于“第四次工业革命”的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海平

    2014-01-01

    介绍笔者在德国2013汉诺威工业博览会上所了解到的一些关于“第四次工业革命”的最新信息,包括:“第四次工业革命”的概念、特点,以及可能导致在工业的变革和对未来工业的影响。%This paper introduced the discussion about"The Fourth Industry Revolution", which the author read dur-ing the Hannover Messe 2013. And it includes the ideal, features of"The Fourth Industry Revolution". Moreover, some changes and influences over future industry were also proposed in this paper.

  4. An Irish Revolution Without A Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan Beatty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a conventional view among Irish historians that a revolution occurred in that country between the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill of 1912 and the end of the Civil War in 1923.  The violence of those years, the collapse in support for the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP, the meteoric rise to power of Sinn Féin, a new sense of meritocracy, a greater sense of democracy and a widespread radicalism; all are seen as elements of a major change in Irish politics and life, a ‘Revolution.’  Drawing on Gramsci's notion of a “revolution without a revolution”, this paper seeks to understand the events in Ireland of 1912-23, not as a sudden rupture with the past but as the culmination of a much longer period of (often British-backed capitalist development in post-Famine Ireland. This paper argues that Irish nationalist politics in the decades before 1912 is better understood via categories such as class, gender, capitalism and the pervasive power of the British state.  As such, as well as pursuing a reassessment of the project of Irish historical development and state-building, this paper also seeks a reassessment of the project of (an equally statist Irish historiography.

  5. Engines for experiment: laboratory revolution and industrial labor in the nineteenth-century city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierig, Sven

    2003-01-01

    This article brings together what until now have been separate fields of nineteenth-century history: the development of experimental physiology, the growth of mechanized industry, and the city, where their threads intertwined. The main argument is that the laboratory in the city employed the same technological and organizational approaches to modernize that the city used to industrialize. To bring the adoption of technology into focus, the article discusses laboratory research as it developed after the introduction of small-scale power engines. With its machines, the industrialized city provided not only the key metaphor of the nineteenth-century life sciences but also a key technology that shifted experimental practices in animal research from a kind of preindustrial craft to a more mechanized production of knowledge. With its "factory-laboratories," the late-nineteenth-century city became the birthplace for the first living, data-producing hybird---part animal and part machine.

  6. Prospering Revolution of Resource Efficiency in Northeast Industrial Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiancheng; Liu Zeyuan

    2007-01-01

    Despite its strong advantages in resource,technology and human resource.China's Northeast Industrial Area iS alsoexperiencing problems of unreasonable industrial structure,environmental pollution,and the degradation of ecological condition.etc.which prevent this area from achieving a sustainable development.Through analyzing the resouce problem,the present paper pmposed a stramgy of circular economy for the prosperity Of this are.disussed the theories of circular economy and resogrce recycling,and finally concluded that improving resource productivity iS at the core of circular economy.

  7. Toward the next fiber optic revolution and decision making in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boering, M.; Braal, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber optic data transmission has caused revolutionary developments in the current information society. It was also an eye opener for the Oil & Gas industry when fiber optic-based Distributed Temperature Sensing was introduced in the nineties. Temperature profiles over the entire length of the wellb

  8. Performance and Accountability in "Post-industrial Society": The Crisis of British Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper records some of the important changes that have been forced on British universities regarding performance and accountability. It also proposes an analysis of postindustrialism, relating it briefly to the modernity/postmodernity debate. Finally, some positive conclusions concerning the future role of the university are provided. (GLR)

  9. Countermeasures for SMEs to deal with the third industrial revolution%中小企业如何应对第三次工业革命

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      从当前国内外形势来看,工业革命的变革已成为一种趋势。中小企业作为我国庞大的经济支撑组织,应如何应对第三次工业革命是文章探讨的主题。%From the point of the current situation at home and abroad,the third industrial revolution has become a trend.as huge eco-nomic support organizations in China,how should small and medium-sized enterprises deal with the third industrial revolution is the theme of this paper.

  10. The gap between law and reality : addressing human trafficking in the British domestic work industry

    OpenAIRE

    Maroukis, Thanos

    2016-01-01

    The British government has expressed its latest commitment to tackling trafficking in human beings (THB) under the Modern Slavery Act passed in March 2015. However, the evidence collected for this study on trafficking in the domestic work sector suggests that the Modern Slavery Act is likely to fall short of expectations. The structural reasons that lie behind the failure to protect domestic workers and deter abusive behaviour on the part of employers in the UK are: the strict immigration rul...

  11. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the previous article of this series we presented a bio-ecological approach to studying history. It was shown that societies from the first civilizations to our days are techno-ecosystems (coenoses and do not differ much from the natural ecosystems of a lake or a forest, which are also restricted by their supplies of food. Historically, a succession of distinctive nestled geo-climatic zones was domesticated as the older ones were exhausted due to growing demographic pressure. In this context, evolution is not synonymous with competition. Cooperation of mutually dependent species is crucial for domesticating a new ecosystem, while at specific moments in its lifecycle, competition intensifies leading to speciation. In this article, we use this concept for analyzing a specific society. We show that the Industrial Revolution was England’s specific adaptation to the limitations of its geo-climatic zone. Timber, the main resource of the pre-industrial age, was essential for ship building and metal smelting. It was abundant in its main rival’s, France’s, geo-climatic habitat, but scarce in deforested England. Using its abundant local resource, coal, in an innovative way, this particular society, just like an emergent biological species, gained an evolutionary edge over its neighbors by opening access to new sources of food. The “workshop of the world” started with export-oriented textile production and ended as the major colonial power of its time. At the start of its rise to supremacy, during the 1805 battle at Trafalgar, Lord Nelson smashed the combined French-Spanish navies using short and light cast-iron cannons. They were much less precise than the long bronze ones favored by Napoleon, but, in the right hands, gave the first taste of industrial might to the England’s foes. Under Britain’s dominance, the 19th century’s Oikumene was completely remade and covered with smokestacks. We show subsequent stages of England

  12. 从埃德蒙·伯克保守主义思想看“光荣革命”后英国人的国家观——兼论法国大革命引发的“改良与革命之争”%British Outlook of Nation after Glorious Revolution from Edmund Burke’s Conservative Thinking.——Analyzing the Debates on Reformation and Revolution under French Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹瑞臣

    2012-01-01

      埃德蒙·伯克是18世纪英国保守主义的开创者,特别是法国大革命爆发后以《法国革命论》为转折点,掀起改良与革命之争,伯克猛烈抨击法国大革命中的暴力流血和激进主义,尊崇传统与秩序,力主改良,反对革命,其保守主义思想体系的形成对英国及其现代西方保守主义思想的发展变迁影响深远。作为“光荣革命”后那个时代精英分子的杰出代表,其身上所折射出来的保守主义理念,反映了“光荣革命”后英国社会走出了一条非暴力的渐进式改良发展路径,伯克的保守主义思想深深影响了那个时代及其以后英国人保守的国家观,同时充分展现了英吉利民族政治文化的智慧,至今其保守主义理念仍旧为我们在国家治理、处理传统与变革的关系时提供有益镜鉴。%  Edmund Burke was the pioneer of conservatism in the 18th century, especially as the turning point, the work“Reflections on the revolution in France”stired the debates on reformation and revolution after outbreak of French Revolution , Edmund Burke fiercely criticized the violence, blood and radicalism in French Revolution. He paid homage to tradition and order, and suggested mild reform, opposed the revolution. His thinking of conservatism played far-reaching impacts on Britain and the transformation of modern conservatism. As one of the outstanding elites at that time , the ideals of conservatism of Edmund Burke showed that Britain founded a path of non-violence reformation step by step , and effected British conservative outlook of nation deeply. Edmund Burke’s thinking displayed the intelligence of British old political culture, and till now, Edmund Burke’s conservative thinking is helpful for managing the state affairs and dealing with the relations of traditions and reforms.

  13. Sexual revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekma, G.; Giami, A.

    2014-01-01

    The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its cont

  14. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    amount of available food supplies is restricted by a single factor only, namely, the price of oil. Below, using an example from the Industrial Revolution, we will show that the process of utilizing a newfound resource by building a society around it is essentially cyclical. Social organisms evolve in regular and recurring patterns, not unlike birth, youth, maturity and death of biological beings. Each of these steps has its own functionality and must be lived through, much like the fact that one can’t mother children until she reaches puberty. That is why this approach possesses significant predictive capabilities. 

  15. Emanuel Edward Klein, a diligent and industrious plodder or the father of British microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Atalić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Emanuel Edward Klein (Osijek, 1844 - Hove, 1925 was a Britishmicrobiologist of Croatian origin. He completed his medical studies in Vienna in 1869. In 1869 he was sent to England to determine terms for the translation of Samuel Stricker’s manual Handbuch von den Geweben des Menchen und der Tiere. During his visit he made a good impression on John Burdon Sanderson and John Simon, which was the main reason why he was invited to London in 1871 to conduct investigations under their guidance. In 1873 Klein began his collaboration with the Saint Bartholomew‘s Hospital, where he was appointed as a Joint Professor of General Anatomy and Physiology. His researches were in the fields of anatomy, histology, pathology, embryology, physiology, and especially microbiology. He did a great deal to its development in Britain. He has written about 260 scientific papers on a broad range of different topics. Despite all the aforementioned facts, his work was never properly studied, and he is almost unknown outside academic circles. For that reason, attitudes towards him still range between the extremes of calling him the father of British microbiology on one side, and attributing him as a diligent and idustrious plodder on the other. In this paper we will try to prove the first attitude. We will put his researches in a general context. Finally we will highlight his original achievements in the isolation of new microbes.

  16. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view…

  17. Educational Borrowing as Negotiation: Re-Examining the Influence of the American Black Industrial Education Model on British Colonial Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which American educational ideas made an impact on policy-making and practice of education in British African colonies between the two World Wars. The analysis re-examines the apparent "borrowing" of American black industrial education models for application in Africa. It is argued that, while the view that…

  18. 从第四次产业革命探讨工业4.0构想与愿景%Exploration of the Vision and Idea of Industrial 4.0 from the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘端直

    2016-01-01

    The concept was proposed by Germany, it reflects the historical inevitability of the stages in the process of industrial revolution.The current manufacturing industry in the world is dramatically different comparing to the past.As a matter of factor, in many sections, robots are more or less replacing human labors.With further development, automation will further integrate with transmission and information technology, which will be another mile stone for the development of industry.Industry 4.0 presents the prospect of the human being about the 4th industrial revolution.%工业4.0由德国倡导,反映了工业革命发展进程中的历史必然。世界制造业今非昔比,许多领域已有不同程度的工业机器人运作,取代了人力。如若再向前,自动化生产与传感及信息技术的进一步融合,必然带来历史新飞跃。工业4.0就是人类第四次工业产业革命的愿景。

  19. Ecological and economic features of «spaceship Earth», or Horizons of the third Industrial Revolution and «Green» Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Melnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to study key-factors of forming economic systems in conditions of the Third industrial revolution and to predict the main directions of their development. On the basis of trialectical approach (assuming the trinity of the interaction of material, information and synergetic origins it is proposed the preconditions for beginning and development of the Third industrial revolution. Regulations of new socio-economic formation, the basis of which forms «green» (sustainable economy are studied. The results of the analysis. The following conclusions might be done on the base of the author’s studies. The main properties of green economy are: - sharp decline of ecodestructive processes of production and consumption; this is achieved by the transition to renewable sources of energy and renewable material resources, as well as the abandonment of fossil fuels and combustion processes for energy production; today renewable energy sources, reaching in some countries (Germany, Denmark, Sweden 20-30% of the energy production have practically replaced the nuclear power that allows to displace nuclear energy development program; - computerization of all spheres of economic and social life; one of the directions of this was creation of digital control systems: «smart» manufacturing operations, sites, shops and factories, «smart» cities and communications; «smart» regions and countries; the result is a significant increase in the efficiency of the economic processes implementation; - dematerialization of industrial metabolism of society, i.e. reduction of resource intensity (material and energy consumption of the processes; it is achieved by using 3D-printer, the widespread introduction of additive methods of goods production, miniaturization, increased functionality and convergence of consumer goods (i.e. convergence of their properties; - naturalization of materials and processes, i.e. approximation of

  20. Short History of the advertising industrial publicity in Mexico. The industrial estate of Puebla between the old regime and the revolution: 1880-1920 (industrial intangible heritage rescue)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Humberto Morales

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to show with archaeological field work in different landscapes of Mexico and documentation of the municipal archives of the city of Puebla, the architectural and historical evidence that gave identity to the Mexican industrial past throughout the 19th and first half of 20th century. Also shows the importance of the public documentation that many family firms produced in their correspondence to the municipal authority, demanding all kinds of grants or concessions in the city of...

  1. Historical Stage of German Industrial Revolution in The Nineteenth Century%论十九世纪德国工业革命进程中的历史阶段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁超

    2012-01-01

    德国的工业革命发端于十九世纪三十年代,经历了早期工业化阶段、"起飞"阶段和成熟阶段等三个阶段之后,德国的工业化基本完成。土地改革和商业改革促进了工业革命前进的步伐,铁路和重工业的发展更使德国工业革命如火如荼。但是经济发展到一定程度之后,城市化问题也逐渐凸显出来。%Thirties in the nineteenth century,German Industrial Revolution just started,After experienced the stage of early Industrialization,the stage of take off,the stage of mature,German Industrial Revolution basically completed.Land reform and commerce reform promote the development of the Industrial Revolution.The development of railways and heavy industry also makes the Industrial Revolution in full swing.But after the economic developent,some urbanization issues had been prominent

  2. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco’s perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. Results PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT’s Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. Conclusions PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level. PMID:21636611

  3. The openness of Britain during industrialization. Determinants of career success of British men born between 1780 and 1880

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montt, Cristóbal; Maas, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we study the occupational careers of British men during industrialisation. We ask whether careers became more successful during industrialisation and whether British society became more open.Using the Longitudinal Study of Residential Histories dataset we analysed the career of 6229

  4. Future human resources development in British Columbia's offshore oil and gas industry : preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothen, K. [Human Capital Strategies, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-06-28

    Since 2001, three major studies have concluded that there are no apparent scientific or technological impediments to lifting a longstanding moratorium on West Coast oil and gas exploration and development. Over 300 occupations are involved in offshore oil and gas activity, and should the moratorium be lifted, labour demand is projected to reach 27,000 new employment openings. This report presents a preliminary analysis of factors that may facilitate offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia (BC), with specific reference to human resources. The report also highlights the broader planning environment of BC offshore oil and gas development and the potential impacts of economic, social, demographic and political factors. Potential gaps in regional training resources were identified within the context of a general overview of education training programs currently available elsewhere. Demand pressures on the supply of skilled labour for future development were considered. Interviews with key industry and stakeholder representatives were conducted. Additionally, a comparison of labour demand from oil and gas development on the east coast revealed a significant employment multiplier impact of offshore activities, averaging 3 jobs per 1 offshore job. An outline of previous employment growth patterns were provided for future reference. It was concluded that early planning and development of educational and training programs is essential in addressing eventual skills shortages. In addition to training measures, a range of public policy options should be considered, including retention measures to remove regulatory disincentives and innovative local agreements. Steps to rectify shortages in trades workers, technicians and experienced production workers is advisable, as these shortages are already evident in current onshore oil and gas activities elsewhere in Canada. A detailed description of offshore oil and gas occupations was provided, as well as questionnaires

  5. On Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.

    By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…

  6. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  7. Metallocenes: are they the triumph of modern chemistry leading to an industrial revolution?; Les metallocenes, un triomphe de la chimie moderne et peut-etre une revolution pour l`industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, R.; Saudemont, T. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Recherches sur la Catalyse

    1996-12-31

    Continuous advances in chemistry can find their utility in the ever increasing quality specifications required in every field of application. For major industrial polymers, the catalytically produced polyolefins, progresses were hampered by the complexity of heterogeneous catalytic processes. Novel coordination chemistry has triggered the generation of a new family of catalysts, namely titanium and zirconium metallocenes, which, when efficiently activated, are able to produce more well-defined and more controlled polymers, in agreement with industrial specifications. The production of novel polyethylenes has started on a small industrial scale. Two stereochemical parents of polypropylene (isolatic and syndiotactic polypropylene) and entirely new polymers such as poly-cyclo-olefins and syndiotactic polystyrene are likely to be developed. Large scale progresses are dependent on the suitability of the catalysts to modern processes and on the fine tuning of certain molecular characteristics of the resulting products. (authors) 10 refs.

  8. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  9. 从女性婚育角度看近代中国的工业革命--对中国工业革命未能发生之人口因素的质疑%A Question on Whether Population Factors Influenced the Industrial Revolution in Modern China--From the Perspective of Women’s Marriage and Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昳聪

    2014-01-01

    It is traditionally accepted that the population factors, namely, the phenomena of Chinese women’s early marriage and common marriage which led to the rapid population increase prevented the development of industrial revolution in China. But through a comparative study of the birth rate and the growth rate of population we found that China had the same or even lower population than Britain in the population rate or birth rate although British female marriage occurred later, and a fair proportion of women remained unmarried through their lives. Therefore, it is difficult to set up the concept that it is the population factors that prevented the development of industrial revolution in China.%传统观念认为是人口因素,即中国妇女的早婚和普遍结婚所导致的人口迅速增长阻碍了工业革命在中国的发生。但是,通过比较研究发现,不论是在女性生育率上,还是在人口增长率上,中国与有着妇女晚婚和女子独身这一鲜明特点的同时期的英国相比是相似的甚至更低。这就意味着传统观念,即以人口因素质疑中国工业革命的发生是难以成立的。

  10. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'.

  11. Showcase industry:revolution is coming%超市陈列柜行业:变革在即

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪苏成

    2014-01-01

    Supermarket showcase industry, as the last link of food refrigeration chain, developed and expanded gradually with the rise of domestic supermarket retail industry.But view from showcase industry developmentin recent years, industry overall scale is still in a low level . In this paper it analyzes showcase market current situation and development trend starting with supermarket industryand combined with the latest trend of main showcase enterprises in domesticmarket.%作为食品冷冻冷藏链中的最后一个环节,超市陈列柜行业伴随着国内超市零售行业的兴起而逐渐发展壮大。但从近几年陈列柜行业的发展情况来看,总体规模仍处于较低水平。本文从超市行业入手,并结合国内陈列柜主流厂商的最新动态,对超市陈列柜的市场现状和发展趋势做了简要分析。

  12. Some Thoughts on China‘s Energy Revolution and the Coal Industry%中国能源革命与煤炭的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴刚; 刘虹

    2016-01-01

    Coal has played a crucial role in the past, and it will continue to do so in the future. As it is inevitable for global energy structure to develop towards a clean, environmental-friendly and low-carbon one, the only path for China is to accomplish green low-carbon development and utilization by unifying coal with other forms of high-quality fossil energy and renewable energy. Therefore, coal industry in China must follow such a trend, face the challenges of energy revolution, and seek new opportunities to realize innovative development in clean coal exploration and utilization and near-zero emissions as the breakthrough point.%煤炭无论过去还是未来一定时期都具有生命力。协同煤炭能源与其他清洁优质化石能源、可再生能源实现绿色低碳开发利用,是未来中国能源发展的必由之路。中国煤炭必须顺势而为,直面能源革命挑战,寻找发展机遇,以实现煤炭清洁开发利用和近零排放为抓手的创新发展。

  13. Quantum revolution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The turn of the XXth century witnessed a revolution in physics comparable to Isaac Newton’s discovery of the universal laws of mechanics and of gravitation three centuries earlier. The world required to be described in novel terms, as the immutable, deterministic view of our familiar universe had given way to a new world picture, one which featured chance, flux, and an incessant upsurge of waves of matter. Such a worldview was so radically new and counterintuitive that it gave rise to strong debates, to the effect that Albert Einstein himself tried to oppose it on the grounds that “God does not play dice”. In spite of the intense debates that accompanied its emergence, quantum mechanics quickly proved an incredibly efficacious new tool to understand and to predict a wide array of new phenomena. It was so successful that in no time it broke free from the environment of research labs to become part of daily life, making it possible, for example, to understand why some materials...

  14. Green Revolution for Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanghai World Expo is widely regarded as another grand international pageant, so many people thought that the opening ceremony must be as much magnificent and brilliant as the opening ceremony for Beijing Olympics.However, it was revealed by Wan Jifei, Executive Director of the ExecutiveCommittee of the Shanghai World Expo that the opening ceremony of the Expo was not that luxurious and extravagant as that for the Beijing Olympics, but would have its own characteristics under the elaborate design and thorough arrangement conducted by the host. The veto against that luxurious opening ceremony was actually a practice echoing for the concept of Green World Expo, which would be applied for every corner from the beginning to the end of the Expo, including the construction of exhibition hall, building of exhibition stand and advertisement etc.

  15. "A WAR OF MACHINERY”: the British Machine Tool Industry and Arming the Western Front, 1914-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lloyd-Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to David Lloyd George, Britain’s first Minister of Munitions, World War L “the Great War” was a “war of machinery,” and required unprecedented supplies of ammunition and the machine tools necessary to make them. In the early phase of the conflict, when the importance of machine tools was not fully recognized, a shortage of ammunition on the western front precipitated a military and political crisis, and led to the formation of the Ministry of Munitions. A trade-off between quantity and quality of ammunition shell (the machined outer metal casing was a product of the Ministry directive to increase output as both makers and users of machine tools came under intense pressure to reach their goals. British engineering achieved huge increases in ammunition output in preparation for the Somme offensive, but the complexities of the supply chain meant that makers and users of machine tools put them to use to make ammunition of a type and quality that was to prove defective.

  16. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not repres

  17. Marxism as permanent revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not

  18. Intelligent hearing aids: the next revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.

  19. Understanding Abrupt, Natural Climate Variability Post-Industrial Revolution from the Subtropical Eastern Pacific: A Novel High Resolution Alkenone-derived Sea Surface Temperature Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C. S.; O'Mara, N. A.; Herbert, T.; Abella-Gutiérrez, J. L.; Herguera, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the ocean's importance in global biogeochemical feedbacks and heat storage, there is still a paucity of decadally-resolved sea surface temperature (SST) records to complement lacustrine and dendrological records of recent paleoclimate. Natural climate variability on multidecadal timescales is dominated by internal ocean circulation dynamics and feedbacks, and it is therefore imperative to employ marine proxies to reconstruct high resolution climate change. The timescales of this ocean-induced natural climate variability can be broken down into a few characteristic climate modes. Pressing questions about these modes include their stationarity in frequency and amplitude over time, in addition to the hypothesis that anthropogenic climate change has altered their behavior in comparison to natural variability. To pursue these questions, we must discern and analyze suitable climate archives in regions where modes of interest dominate modern climate variability. The region of Baja California, Mexico exhibits exceptional teleconnection to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Local, dramatic effects of ENSO and PDO on the marine biology and economy underline the importance of regional paleoclimate records from the Baja peninsula. Here, we present a high-resolution alkenone-derived SST reconstruction from the Industrial Revolution through the year 2000 by analysis of laminated box and Kasten sediment cores at Site PCM 00-78 (25.18°N, 112.66°W) in the subtropical eastern Pacific at a depth of 540 meters. Our SST record corresponds with NOAA extended reconstructed sea surface temperature, providing a robust basis for organic geochemical marine climatic reconstructions on timescales usually accessible only through speleothems, coral density bands, tree rings, and the like. Accordingly, based on this comparison to the historical data we expect our SST record may provide a more robust record of inter and multidecadal

  20. The French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  1. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  2. The United States’ Overseas Contingency Operations/Global War on Terror: A Military Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    Revolution of the Industrial Revolution. In general, this proposition makes sense since “ militarizing ” the Industrial Revolution “made it possible to arm...graduating cadets that warfare does not cease when the wars end in Iraq and Afghanistan, but rather that they–the leaders of tomorrow’s army–must be ready to

  3. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...

  4. Generating social network data using partially described networks: an example informing avian influenza control in the British poultry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickbakhsh Sema

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted sampling can capture the characteristics of more vulnerable sectors of a population, but may bias the picture of population level disease risk. When sampling network data, an incomplete description of the population may arise leading to biased estimates of between-host connectivity. Avian influenza (AI control planning in Great Britain (GB provides one example where network data for the poultry industry (the Poultry Network Database or PND, targeted large premises and is consequently demographically biased. Exposing the effect of such biases on the geographical distribution of network properties could help target future poultry network data collection exercises. These data will be important for informing the control of potential future disease outbreaks. Results The PND was used to compute between-farm association frequencies, assuming that farms sharing the same slaughterhouse or catching company, or through integration, are potentially epidemiologically linked. The fitted statistical models were extrapolated to the Great Britain Poultry Register (GBPR; this dataset is more representative of the poultry industry but lacks network information. This comparison showed how systematic biases in the demographic characterisation of a network, resulting from targeted sampling procedures, can bias the derived picture of between-host connectivity within the network. Conclusions With particular reference to the predictive modeling of AI in GB, we find significantly different connectivity patterns across GB when network estimates incorporate the more demographically representative information provided by the GBPR; this has not been accounted for by previous epidemiological analyses. We recommend ranking geographical regions, based on relative confidence in extrapolated estimates, for prioritising further data collection. Evaluating whether and how the between-farm association frequencies impact on the risk of between

  5. Considerações sobre a terceira revolução industrial e a força de trabalho em saúde em Natal Considerations on the third industrial revolution and the health work force in Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Maria de Medeiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A articulação entre modo de produção, políticas sociais e práticas de saúde constitui-se o fio condutor desta investigação: trabalho e trabalhadores em saúde. A Terceira Revolução Industrial desencadeou novas articulações de processos econômicos, políticos e sociais, projetos de sociedade, formas de organização de poder e de atores sociais em proporções mundiais. A conformação definida pela nova divisão mundial do trabalho mantém uma relação de força desigual entre o grupo dos países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. O Brasil também vivencia esse processo de transformação e vem implantando políticas sociais com características do modelo neoliberal. Tais políticas têm causado dificuldades, injustiças e instabilidade social, constituindo desafios aos direitos sociais e desencadeando processos que envolvem os âmbitos público e o privado, em termos organizativos e de subjetividade. Este estudo trata de um recorte de periferia do capitalismo tardio, tendo o Brasil como exemplo, e mais especificamente a região Nordeste.The articulation among production mode, social politics and health practices is established as conducting wire of our inquiry press cutting: the work and the workers in health. The Third Industrial Revolution unchained new articulations with the economical, political and social processes in world-wide ratios, the society projects, forms of organization, power and the social actors. This conformation defined by the new world-wide work division keeps a relation of unequal force between developed countries group and developing countries. Brazil lives this transformation process and has been implanting social politics with the neoliberal model characteristics. Such politcs have been motivating difficulties, injustices and social instability, constituting challenges to the question of the social rights and unchaining processes that involve the public and the private of the Brazilian citizens, in their

  6. 新一轮工业革命正在叩门,中国怎么办?%A New Round of Industrial Revolution Is Knocking at the Door, What China Will Do?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮明杰

    2012-01-01

    A new round of industrial revolution has been quietly approaching; this round of new indus- trial revolution is not just due to the development of new industries resulted from the development of new technologies, but due to the dramatic changes of the production mode and manufacturing mode of the man- ufactufing industry resulted from the new technological revolution. Faced with such changes, the United States and other developed countries have launched the so-called "re-industrialization" with the purpose of grasping the new round of big changes of the manufacturing industry, occupying the dominant position in the new round of global division of labor, and restoring the international competition force of the U.S. e- conomy. Although China's current manufacturing output value has surpassed that of the United States, yet the overall level of China's manufacturing industry is still lacking technical contents and staying at the low- er-middle links in the manufacturing value chain; the more important is that the production mode and the manufacturing mode of the manufacturing industry is still stuck in the state of the beginning or middle term of industrialization, far away from the new round of industrial revolution. Whether being able to seize this historic opportunity of the new industrial revolution, even to catch up and surpass the developed countries during this process, is the key to the transformation and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry; if not, it is likely that China will continue to lag behind. In such circumstances, we should earnestly, study the ideas and strategies to cope with it, try to find a new industrialization road for the manufacturing industry to upgrade, change and develop. We should make bold explorations and deepen the reforms in such aspects as new industrial system construction, selected development of the strategically advanced manufacturing in- dustries, matching pattern designing of the advanced manufacturing

  7. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  8. On the Marketing Philosophy at the University of British Industry and our Adult Education%英国产业大学的营销理念及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    British industry is a new kind of educational organizations in the United Kingdom in recent years. Through in-depth analysis of the connotation of the University of British industry, outlined the unique marketing idea of the British industry:strategic concept, the concept of relationship marketing, marketing mix concept and high-quality marketing idea. With China's adult education further deepening of reform, to establish the correct marketing idea is particularly urgent. Characteristics of adult education, marketing philosophy at the University of British industry of adult education in particular, the development of marketing some profound revelation.%  英国产业大学是英国近年来出现的一种新型的教育组织机构。通过对英国产业大学内涵的深入分析,概括出英国产业大学独特的营销理念:战略理念、关系营销理念、市场营销组合理念、高质量营销理念等。随着中国成人教育改革的进一步深化,树立正确的营销理念显得尤为迫切。结合我国成人教育的特色,英国产业大学的营销理念给我国成人教育特别是市场营销的发展提供了一些深刻的启示。

  9. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and

  10. Agrarian revolution and the land question in Buganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mafeje

    1973-01-01

    textabstractIt is the irony of history that, despite the spectacular accomplishments of the Western European industrial revolution and the agricultural revolution before it, most of mankind is still faced with the more pr'imitive problem of how to eke out a living from the soil. From the amount of k

  11. Creating British Global Leadership: The Liberal Trading Community from 1750 to 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whiteneck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the process by which Great Britain rose to a position of global leadership in the 1800s. It examines the critical period from 1750 to 1792 when Great Britain moved from global leadership based on colonial/mercantile power to leadership based on industrial/commercial power. I hypothesize that the roots of the Pax Britannica of 1815-1873 have their source in the emerging liberal trading community created by the British in the fifty years before the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. This coalition of states was created around a dominant new idea (economic liberalism based in the distribution of positive benefits from inclusion in the community, and intended to provide an innovative solution to the problems of international political economy created by the burgeoning industrial revolution. The community was created through the actions of successive British governments throughout the period, and served as the basis for the British-led coalitions which emerged victorious from the global wars of 1792 to 1815. This case study helps answer important questions about how Great Britain was able to move from one period of global leadership to another, and on a more general level provides some insights into the role coalition-building plays in attaining and exercising global power.

  12. Industry 4.0新工业革命与工业自动化转型升级%Industry 4.0 New Industrial Revolution and Automation Updating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪学勤

    2014-01-01

    随着新一代信息技术的发展,世界各国都在加快推进新的技术和工业革命.物联网、服务网以及信息物理系统已进入制造环境.论述了Industry 4.0战略产生的背景、目标以及主要特征,较深入地解析了作为Industry 4.0核心的智能工厂的体系架构.阐述了借鉴Industry 4.0的理念、方案与路线图,勇于创新,打造国内工业自动化升级版的愿景.

  13. The Sustainability Revolution: A Societal Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a question relevant to those interested in the achievement of greater sustainability: What are some of the ways that major societal transformations come about? Firstly, four key mechanisms are identified in the article. Then, I go on to focus on one of these, which has a prominent place in the sustainability revolution that it is argued is now taking place. The question of what are characteristic features of the sustainability revolution is addressed. The ongoing transformations are largely piecemeal, incremental, diffuse—in earlier writings referred to as “organic”. Organic is a more encompassing notion than “grassroots”, since the innovation and transformation processes may be launched and developed at multiple levels by collective agents that in some cases are very large and would not be understood as “grassroots” actors. The article argues that the sustainability revolution shares some features, in particular its organic character, with the early industrial revolution. It concludes by addressing the question of what are the similarities and differences between the sustainability and industrial revolutions.

  14. CRISES AND REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sotelo Valencia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the materialist theory of development and fall of Marxism based on the theory of value as originally considered and presented by Karl Marx in Grundrisse and in Crítica da Economia Política, claiming that the production of value depends on labor force. As it takes place today, capital displaces labor force in every industry, service and activity, country, territory and region all over the world; workers are dismissed and are transferred to speculative activities of the fictional capital. This lesser disposition of labor force eventually harms the mean profit rate and, as time goes by, it provokes a crisis. The present capitalist crisis is resultant from the insufficiency and, to certain extent, to the incapacity of mechanisms from the system to generate enough value production in the labor process, to provide value to the invested capital (in settings of production, raw matter, and in labor force or variable capital; to create more value and to regain increased profit rate. These restraints of the financial capital (fictional capital cause a deviation to the speculative plan and contribute for the formation of tragic speculative bubbles in sectors such as those of housing, energy and food. No matter how much productivity is increased, developing a technological revolution and “sparing labor force”, the reduction of time, socially required for the production of goods and labor force, becomes harder and more marginal. This is the way the capitalist system enters a civilian, structural and organic crisis, as it is now. To go beyond the capital means to construct structures and superstructures of a new non-capitalist society based on a new way to produce, to work and to keep harmonious and friendly human social relations. It is difficult to have a successful revolution if not with the education of its agents, that is, the organized front people, parties and syndicates that will raise the social, political and cultural

  15. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  16. Argument About Industry Rejuvenation & Political Constitutionalism in the 1911 Revolution%辛亥革命时期实业振兴与政治立宪关系之辩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锇声

    2011-01-01

    There was a heated argument between the industry revitalization and the political constitutionalism in the press during the period of the 1911 Revolution.There are two schools of view points that one is the industry revitalization is the foundation of practising the constitutionalism.The other is the political constitutionalism that is the pre-requisite for the revitalization of Chinese industry.Only the constitutionalism is practised,to establish the parliament,responsible cabinet and constitution can China achieve the aim of revitalization of industry.The relation between revitalization of industry and constitutionalism is,in fact,the relation to develop national economy and the political democracy.The argument indicated the dilemma in the modern China society.%辛亥革命时期报刊对实业振兴和政治立宪的关系进行了热烈的讨论,主要存在着两派观点。一派认为,中国要建立宪政制度,先要振兴中国的实业,实业是建立宪政的基础。另一派则认为,宪政是中国振兴实业的前提条件。只有实行宪政,建立起国会,责任内阁,制订宪法,中国才能最终达到振兴实业的目的。振兴实业和政治立宪的关系,实际上就是发展经济与政治民主化的关系。争论实际上反映了中国近代社会的两难处境。

  17. en uislamisk revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    artiklen diskuterer det teologiske grundlag for de arabiske opstande. Er det tilladt ifølge islamisk lov at lave revolution på det grundlag der kendetegner den arabiske verden i 2011?......artiklen diskuterer det teologiske grundlag for de arabiske opstande. Er det tilladt ifølge islamisk lov at lave revolution på det grundlag der kendetegner den arabiske verden i 2011?...

  18. Compression Ignition Engines - revolutionary technology that has civilized frontiers all over the globe from the Industrial Revolution into the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Anthony Ciatti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The history, present and future of the compression ignition engine is a fascinating story that spans over 100 years, from the time of Rudolf Diesel to the highly regulated and computerized engines of the 21st Century. The development of these engines provided inexpensive, reliable and high power density machines to allow transportation, construction and farming to be more productive with less human effort than in any previous period of human history. The concept that fuels could be consumed efficiently and effectively with only the ignition of pressurized and heated air was a significant departure from the previous coal-burning architecture of the 1800s. Today, the compression ignition engine is undergoing yet another revolution. The equipment that provides transport, builds roads and infrastructure, and harvests the food we eat needs to meet more stringent requirements than ever before. How successfully 21st Century engineers are able to make compression ignition engine technology meet these demands will be of major influence in assisting developing nations (with over 50% of the world’s population achieve the economic and environmental goals they seek.

  19. The Unfinished Revolution: Einstein's revenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichler, James

    2007-04-01

    Thomas Kuhn defined the characteristics of scientific revolutions based upon his knowledge of the first and second Scientific Revolutions. He concluded that such revolutions are the result of crises in science. However, he missed some important clues of how revolutions develop. Instead of looking at crises, we should look at the major trends in scientific and human thought prior to the revolutions and then we could gain a better understanding of how scientific revolutions emerge from the normal course of scientific evolution. Instead of defining revolutions by the crises that precede them, revolutions actually emerge from the successes of previous science while each revolution contains the seeds for the next revolution that follows. These seeds eventually grow into the crises that trigger revolutions. Under these circumstances, it can be shown that the space-time revolution of relativity theory was never completed, thus laying the foundations for the next revolution in science. Knowing this, we can determine if we have we already entered the pre-revolutionary period of the Third Scientific Revolution.

  20. Toilet revolution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling

    2017-09-20

    The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President’s 2006 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    NIST Center for Neutron Research and expansion for greater user access to nanocharacterization tools. NSF, DOD, NASA, DOE: Plans and activities...industry, academia, and government. The NIST Center for Neutron Research will expand to enable greater user access to nanocharacterization tools

  3. Military Revolution, Organisational Revolutions...and Other Revolutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      This paper is a continuation of Kantian peace and war analysis, but with other means. The paper is part of an effort to establish a systemic theory of state-formation based on the description of the emergence of a number of functional systems. In a historical perspective the military system...... was dominant in the establishment of the European State-model as well as it has a decisive role in the stabilisation of recent states. Using Niklas Luhmann's system theory that does not describes neither military systems nor the emergence of a organisational system, the present paper outlines a system...... theoretical perspective on the present and historical transformations of military systems. One the one hand the paper offers a systemic criticism of the recent so called revolution in military affairs (RMA), on the other hand the historical establishment of a self-referential form of the military system...

  4. Military Revolution, Organisational Revolutions...and Other Revolutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      This paper is a continuation of Kantian peace and war analysis, but with other means. The paper is part of an effort to establish a systemic theory of state-formation based on the description of the emergence of a number of functional systems. In a historical perspective the military system...... was dominant in the establishment of the European State-model as well as it has a decisive role in the stabilisation of recent states. Using Niklas Luhmann's system theory that does not describes neither military systems nor the emergence of a organisational system, the present paper outlines a system...... theoretical perspective on the present and historical transformations of military systems. One the one hand the paper offers a systemic criticism of the recent so called revolution in military affairs (RMA), on the other hand the historical establishment of a self-referential form of the military system...

  5. British Capital, Industry and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’?: The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, 1750-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Oostindie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent historiography has reconsidered the idea that the Dutch role in the early modern Atlantic was of little significance, particularly in comparison to the accomplishments of the Dutch East India Company (voc in Asia. Revisionist studies have emphasised that in spite of the limited and fragmented nature of the Dutch Atlantic ‘empire’, the Atlantic contribution to the Dutch economy was significant and possibly even greater than the voc’s share. Moreover, this scholarship stresses the vital role of Dutch Atlantic colonies (Curaçao and St Eustatius, (partly Jewish networks and individuals in connecting the various subempires of the Atlantic. While Oostindie subscribes to many of these conclusions, he argues against excessive revisionism. His analysis of the development of the lesser Dutch Guianas, adjacent to Suriname, is used as a counter-weight to this revisionist impulse. He demonstrates that the spectacular economic and demographic development of these colonies was due mainly to British and (British American involvement culminating in the eventual British takeover of ‘Guiana’.

  6. British Capital, Industry and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’?: The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, 1750-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Oostindie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent historiography has reconsidered the idea that the Dutch role in the early modern Atlantic was of little significance, particularly in comparison to the accomplishments of the Dutch East India Company (voc in Asia. Revisionist studies have emphasised that in spite of the limited and fragmented nature of the Dutch Atlantic ‘empire’, the Atlantic contribution to the Dutch economy was significant and possibly even greater than the voc’s share. Moreover, this scholarship stresses the vital role of Dutch Atlantic colonies (Curaçao and St Eustatius, (partly Jewish networks and individuals in connecting the various subempires of the Atlantic. While Oostindie subscribes to many of these conclusions, he argues against excessive revisionism. His analysis of the development of the lesser Dutch Guianas, adjacent to Suriname, is used as a counter-weight to this revisionist impulse. He demonstrates that the spectacular economic and demographic development of these colonies was due mainly to British and (British American involvement culminating in the eventual British takeover of ‘Guiana’.

  7. A Century of Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    his year marks the centenary of the 1911 Revolution that ended 2,000 years of imperial rule in China.The 1911 Revolution,which began on October 10,1911,with an armed uprising in Wuchang,central China's Hubei Province,brought down the world's most long established monarchy and founded the first republican government in Asia.To commemorate the centennial anniversary of the epoch-making event,a series of activities have been or are being held across the country.

  8. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  9. Motivating Entrepreneurs Towards The "New Industrial Revolution" : A Multiple Case Study Of Sustainability-Driven Entrepreneurial And Institutional Motivations In Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Miska; Kuikka, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability and sustainable development are concerned as major topics in the current business and academic context. Although business entities are seen as a cause of the problem, they are similarly seen as a solution helping the world to survive from this enormous challenge. The current academic literature underlines the role of sustainable entrepreneurship as a decisive force, which helps to transform the profit-oriented paradigm into the “new industrial revolution”. In this context the m...

  10. Polish origins of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences of the University of Fribourg and the Polish contribution to the Fribourg industrial revolution (in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOCUREK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to high-tech companies founded by Poles at the end of the 19th century in the rural canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The text is divided into two parts. In the first part, the author attempts to present the economic, social and political reality of Fribourg in a period of intense industrialization in the world and the formation of the liberal free market system. In this rapidly changing reality, the new Catholic-conservative authorities of the canton tried to lead to establishing of a comprehensive, but also different system of a “Christian republic”, whose aim was to achieve social justice consistent with the teachings of the Gospel. In order to complete the project, the cantonal government did not shy away from using the possibilities and measures offered by the contemporary world. Decision-makers, led by Georges Python, needed support from the society, who was aware of the changes. Due to this fact, it became necessary to establish a university capable of shaping new attitudes and views. However, the costs significantly exceeded the financial capabilities of the agricultural and relatively poor canton of Fribourg. In these less favourable circumstances, a conscious policy of industrialization was the way out of the deadlock. Newly created industrial institutions were to contribute to an increase of cash inflows to the canton and thus allow for the financing of the university, which would also become an intellectual foundation for the emerging industry. The activity of Polish scientists, which is the subject of the second part of the article, matched this philosophy perfectly. The Poles invited to cooperate with Python, i.e. Józef Wierusz-Kowalski, Ignacy Mościcki and Jan Modzelewski, created the foundations of the Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences at the University of Fribourg. As members of the faculty, in addition to teaching, they conducted research into, among other things, nitric acid

  11. To the fusion of age - economy and ecology of the ring industry revolution; Kankyo kakumei no jidai {approx}ekonomi to ekoroji no yugo he

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaike, Manabu

    1999-05-31

    What has suddenly been noticed as a keyword of the durable industry creation in which the ecology is made to be compatible with the economy is a philosophy of {sup t}he bio region (the life regionalism){sup .} As the concepts of region management desired at present, the philosophy of bio region which is the thought of the next generation development which I notice at present most roots in the place where selves live, and it aims at uniting with the region. In the reason, it is required that natural resources such as climate, land form, basin, soil, microorganism, flora and fauna, resources that the region has are utilized maximally. (NEDO)

  12. 制造业的数字化革命与政府职能转变%Manufacturing Industry Digital Revolution and Government Functional Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋景媛

    2012-01-01

    数字化正在引发全球制造业的深刻变革。制造业正在由标准化走向个性化,从国际化走向本地化,与服务业之间的界限将变得更加模糊。在此过程中,社会生产方式、产业组织结构、管理和消费模式都将发生变化;全球竞争由国家层面转向企业和个人。社会环境变迁使得政府原有管理方式不再适用;管理水平受到挑战。为适应中国制造业转型的国际环境,政府职能需要实现"三个转变":即从经济过程的调控者转变为市场环境的维护者、公共知识和社会创新的培育者和产权制度的保护者。%The digitization is initiating a profound transformation of the global manufacturing industry.The manufacturing industry is moving from standardization to personalization,from international towards local production,the boundaries between manufacturing and service industries will become more blurred.In this process,the social mode of production,industrial organization structure,management and consumption patterns will change.Global competition among nations will give way to the competition among businesses and individuals.The Government's original management style is no longer applicable under the changing social environment.Therefore,in order to adapt to the international environment for China's manufacturing sector transition,the government functions need to make adjustment in three aspects,that is,realizing the transformation from the regulator of economic process to the defender of market environment,the public knowledge and social innovation nursery and the property right system protector.

  13. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  14. The ebook revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sheehan, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The eBook Revolution: A Primer for Librarians on the Front Lines is exactly what its title promises: an essential resource for librarians facing the formidable task of coordinating the library-wide transition to eBooks and fielding questions from patrons

  15. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  16. Teaching the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  17. Die andere Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2005-05-01

    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  18. Revolution in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelfarb, Gertrude

    1997-01-01

    Changes in library services due to advancing information technology constitute a revolution comparable to invention of the printing press. Democratization of access to knowledge is a positive development, but it should not be confused with democratization of knowledge. This is where any system of information networking may be misleading; in…

  19. Tyngdekraft, naturhistorie, revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Christoffer Basse

    2015-01-01

    Hvad har Newtons teori om tyngdekraften med politisk revolution at gøre? Samfundskritikken og idéen om oplysningstænkeren opstod ud af en naturfilosofisk tradition, der anså hele verden som levende og følsom. Christoffer Basse Eriksen rekapitulerer i dagens essay opkomsten af Oplysningstiden....

  20. Den moderate revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje

    "normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...

  1. Revolution of Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the potential to disrupt the traditional way of managing innovation, notably in terms of creativity, product development, and process change. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the second volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspective...

  2. Revolution of Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viardot, Eric

    management such as user innovation, crowd sourcing and crowd funding, as well as social media. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the first volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspectives on these topics with illustrations and analysis coming...

  3. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…

  4. Cloud Smart Technology Leading Advanced Manufacture Revolution——The Third Industrial Revolution is Coming%云智慧技术引领高端制造业革命——第三次工业革命正在到来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应怀樵

    2013-01-01

    The cloud smart technology is the core engine of the third industrial revolution. Cloud smart technol ogy which is composed of VI technology, Internet (Internet of things), cloud computing and software manufac turing, will lead the revolution of advanced manufacture industry. The concepts of cloud smart technology, cloud smart instrument and software manufacturing, the milestone of concept development on cloud smart technology, the relationship between cloud smart technology and science & technology, the relationship among cloud smart technology, industrial & agricultural production and family life, cloud smart technology leading manufacture revolution, are discussed. Finally, the function diagram of the cloud smart technology is given, and cloud smart instruments and applications implemented by COINV are shown. The third industrial revolution is coming.%指出了云智慧技术是第三次工业革命的核心发动机.云智慧技术由Ⅵ技术+互联网(物联网)+云计算+软件制造组成,将引领高端制造业的革命.论述了云智慧技术、云智慧仪器与软件制造的概念;云智慧技术概念发展的里程碑;云智慧技术与科学技术的关系;云智慧技术与工农业生产及家庭的关系;云智慧技术引领制造业革命.最后给出了云智慧技术的架构图和COINV实现云智慧仪器和应用实例.指出了第三次工业革命正在到来.

  5. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  6. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S; Elliott, Luther

    2015-03-30

    This paper places America's "war on drugs" in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  7. Freedom’s Gate: The Southern Insurgency in the American Revolution, 1770-1781

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    soldiers thinking all was lost began approaching British authorities seeking parole. General Clinton, 10 perhaps in a generous mood , extended liberal...and of the music of the old Psalter (Glasgow: McCulloch and Co., 1872), 21-24. 11 Breed, Presbyterians and the Revolution, 97; John Wesley Brinsfield

  8. Recent historiographical trends of the British Studies (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caricchio and Giovanni Tarantino (editors

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Seminar index :1. Radicalism and the English revolution Mario CaricchioGlenn BurgessAriel HessayonNicholas McDowell2. Britain 1660-1714: competing historiographiesGiovanni Tarantino Mark Knights3. The Church of England in the eighteenth centuryGuglielmo SannaWilliam GibsonRobert G. IngramRobert D. Cornwall 4. Non-British readings of the English revolutionStefano VillaniGabi MahlbergPietro Messina5. Rediscovering radicalism in the British Isles and Ireland in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries(Selected papers from the Goldsmiths Conference, ed. by Ariel Hessayon

  9. EMPLOYERS' ORGANIZATIONS AND WAGE QUESTION OF SKILLED WORKERS: POWER STRUCTURE IN THE EEF AND SKILL SHORTAGES IN THE BRITISH ENGINEERING INDUSTRY, 1933-34

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Kentaro

    2002-01-01

    Recent discussions on the history of industrial relations in Britain have focused often on the role of employers' organizations. To discuss power structure between employers' local associations and their national headquarters this article deals with skill shortage in the engineering industry in the interwar period and how the employers responded to it. The Engineering Employer Federation (EEF) tackled the question of the remuneration of toolmakers, highly skilled engineers, to secure them. Th...

  10. The electronics revolution inventing the future

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J B

    2017-01-01

    This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .

  11. Challenges to cities following the information revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Petrešin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the predictions and guessing about the development of cities and the living culture at the beginning of the information revolution to the current trends. The information revolution being a fact nowadays, its consequences reflect in social and environmental phenomena, in changes in culture and aesthetics and remains of the past industrial era – the monuments of the future. The potential interest of neighbourhoods is related to agglomeration of central functions as a reflection of global economy that is parallel to a metamorphosis of production process, working schedule and new forms of jobs. There is a significant demand in flexible building types, temporary access to new media and the related services. With the augmented virtual capacity of a city, the e-neighbourhoods also grow. The city becoming a hybrid of the built and the digital offers new challenges to the architectural and urban planning profession.

  12. Reconsidering the Grenada revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Revolutions and Revolutionary Theory: An Assessment of Cuba, Nicaragua and Grenada. BRIAN MEEKS. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1993. ix + 210 pp. (Paper n.p. The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking. ROBERT J. BECK. Boulder: Westview, 1993. xiv + 263 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 The Gorrión Tree: Cuba and the Grenada Revolution. JOHN WALTON COTMAN. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. xvi + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 48.95 These three books might be thought of as a second generation of studies concerned with the rise, rule, and destruction of the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG in Grenada. The circumstances surrounding the accession to power in 1979 of the government led by Maurice Bishop, the nature of its rule, and its violent demise in 1983 resulted in the appearance during the mid-1980s of an extensive literature on the Grenada Revolution. Some of these works were scholarly, others polemical. But what they all had in common was the desire to examine, either critically or otherwise, something which was unique in the historical experience of the English-speaking Caribbean. Never, before the rule of the New JEWEL Movement (NJM in Grenada, had a Leninist party come to power; never had a violent coup initiated a new political regime; never had a Caribbean government so explicitly rejected U.S. hegemony in the area; and never, before October 1983, had a government experienced quite so dramatic a crisis as that in Grenada, one which resulted in the killing of the Prime Minister and numerous others of his supporters.

  13. "Color Revolutions" and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhiye; Xu Tao; Jiang Li; Da Wei; Chen Xiangyang; Ding Xiaoxing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Astring of media-coined "color revolutions" broke out in Georgia, Ukraine and Kirgyzstan one after another inside the Commonwealth of Independent States since October 2003,reminiscent of the drama of collapse of the former Soviet bloc at the turn of the 1990s. Why those upheavals came hot on the heels of the Soviet disintegration merely a dozen or so years ago? Are we expecting more Domino effects down the road? What geographical repercussions will they spark? We have invited some experts over from the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations to air their views on these interesting issues.

  14. Revolution of Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viardot, Eric

    This edited collection explores how digitalization is changing the management of innovation, and the subsequent implications for the next phases in its development. The authors identify and examine relevant phenomena which are related to the ongoing digital breakthrough in the context of innovation...... management such as user innovation, crowd sourcing and crowd funding, as well as social media. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the first volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspectives on these topics with illustrations and analysis coming...

  15. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  16. Sustainable Design: The Next Industrial Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    An insatiable appetite for energy, a burgeoning world population, and a heightened awareness of climate change are focusing global attention on sustainability, an issue that may very well determine the future course of civilization. The pursuit of a sustainable lifestyle today is of paramount importance for future generations. Achieving…

  17. Sustainable Design: The Next Industrial Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    An insatiable appetite for energy, a burgeoning world population, and a heightened awareness of climate change are focusing global attention on sustainability, an issue that may very well determine the future course of civilization. The pursuit of a sustainable lifestyle today is of paramount importance for future generations. Achieving…

  18. Louis Pasteur surgical revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered the most notable medical scientist of his time and perhaps one of the most distinguished of all times in the history of medicine. From Dole in France to Paris, from a student of crystals to "living ferments," and from chemistry to biology and medicine, Pasteur changed the world for the benefit of humanity. The genius of Pasteur dealt with the most pressing issues of his time, basing the germ theory on the effects that microorganisms had on fermentation and putrefaction of organic matter, which gave birth to the science of bacteriology. Many other difficult problems in medicine and biology were tackled by Pasteur, culminating in the spectacular results seen with the treatment of rabies. Surgery was no exception to the scientific conquests of Pasteur. The transformation of the surgical world arose from the antiseptic concepts of Lister that were based on the germ theory of the disease, which had been derived from the germ theory of fermentation and putrefaction discovered by Pasteur. The acceptance of these principles represented the surgical revolution brought on by the science of Pasteur, a revolution that is now accepted in our daily care of surgical patients.

  19. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  20. Transformation - Revolution in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    adopted by the logistics community as part of the Army’s Revolution in Military Logistics ....operations." To support this vision, Army logistics requires a quantum leap in strategic responsiveness. This change is called "Revolution in Military ... Logistics ," to know what the customer, the Warfighter, needs before he requests it. This study examines proposed improvements in automation

  1. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  2. Development Transformation and Indigenous Innovation: Experience from the Industrial Revolution%发展转型与自主创新:基于工业革命历史经验的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封凯栋

    2012-01-01

    实现中国经济发展方式的转变是我们要继续完成的紧迫任务。中国拥有世界第二大的经济规模却依然需要通过发展转型来实现对发达国家的有效赶超,这是二战后新兴工业国家的赶超经验中所未见的。但西方国家在多次工业革命历程中转型升级的经验依然可以给予我们不少启示,即促进社会系统内知识基础与技能基础的融合互动是推动创新系统转型升级的核心,这种转型需要一系列的社会条件;而社会基础的僵化则很可能妨碍转型。文章结合中国当前发展实践,指出应总结、研究并扩散我国在自主创新中在组织创新、生态创新方面的经验,并充分发挥政府作用,以制度环境的创新来撬动经济发展模式转型。%It is a pressing task for China to transform its developmental pattern. Even as the second largest econ- omy globally, China is still urged to sustain its development through systemic reform, which is unique by com- paring any experience of successful NIS. As such, Western countries' experiences in the Industrial Revolution can shed light on such a topic. This paper argues that the key to fundamentally promote a national system of in- novation is to enhance the interaction between the socialinstitutions responsible for producing propositional knowledge and prescriptive knowledge. However, the rigidity of the social foundation may work against this. In order to gear up for social creativity, this paper emphasizes the role of the Chinese government and the diffusion of successful experiences from indigenous firms in organizational innovation, sectoral system innovation and in- stitutional innovation.

  3. The Demographic Revolution: Reconceptualizing Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orio Giarini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reconsider the measurements which refer to the “Wealth of Nations” and from which the most appropriate references for better welfare policies are derived. In the present Service Economy, not all the “value added” measures indicate an increase in the level of wealth (the costs to cope with pollution for instance, whereas many developments in service functions and performances (in the case of many communication systems for instance add to real wealth much more than the usual value added references indicate. In particular, the notion of productivity in a Service economy is much more relevant with reference to performance in time (hence in a probabilistic system than to the production factor costs (in an equilibrium-based system. But all this is linked to progress in economics as a discipline, and to its integration with environmental issues (which also pretend to solve the problems of the “Wealth of Nations” on the basis of their “sustainability”. This will be a new era in economic development which will be beyond current extrapolations and will hope for “growth” in the traditional Industrial Revolution perspective.

  4. The social media revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubose, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The growing popularity and use of social media tools such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, blogging, and wikis have led to a social media revolution. Given this widespread influence, it is important for educators, administrators, and technologists to understand the risks of using social media in the classroom and workplace. To investigate popular social media sites and their effect on radiologic technology education and business practices. A comprehensive search of literature was performed to examine social media and its applications in education, health care, and business. Social media use is on the rise, affecting all aspects of mainstream society. Leaders in the radiologic sciences should be familiar with social media and cognizant of its risks. Future studies regarding social media use in the radiologic sciences are necessary to determine its effect on the radiologic science community. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  5. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  6. China's Wellness Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    SEVERAL years after its publication, the Wellness Revolution remains a cult best-selling book. Its writer, businessman and motivational speaker Paul Zane Pilzer, advised investors and ama-teur stock market players that "wellness" would be the next tril-

  7. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  8. The non-Euclidean revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1986-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...

  9. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  10. Three Revolutions of Urbanization in Industrialized Countries and an Innovative Urbanization in China%工业化国家城镇化的三次革命与中国城镇化道路创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization is an inevitable trend of development of human society. It would impact on economic and social development of China directly whether urbanization is able to get sustainability and healthy development. Whether the development of urbanization is healthy that has a great relationship with the way and means which adopted in urbanization process, namely, the development model of urbanization. The authors have a comparative study of the evolution of urbanization of Britain, France, Germany, the United States and other industrialized countries from the perspective of urban-rural relations changing of the historical process of urbanization. Since the 20th century, a hundred years, the rapid evolution of international urbanization, three occurred continuously be called revolutionary change. The first time, it is declaration of war to the "urban disease" . The second time, it is that" rural urban transition rise". The third time, area network-based urbanization pattern is formatting. Three times revolution in the objective is displayed on the regularity of the evolution of modern urbanization characteristics. As for the reflection, the road of urbanization with Chinese characteristics, is supposed to follow a law of historical development, in the face with a full identification of the past and could well learn from the revolutionary doctrine, certain forward-looking and future-oriented to form the road with a larger value of innovation.%城镇化是人类社会发展的必然趋势,城市化能否持续、健康发展,直接影响到中国经济社会的发展。而城市化的健康与否,与城市化过程中所采取的途径和方式,即城镇化的发展模式有很大的关系。本文从城镇化历史进程中城乡关系变化的视角出发,对英、法、德、关等工业化国家的城镇化演进过程进行比较研究,认为这些国家的百年城镇化演进都连续地发生了三次可称之为革命的变化。依次为

  11. Cultivating Makers:Educational Ecosystem in the View of New Industrial Revolution%发现创客:新工业革命视野下的教育新生态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佑镁

    2015-01-01

    As the new industrial revolution gave birth to the era of individual manufacturing, there are more and more makers of various types. The development of digital technology has reduced the access threshold for innovation and pro-moted the democratization of innovation, which introduce opportunities for maker movement. As a harbinger, maker movement stimulates individual makers’ creativity and integrates the spirit of the makers with four elements, DIY, in-novation, self-organization, and the Internet. Makerspace is a carrier which supports open sharing, co-creation and cross-border innovation. The makers typically have the following behavior characteristics:constant pursuit of creating changes, willing to share, making good use of tools, and integrating play with learning. Through the process of ac-culturation and enculturation, the making culture has become a mainstream leading innovation and entrepreneurship. To establish a new ecosystem of making education, we need to clearly describe the framework that integrates making elements into education system. The framework should be able to embed opening resources, curriculum reconstruction, and knowledge innovation, and have three progressive levels of makers-enhanced instruction, makers-infused courses, makers-centered learning to enhance learnersˊDIY ( T) , cross-literacy and makers’ knowledge and skills. The ulti-mate goal of the framework is to cultivate a group of makers with innovative entrepreneurial consciousness and abili-ties, as well as to develop a new culture of making education, so as to provide the source and stream of entrepreneur-ship and innovation for mass entrepreneurship and crowning innovation.%新工业革命催生了个体制造时代,创客登上了历史舞台;数字技术的发展降低了创新的准入门槛,推动了众创时代的民主化创新,创客发展迎来历史机遇。创客运动为创客的先声,激发个体自造者的创新活力;创客精神是其内核

  12. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  13. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBickle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this paper is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past sixty years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of higher cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics (and DREADDs. The two key metascientific concepts I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of Tool Development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions.

  14. Revolution Becoming a Must%电信转型,选择还是适应?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜燕鹏

    2005-01-01

    When the outer environment changes, we always face the same question which is to decide whether or not to suit the changes. The same question happens in information industry now. With the increasing of customers, advancing of technologies and developing of services in information industry, the traditional developing mode of information industry has been out of time. Revolution has become a must for the industry, which can be proven by our action. And so in this issue """"""""New Telecom Salon"""""""" focuses on the revolution in information industry, and we are horned to invite some experts in this field. They will show us the new image of information industry revolution and that of telecom enterprises.

  15. Academia Leads Digital Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As the Chinese book publishing industry sits nervously on the edqe of possible market economy led reforms, one key area to address will be its ability to come to terms with the onset of digital publishing.

  16. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  17. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.

  18. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    Second World era international system (1945-1990) may not have done any good to ... wedge between the capitalist and socialist blocs, not only blurred Third World .... Politics and the Stages of Economic Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge ... complex industries producing mainly for export, but also producing for local.

  19. 2012版英国制药工业协会Ⅰ期临床试验指导原则介绍%Introduction of Association The British Pharmaceutical Industry ’ s guidelines for phase 1 clinical trials of 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况赟; 黄洁; 金承怀; 华烨; 阳国平

    2014-01-01

    Phase 1 clinical trials is a key step for new drugs from basic experiments to human verification.Developed countries have formulated the corresponding laws , regulations and policies and guiding principles.Association The British Pharmaceutical Industry ( ABPI ) released a 2012 version of guidelines for phase 1 clinical trials.It provided professional guidances for some important problems in phase 1 clinical trials ( such as risk assessment , contracts and agreements , confidentiality , subjects , in-vestigational medicinal products and so on ).This paper makes a brief in-troduction of guiding principles for phase 1 clinical trials on the 2012 ver-sion of the ABPI.%Ⅰ期临床试验是新药开发从临床前研究进入人体试验的关键一步。发达国家均制定了相应的法规政策和指导原则。英国制药工业协会( ABPI)发布了2012版Ⅰ期临床试验指导原则,其对Ⅰ期临床试验中重点关注的问题(如风险评估、合同和协议、保密、试验对象及试验用药品等)提供了专业的指导。本文就2012版ABPI Ⅰ期临床试验指导原则进行简要的介绍。

  20. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and leading. Ukraine’s presidential elections of 2004 and the competition between Viktor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovich and the presence of international observers in the process of elections and the controversy of electoral fraud and the West’s support of Yushchenko were all directed toward the formation of a color revolution in Ukraine. Poor economic conditions and official corruption, religious, linguistic, class and racial gaps in Ukraine led the way for foreigners to use them in creating electoral situations and prepare the fall of the government. The main purpose question in this article is the Orange Revolution and its causes.

  1. A Revolution that never happened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    If we define scientific revolutions as changes of scientists' ontologies, types of causal explanation, and paradigmatic types of methods and instruments, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry did not amount to a scientific revolution. Contrary to the received view that Lavoisier initiated a "chemical revolution," which is accepted by Chang and Kusch, I argue that Lavoisier shared with the phlogistonists their "flat ontology" of chemical substance, established decades before the 1770s, their types of explaining chemical transformation, and their quantitative methods. Based on my historical reconstruction, I criticize Chang's argument that the late eighteenth-century phlogistic systems and Lavoisier's system belonged to two different theoretical traditions. As a consequence, I also question Chang's argument that the acceptance of Lavoisier's system can be explained in terms of dominance of "compositionism" over "principlism."

  2. A Logistics Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The entry of international industry leaders is stirring up profound logistics changes in China After 23 rounds of negotiations in the past two years. FedEx's first transit center in China is to be built in the Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport soon.

  3. The Microcomputer Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Harold C.

    The history of the development of the microcomputer industry since its inception in 1975 is explored in this brief paper, which pays special attention to the advent of the small business computer. The author describes the growth of sales, the development of successful companies, the early resistance to use of microcomputers in business, and the…

  4. 1927: a British eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  5. British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jim; Woll, Bencie

    1981-01-01

    The author reports on the use of British Sign Language in the United Kingdom and dispels some myths that surround the language. It is pointed out that there is a low level of interest in deaf people and their method of communication. Research needs in the area of sign language systems are briefly considered. (SB)

  6. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  7. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  8. The Meanings of 'Bourgeois Revolution': Conceptualizing the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2007-01-01

    Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class consciou......Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class...... consciousness and revolutionary intentions in the French Revolution of 1789. On the basis of a methodologically ambitious view of concepts in general, Marx starts from a general conception of the state as alienated human potentials and proceeds through a methodological framework of multiple periodizations......-reductive concept of ‘bourgeois revolution’, describing an important aspect of the French Revolution rather than the particulars of this historic event, seems to contain a challenge unmet by most contemporary historiography....

  9. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Golub

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper places America's “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.

  10. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  11. Beyond America's War on Drugs: Developing Public Policy to Navigate the Prevailing Pharmacological Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Golub; Bennett, Alex S.; Luther Elliott

    2015-01-01

    This paper places America’s “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America’s experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America’s Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating th...

  12. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  13. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  14. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  15. Extreme Programming: A Kuhnian Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northover, Mandy; Northover, Alan; Gruner, Stefan; Kourie, Gerrick G.; Boake, Andrew

    This paper critically assesses the extent to which the Agile Software community's use of Thomas Kuhn's theory of revolutionary scientific change is justified. It will be argued that Kuhn's concepts of "scientific revolution" and "paradigm shift" cannot adequately explain the change from one type of software methodology to another.

  16. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  17. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  18. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  19. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  20. Partner Choice and Homogamy in the Nineteenth Century : Was There a Sexual Revolution in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, Marco H.D.; Maas, Ineke

    2002-01-01

    In this article long-term changes in homogamy during industrialization are studied. According to the `sexual revolution thesis' of Shorter industrialization weakened homogamy mainly by changing the preferences of young people. Others point to the importance of changes in social control by parents an

  1. Wars, Revolutions and the First Real World Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.

  2. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  3. Quantum Hadrodynamics Evolution and Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Furnstahl, R J; Serot, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    The underlying philosophy and motivation for quantum hadrodynamics (QHD), namely, relativistic field theories of nuclear phenomena featuring manifest covariance, have evolved over the last quarter century in response to successes, failures, and sharp criticisms. A recent revolution in QHD, based on modern effective field theory and density functional theory perspectives, explains the successes, provides antidotes to the failures, rebuts the criticisms, and focuses the arguments in favor of a covariant representation.

  4. Love British Books 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Paul; Puzzovio, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The book is a catalogue of an exhibition of British books to be held in Armenia in June 2012 at the 'Armenian Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries'. This is an event arranged with the Armenian Ministry of Culture as part of the UNESCO: 'Yerevan, International Book Capital 2012' & the Armenian 2012 celebrations to mark the 500th anniversary of the first printed book in the Armenian language. The catalogue describes all the books in the exhibition, with a photograph of each and...

  5. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  6. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  7. Close to life,Stimulating Interest,Inquiry Communication,Understanding History:Case Analysis of the First Occu-rrence of the "Industrial Revolution" in England%贴近生活激发兴趣探究交流理解历史——“工业革命”首先在英国发生案例探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙水庆

    2012-01-01

      工业革命为什么首先在英国发生?是因为英国具备了资金、市场、劳动力、技术,以及资产阶级代议制等诸多有利因素。如何使学生理解只有具备了这些条件,才能推动工业革命或者经济技术的革新,从而推动资本主义经济的快速发展,本文根据自身教学实践,通过联系现实社会,让学生利用已有对社会的认知,从现实社会中私人企业发展应该要具备的基本条件出发,鼓励学生思考、探究,得出相关结论。使学生从历史回到现实去理解历史,再从现实返回历史去认识现实社会,并从中得出一些教学启迪%  Why did the industrial revolution firstly occur in England Because England had many favorable factors, such as the capital,market,labour force,technology,as well as the bourg-eoisie representative system and so on.Teachers should make students understand only with these conditions,can it promote the industrial revolution or the economic and technological inn-ovation,so as to promote the rapid development of the capitalist economy.According to their own teaching practice,through co-ntact with social reality, letting students make use of the existing social awareness, from the basic conditions private enterprises should have in social reality, the writer encourages students to think, explore, and reach relevant conclusion, so as to make students understand history from history and then return to the reality from history. And the writer has got some teaching enlightenments.

  8. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies, a

  9. 75 FR 38385 - Unleashing the Wireless Broadband Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Memorandum of June 28, 2010--Unleashing the Wireless Broadband Revolution #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents... Revolution Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies America's future competitiveness... beginning the next transformation in information technology: the wireless broadband revolution. Few...

  10. British Logistics Challenges in the American Revolution: How Logistics was a Critical Vulnerability in the British Effort to Ensure Victor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    one convoy in 1775, five ships departed with 7,000 barrels of flour ; on arrival in Boston, 5,000 of those barrels were condemned. So instead of...12,000 men having bread for five and half months, that particular shipment was consumed in only 47 days. In 1778 alone, flour deficiencies amounted to...but the army, which had eaten putrid meat and wormy biscuits at least since early September, did not fare well. Sickness brought on by bad food and

  11. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so t

  12. Tweets as a news source in British and Dutch dailies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd

    2011-01-01

    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for news gathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. This paper investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elec

  13. At the margin: continuing crisis in British environmental history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckin, Bill

    2004-09-01

    An understanding of historical relations between gender and nature, whether within the context of 'untouched wilderness' or the pulsating vibrancy of the industrial city, is central to collective self-knowledge in the world in which we all live. However, have British historians been less successful than their American counterparts in engaging with key aspects of the environmental past?

  14. Economic Motives Behind the 2011 Egyptian Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    pdf. 119 Ibid. 120 Andrey V. Korotayev and Julia V. Zinkina, “Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista ...Structural Analysis,” Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13 (2011). Lesch, Ann M. “Egypt’s Spring: Causes of the Revolution.” Middle East Policy

  15. Re-Appraising Revolution and Change in International Politics: A Case Study of America Revolution 1776, French Revolution 1789 and Russian Revolution 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatobi Babatunde Njoaguani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Change and continuity are characteristics of human history. Strategic change in any society has significant impacts that becomes reference points for similar transformation in the near future. Fundamentally, the numerous internal upheavals that characterized North Africa and Middle East that culminated in a change of government in these countries has raised fundamental question about subject of change and revolution. Such questions include: is every change a revolution and does every revolution culminate in a change? What are the distinguishing features of change and the significance of such change for contemporary international politics? Using secondary data derived from books, and journals, the paper therefore examines the revolution and change in international politics drawing from historical examples of America and France Revolution. Also, noting the causes and implications of these of revolution on International Relations. It also seeks to distinguish between socio-political upheaval and internal disruptions that may culminate in change from revolution, that is, a vital change that affects institution, structure and value system of a society. The paper recommends a cautious use of the term revolution from change of government.

  16. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  17. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  18. THE REVOLUTION AND THE MILITARY. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EGYPTIAN AND IRAQI REVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Alexandru CUCUT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to assess the role the military plays in revolutions. The first part of the study focuses on the manner in which the competing theories of revolutions try to explain and accommodate the military’s participation in revolutions, attempting to show that the limits of these theoretical enterprises call for a renewed research into the subject at hand. The second part of the paper tries to build a conceptual model, starting from the hypotheses of Charles Tilly, Samuel Huntington and Mehran Kamrava, tested on two particular cases – that of the 1958 Egyptian Revolution and that of the 1958 Iraqi Revolution that can better account for the military’s participation in revolutions and explain when does the military become a revolutionary force and what are the characteristics of revolutions in which the military plays a key-role.

  19. Making Breakthroughs in the Turbulent Decade: China's Space Technology During the Cultural Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian

    2017-09-01

    This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Revolution, modernity, and the potential of narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the impact of the French Revolution on Goethe’s narrative works in the mid-1790s. I argue that the reductive interpretation of Goethe’s attitude to the Revolution as distant and reluctant ignores the formal and thematic impact of the Revolution on his prose works. Similarly......, we lose important perspectives when reducing German intellectual life of the late eighteenth century to apolitical inwardness. The Revolution had an impact, also in the German context, and Goethe’s literary works were significantly affected by it. Working in various literary genres, he investigated...... and experimented with some of the fundamental challenges of the Revolution and the modern era, especially those regarding self-determination, community, and the nexus between individual and shared history. Following a brief sketch of how these issues looked from a German perspective, I will focus on Goethe’s...

  1. Bourgeois Revolution: The Genesis of a Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2006-01-01

    -appropriations of enlightenment theses in the aftermath of the French Revolution. Finally, the development of modern socialist critiques of capitalism contributed an orientation towards a future socialist revolution necessary to construct ‘bourgeois revolution' as a specific category of historical analysis. This paper proposes......The concept ‘bourgeois revolution' developed through a particular synthesis of three world views, each with its own period of dominance in Western thought. In the enlightenment views of civilization history developing in Scotland and France from the 1740's till about 1800, materialist notions...... of historical progress were developed focussing on social structure and the main conditions of social development. Important notions of agency, including social classes as historical agents, and of revolutions as specific leaps in the developmental process, were developed with the onset of romantic re...

  2. History of British Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    1. The scientific background; 2. The technical background; 3. The initiation of the Skylark rocket programme; 4. Post IGY developments; 5. The Ariel programme; 6. The European Space Research Organisation; 7. Commonwealth co-operation in space research; 8. Smaller rockets for scientific purposes - Skua and Petrel; 9. Attitude controlled Skylark rockets; 10. The Trend Committee and the Science Research Council; 11. The transformation of ESRO into ESA; 12. The Space Science Committee for Europe; 13. Scientific studies by British space scientists I; 14. Scientific studies by British space scientists II; 15. The contribution from British space scientists to astronomy; 16. Concluding remarks; Appendices; Annexes.

  3. The Role of Innovative Development in Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploitation in the Context of the Shale Gas Revolution in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent drop in oil prices, there is a strong interest in the influence of the shale revolution on the global supply and demand of hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, the attention of many economists and industry analysts is drawn to the technological, institutional and regulatory aspects of hydrocarbon production from shale deposits in the USA. The authors analyze factors facilitating the shale gas revolution in the USA, and find that in addition to the obvious factors, such as high p...

  4. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  5. Biomedical publishing and the internet: evolution or revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M W

    2000-01-01

    The Internet is challenging traditional publishing patterns. In the biomedical domain, medical journals are providing more and more content online, both free and for a fee. Beyond this, however, a number of commentators believe that traditional notions of copyright and intellectual property ownership are no longer suited to the information age and that ownership of copyright to research reports should be and will be wrested from publishers and returned to authors. In this paper, it is argued that, although the Internet will indeed profoundly affect the distribution of biomedical research results, the biomedical publishing industry is too intertwined with the research establishment and too powerful to fall prey to such a copyright revolution.

  6. The tourism revolution in the Mediterranean, 1950-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Carles Manera Erbina; Jaume Garau Taberner; Ramon Molina de Dios

    2010-01-01

    The explosion of mass tourism since the end of the Second World War has had a tangible effect on crucial flows of manpower, investment and production strategy towards the leisure economy in a large part of the world, with changes that take us back to what occurred two hundred years earlier in the heat of the Industrial Revolution. However, perhaps it is in particular areas (as was the case with the thrust of industrialisation) such as the Mediterranean basin, where this view can be identified...

  7. “第三次工业革命”、制造的重新定义与中国制造业发展%The Third Industrial Revolution, Redefinition of Manufacturing and Chinese Industry’s Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄群慧; 贺俊

    2013-01-01

      Against the background of TIR, a series of advanced manufacturing technologies that penetrating, integrating and reshaping manufacturing industries may redefine the role of manufacturing in economic develop-ment and innovation system. As the productivity and value creation of manufacturing would be improved dra-matically, the role of manufacturing is likely to be changed from production to an innovative resource that carries knowledge, information and new organizational management methods. Manufacturing would be the battle front of international industrial competition again. As a far-reaching techno-economic paradigm shift, TIR would change the structure of resource input, the industrial organization of manufacturing, the global economic geography and international industrial division of labor, and finally impact China’s path of industrial upgrading and technological catch-up.%  “第三次工业革命”的含义不仅限于通过机器对劳动的替代实现更低的生产成本,还在于通过先进制造技术与知识型员工和新的生产管理方法的有效结合达到产品多样性、产品开发周期、产品性能和产能灵活性的综合优化。它将改变制造业的要素投入结构和制造业企业竞争的关键资源基础、制造业的产业组织形态和国家间产业竞争的范式、国家的比较优势条件,从而重塑全球经济地理和产业分工格局。中国制造业的发展思路应当从过去的“强化比较成本优势”向“形成新的竞争优势”转变,产业政策应当在加快先进制造技术突破和制造基础设施建设的同时,注重先进制造技术和制造系统的示范、推广和应用,通过现代生产管理和制度政策环境的建设,将先进制造技术切实转为产业竞争力和现实经济利益,开辟符合中国自身产业基础和要素禀赋特征的独特的制造技术升级路径。

  8. Immigrants in the Sexual Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    , homosexuality, pornography, adultery and divorce were challenged and reformed, in many cases in the context of intensive social movement activism. This research explores immigrants' perceptions of the dramatic changes in sexual and gender relations transforming Europe in the 1960s-80s, and the instances...... of immigrant solidarity with, and participation in, networks for social justice, women's equality, and sexual liberation. Part I of this dissertation focuses on foreign workers' early impressions of gender equality and sexual liberality from 1965-1974. Part II centers on immigrant activism from 1975......This is an historical study of first-generation immigrants in Denmark and the Netherlands in the 1960s-80s and their perceptions of the 'Sexual Revolution.' Foreign workers and post-colonial immigrants arrived during the same decades when laws regarding women's equality, contraception and abortion...

  9. Mass Media and «the Сolor Revolutions»

    OpenAIRE

    - Zhao Yonghua

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the importance and influence of media on the progress of «color revolutions» based on patterns of media and political reforms in the state, industrial development of mass media and media strategy of the Western States (as an example the U.S.) in relation to Commonwealth countries.

  10. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  11. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army.

  12. Training in the Industry 4.0 (in Spain and Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Djamil Tony Kahale Carrillo

    2016-01-01

    The Industry 4.0, known as the fourth industrial revolution, refers to an industrial revolution that is stimulated by the digital transformation and the introduction of the digital technology in the industry in general. The digital transformation supposes the whole challenge for the Spanish and Italian industry; nevertheless, it offers the opportunity to improve the competitive position on the international market.The reports indicate that the digitalization of the industry will suppose the d...

  13. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  14. Helical Two-Revolutional Cyclical Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Olejníková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a family of helical two-revolutional cyclical surfaces, which arecreated by movement of the circle alongside the helical cycloidal curve, where circle islocated in the curve normal plane and its centre is on this curve. Helical cycloidal curvecan be created by simultaneous revolution of a point about two different axes 3o, 2o and byscrewing about axis 1o in the space. Form of the helical cycloidal curve and also of thehelical two-revolutional cyclical surface is dependent on the relative position of the threeaxes of revolutions, on multiples of angular velocities and orientations of separaterevolutions. Analytic representation, classification of surfaces and some of their geometricproperties are derived.

  15. Book Review: Haberkorn, Tyrell, Revolution Interrupted: ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Drahmoune

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the monograph: Haberkorn, Tyrell (2011, Revolution Interrupted: Farmers, Students, Law and Violence in Northern Thailand Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN: 978 0 299 28184 7, 256 pages

  16. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  17. APPROXIMATE DEVELOPMENTS FOR SURFACES OF REVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Roxana Buneci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is provide a set of Maple procedures to construct approximate developments of a general surface of revolution generalizing the well-known gore method for sphere

  18. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  19. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAvinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz revolutionized the modelling of imperfectly competitive markets and launched "the second monopolistic competition revolution". Experts in the areas of macroeconomics, international trade theory, economic geography, and international growth theory examine

  20. The two revolutions in bio-medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of modern medical science, we can identify certain epochs. Some of these will be our concern here, for they offer important insights into the development of modern medicine and offer equally important predictors of where it is heading in the future. In fact they are so important that they qualify to be called nothing less than revolutions.Till the early twentieth century, medicine was an activity dependent on a small privileged elite. This changed by the mid-twentieth century into a vast publicly owned enterprise with enlightened governmental approach, support and funding. One example of this was in the 1940s, sixty five years ago, when Vannever Bush in the US, for example, persuaded the government there to divert resources allocated for the then war effort (World War II to fund basic research in academic institutions. Similarly, in India, what was earlier dependent on the benevolence of zamindars/philanthropists and some missionaries who set up charitable dispensaries/hospitals to serve certain sections of the population was supplemented, and then overtaken, by governmental funding after independence in 1947.This major governmental support to medical science was an important development that led to great advances in medical research and facilities all over. Such funding and consequent blossoming of medical science was nothing less than a revolution, which we can legitimately consider the first revolution in modern medicine.A second revolution was soon to follow four decades later. It was fuelled by a vast upsurge in medical research, training and therapy, with capital pouring in from private enterprise and philanthropy. This revolution is still on. It is aided by efforts like the Bayh-Dole Amendments of 1980 in the US, for example. This epoch making amendment conferred intellectual property rights to institutions and connected scientists even if they had developed their products/inventions with government funding. It was followed

  1. On the revolution of heavenly spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Copernicus, Nicolaus

    1995-01-01

    The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.

  2. Summary Science and the Revolution of 1911

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Science and democracy are two banners of the May Fourth New Culture Movement; and enlightenment and revolution are the dual variation in promoting and saving the nation since modern Chinese history. In this historical process of Chinese modernization, science dissemination and social revolution went hand in hand, intertwined and finally converged, underlining the interaction between science and the society, with significant historical events as their nodes.

  3. The LED outdoor lighting revolution : Opportunities, threats and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aube, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The presence of artificial light at night (ALAN) in environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on the night sky, the fauna, the flora and the human health. A real revolution is undergoing in the outdoor lighting industry threatens the night integrity. This revolution is driven by the advent of the cost-effective Light-Emitting Diode (LED) technology into the outdoor lighting industry. The LEDs provides many opportunities: they are long lasting, easily controlled, and generally allow a more efficient photometric design which, in term, may result in energy savings.After explaining the complex and non-linear behaviour of the propagation of the ALAN into the nocturnal environment, we will outline the potential impact of the ALAN on the human health and on the night sky, and we will introduce some dedicated indicators for its evaluation. We will focus on the role of the blue content of the ALAN in the evaluation of its impact. More specifically we will show how white LED technology, that often shows increased blue light content, compares to the traditional High Pressure Sodium technology. Finally, we will identify the possible mitigations to restrict the adverse impacts of the white LEDs in the urban and rural environment.

  4. The Science of Structural Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Graf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on the very human process by which scientific paradigms change can help point the path forward in any science, or in an applied science, such as Structural Engineering. Understanding this process of change, we can examine earthquake engineering, seismic building codes and theories of structural engineering for earthquake loads. When we take this perspective, we recognize that Structural Engineering for earthquake resistance is in the midst of a number of revolutions, from paradigms embodied in current building codes in which earthquake demands are associated with forces, to a new paradigm in which earthquake demands are re-envisioned as resulting from structural displacements or drift. The new paradigm is embodied in the current national standard for the seismic rehabilitation of existing structures, ASCE 41 [2] and the emerging standards for performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE. Associated with this is the shift from design oriented towards life-safety to design for a range of performance objectives, such as life-safety, damage reduction, or immediate occupancy. With this perspective, we further recognize deficiencies in research and development. We have failed to systematically use the experimental and computational tools we possess to fill in the gaps of scientific knowledge. We have not developed and deployed appropriate frameworks to collect and share ideas and results. As one example, the formulation of performance-based codes now outstrips the knowledge-base needed to ensure that structures designed by the new tools will meet their performance objectives.

  5. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  6. Epilepsy genetics: the ongoing revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesca, G; Depienne, C

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsies have long remained refractory to gene identification due to several obstacles, including a highly variable inter- and intrafamilial expressivity of the phenotypes, a high frequency of phenocopies, and a huge genetic heterogeneity. Recent technological breakthroughs, such as array comparative genomic hybridization and next generation sequencing, have been leading, in the past few years, to the identification of an increasing number of genomic regions and genes in which mutations or copy-number variations cause various epileptic disorders, revealing an enormous diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms. The field that has undergone the most striking revolution is that of epileptic encephalopathies, for which most of causing genes have been discovered since the year 2012. Some examples are the continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep and Landau-Kleffner syndromes for which the recent discovery of the role of GRIN2A mutations has finally confirmed the genetic bases. These new technologies begin to be used for diagnostic applications, and the main challenge now resides in the interpretation of the huge mass of variants detected by these methods. The identification of causative mutations in epilepsies provides definitive confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, allows accurate genetic counselling, and sometimes permits the development of new appropriate and specific antiepileptic therapies. Future challenges include the identification of the genetic or environmental factors that modify the epileptic phenotypes caused by mutations in a given gene and the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in sporadic epilepsies.

  7. The digital revolution in phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N.; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support ‘bench to bedside’ efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. PMID:26420780

  8. The Southern Campaign of the American Revolution: A Comparative Analysis of British and American Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    the interior.67 Greene knew Cornwallis would view his newly assembled army as the prime target and would make every effort to smash him as quickly...Bricks Without Straw: Nathanael Greene’s Southern Campaign and Mao Tse- Tung’s Mobile War. Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 1983. Edgar

  9. Riotous Images: Representations of Joseph Priestley in British Prints during the French Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on printed images that were published in Britain during the 1790s, depicting the educationist, theologian, chemist, physicist, historian and philosopher Joseph Priestley (1733-1804). It is argued that such etchings and engravings are indicative of, and contributed to, the lifelong political and historical education of late…

  10. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  11. The quiet revolution: decentralisation and fuel cells; Leise Revolution: Dezentralisierung und Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenbrenner, N

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'.

  12. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  13. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.

    1978-01-01

    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  14. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  15. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  16. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  17. Britishness, Identity, and the Three-Dimensional: British Sculpture Abroad in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney J. Martin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how sculptural discourse was absent from British art shown outside of Britain in the 1990s, despite the international prominence of two distinct groups of British artists: the so-called Young British Artists (YBAs and other British artists folded into a postcolonial or identity-based construction.

  18. Urbanism Faced with the New Urban Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascher, François

    2002-01-01

    tilsvarende ved at blive afløst af en "meta-urbanisme", som adskiller sig fra den foregående med hensyn til målsætninger, kundskabsmæssige redskaber og handlingsinstrumenter. I artiklen redegøres for sammenhænge mellem disse teknologiske, samfundsmæssige, bymæssige og urbanistiske forandringer.......Med den industrielle revolution fulgte den urbane revolution og urbanismen som bymæssig videns- og planlægningsdisciplin. Med de nye informations- og kommunikationsteknologier står vi i dag over for samfundsmæssige forandringer, som sætter en ny urban revolution på dagsordenen. Urbanismen er...

  19. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  20. Chromatin remodelling: the industrial revolution of DNA around histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjanabha; Wittmeyer, Jacqueline; Cairns, Bradley R

    2006-06-01

    Chromatin remodellers are specialized multi-protein machines that enable access to nucleosomal DNA by altering the structure, composition and positioning of nucleosomes. All remodellers have a catalytic ATPase subunit that is similar to known DNA-translocating motor proteins, suggesting DNA translocation as a unifying aspect of their mechanism. Here, we explore the diversity and specialization of chromatin remodellers, discuss how nucleosome modifications regulate remodeller activity and consider a model for the exposure of nucleosomal DNA that involves the use of directional DNA translocation to pump 'DNA waves' around the nucleosome.

  1. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  2. Revolution with and without the mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanko Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to provide a certain “second reading” of those commonplaces which imply that a particular, personal interest always lies behind the mask of objectivity, necessity and truth. As a paradigmatic example of this kind of structure that implies “hidden truths”, here will be taken that of a revolution, whether it is a fascist, a liberal-democratic or a communist revolution. By reexamining how this motif of “truth-behind-the-mask” figures in those regimes, we will try to say something about each of them, and also about the specific kind of subject that is produced under them.

  3. The astronomical revolution Copernicus, Kepler, Borelli

    CERN Document Server

    Koyre, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Originally published in English in 1973. This volume traces the development of the revolution which so drastically altered man's view of the universe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The ""astronomical revolution"" was accomplished in three stages, each linked with the work of one man. With Copernicus, the sun became the centre of the universe. With Kepler, celestial dynamics replaced the kinematics of circles and spheres used by Copernicus. With Borelli the unification of celestial and terrestrial physics was completed by abandonment of the circle in favour the straight line to inf

  4. Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...

  5. Innovative technology to meet the demands of the white biotechnology revolution of chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, John

    2007-01-01

    by which a technological revolution termed "white biotechnology" for production of commodity chemicals has proved its credibility. Obviously, the rapid advances in biology has been crucial for the development of industrial biotechnology towards a position where even its cheap products such as bio-fuels can...... of sophisticated models, supported by accurate data obtained in experimental equipment that did not exist a few years ago. The need to update the chemical engineering education to meet the needs of the bio-industry is also evident. Much of the progress of the bio-industry has up to now been based on fundamental...

  6. British Telecom and Project Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.

    1983-07-01

    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  7. Hu Shi and the Continuation of the Revolution of1911——Discussing Intellectuals and Social Revolution%Hu Shi and the Continuation of the Revolution of 1911——Discussing Intellectuals and Social Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Hu Shi is regarded as one of the most important intellectuals after the Revolution of 1911,and he has a far- reaching influence in 20th century.In the perspective of Hu Shi,the contribution and continuation of the Revolution of 1911 has some inspiration for us to analyze the relationship between Chinese intellectuals and social revolution.

  8. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  9. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  10. Walking through the Revolution: A Spatial Reading of Literary Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…

  11. IT Complexity Revolution: Intelligent Tools for the Globalised World Development

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilyuk, Andrei; 10.1007/978-3-642-03978-2_1

    2009-01-01

    Globalised-civilisation interaction intensity grows exponentially, involving all dimensions and regions of planetary environment. The resulting dynamics of critically high, exploding complexity urgently needs consistent understanding and efficient management. The new, provably universal concept of unreduced dynamic complexity of real interaction processes described here provides the former and can be used as a basis for the latter, in the form of "complexity revolution" in information systems controlling such "critically globalised" civilisation dynamics. We outline the relevant dynamic complexity properties and the ensuing principles of anticipated complexity transition in information and communication systems. We then emphasize key applications of unreduced complexity concept and complexity-driven IT to various aspects of post-industrial civilisation dynamics, including intelligent communication, context-aware information and control systems, reliable genetics, integral medicine, emergent engineering, effic...

  12. Colour Revolutions Revisited: Relative Deprivation – the Reason for the Rose Revolution in Georgia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nino Machurishvili

    2017-01-01

    ... – revolution period in Georgia, within the framework of Relative Deprivation theory. The linkage between relative deprivation and the Gini coefficient, as well type of existing political regime and Soviet past is considered...

  13. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  14. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there have been two monopolistic competition revolutions. The first was started by Joan Robinson and Edward Chamberlin in the 1930s but failed to have much impact on economic theory. The second was initiated by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz in the early 1970s. Their r

  15. Dissent, revolution and liberty beyond Earth

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an in-depth discussion on the central question – how can people express and survive dissent and disagreement in confined habitats in space? The discussion is an important one because it could be that the systems of inter-dependence required to survive in space are so strong that dissent becomes impossible. John Locke originally said that people have a right to use revolution to overthrow a despotic regime. But if revolution causes violence and damage that causes depressurisation with the risk of killing many people, is it even permissible to have a revolution? How then are people to express their liberty or dissatisfaction with their rulers? The emergence of structures of dissent and disagreement is an essential part of the construction of a framework of liberty in space (revolution is just the extreme example) and thus the topic deserves in-depth and immediate attention. Even today, the way in which we assemble organisations and corporations for the government and private exploration o...

  16. Propagandist of the Revolution: Samuel Adams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Thomas M.

    This paper explores Samuel Adam's role as perhaps the most important propagandist of the American Revolution and his efforts to exploit Great Britain's mistakes and to engender in the American colonists a love of liberty and a fear that Great Britain, if not resisted, would replace that liberty with tyranny. Suggesting that the Revolutionary War…

  17. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  18. The monopolistic competition revolution in retrospect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Heijdra, Ben J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there have been two monopolistic competition revolutions. The first was started by Joan Robinson and Edward Chamberlin in the 1930s but failed to have much impact on economic theory. The second was initiated by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz in the early 1970s. Their

  19. Nascent Revolution in Post USSR Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978. 23 Op Cit. (Goldstone) p. 3 24 Ibid. p. 56 25 Ibid. p. 56 26 Ibid. p. 81 27 Ibid. p. 4 28 Ritzer , George . Sociological Theory. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1988. p. 118. 29

  20. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  1. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  2. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  3. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  4. En revolutionær matros' eventyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2008-01-01

    Anmeldelsen omhandler dels Knüfkens liv og levned, dels drøftelser af forholdet mellem revolutionære og Komintern, herunder Knüfkens og andres erfaringer med de russiske partiledere, disses interne magtkampe og magtkampenes afsmitning på den kommunistiske bevægelse. Udgivelsesdato: 25.09.08...

  5. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  6. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  7. The Intelligence Revolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    noting that "the general unreliability of all information" ensured that military action occurred "in a kind of twilight , which, like fog or moonlight...all fronts the continuing saga of Glasnost and Perestroika, the Gorbachev revolution. Developments in this area can have fundamental, global

  8. The politics of being Muslim and being British in the British Christian print media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a significant number of published studies in recent years on the British media representation of Muslims. These studies have tended to focus only on the British mainstream media, and to my knowledge, there is no significant research on the discursive construction of British Muslims in alternative media outlets. This paper attempts to fill this gap, focusing on the representations of British Muslims in the British Christian print media. Drawing on empirical data relating to four British Christian print media, Church Times, The Tablet, Evangelicals Now and Evangelical Times, this paper investigates how the questions of being Muslim and being British are dealt with in the British Christian print media, and the extent to which the politics of being Muslim and being British inform us about identity formation and affirmation.

  9. By-Product of Industrialization: The Victorian Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercom, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A case study designed to provide a picture of sex stereotypes in Europe and America before and after the industrial revolution. Qualities most often exhibited and admired by Victorian men and women are described. (Author/DB)

  10. Mexico´s long revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available México celebraba en el año 2010 el Bicentenario del empiezo de sus luchas de independencia y el Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana de 1910. Lo que no se celebra oficialmente es el proceso revolucionario contemporáneo, aunque sus ciertas fases han incluido entusiasmo por parte de diferentes actores sociales. En este artículo les ofrezco un análisis histórico de estos procesos revolucionarios como tres largas revoluciones de México. Además de eso, las explicaré dentro de un contexto histórico más amplio la transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio no-eurocéntrico, que podemos entender también como la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial (PVRM. Empiezo con la explicación de este contexto histórico amplio. Continúo con el análisis del proceso de independencia desde 1810 así como la Revolución Mexicana desde 1910. Adelanto con la explicación de la tercera larga revolución mexicana, para la cual he seleccionado como el año del empiezo el 1988 y las elecciones presidenciales. Otros posibles años del empiezo podrían ser la represión del movimiento estudiantil en 1968 y la rebelión neozapatista desde 1994. En manera de conclusión se analiza como las largas revoluciones mexicanas están conectadas a las transiciones en la esfera del contexto histórico amplio.Palabras clave: México, revolución, largas revoluciones, Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial (PVEM___________________________Abstract:Mexico celebrated in 2010 the Bicentenary of the beginning of its struggles of independence and the Centenary of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. What is not celebrated officially is the contemporary revolutionary process though some of its phases have included enthusiasm for the part of different social actors. In this article I offer you a historical analysis of these revolutionary processes as Mexico’s three long revolutions. Besides that I will explain them within the

  11. Indian Banking Industry: Challenges and Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dr. Krishna A. Goyal; Vijay Joshi

    2012-01-01

    The banking industry in India has a huge canvas of history, which covers the traditional banking practices from the time of Britishers to the reforms period, nationalization to privatization of banks...

  12. CHALLENGES FACED BY INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohit Bindlish; Pooja

    2013-01-01

      The banking industry in India has a huge canvas of history, which covers the traditional banking practices from the time of Britishers to the reforms period, nationalization to privatization of banks...

  13. Helical industrial chimneys in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Patiño, Mª Gracia

    2013-01-01

    The industrial chimney has been the symbol of the Industrial Revolution par excellence. Transcending both regionalism and traditional forms of construction, some specimens found in Spain, dating mainly from the early twentieth century, follow unique schools of construction with regard to the mastery with which the brick is handled. All this was achieved without being endorsed by famous architects; rather they were the product of master masons, skilled in their craft and relishing ...

  14. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    wedged between two irreconcilable identities, divisions threatened to derail this already enfeebled grouping. Yet leaders of the community, presuming a common Britishness with the Falkland Islanders and Britons in the United Kingdom, sought to intervene in the conflict by reaching out to both....... That their efforts were met with indifference, and sometimes scorn, only underlines how contingent and frail the idea of Greater Britain was by 1982. Yet this article also reveals how wide ranging the consequences of the crisis of Greater Britain were, and how its global reach was acutely put to the test by pitting...

  15. Tibetans' Fight Against British Invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Late in the 19th century, the Qing Central Governmentwas in a state of permanent decline, and its control oversome southwestern and northwestern areas suffered accordingly,making possible British and Russian incursions. In order to expand its sphereof influence and occupy all of Tibet,Britain clandestinely sent nominal preachers, tourists and explorers to explore for minerals in Tibet. Later,they managed to encroach on some of the adjacent countries of Tibet including Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, paving the way for invading Tibet.

  16. Chinese are more loss averse than British

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Tieyuan; Spina, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates how culture might influence loss aversion. Chinese were expected to be more loss averse than British because of cultural differences in regulatory focus. Study 1 reveals that compared with British participants, Chinese participants were less likely to give up gifts they had received in exchange for new gifts. In Study 2, Chinese and British participants imagined buying a computer which either had a high specification and a high price tag (high reference), or a basic...

  17. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance.

  18. Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views.

  19. The phenomenon of transdisciplinary cognitive revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhanov V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of transdisciplinarity was put into the fore of analysis rather recently. In the article an attempt is made to find out whether it is possible to attribute this phenomenon not only to a science (or even non-classical post-non-classical of the 21st century, or we have here the case where some scientific realities come to the attention of researchers with certain delay and has its value for the culture in general? It is possible to judge even the emergence of a kind of cognitive revolution affecting both science culture. We need to find out what is meant by a transdisciplinarity, and how it differs from the inter- or multiransdisciplinarity. In the study the method of historical reconstruction, combining elements of presentism and antiqurism, was implemented. This method allows us to interpret historical events in the context of a specific level of knowledge, and at the same time to evaluate them in terms of modern ideas related to transdisciplinarity, inter- and multidisciplinarity. System-structural method , focused on an integrated analysis of the dynamics of development of cognitive processes in culture was implied as well, and the method of comparative analysis, which is aimed at comparing different but conceptually similar processes in various areas of conceptual art practice. It is in the framework of (disciplinary based paradigm adopted a tacit agreement among scientists about the validity and effectiveness of research methods and techniques of inquiry. Within the (disciplinary based paradigm, which presupposes certain fundamental principles, goals, and certain values shared by the scientific community, the novel sprouts of radical ideas once emerge. The scientific revolution here means a radical revision of the admissibility of accepted and proven methods, goals and values that are common to the members of the scientific community. Typically, new theories and concepts proposed and already mastered new scientific community

  20. Health and the urban environment: revolutions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGranahan, Gordan

    2009-05-15

    From cholera pandemics to smog episodes, urban development driven by narrow economic interests has shown itself to be a serious threat to human health and wellbeing. Past revolutions in sanitation and pollution control demonstrate that social movements and governance reforms can transform an urban health penalty into a health advantage. But many environmental problems have been displaced over time and space, and never truly resolved. Health concerns need once again to drive an environmental agenda – but this time it must be sustainable over the long haul, and globally equitable. With the global economic crisis raising the ante, what's needed is no less than a revolution in environmental justice that puts health, not economics, at the core of its values.

  1. Political Programs and Common Fields and Rights in Lorraine during the French Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ríos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available British historiography has focused in the study of common right and fields with the purpose of understanding the role it played in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Nevertheless, its French counterpart has tended to relegate this kind of studies, mainly those concerning common right. In fact, in the last twenty years it has been argued the necessity of studying common right and common fields separately, compartmentalizing historical analysis. The present paper concentrates in a case study of the Lorraine region, and pretends to analyze the role played by the struggles concerning the common right and fields during the French Revolution in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. We suggest that in Lorraine the conflict regarding the common right stimulated, through the transformation of the material base of production, a wider conflict related to rural practices which redefined the appropriation of agrarian production, benefiting the sectors that produced with waged laborers

  2. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  3. Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, David S

    2016-03-29

    The Neolithic revolution--the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator--began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre-Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive "building tomography" could find moisture and "sentinel microbes" could record the integral of transient growth. "Seed" microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to--rather than merely correlated with some measures of--human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences--including the unintended

  4. Dictionary users in the digital revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; De Schryver, Gilles-Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This contribution examines the digital revolution in lexicography from the perspective of the dictionary user. We begin with an observation that in the information age the status of the dictionary is changing, and so are patterns of user behaviour, with general internet search engines encroaching on the grounds traditionally reserved for lexicographic queries. Clearly, we need to know more about user behaviour in the digital environment, and for this we need to harness user research, to find ...

  5. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  6. The Effects of the 16th Century Price Revolution and the Ottoman-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsin Sahin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the two basic issues affected the Ottoman silk industry. The first one is the global Price Revolution; the second is the wars between Ottoman and Iran. The silk industry in Bursa which was the most important silk center of Ottoman had been affected negatively from these events. The non-tariff barriers had been created by the Iran wars also weakened the relations borne from the silk trade among these two countries. The diminished trade volume decreased the tax revenues; consequently both countries had been affected unfavorably.

  7. Was there a Darwinian Revolution? Yes, no, and maybe!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Was there a Darwinian Revolution and was it but part of the Scientific Revolution? Before Thomas Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, most people thought that there was a Darwinian Revolution, that it was in some sense connected to the Scientific Revolution, but that neither question nor answer was terribly interesting. Then revolutions in science became a matter of intense debate, not so much about their very existence but about their nature. Was there a switch in world-views? Did the facts change? What was the importance of social groups? And so forth. Recently however some students of the history of science have started to argue that the very questions are misconceived and that there cannot have been a Darwinian Revolution and its relationship to the Scientific Revolution is imaginary because there are no such revolutions in science! This paper takes a sympathetic look at these issues, concluding that there is still life in the revolution-in-science issue, that Kuhn's book was seminal and still has things of importance to say, but that matters are more complex and more interesting than we thought back then.

  8. 日本第四次能源基本计划对我国的启示意义以能源革命背景下的煤炭行业为分析进路%Japan’s Fourth Basic Energy Plan and Its Revelation to China An Analysis of the Coal Industry in the Context of Energy Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    县祥

    2016-01-01

    日本第四次能源基本计划包括“3E+S”基本方针和能源结构多元化。“3E+S”即能源稳定供给、经济效率提高和环境保护,在以安全性为前提的基础上,能源稳定供给是第一位的;能源结构方面需构建多元化、多样化的灵活能源供需结构,煤炭与核电具有同等重要的战略地位。当前,煤炭作为我国的主体能源和重要的工业原料,“一煤独大”的能源结构受到多方面的质疑与挑战。在能源革命的浪潮中,我国能源发展可以借鉴日本第四次能源基本计划在能源的定位、发展方向、政策措施等方面的新探索,在积极实现能源结构多样化的同时,改变煤炭的粗放开发利用,创新煤炭开采、使用、管理等环节,加强国际合作,有效实施“走出去”的战略,保障国家的能源安全。%Japan’s fourth basic energy plan includes the basic principle of“3E+S”and diversification of energy structure.“3E+S”means steady energy supply,economic efficiency promotion and environmental protection. On the basis of security, steady energy supply is of the first priority. In terms of energy structure,there is a need to build a flexible and diversified structure of energy supply and demand,with both coal and nuclear power holding equally vital strategic positions. At present,coal is the principal energy and the important industrial raw material in China,and the“coal dominant”energy structure is under various questions and challenges. In a wave of energy revolution,the energy development in China can draw lessons from Japan’s fourth basic energy plan,in order to make new exploration in aspects of energy positioning,development direction,policies and measures. When actively realizing diversification of energy structure,we must also avoid extensive coal mine exploitation and utilization by innovating the exploitation,utilization and management of coal mines. Meanwhile,we should

  9. The Scientific & Democratic Revolution in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Flecha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main issue dealt with in this theoretical paper is the explanation of the starting scientific and democratic revolution both in the educative field and in the educative research. In addition, evidence-based arguments are included to provide validity of some affirmations. The first section argues that the social sciences are the daughters and an essential part of democracy. A few historical arguments about the way in which the dominant classes have slowed down the scientific progress and the development of people that make it possible. In the second section, it is analyzed the opposition of feudal universities to this unstoppable beginning of what could be called the scientific and democratic revolution. At the same time, we deal with its ambivalent character requiring to be supported and to be criticized so that it can be improved. In the third section, we expound the way in which this progress has provide some conditions that makes it possible to overcome the strong gender-based violence happening in our institutions of higher education and makes it also possible that women who were persecuted are now transforming our universities. Influences and criticism to our university feudalism, made by social movements such as the named 'Spanish Revolution', appear in the fourth section. In the fifth and last section, we offer a proposal to promote the scientific, democratic, and revolutionary approach of the university.

  10. Cooperative Education: Industrial Chemistry in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Harvey L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reasons for including industrial chemistry into the college chemistry curriculum. One reason is that chemistry students, and students generally, should appreciate the role of the chemical industry in our history, economy, and culture. Problems associated with teaching industrial chemistry are addressed and a British university/industry…

  11. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks; La restructuration des industries gazieres americaine et britannique: la reglementation de la charge d'acces aux reseaux de gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  12. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  13. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田露

    2011-01-01

    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  14. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  15. The Falklands War and the British Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.

  16. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  17. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  18. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  19. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  20. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  1. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  2. Something fishy: Chile's blue revolution, commodity diseases, and the problem of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluri, John

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations describes aquaculture as the fastest-growing method of food production, and some industry boosters have heralded the coming of a sustainable blue revolution. This article interprets the meteoric rise and sudden collapse of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in southern Chile (1980-2010) by integrating concepts from commodity studies and comparative environmental history. I juxtapose salmon aquaculture to twentieth-century export banana production to reveal the similar dynamics that give rise to "commodity diseases"—events caused by the entanglement of biological, social, and political-economic processes that operate on local, regional, and transoceanic geographical scales. Unsurprisingly, the risks and burdens associated with commodity diseases are borne disproportionately by production workers and residents in localities where commodity disease events occur. Chile's blue revolution suggests that evaluating the sustainability of aquaculture in Latin America cannot be divorced from processes of accumulation.

  3. Population growth and economic development in the very long run: a simulation model of three revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, G; Komlos, J

    1988-08-01

    The authors propose an economic model capable of simulating the 4 main historical stages of civilization: hunting, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. An output-maximizing society to respond to changes in factor endowments by switching technologies. Changes in factor proportions arise through population growth and capital accumulation. A slow rate of exogenous technical process is assumed. The model synthesizes Malthusian and Boserupian notions of the effect of population growth on per capita output. Initially the capital-diluting effect of population growth dominates. As population density increases, however, and a threshold is reached, the Boserupian effect becomes crucial, and a technological revolution occurs. The cycle is thereafter repeated. After the second economic revolution, however, the Malthusian constraint dissolves permanently, as population growth can continue without being constrained by diminishing returns to labor. By synthesizing Malthusian and Boserupian notions, the model is able to capture the salient features of economic development in the very long run.

  4. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, R. [British Energy plc, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy`s International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK).

  5. Industry 4.0 and digitalization call for vocational skills, applied industrial engineering, and less for pure academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne; Grube Hansen, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the industrial revolution of the future, Industry 4.0, will dramatically increase technological complexity, and how the vocational skills needed in today’s Industry 2.0 and 3.0 will require significant augmentation. Based on statements from policy makers and data from ...

  6. Velocity Management and the Revolution in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    affairs unless there is a revolution in military logistics ." When General Reimer identified the Revolution in Military Logistics (RML) as a necessary...Forces" (Parameters, Winter 1997-98), Lieutenant Colonel Yves J. Fontaine counters the Chief with another precondition: "The revolution [in military ... logistics ] will occur only after our research community provides us with combat equipment that minimizes the logistical tail needed to sustain it

  7. Constructing Marxism: Karl Kautsky and the French Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bertel

    2009-01-01

    Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...

  8. British government, industry agree to fund Hotel launcher studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. A.

    1986-02-01

    A program status assessment is presented for the horizontal takeoff and landing 'Hotol' single-stage-to-orbit space launcher, for which parallel, two-year airframe and propulsion system proof-of-concept studies have been approved. A two-year initial development program for the airframe would be followed by a four-year development and manufacturing phase that would begin upon the propulsion system concept's successful demonstration. Flight trials could begin in 1996. A number of significant modifications have already been made to the initial design concept, such as to the foreplanes, afterbody, engine intake, and orbital control system.

  9. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for newsgathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. This article investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch ele

  10. Multinational Corporations and British Labour: A Review of Attitudes and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennard, John

    Multinational corporations operating in Great Britain, specifically American industry, are arousing fears on the part of British labor, which can be grouped into these categories: (1) a threat to the job security of union members, (2) a change in the balance of power at the collective bargaining table in favor of the employers, (3) a clash of…

  11. Social media as beat : tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd

    2011-01-01

    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for news gathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. During the 2010 elections, 24 percent of British and 48 percent of Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visio

  12. Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

  13. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  14. Representing space in the scientific revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The novel understanding of the physical world that characterized the Scientific Revolution depended on a fundamental shift in the way its protagonists understood and described space. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, spatial phenomena were described in relation to a presupposed central point; by its end, space had become a centerless void in which phenomena could only be described by reference to arbitrary orientations. David Marshall Miller examines both the historical and philosophical aspects of this far-reaching development, including the rejection of the idea of heavenly sphere

  15. LCAC - A R-evolution at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, U. H.; Hale, Lynn W.

    The USN's Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) vehicle's operational capabilities represent not only a revolution in amphibious warfare, but may also prove to bear an evolutionary relationship to other naval mission requirements. After a brief development history of LCAC is presented, attention is given to anticipated uses of this vehicle beyond that of its landing-craft design mission. These missions encompass ASW, antiaircraft, antisurface shipping, and electronic warfare, as well as mine warfare and mine countermeasures. In virtually all such scenarios, the LCAC will retain its current configuration; where modifications must be made, they may be accomplished with easily removed retrofit 'kits'.

  16. Cultures in Conflict. The French Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Chappey, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Professeur assistant à l’Université du Nevada (Las Vegas), spécialiste de l’histoire des hommes de lettres et du théâtre des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (voir son ouvrage A Field of Honour. Writers, Court Culture, and Public Theater in French Literary Life from Racine to the Revolution, New York, Columbia University Press, 2002), Gregory S. Brown propose ici un manuel original et stimulant sur l’histoire de la Révolution française. Soucieux de proposer une synthèse générale des différents phénomè...

  17. Imagineering the astronomical revolution - Essay review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Nicholas.

    2006-11-01

    Concerning following Books: (I) Transmitting knowledge - words, images, and instruments in early modern Europe. Kusukawa and Maclean (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 2006; (II) Widmung, Welterklärung und Wissenschaftslegitimierung: Titelbilder und ihre Funktionen in der wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Remmert, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2005; (III) The power of images in early modern science. Lefevre, Renn and Schoepflin (eds.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 2003; (IV) Immagini per conoscere - dal Rinascimento alla rivoluzione scientifica. Meroi and Pogliano (eds.), Olschki, Florenz, 2001; (V) Erkenntnis Erfindung Konstruktion - Studien zur Bildgeschichte von Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Holländer (ed.), Mann, Berlin, 2000.

  18. Introducing bioinformatics, the biosciences' genomic revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Zanella, Paolo

    1999-01-01

    The general audience for these lectures is mainly physicists, computer scientists, engineers or the general public wanting to know more about what’s going on in the biosciences. What’s bioinformatics and why is all this fuss being made about it ? What’s this revolution triggered by the human genome project ? Are there any results yet ? What are the problems ? What new avenues of research have been opened up ? What about the technology ? These new developments will be compared with what happened at CERN earlier in its evolution, and it is hoped that the similiraties and contrasts will stimulate new curiosity and provoke new thoughts.

  19. Revolution in Military Logistics: No More Mountains to Move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-08

    REVOLUTION IN MILITARY LOGISTICS : NO MORE MOUNTAINS TO MOVE? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL SCOTT M. BERGERON United States Army !DT tA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...17013-5050 c3, Revolution in Military Logistics : No More Mountains to Move? The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not

  20. Energy [R]evolution 2010-a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to reduc

  1. Energy [r]evolution - a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Muth, J.; Sawyer, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Schmid, S; Pagenkopf, J.; Frieske, B.; Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.; Zittel, W.; Rutovitz, J.; Harris, S.; Ackermann, T.; Ruwahata, R.; Martense, N.

    2012-01-01

    Energy [R]evolution 2012 provides a consistent fundamental pathway for how to protect our climate: getting the world from where we are now to where we need to be by phasing out fossil fuels and cutting CO2 emissions while ensuring energy security.The Energy [R]evolution Scenario has become a well kn

  2. The Cut Locus of a Torus of Revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Markvorsen, Steen; Sinclair, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We determine the structure of the cut locus of a class of tori of revolution, which includes the standard tori in 3-dimensional Euclidean space.......We determine the structure of the cut locus of a class of tori of revolution, which includes the standard tori in 3-dimensional Euclidean space....

  3. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  4. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  5. Energy [R]evolution 2010-a sustainable world energy outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to

  6. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  7. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  8. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  9. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  10. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  11. Personality traits of British hospice volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton-Oldfield, Stephen; Claxton-Oldfield, Jane; Paulovic, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In total, 120 British female hospice volunteers completed the NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) of Costa Jr and McCrae. The NEO-FFI measures the so-called big 5 personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Compared to both American NEO-FFI norms for adult females and emerging British NEO-FFI norms for adult females, the hospice volunteers scored significantly lower, on average, in neuroticism and significantly higher, on average, in agreeableness and conscientiousness. No significant differences were found on any of the 5 traits between the British female hospice volunteers' scores and the NEO-FFI scores previously collected from a sample of Canadian female hospice palliative care volunteers. Implications for the recruitment of British hospice volunteers are discussed.

  12. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  13. Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

  14. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  15. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  16. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  17. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  19. Educators must take the electronic revolution seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorow, S

    1996-03-01

    The advanced fields in the physical sciences and quantitative social sciences began using computers years ago. But only recently has the electronic revolution reached the point where educators in both medicine and the humanities must take it seriously. This is because (1) computers have finally become powerful enough to permit the creation of teaching machines (called multimedia packages) that can manipulate the massive amounts of information involved in medicine and the humanities; and (2) the Internet is now fast enough and widely distributed enough to change teaching practices. Multimedia packages will drastically change traditional teaching and learning; the author reviews these and other likely impacts of these packages. For example, faculty members' effective contact with students will not be bound by time and place; students can learn at their own paces in their preferred modes; and the distinction between elementary and advanced learning will be virtually impossible to maintain. The Internet makes it possible to offer classes to students no matter where they or the teacher are located, to ignore strict constraints of time (a class discussion can go on for days), and to create "electronic communities" of students and faculty. The author reviews the great advantages of these capabilities, but states that this development of the virtual university could seriously undermine actual universities (e.g., difficulties of maintaining faculty competence in their disciplines; impossibility of deciding issues of department size and diversity; questions of the effectiveness of learning that does not take place face-to-face; problems of students' and teachers' time management, on which the traditional structures of curricula and teaching methods are built). Despite the fundamental adjustments that will be necessary, the author sees the electronic revolution in education as a necessary consequence of what is already taking place in research, where multimedia packages and

  20. From the water wheel to turbines and hydroelectricity. Technological evolution and revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Pierre-Louis

    2017-08-01

    Since its appearance in the first century BC, the water wheel has developed with increasing pre-industrial activities, and has been at the origin of the industrial revolution for metallurgy, textile mills, and paper mills. Since the nineteenth century, the water wheel has become highly efficient. The reaction turbine appeared by 1825, and continued to undergo technological development. The impulsion turbine appeared for high chutes, by 1880. Other turbines for low-head chutes were further designed. Turbine development was associated, after 1890, with the use of hydropower to generate electricity, both for industrial activities, and for the benefits of cities. A model ;one city + one plant; was followed in the twentieth century by more complex and efficient schemes when electrical interconnection developed, together with pumped plants for energy storage.

  1. Clean and efficient electric power generation for the next century: the British Coal Topping Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M.St.J.; Kelsall, G.J.; Hudson, D.M. [CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    An advanced coal-fired electricity generating system is being developed by British Coal. Known as the British Coal Topping Cycle, the system offers the potential for: 20% reduction in electricity generating costs compared to conventional pulverised fuel power station equipped with flue gas desulphurisation; 20% reduction in coal burnt per unit of electricity produced and a corresponding reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions; and low emissions of particulates and oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. Because of the potential advantages, British Coal, with support currently from the UK Department of Trade and Industry, PowerGen plc and GEC ALSTHOM, have embarked upon a substantial development programme. The paper describes the system and focuses upon the current developments in the areas of coal gasification and desulphurisation, char combustion, gas filtration and gas combustion with particular reference to nitrogen oxide control. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Tunisia in the Aftermath of the Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Moalla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, humor and the confused feelings of overwhelming happiness, fear, and uncertainty intertwine to reflect Tunisians’ attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and experiences in the aftermath of the revolution. The study adopts a blended netnography/ethnography approach to data collection and analysis. My original data consist of 2 hrs of recorded discussions of 60 Tunisian students and a total of 300 online humorous posts collected from the social network Facebook (FB. The data revealed that Tunisians interacting via FB used two main types of situational humor: Third party insult and Alternate reality. These two types of humor were found to be associated with a variety of psychological and social functions and to serve as effective interpersonal strategies to construct group cohesion, strengthen shared attitudes and beliefs, and develop relational identity.

  3. Silicon: Child and Progenitor of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, R. W.

    Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.

  4. A quiet revolution in organ transplant ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur; Purves, Duncan

    2017-04-19

    A quiet revolution is occurring in the field of transplantation. Traditionally, transplants have involved solid organs such as the kidney, heart and liver which are transplanted to prevent recipients from dying. Now transplants are being done of the face, hand, uterus, penis and larynx that aim at improving a recipient's quality of life. The shift away from saving lives to seeking to make them better requires a shift in the ethical thinking that has long formed the foundation of organ transplantation. The addition of new forms of transplants requires doctors, patients, regulators and the public to rethink the risk and benefit ratio represented by trade-offs between saving life, extending life and risking the loss of life to achieve improvements in the quality of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Many see modern science as having serious defects, intellectual, social, moral. Few see this as having anything to do with the philosophy of science. I argue that many diverse ills of modern science are a consequence of the fact that the scientific community has long accepted, and sought to implement, a bad philosophy of science, which I call standard empiricism. This holds that the basic intellectual aim is truth, the basic method being impartial assessment of claims to knowledge with respect to evidence. Standard empiricism is, however, untenable. Furthermore, the attempt to put it into scientific practice has many damaging consequences for science. The scientific community urgently needs to bring about a revolution in both the conception of science, and science itself. It needs to be acknowledged that the actual aims of science make metaphysical, value and political assumptions and are, as a result, deeply problematic. Science needs to try to improve its aims and methods as it proceeds. Standard empiricism...

  6. Who lost the health care revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W

    1990-01-01

    Just a year ago, in the March-April 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Professor Regina E. Herzlinger of the Harvard Business School took a long look at the U.S. health care system and declared the much touted revolution in the health care delivery system a failure. This article is a summary of the arguments that Professor Herzlinger marshaled for her treatise. In the following two articles, members of the College assess those arguments in terms of the medical management profession and in terms of the organizations, a hospital and a managed care company, for which they work. Finally, Professor Herzlinger returns to the subject with a response to these physician executives.

  7. Owning the Revolution: Race, Revolution, and Politics from Havana to Miami, 1959–1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyn Spence Benson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available “Owning the Revolution” explores the role that conversations about race and racism played in defining the 1959 Cuban Revolution both on the island and in South Florida, where over half of the exiles fled. It highlights how revolutionary leaders challenged internal and external opposition movements by publicly labeling dissenters “counterrevolutionaries” and “racists.” Using the label “racist” to attack an opponent was not altogether new in the 1960s, but by linking the term to counterrevolution, national discussions occurring in newspapers, magazines, and on television defined public racism as existing outside of the norms of a new Cuba. Exiles disagreed with this identification and accused the revolution of betraying the nineteenth-century colorblind goals of Jose Martí. Exile leaders in Miami argued that Castro invented racial tensions and claimed that their fight was not with blacks or mulatos but with “red” or communist Cubans. The politics expressed by white exile newspapers, however, did not always fit with the concerns of Afro-Cubans in the United States. Miami Cubans failed to acknowledge the persistence of racism in new exile communities in the same way that the revolutionary government dismissed racism on the island. These parallel silences exemplify the dangers of polarized narratives that imagine the revolution as antiracist and the exile community as racist.

  8. The Darwinian revolution: rethinking its meaning and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-06-16

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved.

  9. How and why communications industry suppliers get "squeezed out" now, and the next phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe communications systems, terminals , software and deployment service, industries ,have undergone the past ten years a significant technological internal evolution and external revolution at customer end (such as Internet ,Mobile networks and terminals, Broadband,..). Very little manag

  10. Strategic Alliances in the European Industries of the Third Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Calvo

    2016-01-01

    The dimension of the alliances has compelled experts to revise their preconceptions about the internationalization of companies and to include this strategy in their models as Uppsala model was forced to acknowledge. This article focuses on one of the alliances forged in Europe, very deviated from the practices of the majority because it was a company with exclusively European partners. It adopts the perspective of a peripheral country (Spain) in the global economy and from the special status...

  11. Influence of Social Reform Ideologies on Industrial/Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam

    2016-01-01

    The founding of industrial/technology education in Ameria represents the convergence of many influences dating back to the pre-industrial revolution era. Social reform movement, one of these influences, set out to change conditions considered to be causes of poverty and other social problems through active engagements in political, educational,…

  12. Key performance indicators in British military trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Adam; Tai, Nigel R; Bowley, Douglas M; Midwinter, Mark; Hodgetts, Tim J

    2008-08-01

    Key performance indicators (KPI) are tools for assessing process and outcome in systems of health care provision and are an essential component in performance improvement. Although KPI have been used in British military trauma for 10 years, they remain poorly defined and are derived from civilian metrics that do not adjust for the realities of field trauma care. Our aim was to modify current trauma KPI to ensure they more faithfully reflect both the military setting and contemporary evidence in order to both aid accurate calibration of the performance of the British Defence Medical Services and act as a driver for performance improvement. A workshop was convened that was attended by senior, experienced doctors and nurses from all disciplines of trauma care in the British military. "Speciality-specific" KPI were developed by interest groups using evidence-based data where available and collective experience where this was lacking. In a final discussion these were streamlined into 60 KPI covering each phase of trauma management. The introduction of these KPI sets a number of important benchmarks by which British military trauma can be measured. As part of a performance improvement programme, these will allow closer monitoring of our performance and assist efforts to develop, train, and resource British military trauma providers.

  13. The Empire strikes back. Counterrevolutionary strategies for industry leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard

    2002-11-01

    Industry leaders frequently worry that their companies will fall victim to some revolutionary business model or disruptive technology. But new research shows that it's strategically better for incumbents to counter a revolution than to ignore or fully embrace it. Successful incumbents rely on one or more of five approaches to restrain, modify, or, if necessary, neutralize a revolutionary threat. A company that perceives a revolution in its earliest stages can use containment strategies. By throwing up roadblocks--raising switching costs, perhaps, or launching discrediting PR efforts--an incumbent can often limit the degree to which customers and competitors accept a nascent insurgency. And, sometimes, revolutions die there. If not, early containment buys a company some time to shape the revolution so that it complements, rather than supersedes, the incumbent's strengths. And even if shaping efforts fail, they can give an industry leader more time to work out how to absorb the threat by bringing the new competencies or technologies inside the firm in such a way that they don't destroy its existing strengths and capabilities. When revolutions have progressed too far to slow them down, incumbents must take a more aggressive tack. Neutralizing strategies meet a revolution head-on and terminate it--by, say, temporarily giving away the benefits offered by the challenger for free. Annulment strategies allow the market leader to leapfrog over or sidestep the threat. These five strategic approaches need not be used in isolation, as a detailed case study of the way Anheuser-Busch countered the craft-beer revolution dramatically demonstrates. Sensible industry leaders do not lead revolutions; they know they may not survive the attempt. Instead, they prefer to lead counterrevolutions.

  14. Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview. ... The paradigm of sport participation as well as sport management has shifted globally from ... This overview examines the British and Australian models and codes of ...

  15. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  16. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  17. The 'Anglo' Revolution in New Mexico Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1978-01-01

    First in a three-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo Revolution" on New Mexico, this article deals with copper mining in New Mexico, particularly the Santa Rita del Cobre copper mine. (NQ)

  18. Prelude to, and Nature of the Space Photometry Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilliland Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now less than a decade since CoRoT initiated the space photometry revolution with breakthrough discoveries, and five years since Kepler started a series of similar advances. I’ll set the context for this revolution noting the status of asteroseismology and exoplanet discovery as it was 15–25 years ago in order to give perspective on why it is not mere hyperbole to claim CoRoT and Kepler fostered a revolution in our sciences. Primary events setting up the revolution will be recounted. I’ll continue with noting the major discoveries in hand, and how asteroseismology and exoplanet studies, and indeed our approach to doing science, have been forever changed thanks to these spectacular missions.

  19. The "Revolution in Military Logistics": Is It Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    it concludes that based on the seven focus areas determined by the author for a Revolution in Military Logistics , the Army has achieved two and is on the path to achieving the other five, however, with no concrete timeline.

  20. Much Ado about Something: Naturalistic Inquiry and the Paradigm Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Two recent books that confront the questions and assumptions of traditional and new paradigms for studying education are discussed: "Organizational Theory and Inquiry: The Paradigm Revolution" (Yvonna Lincoln, editor) and "Naturalistic Inquiry" (Y. Lincoln and Egon Guba). (MSE)

  1. Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space: the US ... 1991 Gulf War that captured the imagination of military planners and policy makers, ... Firstly, very few countries have the financial and technological capability to ...

  2. DEVELOPMENT TREND OF ETHYLENE INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Ting

    2014-01-01

    The growth of world ethylene production and demand has been slowed down, but accelarated growth after 2015 is forecasted. Shale gas revolution has promoted the resurge of ethylene industry in North America and changed the investment pattern of world ethylene industry.Chinese ethylene industry has developed rapidly, facing not only opportunities for development but also outside pressure.The diversified pattern of Chinese ethylene industry has been formed , in which MTO has become an effective complement to the ethylene industry.While cracking raw material has become lighter and lighter worldwide, naphtha still dominates the ethylene raw material in China, leading to high cost of raw material.Aiming to reduce the cost and improve the competitiveness, this article introduces the progress of steam cracking technology for ethylene production from the aspects of low energy consumption , low cost, large capacity and long-term operation.

  3. Strategic Insights: The Landpower Robot Revolution Is Coming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    to the upcoming Landpower robot revolution. There are likely to be other tactical, operational, strategic, organization, psychological, and ethical ...technological innovation came first, and revolution followed. Now this is happening again with military robots . Their potential is clear and stunning...particularly for America’s ground forces. Robots may help the Army resolve its most pressing strategic dilemmas: first, finding a way to have wide

  4. The English Revolution and a Representative and Constitutional Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue

    2014-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the English Revolution and describes a detailed study of influence, as well as the explanation of a representative and constitutional government. The English Revolution which happened in Britain is a histori-cal event of great influence. It abolished the autarchic system of king and began to rule the society by law. We can conclude that it created good political conditions for Britain to become a kingdom of modern civilization.

  5. Career Development: Revolution, Reform, and Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses elements to be considered by career counselors, including robotics, fiber optics, biotechnology, space industry, transition from industry to information, expected labor shortage in the 1990s, population trends, and entrepreneurial explosion. Also describes four basic skills of the information society. (CT)

  6. Horseracing and the British 1919-39

    OpenAIRE

    Huggins, Mike

    2003-01-01

    From the prize-winning author of Flat Racing and British Society 1780-1914, this is the first book to provide a detailed consideration of the history of racing in British culture and society and to explore the cultural world of racing during the inter-war years. It breaks new ground by showing how racing's pleasures were enjoyed even by the supposedly respectable middle classes, and gave some working-class groups hope and consolation during economically difficult times. Regular attendance and...

  7. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  8. A strategy for obtaining social benefits from the gene revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.B. de Castro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategy described in the present paper offers details about the possibility for Brazil to play a more substantial role in the gene revolution. If successfully applied, the powerful science-based technology currently available in Brazil can contribute to extend the benefits of the gene revolution to the poorest countries, very much like the Green Revolution did in the past, thereby reducing the hunger syndrome which claimed the lives of millions of people in some Asian countries, particularly Pakistan and India, decades ago. In his visit to Brazil in February 2004, Norman Borlaug had the opportunity to witness the success of Brazilian agriculture. At a Conference held at ESALQ - Superior School of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, he stated that the 21st century revolution will come from Brazil in the area of agriculture. He also said that reducing hunger is essential for the world to achieve socioeconomic stability. A central question remains unanswered: who will fund this revolution? The FAO 2003-2004 Annual Report listed the barriers preventing the gene revolution from reaching the poorest countries: inadequate regulatory procedures - Intellectual Property Rights and Biosafety, poorly functioning seed delivering systems and weak domestic plant breeding capacity; all are discussed in this paper.

  9. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  10. Real/Life: New British Art and the Reception of Contemporary British Art in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajiya Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the ways in which the exhibition Real/Life: New British Art was conceived and received in Japan, where contemporary British art has been shown since the 1960s. Taking place at five museums in the country between 1998 and 1999, the exhibition aimed to showhow British artists in the 1990s struggled with realities, internal and external, but its response was not as satisfactory as was expected. The essay examines the exhibition as a turning point for the transformation of exhibition culture in Japan from nationally themed exhibitions to showcases of contemporary art in the global context.

  11. Independent review of timber royalty rates in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This review of timber royalty rates was conducted to establish a long-term, stable relationship between royalty rates and stumpage prices in British Columbia. The review first examines the history of the timber license royalty issue describes the review process. It then compares the positions taken on royalty rates by three classes of forest industry companies and considers the matter of royalties received for timber harvested from Dominion Patent Lands. The review discusses the fundamental issues from historical perspectives, identifies and reviews the arguments for establishing royalty rates at the same or at different levels than the stumpage prices, evaluates the merits of these arguments. Finally, it makes recommendations on stumpage appraisals, development costs and transitional arrangements, benchmarking royalties to the stumpage system, forest practices, acreage-based tenures, and the compensation issue.

  12. Systems biology: leading the revolution in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J

    2011-02-01

    The rapid development of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omics) are changing the way ecotoxicology is practiced. The data deluge has begun with genomes of over 65 different aquatic species that are currently being sequenced, and many times that number with at least some level of transcriptome sequencing. Integrating these top-down methodologies is an essential task in the field of systems biology. Systems biology is a biology-based interdisciplinary field that focuses on complex interactions in biological systems, with the intent to model and discover emergent properties of the system. Recent studies demonstrate that Omics technologies provide valuable insight into ecotoxicity, both in laboratory exposures with model organisms and with animals exposed in the field. However, these approaches require a context of the whole animal and population to be relevant. Powerful approaches using reverse engineering to determine interacting networks of genes, proteins, or biochemical reactions are uncovering unique responses to toxicants. Modeling efforts in aquatic animals are evolving to interrelate the interacting networks of a system and the flow of information linking these elements. Just as is happening in medicine, systems biology approaches that allow the integration of many different scales of interaction and information are already driving a revolution in understanding the impacts of pollutants on aquatic systems. © 2010 SETAC.

  13. Modern museum exhibition technology revolution for audience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Today's digital revolution leads to the increasing mobile device usage, which has changed people's life and work. However, the traditional static display and graphic version is unable to meet the requirements of the modern audience, which makes museums face the challenge in the distribution of knowledge. Meanwhile, the information storm produced by big data emerged a variety of new media, such as social media, Natural User Interface, Augmented Reality, and electronic publishing. This dizzying array of tools offered opportunities for museums all over the world to become more vibrant and accessible. Museums around the world have been constant changed and improved its presentation, which provides a valuable experience for us. The new Shanghai Natural History Museum has also applied information technology on exhibition, education, research and collection. But the change does not mean a complete subversion. Because the museum audience are di- verse, such as born in a different era, have different learning habits, museums need to control the change magnitude of display technology to meet the requirements of different audience.

  14. Online Community Interaction - Revolution or Revulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Thorne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Marketing writers' assertion that online communities are the future for organisations may be misguided, although peer-to-peer networks are certainly the future for consumers. Brands have experienced 'consumer revulsion' at their poorly-planned attempts to enter online communities to interact with customers. The Internet has facilitated a revolution amongst consumers, providing a medium for online communities to thrive. Source credibility is paramount and Internet users are being selective with exactly whose message they are willing to accept, absorb and ultimately, allow to influence their buying decisions. The primary objective of this research is to undertake an exploratory investigation into the dynamics of online communities and how membership influences the buying decision for consumers of genre novels. Through the process of online focus groups and the completion of online questionnaires, data on the dynamics of online relationships between consumers and authors, the buying habits of consumers and the acceptance of online word-of-mouth (WOM were extracted and analysed. This research demonstrates that the dynamics of online communities are highly complex and in no way inferior or less fulfilling than real-life relationships and that the influence of online relationships on our buying decisions have no less impact than real-life encounters.

  15. Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, L E

    1998-01-01

    The influence of history on an organization is a powerful but often overlooked force. Managers, in their haste to build companies, frequently fail to ask such critical developmental questions as, Where has our organization been? Where is it now? and What do the answers to these questions mean for where it is going? Instead, when confronted with problems, managers fix their gaze outward on the environment and toward the future, as if more precise market projections will provide the organization with a new identity. In this HBR Classic, Larry Greiner identifies a series of developmental phases that companies tend to pass through as they grow. He distinguishes the phases by their dominant themes: creativity, direction, delegation, coordination, and collaboration. Each phase begins with a period of evolution, steady growth, and stability, and ends with a revolutionary period of organizational turmoil and change. The critical task for management in each revolutionary period is to find a new set of organizational practices that will become the basis for managing the next period of evolutionary growth. Those new practices eventually outlast their usefulness and lead to another period of revolution. Managers therefore experience the irony of seeing a major solution in one period become a major problem in a later period. Originally published in 1972, the article's argument and insights remain relevant to managers today. Accompanying the original article is a commentary by the author updating his earlier observations.

  16. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  17. ENERGY REVOLUTION UNDER THE BRICS NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BRICS countries are of critical importance to both supply and demand fundamentals of energy markets globally. Today BRICS plays a very important role in the system of international energy security. BRICS energy diversification is driven by concerns for energy security. The potential for a BRIC energy partnership is thus enormous. The development of the BRIC countries in the next coming decades will include demographic changes with a growing middle class population which will demand more energy and resources that our world has the potential to supply.A Green Energy Revolution is the panacea to solve major social, economic and envi­ronmental effects of their growing populations. This paper is an attempt to highlight the cooperation among the BRICS Nations for the development of Energy Sector and at the same time the concerning issue of climate change etc. It further discusses about the contribution of BRICS countries in the global economy. This paper also discusses about the role of the BRICS Nations in collaboration with the International Energy Agency.

  18. Kuhn's "The structure of scientific revolutions" revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Up until recently, the book's philosophical reception has been shaped, for the most part, by the debates and the climate in philosophy of science in the 1960s and 1970s; this new collection of essays takes a renewed look at this work. This volume concentrates on particular issues addressed or raised in light of recent scholarship and without the pressure of the immediate concerns scholars had at the time of the Structure's publication. There has been extensive research on all of the major issues concerning the development of science which are discussed in Structure, work in which the scholars contributing to this volume have all been actively involved. In recent years they have pursued novel research on a number of topics relevant to Structure's concerns, such as the nature and function of concepts, the complexity of logical positivism and its legacy, the relation of history to philosophy o...

  19. The Iranian Revolution: Revalidating Crane Brinton’s Model of Revolutions for the Operational and Strategic Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-26

    shock the American public, warns historian Daniel Boorstin in a February 1 1990 article about the Eastern Bloc revolts. Boorstin’s analysis is based...Free Press 1971, p. 135.) 51 Endnotes 1. Daniel J. Boorstin , "A Timetable for Revolution Watching," U.S. News and World Report, (5 Feb 1990), p. 47. 2...New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. Boorstin , Daniel J. "A Timccable for Revolution- Watching," U.S. News and World Report, 5 February 1990

  20. Water Intelligence and the Cyber-Infrastructure Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    As an intrinsic factor in national security, the global economy, food and energy production, and human and ecological health, fresh water resources are increasingly being considered by an ever-widening array of stakeholders. The U.S. intelligence community has identified water as a key factor in the Nation's security risk profile. Water industries are growing rapidly, and seek to revolutionize the role of water in the global economy, making water an economic value rather than a limitation on operations. Recent increased focus on the complex interrelationships and interdependencies between water, food, and energy signal a renewed effort to move towards integrated water resource management. Throughout all of this, hydrologic extremes continue to wreak havoc on communities and regions around the world, in some cases threatening long-term economic stability. This increased attention on water coincides with the "second IT revolution" of cyber-infrastructure (CI). The CI concept is a convergence of technology, data, applications and human resources, all coalescing into a tightly integrated global grid of computing, information, networking and sensor resources, and ultimately serving as an engine of change for collaboration, education and scientific discovery and innovation. In the water arena, we have unprecedented opportunities to apply the CI concept to help address complex water challenges and shape the future world of water resources - on both science and socio-economic application fronts. Providing actionable local "water intelligence" nationally or globally is now becoming feasible through high-performance computing, data technologies, and advanced hydrologic modeling. Further development on all of these fronts appears likely and will help advance this much-needed capability. Lagging behind are water observation systems, especially in situ networks, which need significant innovation to keep pace with and help fuel rapid advancements in water intelligence.

  1. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-04-01

    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  2. British Council Project in Romania the South-East European Network of Creative Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Victor IONESCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A Guidebook to Creative Industries in Iasi, Romania, 2006 is a project initiated by the British Council Centre Iasi concerning “creativeindustries”. After the conferences and workshops – in Plovdiv with the regional partners, in Iasi and Bucharest with the British and the localconsultants, the team has managed to put into practice one of the key projects it set out to achieve: publishing a unified inventory of the main actorsof the industrial-creative sector in Iasi. The purpose of this project is to bring to the attention of the potential partners and supporters the city‘spotential for economic and image “re-invention”, which “unify” Iasi through its creative energies and resources and to facilitate the creation of newcreative/ profitable partnership projects – in Romania, in the UK and in South-East Europe. This guidebook is the tangible sign of the beginning ofthe journey.

  3. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  4. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  5. Drivers of cousin marriage among British Pakistanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a 'better' life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  7. British theatre and performance 1900-1950

    OpenAIRE

    D’Monté, R.

    2015-01-01

    British theatre from 1900-1950 has been subject to radical re-evaluation with plays from the period setting theatres alight and gaining critical acclaim once again; this book explains why, presenting a comprehensive survey of the theatre and how it shaped the work that followed.

  8. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  9. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  10. The British Experience of Reform in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, Geraint

    1996-01-01

    The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)

  11. The Discourses of British Domestic Sitcom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Jim

    This analysis of the British domestic situation comedy (sitcom) as a genre begins by noting that it is considered basically taxonomical, using the categories of character, narrative, and theme to develop understanding of its discursive strategies. Considered to be preliminary and tentative, the results of this analysis suggest that: (1) the sitcom…

  12. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  13. The British Council's Global Cataloguing Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Madalena Sa

    1985-01-01

    The British Council Global Cataloging Service was initiated in 1980 to reduce duplication of cataloging same titles in council libraries abroad. Each of 56 council libraries participating in system receives list of new accessions and updated microfiche catalog. Portugal was one of the first six countries chosen to test the system. (EJS)

  14. The British Novel: Conrad to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Paul L.

    Intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who desire a useful research tool, this bibliography cites the works of and about British novelists, beginning with Joseph Conrad and terminating in 1950. The listings are selective with proper emphasis given to less celebrated but distinctive writers. A preface explaining the numerous…

  15. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New i

  16. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.

    2011-01-01

    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth

  17. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  18. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  19. MANUAL: BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textiles is one the nation's oldest industries, dating back to the beginning of the American Industrial revolution in the 1790s. Despite perceptions of the decline of U.S. textile manufacturing in the face of offshore competition, the industry remains one of the largest, most di...

  20. The Photocopying Revolution and the Copyright Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Louise

    1975-01-01

    The impact and threat to the publishing industry due to the increased use of photocopying services is discussed. Present inadequacies in the copyright law are analyzed and possible remedial legislation suggested in terms of licensed photocopying proposals. (EH)

  1. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (4), Serial No. ... Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... the cardinal motives for venturing into the transport industry. (Maduewesi ...

  2. Environmental footprints of British Columbia wood pellets from a simplified life cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pa, Ann; Craven, Jill S.; Xiaotao T. Bi; Melin, Staffan; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental footprints of wood pellets produced in British Columbia (BC) of Canada are to be estimated based on industry surveys and published emission factor data. Method: The streamlined life cycle analysis starts from raw material acquisition and ends at port Rotterdam in Europe for exported pellets or North Vancouver port for domestically used pellets. The raw materials used for pellet production are dry and wet sawmill residues, and allocations are based on dry mass....

  3. Dust concentrations and respiratory risks in coalminers: key risk estimates from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research

    OpenAIRE

    Soutar, C; Hurley, j; Miller, B.; Cowie, H; Buchanan, D.

    2004-01-01

    To help inform the setting of dust control standards in coalmines, this brief review summarises the most recent and reliable exposure-response relations, for damaging respiratory effects, derived from the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR). Collecting data over 38 years in the British coal industry, this was a programme of prospective research on the respiratory health of coal miners, characterised by regular health surveys and detailed measurements of dust and silica concentrations in the w...

  4. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  5. Diglossia and British Sign Language. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuchar, Margaret

    A study of the nature and function of British Sign Language (BSL) as used in the British deaf community is described. The study examined two hypotheses: (1) that the notion of diglossia applies to the British deaf signing community, and (2) that the low variety of BSL will exploit the visual medium in its grammar to a greater extent than the high…

  6. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  7. Tunisia’s Revolution and Youth Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.

  8. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  9. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  10. Global property rights. The Kyoto protocol and the knowledge revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichilnisky, G. [Columbia Univ., New York (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is about the origin of today's global environmental problems, and how to resolve them. At stake are catastrophic risks from global warming and damage to the world's biodiversity that ranks as the planet' sixth great extinction. The origin of today's global environmental problems is a historic difference in property rights regimes between industrial and developing countries, the North and the South. The solutions we suggest involve redefining property rights in the use of the global environment as well as in knowledge. We discuss the Kyoto Protocol's new systems of property rights on the use of the planet's atmosphere, and propose a parallel system of property rights on knowledge. Resources such as forests and oil and other mineral deposits are owned as private property in industrial countries but they are treated as common or government property in developing countries. Ill-defined protected property rights lead to the over-extraction of resources in the South, such as timber and oil. They are exported at low prices to the North that over-consumes them. The international market amplifies the tragedy of the commons, leading to inferior solutions for the world economy as a whole (Chichilnisky 1994). Updating property rights on resources in developing countries would face formidable opposition. The lack of property rights in inputs to production, such as timber and oil, could be compensated by assigning property rights on by-products of outputs. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol provides an example as it limits the countries' rights to emit carbon, a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Our suggestions for trading emissions rights (Chichilnisky 1995, 96) was adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, yet the atmosphere's carbon concentration is a global public good, which makes trading tricky. Trading rights to forests' carbon sequestration services or to genetic blueprints would also be trading global public goods. Markets that trade

  11. Silent Revolution in Research for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Is research ‘fit-for-purpose’ for realizing sustainable development? More than two decades after the Brundtland report and UNCED Earth summit, the world has now adopted Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs. Rather than a cause for celebration, this delay should encourage reflection on the role of research in society. Why is it so difficult to realize sustainability in practice? The answer lies in the fact that universities and research centres persist with 19th century methods of data gathering, scholarly analysis, and journal articles. Today’s world needs science in real-time, whether to detect drought, confront Ebola, or assist refugees. Research needs to work faster and embrace 21st century practices including data science, open access, and infographics.A silent revolution is occurring in the ways of organizing and conducting research, enabled by new technology and encouraging work that tackles the key challenges facing society. A variety of new arrangements have come into existence that promote international collaboration, including Horizon 2020 with its emphasis on societal challenges, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation which has inspired a family of grand challenges funds on health and development, and the Future Earth joint program of research for global sustainability. These arrangements not only control billions of dollars in research funding, they also influence the strategies of national research councils and international organizations. The result is no less than a transformation in the incentives that reward how researchers invest their time and effort.Why is a revolution needed? Within research, substantial growth in knowledge production coincided with fragmentation among disciplines. One can easily find expertise and publications in soil science or agronomy, yet integrated efforts on food security and climate adaptation remain scarce. Beyond research, society remains largely uninformed, as academics avoid engaging in public

  12. La propagande anti-britannique en France pendant l’Occupation Anti-British Propaganda in France during the Occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Passera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Left to fight alone after France signed the armistice on the 22nd of June 1940, Great Britain became enemy number one in the eyes of the German occupying forces and the Vichy government. This hostility found expression in a considerable quantity of propaganda in the guise of posters, tracts, booklets and brochures meant to denounce British responsibility for the conflict in the eyes of French public opinion. Propaganda was particularly intense from June to December 1940 and from January to June 1944 but the German and French propaganda services waged this psychological warfare against Great Britain throughout the war. In 1940, the anti-British brainwashing campaigns aimed at ridding the defeated French of their guilt by accusing the ex-ally of being the cause of the conflict and of deceit during the Battle of France. In 1941-1942, the Allies’ military setbacks were the subject of tracts and brochures that ridiculed British strategic skills. Propaganda was also based on the painful history of France and Great Britain so as to convince the French that England had always tried to deprive France of her colonies and that it was what she was trying to do by maintaining her presence in Africa. The major part of this propaganda was promoted by the German authorities, only to a lesser degree by the French collaboration parties. Till 1942, the Information Secretariat of the Vichy government distributed few anti-British tracts, concentrating its efforts on the promotion of the National Revolution. On the other hand, the first Anglo-American bombings in the Paris area provoked strong reactions in the Vichy government which then relied on the French population’s confusion and anxiety to denounce British policy. What was the impact of these anti-British speeches on the French population? The prefects’ reports on public opinion show that the plugging of Anglophobic sentiment had little influence on the French who were globally in complete support of the

  13. Choices in the next energy and social revolution. [For development of solar as against nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.J.

    1977-07-07

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a context for choosing the energy system that will replace fossil fuels. As fossil fuels, the energy source of industrialization, are depleted, the world enters into the third most important energy and social revolution in the development of civilization. Natural and social systems operate under the same principles of energy management. Growth, stability, or decline is determined by the interdependent relationship between energy and structure (Energy in Natural and Social Systems). The evolution of civilization over more than a million years can be seen as a successful quest to control greater amounts of energy through social organization in three different energy and social systems: hunting and gathering, agriculture, and fossil fuels (Two Energy and Social Revolutions). Many nations based on different energy and social structures have flourished and disappeared throughout history. The cases of Egypt, Rome, and Britain are used to illustrate the dynamic forces that affect the rise and fall of empires, dependence on foreign resources, and the changing purposes of social organization (The Influence of Energy on Nations). The energy perspective of the paper suggests the relationship between continuous growth and social discontinuity in U.S. history (Continuous Growth and Social Discontinuity in the U.S.). The physical and social consequences of future energy alternatives are discussed in terms of an Orwellian, Jeffersonian, and Malthusian type future (The Third Revolution: Orwell, Jefferson, or Malthus). The paper concludes with an endorsement of solar energy as the alternative most likely to afford a stable future in a humanly organized environment.

  14. The Next Technology Revolution - Nano Electronic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlik, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a revolutionary engine that will engender enormous changes in a vast majority of today's industries and markets, while potentially creating whole new industries. The impact of nanotechnology is particularly significant in the electronics industry, which is constantly driven by the need for higher performance, increased functionality, smaller size and lower cost. Nanotechnology can influence many of the hundreds of components that are typically assembled to manufacture modern electronic devices. Motorola manufactures electronics for a wide range of industries and communication products. In this presentation, the typical components of a cellular phone are outlined and technology requirements for future products, the customer benefits, and the potential impact of nanotechnology on many of the components are discussed. Technology needs include reliable materials supply, processes for high volume production, experimental and simulation tools, etc. For example, even routine procedures such as failure characterization may require the development of new tools for investigating nano-scale phenomena. Business needs include the development of an effective, high volume supply chain for nano-materials and devices, disruptive product platforms, and visible performance impact on the end consumer. An equally significant long-term industry need is the availability of science and engineering graduates with a multidisciplinary focus and a deep understanding of the fundamentals of nano-technology, that can harness the technology to create revolutionary products.

  15. The British Southern Campaign 1778-1781: The Impact of Strategic Level Assessments and Assumptions on British Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    Georgi ~ and the Carolinas against the British, driving Campbell (the British commander) out of the backcountry." 31 Few Georgians joined the British...64 Wilson, 30-35. 65 Ibid, 101-102. 66 Shy, 296. 67 Wilson, 63-64. 29 68 Smith, 98. 30 Bibliography Babits, Lawrence E. and Joshua Howard

  16. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  17. The Industry 4.0 Journey: Start the Learning Journey with the Reference Architecture Model Industry 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardello, Marco; Møller, Charles; Gøtze, John

    2017-01-01

    The wave of the fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) is breaking on manufacturing companies. In manufacturing, one of the buzzwords of the moment is "Smart production". Smart production involves manufacturing equipment with many sensors that can generate and transmit large amounts of data....... Model Industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0) standard for Smart production. The instantiation contributed to organizational learning in the laboratory by collecting and sharing up-to-date information concerning manufacturing equipment....

  18. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  19. Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions between sociology and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasz, Ladislav

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to clarify Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. We propose to discriminate between a scientific revolution, which is a sociological event of a change of attitude of the scientific community with respect to a particular theory, and an epistemic rupture, which is a linguistic fact consisting of a discontinuity in the linguistic framework in which this theory is formulated. We propose a classification of epistemic ruptures into four types. In the paper, each of these types of epistemic ruptures is illustrated by examples from physics. The classification of epistemic ruptures can be used as a basis for a classification of scientific revolutions and thus for a refinement of our view of the progress of science.

  20. Research on Xinhai Revolution and Social Change of Shandong Province: for the 100th Anniversary of Xinhai Revolution%Research on Xinhai Revolution and Social Change of Shandong Province: for the 100th Anniversary of Xinhai Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xinhai Revolution, breaking out in the year of 1911, overthrew the tyranny of Qing Dynasty, set up Republic of China and meanwhile it enhanced the consciousness of democracy and the concept of republic and democratic. Since then China has transit preliminarily from traditional society to modern one, which was led to a modern-society-developing orbit and was proved to be a great era-significant national democratic revolution. Xinhai Revolution strengthened the social change of China and greatly influenced politics, economy, culture, education, media, regional cities, civil life and social space in Shandong to pave for modernization. Although met with many difficulties, the society in Shandong was filled with many turning points and headed for the way of developing Shandong during the period of Republic of China.

  1. Speculations on a Marxist theory of the Virtual Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Hodge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary discourses of business, it is often claimed that the post-Fordist global economy is revolutionary, radically transforming forms of social organisation and consciousness, and "virtuality" has come to signify the driver of this revolution. But how new is this development? Is it useful to call it a "revolution", using the term in the sense it had for Marx? Are there traces of a Marxist theory of virtuality, and how relevant is it today? We draw on chaos theory to identify important but shifting meanings for "virtuality" and "revolution" in Marx, to create a new terrain on which to better explore issues facing "digital labour" in the new environment.

  2. Auf den Schultern von Riesen und Zwergen Einsteins unvollendete Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und d...

  3. Extension - A Risk Taken in the Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Donald R.

    1970-01-01

    Extension institutions should take a risk and pool their resources with those of vocational-technical institutes, high schools, private schools, outside industries or government to advise the best possible educational programs for all the people. Extension needs money, support, commitment, and the will to take risks now. (DM)

  4. Leading Beijing’s Business Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the 2008 Olympic Games edging ever nearer,Beijing,as the host city,has become a hub for world business.A boom- ing business real estate industry has endowed the capital with ample acco- modatiom for the escalating number of multinationals that set up shop on

  5. イギリス:イギリスの資本主義•日本の資本主義 (Igirisu: Igirisu no shihonshugi nihon no shihonshugi - Great Britain: Japanese Capitalism - British Capitalism)

    OpenAIRE

    Matanle, P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1973 the British academic Ronald Dore published what was to become one of the most influential books ever written in the fields of industrial sociology and Japanese studies. British Factory-Japanese Factory: The Origins of National Diversity in Industrial Relations (Dore, 1973) was a brilliantly conceived comparative investigation of two factories, English Electric in the UK and Hitachi in Japan. Coming as it did against the backdrop of a relative decline in Britain’s economic performance ...

  6. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    SCHOOL December 1983 Author Approved by: Tesis Avisor s" econd R e r Chafrman, Department of National Security Affairs -- and Policy Sciences " Dean of...8217s based on the 14 VULCAN , VICTOR and VALIANT bombers. Although cooperation with the American SAC was envisioned from the begining, the force did...British strategic nuclear deterrent. This responsibility was once the domain of the Royal Air Force and its VULCAN , VICTOR, and VALIANT bombers, but after

  7. Fourth Sino-British Local Government Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,

  8. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    must create a vision, devise a strategy, and implement it. They require buy -in from the wider Army but this support is not guaranteed. Indeed, many...investigate. However, there is a compulsion element to any change in the British Army. Orders are orders after all. How much room there is to...support for change evident throughout? Whether Senior Leaders had any power to influence change is important due to the compulsion aspect of the

  9. Dystopia in British and American literature

    OpenAIRE

    GODOVANNAYA E.; FLEGONTOVA A

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  10. A critical history of British earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.

  11. Where is the British national press?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, John; Rosie, Michael; Petersoo, Pille; Condor, Susan; Kennedy, James

    2007-06-01

    Although globalization has highlighted the danger of conflating state, society and nation, sociologists remain insufficiently alert to such banal nationalism. Newspapers offer a strong test case of the extent of diversity in the construction of state, national and social boundaries, since Billig and Anderson have argued they comprise a special case where their orientation to an audience simultaneously located in a state, society and nation allows them to reproduce a sense of national identity. However, despite the commonsense obviousness of the term, it proves remarkably difficult to define what the 'British national press' might comprise. Circulation density of titles varies substantially across different parts of the UK and editorial copy is altered to address diverse 'national' readerships. 'British' newspapers also circulate in other states, especially the Republic of Ireland. After reviewing how newspapers might be defined as 'national' and/or 'British', we conclude that both Anderson and Billig over-estimate the congruence, relevance and obviousness of state, society and national boundaries. If the conceptualization of such boundaries is problematic in the case of the press, it follows that it must be still more so for most other objects of sociological analysis, including that of 'society' itself.

  12. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinski, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Energy and Minerals Div.

    2002-07-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs.

  13. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  14. Analysis of the Rotopod: An all revolute parallel manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D.J.; Benavides, G.L.; Bieg, L.F.; Kozlowski, D.M.

    1998-05-16

    This paper introduces a new configuration of parallel manipulator call the Rotopod which is constructed from all revolute type joints. The Rotopod consists of two platforms connected by six legs and exhibits six Cartesian degrees of freedom. The Rotopod is initially compared with other all revolute joint parallel manipulators to show its similarities and differences. The inverse kinematics for this mechanism are developed and used to analyze the accessible workspace of the mechanism. Optimization is performed to determine the Rotopod design configurations which maximum the accessible workspace based on desirable functional constraints.

  15. At the dawn of a new revolution in life sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frantiek; Baluka; Guenther; Witzany

    2013-01-01

    In a recently published article Sydney Brenner argued that the most relevant scientific revolution in biology at his time was the breakthrough of the role of "information" in biology.The fundamental concept that integrates this new biological "information" with matter and energy is the universal Turing machine and von Neumann’s self-reproducing machines.In this article we demonstrate that in contrast to Turing/von Neumann machines living cells can really reproduce themselves.Additionally current knowledge on the roles of noncoding RNAs indicates a radical violation of the central dogma of molecular biology and opens the way to a new revolution in life sciences.

  16. The two great revolutions in the Caribbean, Haiti and Cuba: examples or lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio PANTOJAS GARCÍA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Why did the two great revolutions of the Caribbean, Haiti and Cuba, were condemned to ostracism by its contemporaries and are presented as bad examples rather than exemplary events? These and other related questions are answered examining three arguments: revolution as a critical transition event, economic sustainability as a central challenge for revolutions, and revolution versus the ontology of the Caribbean as a subordinate region.

  17. Leap- Ahead Logistics Management Technology: Turning the Evolution in Military Logistics into a True Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-27

    A Revolution in Military Logistics is a necessary precursor to the Revolution in Military Affairs. Army and the Department of Defense senior leaders...have affirmed and reinforced this idea in logistics literature throughout the past two years. What, however, is a Revolution in Military Logistics and...established criteria for a revolution in military logistics , but the system that it is currently developing, Global Combat Service Support - Army (GCSS-A

  18. THE DANISH REVOLUTION IN DESIGN EDUCATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    schools. Despite the instant success seen in intake numbers, low dropout rates, high popularity in the industry and an extraordinarily fine employment rate, these educations are up against static conceptions by the professional organisations and also government resistance. This paper describes......During the last ten years the structure in Danish design engineering education has changed a lot. Attempts to set up educations with a strong blend of designing and engineering skills have broken a long tradition of industrial designers graduating only from beaux-art schools or arts and crafts...... the principles and results of the first Danish education of this kind at Aalborg University and outlines the paradoxical resistance and conservative attitude that such educations are still fighting against....

  19. Future automotive materials: Evolution or revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, P.

    1990-01-01

    An exciting era is evolving in the application of new materials technologies to automotive applications. The desire on the part of the automobile industry to completely satisfy the customers while concurrently meeting increasing demands and regulations for stringent emission control and fuel efficiency is opening a plethora of opportunities for new materials. In many cases, materials solutions are the only mechanisms for resolving some of the upcoming issues. The materials scientist and engineer will therefore have a primary role to play and will assume a position of significance hithertofore unseen in the automobile industry. The nature of the industry dictates that changes are primarily evolutionary with respect to chronology but nevertheless some of the future material changes will be revolutionary in nature. This presentation will treat three primary systems of the vehicle separately, based on the different materials approaches which will be adopted. These areas are: (1) skin panels, (2) structures, and (3) powertrains. The competition between a variety of new materials in these 3 systems will be discussed in detail with the various tradeoffs being outlined. Amongst the more prominent of the new breed of materials will be new steel technologies, structural plastics (FRP), aluminum alloys (conventional and rapidly solidified), titanium alloys, metal matrix composites and smart materials (electrorheological fluids, etc.). The pace of development and application is accelerating rapidly and the impetus is likely to increase.

  20. Iron and Steel Industry Training Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alvan D.

    1974-01-01

    The British iron and steel industry training board has developed a training approach called investment appraisal of training. This approach is a forward-looking appraisal in which the estimated costs ofthe proposed training activity are balanced against benefits accruing in fi nancial terms from improved performance. (DS)

  1. Completing the Revolution? The United States and Bolivia’s Long Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D. Lehman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available James Malloy’s 1970 study, still one of the most systematic analytical attempts in English to understand Bolivia’s 1952 National Revolution, argued that the revolution remained “uncompleted.”  However, the election and subsequent policies of the Morales government after 2005 moved Bolivia much closer to completing two important stated objectives of the revolution, as yet unfulfilled when Malloy wrote: inclusion of all Bolivians in the political system and increased national autonomy.  While it is premature to call Bolivia’s revolution “completed,” the shift in the locus of power from Europeanized elites to more broadly popular forces and the growing independence of Bolivia from outside influence and direction under Morales are key achievements of what might be called Bolivia’s “Long Revolution.”   Giving close attention to these two fundamental achievements—inclusion and autonomy—this paper provides a preliminary examination of the complicated and often paradoxical role the United States has played in Bolivia’s long historical trajectory since April 1952.  Directly and indirectly, through imposition and suggestion, purposefully and unintentionally, by providing assistance and at the same time stimulating fierce nationalist resistance, through design and through the twists and turns of historical contingency—the United States has contributed to Bolivia’s slow revolutionary transformation.  But patterns of imposition and resistance continue and this paper argues that it is time for the United States to examine its assumptions so that the two nations can escape the cyclical patterns of the past. El trabajo que James Malloy publicó en 1970 (hasta hoy día uno de los esfuerzos analíticos más sistemáticos que se han hecho en inglés para entender la Revolución Nacional de 1952, argumentaba que la revolución permanecía "incompleta". Las elecciones y subsiguientes políticas del gobierno de Morales después de

  2. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  3. Some Economic Effects of Revolution: Models, Measurement, and the Cuban Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Beck, Michael S.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates various theories of causes of revolution (particularly, the Conservative, the Marxist, and Thermidorian) and concludes that existing theories generally avoid systematic study of revolution's consequences. Advances a theory that maintains that the economic effects of revolution are neither as pervasive nor as disruptive as commonly…

  4. A Reassessment of R. R. Palmer's "The Age of Democratic Revolution."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    Compares Robert Palmer's interpretation of the French Revolution with the Marxist and revisionist views. Stresses Palmer's theory that the French Revolution belongs to the same spiritual family as the American. Reports that Palmer saw the French Revolution as the climactic event in a series of similar upheavals that integrated liberal democracy…

  5. The "Philosophes" and the French Revolution: Reflections on Some Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1988-01-01

    Reexamines the role of ideas as a factor in the French Revolution. Discusses recent research concerning the influence of philosophy upon this Revolution. Looks at research dealing with the Enlightenment thinkers and the "Cercle Social" Girondists among other philosophies. Views the French Revolution as a means of understanding the modern…

  6. 78 FR 35787 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon occurs at Cedar Point near Sandusky, OH....

  7. 77 FR 49401 - Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH... later notice in the Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon...

  8. Basic Literacy or New Literacies? Examining the Contradictions of Australia's Education Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rachel; Holmes, Kathryn; Preston, Gregory; Shaw, Kylie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Labor Government came to power with the promise to bring to Australia an "Education Revolution". More than four years later we are still waiting for the full impact of this series of policy initiatives. Among the various facets of the Education Revolution was the assurance that the Education Revolution would focus on the most…

  9. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  10. 3D打印技术在口腔种植领域的应用及对牙科工业发展的革命性影响%Application of 3D Printing in Oral Planting Area and its Revolution Impact in Dental Industry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐步光; 李丹荣; 宁锐剑

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the current technology level of 3D printing in data colection, 3D data processing and 3D printing, speciifcaly takes its oral implantology application for example. The impact of 3D printing technology to the dental industry was discussed in many aspects which were the industrialization process, oral clinical management, oral health personalization and convenient, and the change of the traditional dentures industry. Meanwhile, the botlenecks of 3D printing were considered deeply in the oral implanting application, which included materials, corolary equipment, international common standards, intelectual property rights and other aspects. Al in al, 3D printing technology would become an profound impact standard techniques in oral implantology.%本文介绍了目前3D打印技术在数据采集、3D数据处理、3D打印这三方面的基本技术水平,具体就其在口腔种植领域的应用做了详细的举例。从产业化进程、口腔临床管理、口腔医疗个性化及便捷化、传统义齿行业的改变几个角度论述了3D打印技术对牙科工业发展的影响。同时,深入思考了3D打印在口腔种植领域的应用还存在材料、配套设备、国际化通用标准、知识产权等方面的瓶颈。总而言之,3D打印技术将成为口腔种植领域影响深刻的一项标准技术。

  11. Stiffness and Angular Deflection analysis of Revolute Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pundru Srinivasa Rao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed to determine the Cartesian stiffness matrix and angular deflection analysis of revolute manipulator. The selected manipulator has rigid fixed link, two movable links and two rotary joints with joint stiffness coefficients are taken into account. The kinematic model of revolute joint manipulator has considered as a planar kinematic chain, which is composed by rigid fixed link and two revolute joints with clearance and deformable elements. The calculation of stiffness matrix depends on Jacobian matrix and change of configuration. The rotational joints are modeled as torsion springs with the same stiffness constant. The relative angular deflections are proportional to the actuated torques taken into account. The subject of this paper has to describe a method for stiffness analysis of serial manipulator. In the present work is to derive the stiffness matrix and angular deflection equations in the Robotic manipulator under the consideration of two-link optimum geometry model for rotary joint manipulator. The stiffness values are measured by displacements of its revolute links loaded by force.

  12. Exploring the Literature-Based Reading Revolution (Focus on Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lea M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on (1) reader response theories; (2) innovative approaches to literature-based reading instruction; and (3) literary experiences and literary analysis presentations. Discusses teachers' concerns and success as they implement literature-based programs. Discusses challenges facing the literature-based reading revolution. (RS)

  13. Energy demand projections for energy [r]evolution 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study energy demand scenarios are developed for the 2012 update of the Greenpeace/EREC Energy [R]evolution scenario. These scenarios cover energy demand in the period 2009-2050 for ten world regions (OECD Europe, OECD Americas, OECD Asia Oceania, Eastern Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Other non-OECD Asia, Latin America, Africa and Middle East).

  14. Energy demand projections for energy [r]evolution 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study energy demand scenarios are developed for the 2012 update of the Greenpeace/EREC Energy [R]evolution scenario. These scenarios cover energy demand in the period 2009-2050 for ten world regions (OECD Europe, OECD Americas, OECD Asia Oceania, Eastern Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Other n

  15. Higher Education in the Israeli Kibbutz: Revolution and Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Uri

    1982-01-01

    Increase in the number of individuals pursuing postsecondary schooling involves economic and social costs to the kibbutz. "Educational revolution" in the kibbutz refers to growing aspirations of the kibbutzim toward higher education. Measures taken by the kibbutz movement and individual kibbutzim to counteract the problems created by the…

  16. Educational Revolution from Above: Thatcher's Britain and Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Martin; Voskresenskaya, Natalia

    1991-01-01

    Educational revolutions in Great Britain and the former Soviet Union were initiated by charismatic national leaders, looked back to more "authentic" conditions where teachers and students dominated formal education, encouraged parent participation, and sought to destroy bureaucratic intermediary agencies in the educational decision-making process.…

  17. Rosalind Franklin: Unsung Hero of the DNA Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    On April 25, 1953, three papers were published in "Nature," the prestigious scientific journal, which exposed the "fundamentally beautiful" structure of DNA to the public, and sounded the starting gun of the DNA Revolution. The authors of these papers revealed the now-famous double-helix structure of DNA, thereby unlocking the…

  18. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  19. The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events of the Haitian Revolution, including the slave rebellion which began on August 22, 1791. Focuses on the efforts of Napoleon to overtake Haiti and the effects of the the slave revolt on the Louisiana Purchase and the U.S. Civil War. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  20. Politics and the life sciences: an unfinished revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Politics and the life sciences--also referred to as biopolitics--is a field of study that seeks to advance knowledge of politics and promote better policymaking through multidisciplinary analysis that draws on the life sciences. While the intellectual origins of the field may be traced at least into the 1960s, a broadly organized movement appeared only with the founding of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) in 1980 and the establishment of its journal, Politics and the Life Sciences ( PLS ), in 1982. This essay--contributed by a past journal editor and association executive director--concludes a celebration of the association's thirtieth anniversary. It reviews the founding of the field and the association, as well as the contributions of the founders. It also discusses the nature of the empirical work that will advance the field, makes recommendations regarding the identity and future of the association, and assesses the status of the revolution of which the association is a part. It argues that there is progress to celebrate, but that this revolution--the last of three great scientific revolutions--is still in its early stages. The revolution is well-started, but remains unfinished.