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Sample records for british guiana

  1. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.

    1956-01-01

    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these

  2. Glimpses of British Guiana at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886

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    Albuquerque, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of the British Guiana Court at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 as a case study to demonstrate how British Guiana (now Guyana was represented in Britain at the time, by crossreferencing different materials (e.g. objects, correspondence, reports, and newspapers from that period. This exhibition also shows which raw materials from the British Guiana were of interest to Britain and the involvement of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in this matter. Nevertheless, the exhibition not only displayed objects and commodities, such as the case of sugar, but also displayed people. Here, particular attention is paid to the Amerindians who were portrayed as living ethnological exhibits at the exhibition. This paper aims to understand how British Guiana was seen and administered by its mother country and also how Everard im Thurn (1852-1932, the explorer, sought to manoeuvre that representation, as well as his relation with RBG, Kew. Taking into consideration that this colony was a neglected area of the British Empire, even in im Thurn’s time, this exhibition was an opportunity not only to display the empire but also for advertising the potential of the neglected colony and to ensure that it would not be forgotten.Este análisis se centra en la Exposición Colonial de 1886; a través del estudio de caso del Pabellón de la Guayana Británica (hoy Guyana, demuestra cómo ésta estaba representada en Gran Bretaña. Para mostrar sus contenidos cruza diferentes fuentes de la época: objetos, correspondencia, informes y periódicos. La exposición en aquel pabellón refleja que las materias primas de la Guayana Británica eran de interés para Gran Bretaña y la implicación en esta materia de los Jardines Reales Botánicos, llamados Kew. La exposición no sólo mostró los objetos y las materias primas, como el caso del azúcar, sino que también llevó habitantes de la Guayana. Aquí se presta especial atención a los amerindios

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Two Failed Indenture Experiences in Post-emancipation Caribbean: British Guiana (1838-1843 and Danish St. Croix (1863–1868

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    Lomarsh Roopnarine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo analiza dos experimentos fallidos de introducir trabajadores contratados de la India en Guyana Británica (1838–1843 y St. Croix danesa (1863–1868. En ambas colonias caribeñas, los estancieros se apresuraron a substituir la pérdida de la mano de obra de esclavos africanos con unos cientos de trabajadores contratados de la India. La intención era de salvar la industria azucarera, sin embargo no se daban los mecanismos apropiados como para hacer funcionar propiamente el sistema de labor por contrato. Por ende, los trabajadores fueron maltratados en cada uno de las etapas de servidumbre por contrato. En concreto, los trabajadores de la India fueron maltratados durante la contratación, durante la travesía de la India al Caribe, y en las haciendas. Los estancieros intentaron, particularmente en Guyana Británica, de esconder el maltrato de los trabajadores. No obstante, inspecciones individuales e indagaciones por parte de grupos como Friends of India y the Anti-Slavery Society, además de relatos de los mismos trabajadores expusieron los males de labor por contrato en ambas colonias. Después de los primeros cinco años de trabajo por contrato, la corona británica y el gobierno colonial de la India detuvieron el transporte de trabajadores de la India a ambas colonias. En Guyana Británica, si no en St. Croix danesa, el sistema de labor por contrato fue restablecido en 1845. English: The following article analyzes two failed Indian indenture experiments in British Guiana (1838–1843 and Danish St. Croix (1863–1868. In both Caribbean colonies, the planters rushed to substitute the loss of indentured Indians. While the plan was to save the sugar industry from ruin, the right mechanisms were not in place for the proper functioning of the indentured labour system. Consequently, the labourers were mistreated at every stage of indentured servitude. Specifically, Indians were mistreated during recruitment, on the sea

  4. [Snake envenomation in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P

    2002-01-01

    French Guiana is a French Overseas Department in South America. Ninety-five percent of the territory is a tropical rainforest. Its rich fauna includes seven families of snakes but only 3 are potentially venomous. Less than 12% of species and, depending on biotope, 10 to 30% of specimens collected are dangerous for humans. The annual incidence of snakebite is less than 50 bites per 100,000 inhabitants overall but increases to 600 per 100,000 for persons active in the rainforest where the risk is highest. The most common envenomation by Viperidae such as Bothrops, which is abundant throughout French Guiana, induces inflammation, necrosis and hemorrhage. Crotalus durissus, a rattlesnake living in coastal savannah, or Micrurus sp cause neuromuscular poisoning. Coral snakes are encountered throughout French Guiana, but envenomation is very rare. Antivenom therapy must be administered by the intravenous route in association with symptomatic treatment and, if necessary, resuscitation in a specialized care unit.

  5. [Cutaneous leishmaniases in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, B; Couppié, P; Nacher, M; Dedet, J P; Carme, B

    2007-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniases are endemic over the entire territory of French Guiana. At least 5 distinct Leishmania species coexist in the sylvatic ecotopes of this French territory. The present paper checks the advances in the ecological research field during the past 5 years. The current epidemiological situation and trends are detailed successively Links between the recrudescence of leishmaniases and gold-mining are highlighted. The potential adaptation of the pathogenic complexes to the newly anthropized habitats is also described.

  6. Review of mammalogical research in the Guianas of northern South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Burton K

    2016-03-01

    Research on mammals in the Guianas of northern South America has had a checkered history. In this review, I summarize the notable contributions to mammalogical study in Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. These studies began in the mid-18th century with the binomial nomenclature system of scientific classification created by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus, who described 23 species new to science based on holotype specimens from the Guianas. Notwithstanding popular accounts by amateur naturalists visiting this region, over the next 7 decades there was only sporadic taxonomic work done on Guianan mammals primarily by researchers at European museums. The first comprehensive biological exploration took place in the 1840s during a geographic survey of the boundaries of British Guiana. However, it was not until almost half a century later that scientific publications began to regularly document the increasing species diversity in the region, including the prodigious work of Oldfield Thomas at the British Museum of Natural History in London. Another lull in the study of mammals occurred in the mid-1910s to the early 1960s after which foreign researchers began to rediscover the Guianas and their pristine habitats. This biological renaissance is still ongoing and I give a prospectus on the direction of future research in one of the last frontiers of tropical rainforest. An initiative that would be greatly beneficial is the establishment of a university network in the Guianas with graduate-based research to develop a cadre of professional experts on biodiversity and evolution as seen in other countries of South America. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Malaria on the Guiana Shield: a review of the situation in French Guiana

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    Lise Musset

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a climate of growing concern that Plasmodium falciparum may be developing a drug resistance to artemisinin derivatives in the Guiana Shield, this review details our current knowledge of malaria and control strategy in one part of the Shield, French Guiana. Local epidemiology, test-treat-track strategy, the state of parasite drug resistance and vector control measures are summarised. Current issues in terms of mobile populations and legislative limitations are also discussed.

  8. Malaria on the Guiana Shield: a review of the situation in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musset, Lise; Pelleau, Stéphane; Girod, Romain; Ardillon, Vanessa; Carvalho, Luisiane; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gomes, Margarete SM; Djossou, Félix; Legrand, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In a climate of growing concern that Plasmodium falciparum may be developing a drug resistance to artemisinin derivatives in the Guiana Shield, this review details our current knowledge of malaria and control strategy in one part of the Shield, French Guiana. Local epidemiology, test-treat-track strategy, the state of parasite drug resistance and vector control measures are summarised. Current issues in terms of mobile populations and legislative limitations are also discussed. PMID:25184998

  9. Pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elenga, N; Sicard, S; Cuadro-Alvarez, E; Long, L; Njuieyon, F; Martin, E; Kom-Tchameni, R; Balcaen, J; Moreau, B; Boukhari, R

    2015-01-01

    Controlling vaccine-preventable infectious diseases is a public health priority in French Guiana but there is currently no epidemiological data on pediatric bacterial meningitis in this overseas department. Our aim was to describe data related to pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana and compare it with that of metropolitan France. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study from 2000 to 2010 to describe the clinical picture, biological data, epidemiology, and outcome of pediatric bacterial meningitis case patients in French Guiana. The median age of bacterial meningitis patients was 6months [0-15] and the sex ratio 1.06. We observed a total of 60 bacterial meningitis case patients. Most presented with pneumococcal meningitis (24 patients; 40%); 11 with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis (23%), five with group B streptococcal meningitis (8.5%), and five others (8.5%) with staphylococcal meningitis (three patients presented with coagulase-negative staphylococci and two with Staphylococcus aureus). Only one patient presented with group B meningococcal meningitis, an 18-month-old infant. We recorded 14 deaths (overall case fatality: 23%); eight were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (case fatality: 33%). The overall sequelae rate was 28%. It was 32% for patients presenting with pneumococcal meningitis. We observed that 38% of children who had never been vaccinated were infected by a vaccine-preventable bacterium. We observed many differences in the distribution of the bacteria and in the patients' prognosis when comparing the French Guiana data with that of metropolitan France. Improving vaccination coverage would decrease the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, S; Bourdy, G; Landau, I; Robinson, J C; Esterre, Ph; Deharo, E

    2005-04-08

    In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in French Guiana, 35 remedies were prepared in their traditional form and screened for blood schizonticidal activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine re4sistant strain (W2). Some of these extracts were screened in vivo against Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. Ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed. Four remedies, widely used among the population as preventives, were able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasite growth in vivo at around 100 mg/kg: Irlbachia alata (Gentiananceae), Picrolemma pseudocoffea (Simaroubaceae), Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae). Five remedies displayed an IC50 in vitro < 10 microg/ml: Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Pseudoxandra cuspidata (Annonaceae) and Quassia amara leaves and stem, together with a multi-ingredient recipe. Two remedies were more active than a Cinchona preparation on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test: Picrolemma pseudocoffea and Quassia amara. We also showed that a traditional preventive remedy, made from Geissospermum argenteum bark macerated in rum, was able to impair the intrahepatic cycle of the parasite. For the first time, traditional remedies from French Guiana have been directly tested on malarial pharmacological assays and some have been shown to be active.

  11. [Leptospirosis in French Guiana and the Guiana shield: Current knowledge in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Bourhy, P; Le Turnier, P; Schaub, R; Mosnier, E; Berlioz-Arthaud, A; Reynaud, Y; Nacher, M; De Thoisy, B; Carles, G; Richard-Hansen, C; Demar, M; Picardeau, M; Djossou, F

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Whether the distribution is worldwide, the hot and humid climate of the tropics is particularly conducive to its expansion. In most French overseas departments and territories, leptospirosis is considered as a public health problem. In French Guiana, a French department located in the northeastern part of the Amazon rainforest, it is supposed to be rare. The objective of this review was to make an inventory of the knowledge on human and animal leptospirosis in French Guiana and neighboring countries. A comprehensive search was conducted through the indexed and informal medical literature in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Thus, respectively ten and four publications were identified on human and animal leptospirosis in French Guiana, published between 1940 and 1995 in the form of case reports or case series. The publications concerning this disease in the other countries of the Guiana Shield, eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and Brazilian state of Amapá, also scarce or nonexistent. However recent data from the French National Centre of leptospirosis showed a recent and sudden increase in the number of cases in the department, probably partly due to the development of diagnostic tools such as Elisa IgM serology. It is likely that leptospirosis is a neglected disease in the region, due to the lack of diagnostic tools readily available, the lack of knowledge of the local clinicians on this disease and the existence of many other pathogens with similar clinical presentation such as malaria, arboviruses and Q fever and Amazonian toxoplasmosis. The establishment of more large-scale studies on animal and human leptospirosis is necessary and urgent to know the true burden of this disease in our region.

  12. The triatominae species of French Guiana (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Jean-Michel Bérenger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated list of the triatomine species present in French Guiana is given. It is based on field collections carried out between 1993-2008, museum collections and a literature review. Fourteen species, representing four tribes and six genera, are now known in this country and are illustrated (habitus. Three species are recorded from French Guiana for the first time: Cavernicola pilosa, Microtriatoma trinidadensis and Rhodnius paraensis. The two most common and widely distributed species are Panstrongylus geniculatus and Rhodnius pictipes. The presence of two species (Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma maculata could be fortuitous and requires confirmation. Also, the presence of Rhodnius prolixus is doubtful; while it was previously recorded in French Guiana, it was probably mistaken for R. robustus. A key for French Guiana's triatomine species is provided.

  13. Widespread Occurrence of Bd in French Guiana, South America

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    Courtois, Elodie A.; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S.

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area’s high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield. PMID:25902035

  14. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1 determine its geographical distribution, (2 test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera to define sentinel species for future work, (3 track changes in prevalence through time and (4 determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012. At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4% as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 % and Hylidae (1.5%. In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  15. Biodiversity baseline of the French Guiana spider fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel, Vincent; Rheims, Christina; Murienne, Jérôme; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The need for an updated list of spiders found in French Guiana rose recently due to many upcoming studies planned. In this paper, we list spiders from French Guiana from existing literature (with corrected nomenclature when necessary) and from 2142 spiders sampled in 12 sites for this baseline study. Three hundred and sixty four validated species names of spider were found in the literature and previous authors' works. Additional sampling, conducted for this study added another 89 identified species and 62 other species with only a genus name for now. The total species of spiders sampled in French Guiana is currently 515. Many other Morphospecies were found but not described as species yet. An accumulation curve was drawn with seven of the sampling sites and shows no plateau yet. Therefore, the number of species inhabiting French Guiana cannot yet be determined. As the very large number of singletons found in the collected materials suggests, the accumulation curve indicates nevertheless that more sampling is necessary to discover the many unknown spider species living in French Guiana, with a focus on specific periods (dry season and wet season) and on specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg and cambrouze (local bamboo monospecific forest).

  16. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  17. Three new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Callejas Posada, R.

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Piper from the Guianas and adjacent areas are described: Piper aulacospermum Callejas, P. ciliomarginatum Görts & Christenh. and P. remotinervium Görts. The differences between P. aulacospermum and P. bartlingianum (Miq.) C.DC., both belonging to subg. Ottonia, are given as well

  18. Über die Gyriniden (Col.) von Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochs, Georg

    1962-01-01

    Von 14 Taumelkäfer-Arten, die bislang für Guiana nachgewiesen waren, kannte man aus Suriname lediglich 2. Dank der Sammeltätigkeit der Naturwissenschaftlichen Suriname Expedition 1949 in den Nassau Gebergte erhöhen sich diese Zahlen um 3 neue Arten und 2 Unterarten, die hierunter beschrieben werden,

  19. Canopy dynamics of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The canopy dynamics (i.e. the formation and closure of canopy gaps) of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana are described. The formation of canopy gaps is investigated. The difficulties with gap size measurements are studied, and causes and consequences of treefalls and branchfalls are

  20. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  2. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas. 1. Croton macradenis (sect. Podostachys, fam. Euphorbiacece), a new species from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Punt, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Croton, sect. Podostachys (C. macradenis) from French Guiana and Suriname is described. It has remarkable long glands. The distinctive characters of the species are the following: long, tubiform glands at the base of the leaves; male flowers with a hairy receptacle and 5-6 anthers ;

  3. British Columbia

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    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  4. Alloimmunization in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in French Guiana

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    Narcisse Elenga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study in French Guiana assessed the frequency of alloimmunization to red cell antigens in sickle cell disease patients over 1995–2011 and identified the most common antibodies. A retrospective analysis of the transfusion history and medical records of 302 patients showed that 29/178 transfused patients had developed alloantibodies (16%. The most frequent alloantibodies were anti-LE1, anti-MNS1, anti-LE2, and anti-FY1 and were developed after transfusion of standard red cell units. The frequency of the clinically significant antibodies in this population of SCD patients was 11% (19/178. The antibodies found on those patients who had delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction were anti-K1, anti-FY1, and anti-MNS3. The strategies used to decrease alloimmunization in French Guiana are discussed.

  5. Anus Mundi or Tout-monde? French Guiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wink, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Caribbean literature are not fully sufficient to describe the highly dynamic migration space in close neighbourhood to economic giant Brazil, whose continentality results in fundamental differences from the islands. With the appropriation of orality and the inclusion of the history of migrants, present...... Guianan literature is trying to imagine an emancipated Guianan identity, which includes the transcultural spaces and their actors beyond projected borders. Therefore, French Guiana can be considered a paradigmatic laboratory for the negotiation of identifications and representations of fragmented spaces...

  6. Migrant health in French Guiana: Are undocumented immigrants more vulnerable?

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    Jolivet Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data exist on the health status of the immigrant population in French Guiana. The main objective of this article was to identify differences in its health status in relation to that of the native-born population. Methods A representative, population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 1027 adults living in Cayenne and St-Laurent du Maroni. Health status was assessed in terms of self-perceived health, chronic diseases and functional limitations. The migration variables were immigration status, the duration of residence in French Guiana and the country of birth. Logistic regression models were conducted. Results Immigrants account for 40.5% and 57.8% of the adult population of Cayenne and St-Laurent du Maroni, respectively. Most of them (60.7% and 77.5%, respectively had been living in French Guiana for more than 10 years. A large proportion were still undocumented or had a precarious legal status. The undocumented immigrants reported the worst health status (OR = 3.18 [1.21-7.84] for self-perceived health, OR = 2.79 [1.22-6.34] for a chronic disease, and OR = 2.17 [1.00-4.70] for a functional limitation. These differences are partially explained by socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. The country of birth and the duration of residence also had an impact on health indicators. Conclusion Data on immigrant health are scarce in France, and more generally, immigrant health problems have been largely ignored in public health policies. Immigrant health status is of crucial interest to health policy planners, and it is especially relevant in French Guiana, considering the size of the foreign-born population in that region.

  7. Migrant health in French Guiana: are undocumented immigrants more vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Anne; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Florence, Sophie; Lesieur, Sophie; Lebas, Jacques; Chauvin, Pierre

    2012-01-19

    Few data exist on the health status of the immigrant population in French Guiana. The main objective of this article was to identify differences in its health status in relation to that of the native-born population. A representative, population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 1027 adults living in Cayenne and St-Laurent du Maroni. Health status was assessed in terms of self-perceived health, chronic diseases and functional limitations. The migration variables were immigration status, the duration of residence in French Guiana and the country of birth. Logistic regression models were conducted. Immigrants account for 40.5% and 57.8% of the adult population of Cayenne and St-Laurent du Maroni, respectively. Most of them (60.7% and 77.5%, respectively) had been living in French Guiana for more than 10 years. A large proportion were still undocumented or had a precarious legal status. The undocumented immigrants reported the worst health status (OR = 3.18 [1.21-7.84] for self-perceived health, OR = 2.79 [1.22-6.34] for a chronic disease, and OR = 2.17 [1.00-4.70] for a functional limitation). These differences are partially explained by socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. The country of birth and the duration of residence also had an impact on health indicators. Data on immigrant health are scarce in France, and more generally, immigrant health problems have been largely ignored in public health policies. Immigrant health status is of crucial interest to health policy planners, and it is especially relevant in French Guiana, considering the size of the foreign-born population in that region.

  8. First Report of Leishmania infantum in French Guiana: Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Imported from the Old World

    OpenAIRE

    Rotureau, Brice; Ravel, Christophe; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The first two cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in French Guiana are described. One infected dog was most probably imported from France. A second dog was then infected with Leishmania infantum in French Guiana. These observations exemplify the intercontinental transportation theory for L. infantum.

  9. First report of Leishmania infantum in French Guiana: canine visceral leishmaniasis imported from the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Brice; Ravel, Christophe; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-03-01

    The first two cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis in French Guiana are described. One infected dog was most probably imported from France. A second dog was then infected with Leishmania infantum in French Guiana. These observations exemplify the intercontinental transportation theory for L. infantum.

  10. Predicting Dengue Fever Outbreaks in French Guiana Using Climate Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adde, Antoine; Roucou, Pascal; Mangeas, Morgan; Ardillon, Vanessa; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Rousset, Dominique; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien; Quenel, Philippe; Flamand, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue fever epidemic dynamics are driven by complex interactions between hosts, vectors and viruses. Associations between climate and dengue have been studied around the world, but the results have shown that the impact of the climate can vary widely from one study site to another. In French Guiana, climate-based models are not available to assist in developing an early warning system. This study aims to evaluate the potential of using oceanic and atmospheric conditions to help predict dengue fever outbreaks in French Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Lagged correlations and composite analyses were performed to identify the climatic conditions that characterized a typical epidemic year and to define the best indices for predicting dengue fever outbreaks during the period 1991–2013. A logistic regression was then performed to build a forecast model. We demonstrate that a model based on summer Equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures and Azores High sea-level pressure had predictive value and was able to predict 80% of the outbreaks while incorrectly predicting only 15% of the non-epidemic years. Predictions for 2014–2015 were consistent with the observed non-epidemic conditions, and an outbreak in early 2016 was predicted. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that outbreak resurgence can be modeled using a simple combination of climate indicators. This might be useful for anticipating public health actions to mitigate the effects of major outbreaks, particularly in areas where resources are limited and medical infrastructures are generally insufficient. PMID:27128312

  11. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regional distribution of mercury in sediments of the main rivers of French Guiana (Amazonian basin)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laperche, Valérie; Hellal, Jennifer; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Joseph, Bernard; Laporte, Pierre; Breeze, Dominique; Blanchard, François

    2014-01-01

    Use of mercury (Hg) for gold-mining in French Guiana (up until 2006) as well as the presence of naturally high background levels in soils, has led to locally high concentrations in soils and sediments...

  13. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic A. Evangelista; Kimberly Chan; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Megan M. Wilson; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae . The complete checklist contains 234 sp...

  14. Processos migratórios na fronteira Brasil-Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cunha Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available NESSE TEXTO elaboro uma discussão sobre os processos migratórios que carac-terizam a fronteira Brasil-Guiana. São elencados aspectos históricos, sociais, culturais das cidades que compõem aquela região de fronteira e também da vida local dos grupos étnicos que ali vivem um deslocamento contínuo ou permanente, aqui entendido como migração.THIS TEXT discusses the migratory processes that characterize the Brazilian-Guyanese border, and lists the historical, social, and cultural aspects of the frontier cities and of the local lives of ethnic groups that experience continuous or permanent dislocation, here understood as migration.

  15. NO2 possible effects on human health in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinddass, Marie-Line; Dendele, Beatrice; Molinie, Jack; panechou-pulcherie, Kathy; Gatineau, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently declared air pollution carcinogenic to humans. Humans are continuously exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, a strong oxidizing pollutant commonly found in urban air and homes with unvented combustion appliances. Children and Individuals with asthma have been reported to be more sensitive to NO2exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 pollution has been reported to induce defective pulmonary function, inflammation, irritations, respiratory infections like bronchitis, lung fibrosis, asthma exacerbation and an increase in inhalational allergies. Pollution peaks are responsible for older people premature death in city. According to W H O guideline values for NO2 emissions, a 1-hour level of 200 μg/m3 (0.1 ppm) and daily annual average of 40 μg/m3 (0.02 ppm) can be a real danger to human health. In general, current exposures in Europe are below this range. However, climate warming changes NO2 emissions and can become a real public health problem in few years. We will study here the temporal series of NO2 variation from data measurement campaigns of 2010 and 2014 in Cayenne city, the French Guiana capital. In this urban zone, NO2 is mainly created by cars traffic. Only 40% comes from combustion in thermal electric plan. A statistical approach will be used to compare NO2 Cayenne level to the daily and the annual threshold. Finally the NO2 evolution related to the climate warming and the growth of road traffic in French Guiana for the next year will be discussed.

  16. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  17. Hyperparasitaemia during bouts of malaria in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme, Bernard; Demar, Magalie

    2013-01-16

    High circulating parasite load is one of the WHO criteria for severe falciparum malaria. During a period of 11 years (2000-2010), the frequency of hyperparasitaemia (HP) (≥4% infected erythrocytes) during bouts of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae in patients referred to Cayenne General Hospital (CGH) in French Guiana and the frequency of their admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were evaluated. A mean of 1,150 malaria cases were referred to the Parasitology Laboratory of CGH each year over the last decade. During this period, malaria diagnostic (microscopy) and parasitaemia evaluation have remained unchanged: determination of the parasitized erythrocytes percentage with asexual forms on thin blood smears for all cases of parasitaemia exceeding 0.1%. Patients admitted to the ICU can be counted by origin of the request for malaria testing. All the data collected retrospectively were anonymized in a standardized case report form and in database. Between 2000 and 2010, 12,254 bouts of malaria were confirmed at the Parasitology Laboratory of CHG: P. vivax: 56.2%, P. falciparum: 39.5%, co-infection with both species: 3.4%, P. malariae: 0.9%. HP was observed in 262 cases, at a frequency of 4.9% for P. falciparum and only 0.041% for P. vivax, with no recorded cases for P. malariae. The need for intensive care was correlated with P. falciparum parasite load: 12.3% of cases for parasitaemia of 4-9%, 21.2% for parasitaemia 10-19%, 50% for parasitaemia 20-29% and 77.8% for parasitaemia ≥30% (n=9). The patient with the highest parasitaemia (75% infected erythrocytes with asexual form) presented a major concomitant lupus flare-up treated with corticoids. He survived without obvious sequelae. In French Guiana during bouts of malaria, HP was observed at a frequency of ~ 5% for P. falciparum and two orders of magnitude less frequent for P. vivax. HP is a severity criterion for falciparum malaria in this endemic area. However

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Brice; Ravel, Christophe; Nacher, Mathieu; Couppié, Pierre; Curtet, Isabelle; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Carme, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    Little information is available about the genetic variability of Leishmania populations and the possible correlations with ecoepidemiological features of leishmaniases. The present study was carried out in French Guiana, a country where cutaneous leishmaniases (CL) are endemic over the whole territory. The genetic polymorphism of a nuclear sequence encompassing the end of the ribosomal small subunit and the internal transcribed spacer 1 of 265 isolates from patients with CL was examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Genotypes based on the fingerprinting phenetic integration were compared to epidemiological, clinical, and geographical data. In agreement with previous reports, five different Leishmania species were identified, but Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis represented 95.8% of the samples. Two distinct L. (V.) guyanensis populations were found to originate in two ecologically characterized regions. Higher lesional parasite densities and the need for additional treatments were significantly linked to genotype group I. Parasites of genotype group II were more likely to cause chronic and disseminated cutaneous forms in patients. L. (V.) guyanensis was previously said not to be very polymorphic; however, the present analysis resulted in a significant degree of discrimination among L. (V.) guyanensis isolates from diverse ecological areas and with different clinical implications.

  19. Shigellosis and Pregnancy in French Guiana: Obstetric and Neonatal Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Michaël; Jolivet, Anne; Boukhari, Rachida; Carles, Gabriel

    2016-07-06

    Shigella is a major cause of dysentery worldwide. Only a few cases of shigellosis during pregnancy have been reported. However, the neonatal and obstetric complications are potentially severe. The objective of this study was to describe the obstetric and neonatal complications of shigellosis during pregnancy. We carried out a retrospective study of 37 cases of shigellosis diagnosed in pregnant women at the maternity unit of Saint-Laurent du Maroni Hospital in west French Guiana between 2000 and 2014. Shigellosis diagnosis was based on the detection of Shigella in stool cultures from pregnant women (34 patients) or in a neonatal sample collected immediately after delivery (three neonates). In addition to the classic symptoms of shigellosis-an association of diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain-we observed uterine contractions before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation in 61% of patients (N = 17/28). Cervical changes were associated with uterine contractions in 82% of cases (N = 14/17); 25% of the patients at risk of preterm birth went on to give birth prematurely (N = 3/12). Three cases of mother-to-child transmission were observed. Episodes of shigellosis in pregnant women may trigger uterine contractions and changes to the cervix, potentially resulting in miscarriage or preterm birth. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Underwater noise in an impacted environment can affect Guiana dolphin communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Lis; Lima, Isabela M S; Andrade, Luciana G; Carvalho, Rafael R; Bisi, Tatiana L; Lailson-Brito, José; Azevedo, Alexandre F

    2017-01-30

    This study focused on whistles produced by Guiana dolphin under different noise conditions in Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil. Recording sessions were performed with a fully calibrated recording system. Whistles and underwater noise levels registered during two behavioral states were compared separately between two areas. Noise levels differed between the two areas across all frequencies. Whistle duration differed between areas and was negatively correlated with noise levels. Whistling rate was positively correlated with noise levels, showing that whistling rate was higher in noisier conditions. Results demonstrated that underwater noise influenced Guiana dolphin acoustic behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Earthquakes in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This pamphlet provides information about the causes of earthquakes, where earthquakes occur, British Columbia plate techtonics, earthquake patterns, earthquake intensity, geology and earthquake impact...

  2. Mining local climate data to assess spatiotemporal dengue fever epidemic patterns in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand, Claude; Fabregue, Mickael; Bringay, Sandra; Ardillon, Vanessa; Quénel, Philippe; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2014-10-01

    To identify local meteorological drivers of dengue fever in French Guiana, we applied an original data mining method to the available epidemiological and climatic data. Through this work, we also assessed the contribution of the data mining method to the understanding of factors associated with the dissemination of infectious diseases and their spatiotemporal spread. We applied contextual sequential pattern extraction techniques to epidemiological and meteorological data to identify the most significant climatic factors for dengue fever, and we investigated the relevance of the extracted patterns for the early warning of dengue outbreaks in French Guiana. The maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, global brilliance, and cumulative rainfall were identified as determinants of dengue outbreaks, and the precise intervals of their values and variations were quantified according to the epidemiologic context. The strongest significant correlations were observed between dengue incidence and meteorological drivers after a 4-6-week lag. We demonstrated the use of contextual sequential patterns to better understand the determinants of the spatiotemporal spread of dengue fever in French Guiana. Future work should integrate additional variables and explore the notion of neighborhood for extracting sequential patterns. Dengue fever remains a major public health issue in French Guiana. The development of new methods to identify such specific characteristics becomes crucial in order to better understand and control spatiotemporal transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. A study of the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from French Guiana (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Anthaxiini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2017-01-03

    Description of four new species of the genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 from French Guiana: Agrilaxia (Agrilaxia) angustiptera sp. nov., A. (A.) antennata sp. nov., A. (A.) nigra sp. nov. and A. (A.) nigropurpurea sp. nov. New distributional data are given for Agrilaxia (A.) chrysifrons (Kerremans, 1896) and the previously unknown male genitalia of this species is illustrated.

  4. First record of Neolindus Scheerpeltz from French Guiana (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae), with a key to males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Angélico

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Neolindus Scheerpeltz, 1933, of the tribe Cylindroxystina Bierig, 1943, is recorded from French Guiana for the first time. Two new species, Neolindus irmleri sp. n. and Neolindus hermani sp. n., are described and illustrated. A key to males of Neolindus is provided. PMID:22259301

  5. Malaria Hyperendemicity and Risk for Artemisinin Resistance among Illegal Gold Miners, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Djossou, Félix; Barthes, Nicolas; Bogreau, Hervé; Hyvert, Georges; Nguyen, Christophe; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria among illegal gold miners in the French Guiana rainforest, we screened 205 miners during May-June 2014. Malaria prevalence was 48.3%; 48.5% of cases were asymptomatic. Patients reported self-medication with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Risk for emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance among gold miners in the rainforest is high.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Vampire Bat Rabies Virus from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; Darcissac, Edith; Bourhy, Hervé; Tirera, Sourakhata; de Thoisy, Benoît; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-04-07

    A rabies virus was detected in a common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in French Guiana. Its genomic sequence was obtained and found to be closely related to other hematophagous bat-related viruses that widely circulate in the northern Amazon region. This virus is named AT6. Copyright © 2016 Lavergne et al.

  7. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae of French Guiana: cytotaxonomy and a preliminary list of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to broaden the survey of simuliid species in French Guiana and to cytologically analyze the species in the Simulium perflavum species group. Twelve species of Simulium were collected from which S. goeldii, S. quadrifidum, S. trombetense, S. near incrustatum, S. metallicum (s.l. sp1, S. metallicum (s.l. sp2 and S. ochraceum (s.l. are reported for the first time for this region. The only species collected in the S. perflavum group was S. rorotaense; 34 larvae of this species were cytologically analyzed, all of which had the standard sequence. S. metallicum (s.l., S. ochraceum (s.l., S. guianense (s.l. and S. oyapockense (s.l. are involved with transmission of onchocerciasis in Central and South America, however, in French Guiana these species were not found biting humans during the sampling period. With the few collections made during this study, we increase the number of simulid species known in French Guiana from 6 to 13. It is clear that more simuliid species can be expected to be found when more sampling is done, including collections in other ecoregions in French Guiana.

  8. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera of the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A. Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp. and Suriname (136 spp. rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  9. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997

  10. The fishes of the cichlid genus Crenicichla in French Guiana (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the species of the cichlid genus Crenicichla Heckel, 1840 in French Guiana is presented. Five species are encountered, viz.: C. saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758), C. albopunctata Pellegrin, 1904, C. multispinosa Pellegrin, 1903, C. ternetzi Norman, 1926, and C. johanna Heckel, 1840. Their

  11. Annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mission Radeau des Cimes to Petit Saut, French Guiana, offered the opportunity to study the herpetofauna of the canopy of the tropical rainforest, an area hardly studied sofar. Two localities at heights of 30 and 35 m could be studied, whereas data on a third site were obtained through

  12. An annotated checklist of the lizards of French Guiana, mainly based on two recent collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Lescure, J.

    1975-01-01

    At the moment 36 species of lizards (6 Gekkonidae, 12 Iguanidae, 1 Scincidae and 17 Teiidae) are known for certain to occur in French Guiana. Of these 36 species, four are reported from that country for the first time (Anolis marmoratus speciosus Garman, Cercosaura o. ocellata Wagler, Prionodactylus

  13. Physical properties of muddy sediments from French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, J.; Lesourd, L.; Philippe, S.; Gontharet, S.; Sarrazin, M.; Gardel, A.

    2017-01-01

    The North West migration of long and discontinuous mud banks along the French Guiana coast has been extensively studied during the past years, in particular with a large-scale vision, which consequently has integrated morpho and hydrodynamic data. The aims of the present paper were to use intrinsic sediment properties (grain-size, mineralogy, concentration, and cohesion) to (1) highlight the sedimentary conditions during the consolidation processes from fluid deposit to vegetation development, and (2) verify the apparent homogeneously derived sedimentary facies. Two intertidal transects, Macouria and Cayenne, were compared from the coast to offshore. Their altitude averages of 1 m and 2.8 m above mean sea level, respectively, were different enough to compare the influence of the hydrodynamic impact and emersion time on their sediment properties. The latter, i.e. grain size distribution, mineralogical content, mud concentration, and shear strength (cohesion), were determined from sampled surface sediments (first cm) and along sediment cores (20-30 cm depth) from each transect. A specific X-ray technique was applied to the whole core to differentiate clearly its thin layers. On both intertidal sites, the grain size dominated by the fine silt fraction (2-20 μm) and the bulk mineralogy characterized by five major minerals (quartz, feldspars, chlorite, illite, and kaolinite) appeared homogeneous along both transects and cores. In spite of this apparent uniformity of particle size and mineralogical parameters, as well as for visual observation along the core, high precision X-rays still showed a cyclic sedimentation at a micro-scale level. This cyclicity with intercalation of fine layers was related to distinct dynamic deposits marked by both tidal processes and hydrodynamic factors (swell propagation). The cohesion and concentration results were dependent on the topography, where high topography was characterized by sediments with high cohesion and concentration values

  14. Numerous clones resistant to Phytophthora palmivora in the "Guiana" genetic group of Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Thevenin

    Full Text Available Cocoa black pod rot, a disease caused by Stramenopiles of the genus Phytophthora, and particularly by the pan-tropical species P. palmivora, causes serious production losses worldwide. In order to reduce the impact of these pests and diseases, preference is given to genetic control using resistant varieties and, to that end, breeders seek sources of resistance in wild cocoa trees. For instance, surveys of spontaneous cocoa trees in French Guiana between 1985 and 1995 led to the collection of abundant plant material forming a particular genetic group (the "Guiana" group. Following numerous one-off studies demonstrating the merits of this group as a source of resistance to Phytophthora, this article presents the results of a comprehensive study assessing the resistance of 186 "Guiana" clones in relation to the Guianan strain (GY 27 of P. palmivora. This study, undertaken in French Guiana, using an efficient methodology (ten series of tests and a statistical test adapted to the ordinal nature of the data confirmed that the "Guiana" genetic group does indeed constitute an important source of resistance to P. palmivora, though with some variations depending on the demes of origin. Numerous clones (59 proved to be as resistant as the SCAVINA 6 resistance control, whilst nine were statistically more resistant. The "Resistant" and "Moderately Resistant" Guianan clones totalled 108 (58% of the total tested. Some of the clones more resistant than SCAVINA 6 could be incorporated into numerous cocoa breeding programmes, particularly those that also display other notable qualities. The same applies for numerous other clones equivalent to SCAVINA 6, especially the "elite"' clones GU 134-B, GU 139-A and GU 285-A.

  15. Numerous clones resistant to Phytophthora palmivora in the "Guiana" genetic group of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, Jean-Marc; Rossi, Vivien; Ducamp, Michel; Doare, Fabien; Condina, Virgile; Lachenaud, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Cocoa black pod rot, a disease caused by Stramenopiles of the genus Phytophthora, and particularly by the pan-tropical species P. palmivora, causes serious production losses worldwide. In order to reduce the impact of these pests and diseases, preference is given to genetic control using resistant varieties and, to that end, breeders seek sources of resistance in wild cocoa trees. For instance, surveys of spontaneous cocoa trees in French Guiana between 1985 and 1995 led to the collection of abundant plant material forming a particular genetic group (the "Guiana" group). Following numerous one-off studies demonstrating the merits of this group as a source of resistance to Phytophthora, this article presents the results of a comprehensive study assessing the resistance of 186 "Guiana" clones in relation to the Guianan strain (GY 27) of P. palmivora. This study, undertaken in French Guiana, using an efficient methodology (ten series of tests and a statistical test adapted to the ordinal nature of the data) confirmed that the "Guiana" genetic group does indeed constitute an important source of resistance to P. palmivora, though with some variations depending on the demes of origin. Numerous clones (59) proved to be as resistant as the SCAVINA 6 resistance control, whilst nine were statistically more resistant. The "Resistant" and "Moderately Resistant" Guianan clones totalled 108 (58% of the total tested). Some of the clones more resistant than SCAVINA 6 could be incorporated into numerous cocoa breeding programmes, particularly those that also display other notable qualities. The same applies for numerous other clones equivalent to SCAVINA 6, especially the "elite"' clones GU 134-B, GU 139-A and GU 285-A.

  16. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, China, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, ...

  17. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  18. Diversity and ecology of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in coastal French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, Brice; Gaborit, Pascal; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Fouque, Florence; Carme, Bernard

    2006-07-01

    In French Guiana, at least five Leishmania species are known to be sympatically transmitted in sylvatic ecotopes. However, the previous surveys on the phlebotomine sand fly fauna were published 20 years ago. During that period, many ecological changes have occurred. Sand fly collections were conducted with CDC light traps in five stations representing the main ecotopes of French Guiana. A total of 817 sand flies belonging to 2 genera, 18 sub-genera, and 46 different species were identified. The species Lutzomyia umbratilis (16.6% of the collected specimens), Lu. infraspinosa (12.7%), Lu. ininii (8.0%), and Lu. flaviscutellata (6.1%) were the most common species. The stratification by height, activity period, and resting site preferences of the most abundant sand flies were analyzed. Population abundance and diversity were compared for each ecotope. The potential of certain sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission is discussed.

  19. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  20. [A case of coinfection by Balantidium coli and HIV in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyti, E; Aznar, C; Couppie, P; el Guedj, M; Carme, B; Pradinaud, R

    1998-01-01

    A case of balantidial dysentery is reported in a patient infected with the HIV in French Guiana. This case is the first described in medical literature. The patient presented also a disseminated histoplasmosis. Immunosuppression probably favoured the evolution of asymptomatic carriage to clinical dysentery. This clinical case did not present any complications. Treatment with doxycycline had to be carried out for 20 days in order to obtain a clinical and parasitological cure.

  1. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Jullian, Valérie; Bourdy, Geneviève; Georges, S.; Maurel, Séverine; Sauvain, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in French Guiana to treat and prevent malaria. Bioassay-guided extractions of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark have shown that antiplasmodial activity is concentrated in the alkaloid fraction. Further fractionation of this extract has yielded seven benzophenanthridine alkaloids, dihydroavicine 1, dihydronitidine 2, oxyavicine 3, oxynitidine 4, fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7. Antimalarial activity of the last fi...

  2. Ability of tropical forest soils of French Guiana and Reunion to depollute woods impregnated with biocides

    OpenAIRE

    Zaremski, Alba; Gastonguay, Louis; Zaremski, Clara; Chaffanel, Fanny; Le Floch, Gaetan; Beauchêne, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Our study sought to fine-tune knowledge about those microorganisms, particularly wood-decaying fungi degrading pollutants in situ. With a view to the depollution or bioremediation of treated woods, wood-decaying microorganisms from tropical forest soils in French Guiana and the island of Reunion were assessed for their ability to degrade toxic biocides such as pentachlorophenol (PCP) or copper chromium arsenic compounds (CCA). The degradation of red pine (Pinus resinosa) test pieces was monit...

  3. Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cofcewicz, E. T.; Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Randig, O.; Chabrier, C.; Quénéhervé, P.

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh....

  4. Feeding habits of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in Norte Bay, southern Brazil

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    Fábio G. Daura-Jorge

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The stomach contents of 18 Guiana dolphins stranded or accidentally caught by fishing around Norte Bay of Santa Catarina Island between 1990 and 2006 were examined. The small population of Guiana dolphins studied showed a varied diet, and prey was caught disproportionately. The stomach contents of these dolphins consisted of 448 prey remains coming from 18 species and 10 families. Their diet primarily consisted of fish, but also shrimp and squid. The most important species were cutlass fish (Trichiurus lepturus and white mouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri, which together comprised 75% of the total biomass. Although prey size ranged widely from 1.4 to 92.8 cm, a prevalence of prey smaller than 20 cm was observed. There was a predominance of prey living in moderate or large schools. The prey also had a wide vertical distribution in the water column. Our results support the opportunistic feeding habit of the Guiana dolphin, since its diverse diet was clearly guided by the availability and accessibility of resources in its habitat.

  5. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  6. Risk factors for premature birth in French Guiana: the importance of reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneuve-Dorilas, Malika; Favre, Anne; Carles, Gabriel; Louis, Alphonse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-11-27

    French Guiana has the highest birth rate in South America. This French territory also has the highest premature birth rate and perinatal mortality rate of all French territories. The objective was to determine the premature birth rate and to identify the prevalence of risk factors of premature birth in French Guiana. A retrospective study of all births in French Guiana was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014 using the computerized registry compiling all live births over 22 weeks of gestation on the territory. During this period 12 983 live births were reported on the territory. 13.5% of newborns were born before 37 (1755/12 983). The study of the registry revealed that common sociodemographic risk factors of prematurity were present. In addition, past obstetrical history was also important: a scarred uterus increased the risk of prematurity adjusted odds ratio =1.4, 95%CI (1.2-1.6). Similarly, obstetrical surveillance, the absence of preparation for birth or of prenatal interview increased the risk of prematurity by 2.4 and 2.3, the excess fraction in the population was 69% and 72.2%, respectively. Known classical risk factors are important. In the present study excess fractions were calculated in order to prioritize interventions to reduce the prematurity rate.

  7. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  8. Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, Maylis; Mosnier, Emilie; Le Hingrat, Quentin; Charpentier, Charlotte; Corlin, Florine; Hureau, Louise; Adenis, Antoine; Lazrek, Yassamine; Niemetsky, Florence; Aucouturier, Anne-Laure; Demar, Magalie; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-07-17

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname. Health status was assessed through medical examination, past medical history, haemoglobin concentration, and HIV and malaria testing. A questionnaire was used to collect data about the migration itinerary and life conditions on mining sites. Among the 421 adults included in the study, 93.8% (395/421) were Brazilian, mainly from Maranhão (55.7%, 220/395), the poorest Brazilian state. The sex ratio was 2.4. Overall, 48% of persons never went to school or beyond the primary level. The median time spent in gold mining was quite long (10 years), with a high turn-over. One third of the surveyed population (37.1%, 156/421) had high blood pressure, and only two had a medical follow-up. Most persons had experienced malaria (89.3%, 376/421). They declared frequent arboviroses and digestive disorders. Active leishmaniasis was observed in 8.3% of gold miners. Among women, 28.5% were anemic. Concerning HIV, 36.6% (154/421) of persons, mainly men, never got tested before and 6 were tested positive, which represented an HIV prevalence of 1.43% (95%CI =0.29-2.5). These findings support the hypothesis that mining in remote areas is linked to several specific illnesses. Theoretically, gold miners would be presumed to start their economical migration to French Guiana as a healthy group. However, their strenuous working and living conditions there lead to poor health caused by infectious and non infectious diseases. This description of their health

  9. Illegal gold miners in French Guiana: a neglected population with poor health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylis Douine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In French Guiana, a French overseas territory in South America, 6 to 10 thousands undocumented persons work illegally in gold mining sites in the Amazonian forest. Precarious life conditions lead to poor health but few data exist on the health status of illegal gold miners in French Guiana. The objective of this article was to describe the sociodemographic and health status of this vulnerable population. Method A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 on gold mine supply sites at the border between French Guiana and Suriname. Health status was assessed through medical examination, past medical history, haemoglobin concentration, and HIV and malaria testing. A questionnaire was used to collect data about the migration itinerary and life conditions on mining sites. Results Among the 421 adults included in the study, 93.8% (395/421 were Brazilian, mainly from Maranhão (55.7%, 220/395, the poorest Brazilian state. The sex ratio was 2.4. Overall, 48% of persons never went to school or beyond the primary level. The median time spent in gold mining was quite long (10 years, with a high turn-over. One third of the surveyed population (37.1%, 156/421 had high blood pressure, and only two had a medical follow-up. Most persons had experienced malaria (89.3%, 376/421. They declared frequent arboviroses and digestive disorders. Active leishmaniasis was observed in 8.3% of gold miners. Among women, 28.5% were anemic. Concerning HIV, 36.6% (154/421 of persons, mainly men, never got tested before and 6 were tested positive, which represented an HIV prevalence of 1.43% (95%CI =0.29–2.5. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that mining in remote areas is linked to several specific illnesses. Theoretically, gold miners would be presumed to start their economical migration to French Guiana as a healthy group. However, their strenuous working and living conditions there lead to poor health caused by infectious

  10. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) as marine ecosystem sentinels: ecotoxicology and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lemos, Leila; Emin-Lima, Renata; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) are small cetaceans that inhabit coastal regions down to a 50 m depth. As a coastally distributed species, they are exposed to a variety of human-induced risks that include passive fishing nets, persistent environmental pollution, and emerging diseases. As a top predatorS. guianensis occupies an important ecological niche in marine ecosystems. However, this niche also exposes this dolphin to extensive biomagnification of marine contaminants that may accumulate and be stored throughout their life of about 30 years.In this paper, we have compiled available data on the Guiana dolphin as regards its exposure to chemical pollutants, pathogenic microbes, infectious diseases, and injuries caused by interactions with passive fishing gears. Our analysis of the data shows that Guiana dolphins are particularly sensitive to environmental changes.Although the major mortal threat to dolphins results from contact with fishing other human-related activities in coastal zones also pose risks and need more attention.Such human-related risks include the presence of persistent toxicants in the marine environment, such as PCBs and PBDEs. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in Guiana dolphin's tissues at similar or higher levels that exist in cetaceans from other known polluted areas. Another risk encountered by this species is the non lethal injuries caused by fishing gear. Several incidents of this sort have occurred along the Brazilian coast with this species. When injuries are produced by interaction with fishing gear, the dorsal fin is the part of the dolphin anatomy that is more affected, commonly causing severe laceration or even total loss.The Guiana dolphins also face risks from infectious diseases. The major ones thus far identified include giardiasis, lobomycosis, toxoplasmosis, skin and skeletal lesions. Many bacterial pathogens from the family Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae have been isolated from Guiana dolphins. Several

  11. Notes on the Herpetofauna of surinam : IX. Xenodon Werneri Eiselt, a poorly known snake from Guiana, with notes on Waglerophis Merremii (Wagler) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Xenodon werneri Eiselt is redescribed on the basis of new material from Surinam and French Guiana. Its distribution and the Zoogeographie meaning of it are discussed. A key to the species of Xenodon in Guiana is presented. From the present data it appears that Waglerophis merremii (Wagler) is absent

  12. Challenges with minimising mercury pollution in the small-scale gold mining sector: experiences from the Guianas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilson, Gavin; Vieira, Rickford

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the barriers to mitigating mercury pollution at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas (Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname), and prescribes recommendations for overcoming these obstacles. Whilst considerable attention has been paid to analysing the environmental impacts of operations in the region, minimal research has been undertaken to identify appropriate policy and educational initiatives for addressing the mounting mercury problem. Findings from recent fieldwork and selected interviews with operators from Guyanese and Surinamese gold mining regions reveal that legislative incapacity, the region's varied industry policy stances, various technological problems, and low environmental awareness on the part of communities are impeding efforts to facilitate improved mercury management at small-scale gold mines in the Guianas. Marked improvements can be achieved, however, if legislation, particularly that pertaining to mercury, is harmonised in the region; educational seminars continue to be held in important mining districts; and additional outlets for disseminating environmental equipment and mercury-free technologies are provided.

  13. Guiana Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for Screening Coastal Brazilian Environments for Dioxins and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Bisi, Tatiana L; Domit, Camila; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Meirelles, Ana C O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Brose, François; Das, Krishna; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-10-01

    Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species. However, due to high costs of the analyses, only one investigation comprised the determination of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in Guiana dolphin tissues. The dioxin responsive-chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX(®)) cell bioassay was used in the present study for the analyses of hepatic samples from 28 male Guiana dolphins in order to screen estuarine environments for DRCs, comprising three regions (Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern) and four states [Paraná (PR), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espírito Santo (ES), and Ceará (CE)] of Brazil. High bioanalytical equivalent (BEQ) concentrations [dioxins (pg BEQ/g lipid)] were found, varying from 1.94 to 15.6 pg BEQ/g. A significant negative correlation between BEQ concentrations and total length was found in Guiana dolphins from Brazil (all analysed dolphins). This pattern also was verified for RJ state, pointing to (1) chemically induced developmental disruption or to (2) increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal. Comparison was performed with literature data and significantly higher BEQ levels were found in Brazilian Guiana dolphins than in those reported for North Sea harbour porpoises. Higher levels were found in Southeastern (the most PBT-contaminated area of the country) than in Southern region. However, it is not possible to affirm that Guiana dolphins are more contaminated by DRCs in SE than in S region, because individuals were lengthier in S than in SE region. Our results seem to have mirrored dolphin exposure to PCBs in Brazil according to the literature. Further studies are required for investigating the hypotheses 1 and 2 mentioned above.

  14. Amazonian Triatomine Biodiversity and the Transmission of Chagas Disease in French Guiana: In Medio Stat Sanitas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Péneau

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of biodiversity on the transmission of infectious diseases now stand as a cornerstone of many public health policies. The upper Amazonia and Guyana shield are hot-spots of biodiversity that offer genuine opportunities to explore the relationship between the risk of transmission of Chagas disease and the diversity of its triatomine vectors. Over 730 triatomines were light-trapped in four geomorphological landscapes shaping French-Guiana, and we determined their taxonomic status and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. We used a model selection approach to unravel the spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, diversity and infection. The vector community in French-Guiana is typically made of one key species (Panstrongylus geniculatus that is more abundant than three secondary species combined (Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus lignarius and Eratyrus mucronatus, and four other species that complete the assemblage. Although the overall abundance of adult triatomines does not vary across French-Guiana, their diversity increases along a coastal-inland gradient. These variations unravelled a non-monotonic relationship between vector biodiversity and the risk of transmission of Chagas disease, so that intermediate biodiversity levels are associated with the lowest risks. We also observed biannual variations in triatomine abundance, representing the first report of a biannual pattern in the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Those variations were highly and negatively correlated with the average monthly rainfall. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the transmission of T. cruzi by assemblages of triatomine species, and for the dual challenge of controlling Amazonian vector communities that are made of both highly diverse and mostly intrusive species.

  15. Amazonian Triatomine Biodiversity and the Transmission of Chagas Disease in French Guiana: In Medio Stat Sanitas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ferrer, Alheli; Blanchet, Denis; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The effects of biodiversity on the transmission of infectious diseases now stand as a cornerstone of many public health policies. The upper Amazonia and Guyana shield are hot-spots of biodiversity that offer genuine opportunities to explore the relationship between the risk of transmission of Chagas disease and the diversity of its triatomine vectors. Over 730 triatomines were light-trapped in four geomorphological landscapes shaping French-Guiana, and we determined their taxonomic status and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. We used a model selection approach to unravel the spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, diversity and infection. The vector community in French-Guiana is typically made of one key species (Panstrongylus geniculatus) that is more abundant than three secondary species combined (Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus lignarius and Eratyrus mucronatus), and four other species that complete the assemblage. Although the overall abundance of adult triatomines does not vary across French-Guiana, their diversity increases along a coastal-inland gradient. These variations unravelled a non-monotonic relationship between vector biodiversity and the risk of transmission of Chagas disease, so that intermediate biodiversity levels are associated with the lowest risks. We also observed biannual variations in triatomine abundance, representing the first report of a biannual pattern in the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Those variations were highly and negatively correlated with the average monthly rainfall. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the transmission of T. cruzi by assemblages of triatomine species, and for the dual challenge of controlling Amazonian vector communities that are made of both highly diverse and mostly intrusive species. PMID:26867025

  16. Human impact on genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: example of the anthropized environment from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, A; Ajzenberg, D; Devillard, S; Demar, M P; de Thoisy, B; Bonnabau, H; Collinet, F; Boukhari, R; Blanchet, D; Simon, S; Carme, B; Dardé, M-L

    2011-08-01

    In French Guiana, severe cases of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are associated with atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii linked to a wild neotropical rainforest cycle and a higher genetic diversity than usually observed for T. gondii isolates from anthropized environment. This raises the question of the impact of anthropization of the natural environment, on genetic diversity and on the population structure of T. gondii. However, few data are available on strains circulating in the anthropized areas from French Guiana. Seropositive animals originating mainly from anthropized sub-urban areas and punctually from wild environment in French Guiana were analyzed for T. gondii isolation and genotyping. Thirty-three strains were obtained by bioassay in mice and compared with 18 previously reported isolates chiefly originating from the Amazon rainforest. The genotyping analysis performed with 15 microsatellite markers located on 12 different chromosomes revealed a lower genetic diversity in the anthropized environment. Results were analyzed in terms of population structure by clustering methods, Neighbor-joining trees reconstruction based on genetic distances, F(ST,) Mantel's tests and linkage disequilibrium. They clearly showed a genetic differentiation between strains associated to the anthropized environment and those associated to the wild, but with some inbreeding between them. The majority of strains from the anthropized environment were clustered into additional lineages of T. gondii that are common in the Caribbean. In conclusion the two environmental populations "wild" and "anthropized" were genetically well differentiated. The anthropization of the environment seems to be accompanied with a decreased diversity of T. gondii associated with a greater structure of the populations. We detected potential interpenetration and genetic exchanges between these two environmental populations. As a higher pathogenicity in human of "wild" genotypes has been

  17. Broad-scale spatial pattern of forest landscape types in the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gond, Valéry; Freycon, Vincent; Molino, Jean-François; Brunaux, Olivier; Ingrassia, Florent; Joubert, Pierre; Pekel, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Thierron, Viviane; Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Sabatier, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Detecting broad scale spatial patterns across the South American rainforest biome is still a major challenge. Although several countries do possess their own, more or less detailed land-cover map, these are based on classifications that appear largely discordant from a country to another. Up to now, continental scale remote sensing studies failed to fill this gap. They mostly result in crude representations of the rainforest biome as a single, uniform vegetation class, in contrast with open vegetations. A few studies identified broad scale spatial patterns, but only when they managed to map a particular forest characteristic such as biomass. The main objective of this study is to identify, characterize and map distinct forest landscape types within the evergreen lowland rainforest at the sub-continental scale of the Guiana Shield (north-east tropical South-America 10° North-2° South; 66° West-50° West). This study is based on the analysis of a 1-year daily data set (from January 1st to December 31st, 2000) from the VEGETATION sensor onboard the SPOT-4 satellite (1-km spatial resolution). We interpreted remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) from field and high resolution remote sensing data of 21 sites in French Guiana. We cross-analyzed remote sensing data, field observations and environmental data using multivariate analysis. We obtained 33 remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) among which five forest-RSLC representing 78% of the forested area. The latter were classified as different broad forest landscape types according to a gradient of canopy openness. Their mapping revealed a new and meaningful broad-scale spatial pattern of forest landscape types. At the scale of the Guiana Shield, we observed a spatial patterns similarity between climatic and forest landscape types. The two most open forest-RSLCs were observed mainly within the north-west to south-east dry belt. The three other forest-RSLCs were observed in wetter and less anthropized areas

  18. Prevalence and Distribution of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 in Leishmania Parasites from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginouvès, Marine; Simon, Stéphane; Bourreau, Eliane; Lacoste, Vincent; Ronet, Catherine; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu; Demar, Magalie; Prévot, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    In South America, the presence of the Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) was described in Leishmania guyanensis and Leishmania braziliensis strains. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence distribution of LRV1 in Leishmania isolates in French Guiana given that, in this French overseas department, most Leishmania infections are due to these parasite species. The presence of the virus was observed in 74% of Leishmania spp. isolates, with a highest presence in the internal areas of the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  20. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Cally

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/. This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  1. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c. PMID:25589875

  2. Discovering the Realm of El Dorado: Ralegh and Schomburgk in the Guianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L. Whitehead

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sir Walter Ralegh’s Discoverie of Guiana. Joyce Lorimer (ed.. London: Ashgate (published for the Hakluyt Society, 2006. xcvii + 360 pp. (Cloth £55.00 The Guiana Travels of Robert Schomburgk 1835-1844. Volume I: Explorations on Behalf of the Royal Geographical Society, 1835-1839. Volume II: The Boundary Survey 1840-1844. Peter Riviére (ed.. Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate (published for the Hakluyt Society, 2006. xii + 266 pp. (Cloth US $99.95 The historiography and ethnology of northeastern South America has, with the publication of these two excellent volumes, been firmly and illuminatingly advanced. Firmly since the scholarly abilities of both editors in their preparation of the texts and key source materials make these works definitive. And illuminatingly because the primary documentary and published materials relating to both Walter Ralegh and Robert Schomburgk have, in different ways, been difficult to access. In the case of Ralegh (and here I am writing as the editor of a recent edition of his Discoverie the location of the original source manuscript for the 1596 edition was unknown and thought lost. In the case of Schomburgk the publication of his travel accounts in the form of short articles, mostly in the Royal Geographical Journal, often made it difficult to access or copy these accounts. The result was that our understanding of the full impact of his travels and the corpus of his published work was considerably lessened.

  3. Evidence for signature whistles in Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) in Ilhéus, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Alice; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2014-12-01

    Signature whistles have been widely studied in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). A recent study suggested the occurrence of signature whistles in Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) but could not identify the whistlers. The objective of this study is to describe the whistle characteristics in the population of S. guianensis from Ilhéus and investigate the occurrence of signature whistles. Dolphins from 55 groups were photographed and sound emissions from 21 groups were recorded. The frequency parameters and duration of the 847 recorded whistles were similar to those recorded in 12 other populations, on an intermediate position of a latitudinal gradient. The visual classification method was applied to the spectrograms of 68 stereotyped potential signature whistles. Five out of 6 human judges agreed on the formation of 13 groups. The presence of the same individuals in different recording occasions of stereotyped whistles suggests that some whistle types are produced by specific individuals. The study is the first to use the photo-identification technique to identify Guiana dolphins emitting whistles and the results reinforce the hypothesis of signature whistles in this species.

  4. RECONSTRUÇÕES IDENTITARIAS EM SOCIEDADES PLURAIS: OS POVOS DA FRONTEIRA BRASIL - GUIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cunha Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As reconstruções identitárias que vem ocorrendo nas Américas estão interligadas com o fenômeno dos estados-nacão, uma vez que estes são conseqüências dos processos de colonização que dominaram povos e desintegrou culturas. A questão nacional iniciada no mundo colonial americano desde o século XVIII com os movimentos de independência, para a América Latina se configura de modo contraditório posto que tais estados-nação passaram a ser a configuração do poder daqueles que deram continuidade aos interesses e prestígios do poder colonial. O que significou para os povos dominados - índios e negros - a permanência da colonialidade. Neste artigo pretende-se estudar como esses povos que apresentam suas reconstruções identitárias nesse movimento contra-hegemonico na região fronteiriça do Brasil com a Guiana. Pretende-se aqui estudar com base nas categorias de identidade, cultura e nacioanalidades. Palavras-Chave: Brasil; Guiana; fronteira; identidade.

  5. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... different “British worlds” against each other....

  6. The rare rhinoceros beetle, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, in French Guiana and Suriname (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Phileurini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Gillett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rare dynastine, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, previously known only from French Guiana, is here reported for the first time from Suriname. All biological, distributional and temporal data available for the species in both territories are presented and discussed.

  7. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  8. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian, V; Bourdy, G; Georges, S; Maurel, S; Sauvain, M

    2006-07-19

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in French Guiana to treat and prevent malaria. Bioassay-guided extractions of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark have shown that antiplasmodial activity is concentrated in the alkaloid fraction. Further fractionation of this extract has yielded seven benzophenanthridine alkaloids, dihydroavicine 1, dihydronitidine 2, oxyavicine 3, oxynitidine 4, fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7. Antimalarial activity of the last five compounds has been evaluated, and nitidine was the most potent, displaying an IC(50)<0.27microM against Plasmodium falciparum. Investigation of the traditional remedy, a trunk bark decoction in water, has shown that fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7 are also present in the decoction, therefore justifying the traditional use of Zanthoxylumrhoifolium bark as antimalarial.

  9. Identification of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus in house mouse (Mus musculus, Rodentia) in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; de Thoisy, Benoît; Tirera, Sourakhata; Donato, Damien; Bouchier, Christiane; Catzeflis, François; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-seven house mice (Mus musculus, Rodentia) caught in different localities in French Guiana were screened to investigate the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV). Two animals trapped in an urban area were found positive, hosting a new strain of LCMV, that we tentatively named LCMV "Comou". The complete sequence was determined using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this strain is related to genetic lineage I composed of strains inducing severe disease in humans. These results emphasize the need for active surveillance in humans as well as in house mouse populations, which is a rather common rodent in French Guianese cities and settlements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dengue epidemics and adverse obstetrical outcomes in French Guiana: a semi-ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Friedman, Eleanor; Basurko, Celia; Roger, Amaury; Bruncher, Pascal; Dussart, Philippe; Flamand, Claude; Carles, Gabriel; Buekens, Pierre; Breart, Gerard; Carme, Bernard; Nacher, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the obstetrical consequences of dengue fever during pregnancy. To determine whether dengue epidemics were associated with an increase in adverse obstetrical outcomes, a semi-ecological study combining individual data on obstetrical events from the perinatal registry and aggregated exposure data from the epidemiologic surveillance of dengue was conducted in Cayenne French Guiana between 2004 and 2007. After adjustment for individual risk factors, this semi-ecological analysis showed that an epidemic level of dengue transmission during the first trimester was associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage and preterm birth. The associated risks seemed to depend on the epidemic level. Despite its limitations, the present study suggests that dengue in the first trimester may be related to preterm birth and to postpartum bleeding, thus leading to specific hypotheses that should be tested in prospective studies. PMID:24341915

  11. Gynacantha dryadula sp. nov. from the Guiana Shield (Odonata, Anisoptera: Aeshnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Marmels, Jürg DE

    2017-04-20

    The new species is described and illustrated on the basis of two reared, subteneral males from Brazil, their larval exuviae, a mature male from French Guiana, a mature female from Venezuela, and a mature female from Surinam. One of the Brazilian males is the holotype (BRAZIL, Amazonas State, Manaus, Reserva Florestal Ducke, BR 174-km 26, trail to Acará creek, 02º55'47"S, 59º58'22"W, 0.7 m elevation, deposited in INPA). The new species (total length 50-54 mm) differs from other small species of same genus by color pattern of thorax, middle and hind tibiae dark with external (dorsal) yellow streak, male cercus with truncated tip lacking apical spine, and male epiproct reaching or slightly surpassing midlength of cercus. The larva, besides of its small size (28-31 mm), has an epiproct with well-developed and slightly diverging apical spines and an unusually long paraproct.

  12. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  13. Clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, French Guiana, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Aba; Bertrand, Xavier; Moreau, Brigitte; Hommel, Didier; Couppie, Pierre; Simonnet, Christine; Kallel, Hatem; Demar, Magalie; Djossou, Felix; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii and characterised the clonal diversity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) during an ICU-associated outbreak at Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana. All non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates from 2008 to 2014 were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion. Multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterisation of carbapenemase-encoding genes were performed on CRAB. Of the 441 A. baumannii isolates, most were from males (54.0%) and were detected mainly from the ICU (30.8%) and medicine wards (21.8%). In the ICU, strains were mainly isolated from the respiratory tract (44.1%) and bloodstream (14.0%), whereas in medicine wards they mainly were from wound/drainage (36.5%) and bloodstream (25.0%). A. baumannii showed the greatest susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam (92.7%), imipenem (92.5%), colistin (95.6%) and amikacin (97.2%), being lower in the ICU and medicine wards compared with other wards. An outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB occurred in the 13-bed ICU in 2010. CRAB strains were more co-resistant to other antimicrobials compared with non-CRAB. Molecular genetics analysis revealed five sequence types [ST78, ST107 and ST642 and two new STs (ST830 and ST831)]. Analysis of PFGE profiles indicated cross-transmissions of CRAB within the ICU, between the ICU and one medicine ward during transfer of patients, and within that medicine ward. This study provides the first clinical and molecular data of A. baumannii from French Guiana and the Amazon basin. The ICU was the highest risk unit of this nosocomial outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB, which could subsequently disseminate within the hospital. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  15. Microcomputing in British planning education

    OpenAIRE

    I Masser; G Teet

    1988-01-01

    The findings of a survey of British planning schools carried out during spring 1986 suggest that the number of microcomputers available in British planning schools has increased by at least two-and-a-half times over an eighteen-month period. However, compulsory courses on computer applications and information management in these schools still tend to be linked with quantitative methods teaching and few opportunities are provided for more advanced training in information management in most sch...

  16. Four new combinations in Chomelia and Stenostomum (Rubiaceae, Guettardeae) from Central America, the Guianas and the Amazon Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Delprete, P.G.; Achille, F.; Mouly, A.

    2010-01-01

    According to current generic delimitations, supported by wood anatomy, palynology, and recent molecular phylogenies, Antirhea, traditionally treated as a Pantropical genus, is instead restricted to the Paleotropics. At the same time, the Neotropical species traditionally positioned in Antirhea should be positioned in Stenostomum. Following these definitions, Stenostomum is a genus with most of the species present in the Caribbean Region, and two species present in the Guianas, namely S. acrea...

  17. Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Alexander; Morillo, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species in the Matelea stenopetala complex (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) are described from the Guiana Shield and Amazonian Brazil: Matelea brevistipitata Krings & Morillo, sp. nov. and Matelea trichopedicellataKrings & Morillo, sp. nov. The new species belong to a small group of adaxially-pubescent-flowered taxa within the complex, including Matelea hildegardiana and Matelea pakaraimensis. The new species are described and a dichotomous key is provided. PMID:23233816

  18. End stage renal disease in French Guiana (data from R.E.I.N registry): South American or French?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochemont, Dévi Rita; Meddeb, Mohamed; Roura, Raoul; Couchoud, Cécile; Nacher, Mathieu; Basurko, Célia

    2017-06-30

    End-Stage renal disease (ESRD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality, and significantly alters patients' quality of life. There are very few published data on this problem in the French Overseas territories. The development of a registry on end stage renal disease in French Guiana in 2011 allowed to describe the magnitude of this problem in the region for the first time. Using data from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry (R.E.I.N). Descriptive statistics on quantitative and qualitative variables in the registry were performed on prevalent cases and incident cases in 2011, 2012 and 2013. French Guiana has one of the highest ESRD prevalence and incidence in France. The two main causes of ESRD were hypertensive and diabetic nephropathies. The French Guianese population had a different demographic profile (younger, more women, more migrants) than in mainland France. Most patients had at least one comorbidity, predominantly (95.3%) hypertension. In French Guiana dialysis was initiated in emergency for 71.3% of patients versus 33% in France (p < 0.001). These first results give important public health information: i) End stage renal disease has a very high prevalence relative to mainland France ii) Patients have a different demographic profile and enter care late in the course of their renal disease. These data are closer to what is observed in the Caribbean or in Latin America than in Mainland France.

  19. Comparison and correction of three satellite precipitation estimates products to improve flood prevention in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Aurélien; Gibier, Florian; Palany, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The French Guiana (80 000 km2) is highly vulnerable to flooding during the rainy season but the hydrological prevision is limited. In fact, the region cannot be cover by a dense network of rain gauges because of the difficulties to install and maintain monitoring stations in the primary forest. In that case, meteorological satellites could be really useful. Their large spatial cover offers the opportunity to estimate rainfall at a regional scale, with a temporal resolution of 30 minutes. The use of daily satellite precipitation estimates products in hydrological modelling are not very developed but could lead to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties of rainfall and improve simulations of hydrological models. In this study, we have tested three satellite-based rainfall estimation algorithms: TRMM-TMPA 3B42 (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-Satellite Precipitation analysis) V7 (spatial resolution: 0.25°), IMERG (Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals) for GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement) (spatial resolution: 0.1°) and STAR Satellite rainfall estimates Hydro-Estimator (spatial resolution: 0.045°). Then, we applied several methods for biases correction in order to improve daily rainfall estimates in comparison with measures from available rain gauges. The performance was evaluated at a daily time scale for the period running from 01/04/2015 to 30/03/2016 with validation data from 32 rain gauges managed by Meteo France and 59 rain gauges managed by the Surinam. Before biases correction, GPM IMERG obtained the better percentage of detection (POD) with 70% and a false alarm ratio (FAR) of only 10% in comparison with TRMM performance (POD: 60% ; FAR: 30%) and Hydro-Estimator (POD: 30% ; FAR: 30%). Biases (Psat-Pgau) were negatives with the three satellite products which mean that rainfall estimates by satellite images were underestimated. Better daily performances were obtained with TRMM (mean absolute biases: 7.1 mm; RMSE = 13.4 mm) and GPM (mean absolute

  20. The British Monarchy On Screen

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Moving images of the British monarchy, in fact and fiction, are almost as old as the moving image itself, dating back to an 1895 American drama, The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. British monarchs even appeared in the new ‘animated photography’ from 1896, led by Queen Victoria. Half a century later, the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II was a milestone in the adoption of television, watched by 20 million Britons and 100 million North Americans. At the century’s end, Princess Diana’s funeral ...

  1. Prey consumed by Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae and franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine environment in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides information about the diet of sympatric populations of small cetaceans in the Babitonga Bay estuary. This is the first study on the diet of these species in direct sympatry. The stomach contents of seven Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis and eight franciscanas Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The prey of both cetaceans was mostly teleost fishes, followed by cephalopods. We identified 13 teleost fishes as part of the diet of the franciscanas, and 20 as part of the diet of Guiana dolphins. Lolliguncula brevis was the only cephalopod recorded, and was the most important prey for both cetaceans. Stellifer rastrifer and Gobionellus oceanicus were also important for franciscana, so as Mugil curema and Micropogonias furnieri were important for Guiana dolphins. Stellifer rastrifer and Cetengraulis edentulus were the fishes with the highest frequency of occurrence for franciscana (50%, while Achirus lineatus, C. edentulus, S. brasiliensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, M. furnieri, M. curema, Diapterus rhombeus, Eugerres brasilianus and G. oceanicus showed 28.6% of frequency of occurrence for Guiana dolphins. Franciscanas captured greater cephalopods than the Guiana dolphins in both total length (z= -3.38; n= 40; p< 0.05 and biomass (z = -2.46; n = 40; p<0.05. All of the prey species identified occur inside the estuary, which represents a safe habitat against predators and food availability, reinforcing the importance of the Babitonga Bay for these cetacean populations.

  2. Monitoring Strategy for Eight Amphibian Species in French Guiana, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR), estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius), a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19) can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes. PMID:23840717

  3. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmonellidae from the Guianan arboreal mouse (Oecomys auyantepui from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirich Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the number and arrangement of cuticular ridges and configuration of the dorsal ray, nematode specimens collected from the small intestine of eight Guianan arboreal mice, Oecomys auyantepui (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae, in French Guiana are herein described and characterized. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae shows a synlophe consisting of more than 40 ridges and a unique bursal arrangement with ray 8 (externo-dorsal extending to the edge of the bursal margin, and appearing more prominent than the dorsal ray. This bursal arrangement is common in members of Hassalstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1971, but uncommon in the other four species in Guerrerostrongylus Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991. The placement of the new species in Guerrerostrongylus is based on the number and nature of cuticular ridges and the ray arrangement and symmetry of the caudal bursa. Diagnostic characteristics of Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. include the length of ray 8 relative to bursal margin, the relative size of the spicules and vestibule, and the number of eggs in the uterus. We propose an amendment to the generic diagnosis of Guerrerostrongylus to modify the characters of the long rays 6 (postero-lateral, rays 8 (externo-dorsal, and dorsal ray as diagnostic, since at least ray 6 appears to be short in two different species in the genus, namely G. ulysi Digiani, Notarnicola & Navone, 2012 and G. marginalis n. sp.

  4. Flow seasonality and fish assemblage in a tropical river, French Guiana, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Tejerina-Garro

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify the existence of a seasonal pattern of variation in the fish assemblages of a tropical river using taxonomic and functional descriptors. Fish were sampled using gillnets at two sites on the Comté River, a large-sized river 254.8 km long, flowing entirely through rainforest areas of French Guiana. Samplings were conducted every other month from August 1998 to July 2000. Four types of fish assemblage descriptors were used: the species descriptor (number of individual fish of each species in the sample; the family descriptor (number of individual fish of each family in the sample; the trophic descriptor (distribution of the fish biomass in each feeding guild and the specific maximum observed size - MOS (number of individual fish in each of four classes of MOS: 300 mm. Results point out that changes in the fish assemblage are related to water level oscillations. The role of migration seems to be weak and is limited to trophic displacements characteristic of few species. In the low-water season, characterized by weak water level oscillation, fish species and families belonging to piscivorous or aquatic invertivorous guilds were predominant, whereas in the high-water season the environment is submitted to strong variations caused by fast and large water level oscillations, and the fish assemblage was characterized by species or families with an opportunistic omnivorous diet.

  5. Floral biology and reproductive isolation by floral scent in three sympatric aroid species in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentrich, H; Kaiser, R; Gottsberger, G

    2010-07-01

    We studied the reproductive biology of three sympatric Araceae species, Anthurium sagittatum, A. thrinax and Spathiphyllum humboldtii in French Guiana. The plants flowered simultaneously and were visited by scent-collecting male euglossine bees, which were apparently their major pollinators. In total, each species was visited by 3-7 euglossine species, and 2-3 euglossine species accounted for at least 80% of all flower visits, with visits being plant species-specific. Floral scent consisted of 6-10 main compounds, which made up 76-94% of the total amount of volatiles and were specific in these high amounts to each plant species. We suggest that the different floral scents lead to clear separation of the main pollinating euglossine species, providing a directed and efficient intraspecific pollen flow that results in high reproductive success. Since the simple floral (inflorescence) morphology of the studied plants does not support any morphological mechanisms to exclude visitors, as for example in euglossine-pollinated perfume orchids, floral scent might be of major importance for the reproductive isolation and sympatric occurrence of these plants.

  6. Maripa Hantavirus in French Guiana: Phylogenetic Position and Predicted Spatial Distribution of Rodent Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thoisy, Benoît; Matheus, Séverine; Catzeflis, François; Clément, Luc; Barrioz, Sébastien; Guidez, Amandine; Donato, Damien; Cornu, Jean-François; Brunaux, Olivier; Guitet, Stéphane; Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-01-01

    A molecular screening of wild-caught rodents was conducted in French Guiana, South America to identify hosts of the hantavirus Maripa described in 2008 in a hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) case. Over a 9-year period, 418 echimyids and murids were captured. Viral RNA was detected in two sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda, trapped close to the house of a second HPS case that occurred in 2009 and an O. fulvescens close to the fourth HPS case identified in 2013. Sequences from the rodents had 96% and 97% nucleotide identity (fragment of S and M segments, respectively) with the sequence of the first human HPS case. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on the complete sequence of the S segment show that Maripa virus is closely related to Rio Mamore hantavirus. Using environmental descriptors of trapping sites, including vegetation, landscape units, rain, and human disturbance, a maximal entropy-based species distribution model allowed for identification of areas of higher predicted occurrence of the two rodents, where emergence risks of Maripa virus are expected to be higher. PMID:24752689

  7. Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofcewicz, E T; Carneiro, R M D G; Randig, O; Chabrier, C; Quénéhervé, P

    2005-09-01

    Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh. Perineal patterns were used as a complementary tool together with enzyme characterization and were essential for checking the morphological consistency of the identification. The major species of M. arenaria and M. incognita were detected at 61.9% and 34.3% of the total number of isolates, respectively, and the other minor species at 3.8%. The mixed Meloidogyne species were detected in 45.1% of the samples. Genetic analysis was conducted using RAPD markers, which alone or in combination provided reliable polymorphisms both between and within species. RAPD analysis of the data resulted in clustering of species and isolates congruent with esterase phenotype characterization. The intraspecific variability in M. incognita and in M. arenaria represented 14.9% and 61.6% of the amplified polymorphic fragments, respectively. This high level of variation in M. arenaria isolates may indicate multiple origins for populations classified as M. arenaria or more than one species inside the same group, but more detailed morphological and DNA studies will be necessary to test this hypothesis.

  8. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  9. Medical slang in British hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam T; Fertleman, Michael; Cahill, Pauline; Palmer, Roger D

    2003-01-01

    The usage, derivation, and psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of slang terminology in medicine are discussed. The colloquial vocabulary is further described and a comprehensive glossary of common UK terms provided in appendix. This forms the first list of slang terms currently in use throughout the British medical establishment.

  10. Paleoecological Analysis of Cheilostome Bryozoa from Venezuela - British Guiana Shelf Sediments, 14 September 1963 to 19 September 1963 (NODC Accession 7100130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abundance of cheilostome Bryozoa in many Cenozoic sublittoral marine facies, their sedentary existence, minute size and sensitivity to environmental conditions...

  11. Distribution of the Habitat Suitability of the Main Malaria Vector in French Guiana Using Maximum Entropy Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Yi; Roux, Emmanuel; Girod, Romain; Dusfour, Isabelle; de Thoisy, Benoit; Seyler, Frédérique; Briolant, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    Malaria is an important health issue in French Guiana. Its principal mosquito vector in this region is Anopheles darlingi Root. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of this species is still very incomplete due to the extent of French Guiana and the difficulty to access most of the territory. Species distribution modeling based on the maximal entropy procedure was used to predict the spatial distribution of An. darlingi using 39 presence sites. The resulting model provided significantly high prediction performances (mean 10-fold cross-validated partial area under the curve and continuous Boyce index equal to, respectively, 1.11-with a level of omission error of 20%-and 0.42). The model also provided a habitat suitability map and environmental response curves in accordance with the known entomological situation. Several environmental characteristics that had a positive correlation with the presence of An. darlingi were highlighted: nonpermanent anthropogenic changes of the natural environment, the presence of roads and tracks, and opening of the forest. Some geomorphological landforms and high altitude landscapes appear to be unsuitable for An. darlingi. The species distribution modeling was able to reliably predict the distribution of suitable habitats for An. darlingi in French Guiana. Results allowed completion of the knowledge of the spatial distribution of the principal malaria vector in this Amazonian region, and identification of the main factors that favor its presence. They should contribute to the definition of a necessary targeted vector control strategy in a malaria pre-elimination stage, and allow extrapolation of the acquired knowledge to other Amazonian or malaria-endemic contexts. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Habitat use and diving behaviour of gravid olive ridley sea turtles under riverine conditions in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; Giraudou, Lucie; de Thoisy, Benoît; Bonola, Marc; Kelle, Laurent; Reis, Virginie Dos; Blanchard, Fabian; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2017-01-01

    The identification of the inter-nesting habitat used by gravid sea turtles has become a crucial factor in their protection. Their aggregation in large groups of individuals during the inter-nesting period exposes them to increased threats to their survival - particularly along the French Guiana shield, where intense legal and illegal fisheries occur. Among the three sea turtle species nesting in French Guiana, the olive ridley appears to have the most generalist diet, showing strong behavioural plasticity according to the environment encountered. The large amounts of sediments that are continuously discharged by the Amazon River create a very unusual habitat for olive ridleys, i.e. turbid waters with low salinity. This study assesses the behavioural adjustments of 20 adult female olive ridleys under such riverine conditions. Individuals were tracked by satellite from Remire-Montjoly rookery in French Guiana using tags that recorded the location and diving parameters of individuals, as well as the immediate environment of the turtles including the in situ temperature and salinity. Data concerning potential preys was provided via collection of epifauna by a trawler. Multiple behavioural shifts were observed in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. During the first half of the inter-nesting season, the turtles moved away from the nesting beach (21.9 ± 24.7 km), performing deeper (12.6 ± 7.4 m) and longer (29.7 ± 21.0 min) dives than during the second half of the period (7.4 ± 7.8 km, 10.4 ± 4.9 m and 25.9 ± 19.3 min). Olive ridleys remained in waters that were warm (range: 26-33 °C) and which fluctuated in terms of salinity (range: 19.5-36.4 psu), in a relatively small estuarine habitat covering 423 km2. If olive ridleys were foraging during this period, the potential preys that might be available were mostly crustaceans (43%) and fish (39%), as expected for the diet of this generalist species during this period. This study highlights the numerous

  13. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-11-16

    This revision of all 21 species of Argia known to occur within the Guiana Shield includes descriptions of new species, synonymies, keys to both sexes based primarily on morphology of caudal appendages and genital ligula in males and of the mesostigmal plates in females, diagnoses accompanied by illustrations and distribution maps for all species. Twelve new species are described: A. appendiculata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 18 ii 1985, P.J. & P.M. Spangler, R.A. Faitoute leg., in USNM), A. azurea (Holotype ♂: Guyana, Potaro-Siparuni Region, Kaieteur Ravine, about 5°10' N, 59°28' W, 11 iv 1912, J.M. Geddes leg., in UMMZ), A. cuneifera (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 20-24 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. & J.A. Louton leg., in USNM), A. deceptor (Holotype ♂: French Guiana, Cayenne Department, Régina Commune, Saut Athanase, 4°10'59" N, 52°20'6" W, 9 x 2001, L. Juillerat leg, in MHNN), A. donnellyi (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, small marsh and creek on plateau surface above Coñac River, 10 km E of El Paují; about 4°31' N, 61°31' W, 5 viii 1990, RWG leg., in CSCA), A. gemella (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Reserva Ducke, 26 km E Manaus (3°0'15'' S, 59°56'23'' W, 120 m), 2-4 ii 1979, O.S. Flint Jr. leg., in USNM), A. guyanica (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Camp IV, 0°58' N, 65°57' W, 15-18 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in USNM), A. joallynae (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, Canaima, palm marsh, 6°14'30" N, 62°50'53" W, 22-25 ix 1980, R.W. & J.A. Garrison. leg., in CSCA), A. loutoni (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Purus River, Nova Olinda, about 3°30' S, 57°56' W, 6 ii 1979, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in FSCA), A. meioura (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 2°55' S, 59°59' W, 26 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), A. palmata

  14. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corain Lopes, Paula Regina; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Bonal, Damien; Serça, Dominique; Burban, Benôit; Siebicke, Lukas; Emmons, Louisa; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variations in isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Paracou French Guiana (5o16´54´´N, 52o54´44´´W), during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at approximately 20 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively followed by a slight increase in middle April (still wet season) and a higher concentration later in mid-June. The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were deposited by wet or dry

  15. Flow seasonality and fish assemblage in a tropical river, French Guiana, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leonardo Tejerina-Garro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify the existence of a seasonal pattern of variation in the fish assemblages of a tropical river using taxonomic and functional descriptors. Fish were sampled using gillnets at two sites on the Comté River, a large-sized river 254.8 km long, flowing entirely through rainforest areas of French Guiana. Samplings were conducted every other month from August 1998 to July 2000. Four types of fish assemblage descriptors were used: the species descriptor (number of individual fish of each species in the sample; the family descriptor (number of individual fish of each family in the sample; the trophic descriptor (distribution of the fish biomass in each feeding guild and the specific maximum observed size - MOS (number of individual fish in each of four classes of MOS: 300 mm. Results point out that changes in the fish assemblage are related to water level oscillations. The role of migration seems to be weak and is limited to trophic displacements characteristic of few species. In the low-water season, characterized by weak water level oscillation, fish species and families belonging to piscivorous or aquatic invertivorous guilds were predominant, whereas in the high-water season the environment is submitted to strong variations caused by fast and large water level oscillations, and the fish assemblage was characterized by species or families with an opportunistic omnivorous diet.O objetivo deste estudo é verificar a existência de um padrão sazonal da variabilidade das assembleias de peixes de um rio tropical utilizando descritores taxonômicos e funcionais. Os peixes foram amostrados em duas estações localizadas ao longo dos 254,8 km do rio Comté, o qual drena regiões de floresta úmida da Guiana Francesa. As amostragens foram realizadas bimensalmente de agosto de 1998 a julho de 2000 utilizando-se redes de espera. Quatro tipos de descritores da assembleia de peixes foram utilizados: espécies (número de

  16. Weak Environmental Controls of Tropical Forest Canopy Height in the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youven Goulamoussène

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy height is a key variable in tropical forest functioning and for regional carbon inventories. We investigate the spatial structure of the canopy height of a tropical forest, its relationship with environmental physical covariates, and the implication for tropical forest height variation mapping. Making use of high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived Digital Canopy Model (DCM and environmental covariates from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM acquired over 30,000 ha of tropical forest in French Guiana, we first show that forest canopy height is spatially correlated up to 2500 m. Forest canopy height is significantly associated with environmental variables, but the degree of correlation varies strongly with pixel resolution. On the whole, bottomland forests generally have lower canopy heights than hillslope or hilltop forests. However, this global picture is very noisy at local scale likely because of the endogenous gap-phase forest dynamic processes. Forest canopy height has been predictively mapped across a pixel resolution going from 6 m to 384 m mimicking a low resolution case of 3 points·km − 2 . Results of canopy height mapping indicated that the error for spatial model with environment effects decrease from 8.7 m to 0.91 m, depending of the pixel resolution. Results suggest that, outside the calibration plots, the contribution of environment in shaping the global canopy height distribution is quite limited. This prevents accurate canopy height mapping based only on environmental information, and suggests that precise canopy height maps, for local management purposes, can only be obtained with direct LiDAR monitoring.

  17. Virome analysis of two sympatric bat species (Desmodus rotundus and Molossus molossus in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arielle Salmier

    Full Text Available Environmental disturbances in the Neotropics (e.g., deforestation, agriculture intensification, urbanization contribute to an increasing risk of cross-species transmission of microorganisms and to disease outbreaks due to changing ecosystems of reservoir hosts. Although Amazonia encompasses the greatest diversity of reservoir species, the outsized viral population diversity (virome has yet to be investigated. Here, through a metagenomic approach, we identified 10,991 viral sequences in the saliva and feces of two bat species, Desmodus rotundus (hematophagous, trapped in two different caves surrounded by primary lowland forest, and Molossus molossus (insectivorous, trapped in forest and urban habitats. These sequences are related to 51 viral families known to infect a wide range of hosts (i.e., bacteria, plants, insects and vertebrates. Most viruses detected reflected the diet of bat species, with a high proportion of plant and insect-related viral families for M. molossus and a high proportion of vertebrate-related viral families for D. rotundus, highlighting its influence in shaping the viral diversity of bats. Lastly, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships for five vertebrate-related viral families (Nairoviridae, Circoviridae, Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Papillomaviridae. The results showed highly supported clustering with other viral sequences of the same viral family hosted by other bat species, highlighting the potential association of viral diversity with the host's diet. These findings provide significant insight into viral bat diversity in French Guiana belonging to the Amazonian biome and emphasize that habitats and the host's dietary ecology may drive the viral diversity in the bat communities investigated.

  18. Maternal transfer of trace elements in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) of French Guiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirlet, Elodie [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Batiment 362, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: elodie.guirlet@u-psud.fr; Das, Krishna [Centre de recherche MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, B6, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)], E-mail: krishna.das@ulg.ac.be; Girondot, Marc [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Batiment 362, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Departement Evolution et Systematique, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 25 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: marc.girondot@u-psud.fr

    2008-07-30

    In sea turtles, parental investment is limited to the nutrients and energy invested in eggs that will support embryonic development. Leatherback females have the largest clutches with the biggest eggs of the sea turtles and the highest reproductive output in reptiles. The migration between foraging sites and nesting beaches also represents high energy expenditure. The toxicokinetic of pollutants in the tissues is thus expected to vary during those periods but there is a lack of information in reptiles. Concentrations of essential (Copper, Zinc, Selenium) and non-essentials elements (Cadmium, Lead, Mercury) were determined in blood (n = 78) and eggs (n = 76) of 46 free-ranging leatherback females collected in French Guiana. Maternal transfer to eggs and relationships between blood and eggs concentrations during the nesting season were investigated. All trace elements were detectable in both tissues. Levels of toxic metals were lower than essential elements likely due to the high pelagic nature of leatherbacks that seems to limit exposure to toxic elements. Significant relationships between blood and egg concentrations were observed for Se and Cd. Se could have an important role in embryonic development of leatherback turtles and Cd transfer could be linked to similar carrier proteins as Se. Finally, as multiple clutches were sampled from each female, trends in trace elements were investigated along the nesting season. No change was observed in eggs but changes were recorded in blood concentrations of Cu. Cu level decreased while blood Pb levels increased through the nesting season. The high demand on the body during the breeding season seems to affect blood Cu concentrations. Calcium requirement for egg production with concomitant Pb mobilization could explain the increase in blood Pb concentrations along the nesting season.

  19. Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Four Satellite Rainfall Estimates over French Guiana and North Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Ringard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite precipitation products are a means of estimating rainfall, particularly in areas that are sparsely equipped with rain gauges. The Guiana Shield is a region vulnerable to high water episodes. Flood risk is enhanced by the concentration of population living along the main rivers. A good understanding of the regional hydro-climatic regime, as well as an accurate estimation of precipitation is therefore of great importance. Unfortunately, there are very few rain gauges available in the region. The objective of the study is then to compare satellite rainfall estimation products in order to complement the information available in situ and to perform a regional analysis of four operational precipitation estimates, by partitioning the whole area under study into a homogeneous hydro-climatic region. In this study, four satellite products have been tested, TRMM TMPA (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis V7 (Version 7 and RT (real time, CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center (CPC MORPHing technique and PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely-Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network, for daily rain gauge data. Product performance is evaluated at daily and monthly scales based on various intensities and hydro-climatic regimes from 1 January 2001 to 30 December 2012 and using quantitative statistical criteria (coefficient correlation, bias, relative bias and root mean square error and quantitative error metrics (probability of detection for rainy days and for no-rain days and the false alarm ratio. Over the entire study period, all products underestimate precipitation. The results obtained in terms of the hydro-climate show that for areas with intense convective precipitation, TMPA V7 shows a better performance than other products, especially in the estimation of extreme precipitation events. In regions along the Amazon, the use of PERSIANN is better. Finally, in the driest areas, TMPA V7 and

  20. Q fever pneumonia in French Guiana: prevalence, risk factors, and prognostic score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Chesnais, Cédric; Boullé, Charlotte; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Raoult, Didier; Djossou, Félix; Mahamat, Aba

    2012-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the major manifestation of Q fever, an emerging disease in French Guiana. Consequently, the empirical antibiotherapy used for the treatment of CAP combines doxycycline and the recommended amoxicillin. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Q fever pneumonia and to build a prediction rule to identify patients with Q fever pneumonia for empirical antibiotic guidance. A retrospective case-control study was conducted on inpatients admitted with CAP in the Department of Infectious Diseases of Cayenne Hospital from 2004 to 2007. Serodiagnosis for Coxiella burnetii was performed for all patients. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression, and a prognostic score was computed using bootstrap procedures. The score performance characteristics were used to choose the best prediction rule to identify patients with Q fever pneumonia. One hundred thirty-one patients with CAP were included and the Q fever pneumonia prevalence was 24.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.1-31.9). In multivariate analysis, male sex, middle age (age, 30-60 years), headache, leukocyte count 185 mg/L were independently associated with Q fever pneumonia. Patients with a predictive score ≤3 had a low risk of Q fever pneumonia with a negative predictive value of 0.97 (95% CI, .90-1) and a sensitivity of 0.97 (95% CI, .89-1). The prediction rule described here accurately identifies patients with low risk of Q fever pneumonia and may help physicians to make more rational decisions about the empirical use of antibiotherapy. Further prospective studies should be performed to validate this score.

  1. Suicide risk among prisoners in French Guiana: prevalence and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Gülen; Arnal, Romain; Basurko, Célia; About, Vincent; Pastre, Agathe; Pinganaud, Eric; Sins, Dominique; Jehel, Louis; Falissard, Bruno; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-05-02

    Suicide rates in prison are high and their risk factors are incompletely understood. The objective of the present study is to measure the risk of suicide and its predictors in the only prison of multicultural French Guiana. All new prisoners arriving between September 2013 and December 2014 were included. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used and socio-demographic data was collected. In order to identify the predictors of suicide risk multivariate logistic regression was used. Of the 707 prisoners included 13.2% had a suicidal risk, 14.0% of whom had a high risk, 15.1% a moderate risk and 41.9% a low risk. Predictive factors were depression (OR 7.44, 95% CI: 3.50-15.87), dysthymia (OR 4.22, 95% CI: 1.34-13.36), panic disorder (OR 3.47, 95% CI: 1.33-8.99), general anxiety disorder (GAD) (OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.13-4.22), men having been abused during childhood (OR 21.01, 95%, CI: 3.26-135.48), having been sentenced for sexual assault (OR 7.12, 95% CI: 1.98-25.99) and smoking (OR 2.93, 95%, CI 1.30-6.63). The suicide risk was lower than in mainland France, possibly reflecting the differences in the social stigma attached to incarceration because of migrant populations and the importance and trivialization of drug trafficking among detainees. However, there were no differences between nationalities. The results reemphasize the importance of promptly identifying and treating psychiatric disorders, which were the main suicide risk factors.

  2. Larch sawfly in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.

    1992-01-01

    Summary of the history of infestations in British Columbia of the larch sawfly, first introduced into the province in 1930. Information is based on the Forest Insect and Diseases Survey records and data and preliminary observations on the impact of defoliation on growth of western larch. The report describes biology; history of outbreaks in western larch and tamarack; sampling, population assessments, and predictions; damage appraisal; and controls, including parasites, predators, and weather.

  3. Description of a new Lithoxus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the Guayana Highlands with a discussion of Guiana Shield biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan K. Lujan

    Full Text Available Lithoxus jantjae, new species, is described from above Tencua Falls in headwaters of the Ventuari River, a white- to clearwater river flowing west from the Maigualida and Parima mountains in the Guayana Highlands of southern Venezuela. Lithoxus jantjae represents a nearly 600 km westward range expansion for a genus historically known only from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and Brazil. Lithoxus jantjae shares with other species of Lithoxus a dorsoventrally depressed body and a large, papilose oral disk with small toothcups and few teeth. It can be distinguished from congeners by a unique combination of characters including 12 branched caudal-fin rays, medial premaxillary tooth cusps enlarged, and a convex posterior margin of the adipose-fin membrane. With the discovery of L. jantjae, Lithoxus becomes the most recent example of a growing list of rheophilic loricariid genera with disjunct distributions on east and west sides of the Guayana Highlands. A biogeographic hypothesis relying on the existence of a proto-Berbice River uniting the southern Guayana Highlands with rivers of the central Guiana Shield is advanced to partially explain the modern distribution of these species.

  4. A new Centromochlus Kner, 1858 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae from the transition between Amazon floodplain and Guiana shield, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Species of Centromochlus are widely distributed in South America, with records for major basins such as the Amazon and Orinoco, rivers draining the Guiana Shield such as the Essequibo, Courantyne (Corantijn, Coppename, Maroni, and Oyapock, and Brazilian Shield drainages as upper Paraná and São Francisco. In the last four years, three species of Centromochlus have been described, raising the total number of valid species to sixteen. The new species of Centromochlus described herein is diagnosed by having black ground color sharply delimited from a white underside by conspicuous wavy border. The new species is recorded from the Nhamundá, left bank tributary to the lower Amazon that drain from the Brazilian portion of the Guiana Shield. Although apparently similar to some Tatia species (e.g. Tatia musaica , T. carolae and T. melanoleuca , the new species possess two conditions of the Weberian apparatus otherwise observed only in Centromochlus heckelii and C. existimatus among centromochlin catfishes. The new Centromochlus comprises small catfishes with adults ranging from 48 to 57 mm SL.

  5. Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A. Courtois

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR to make robust estimations of the species’ density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of the pathogen fungal Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in two populations (Favard and Nouragues. Based on the CMR protocol, the densities of frogs was 8.43 individuals/100 m² at Favard, 4.28 individuals/100 m² at Nouragues and from 2.30 to 4.67 individuals/100 m² at Tresor (depending on the CMR model used; these data provide a baseline for population densities of D. tinctorius in French Guiana, against which future population estimates can be compared. We found that 25 encounter events may be sufficient for stable population estimates, if the captures are concentrated in time. Bd was detected at both sites (Favard 7/152; Nouragues 3/18.

  6. Loss of TSS1 in hypervirulent Coxiella burnetii 175, the causative agent of Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Felicetta; Eldin, Carole; Georgiades, Kalliopi; Edouard, Sophie; Delerce, Jeremy; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    In French Guiana, the unique Coxiella burnetii circulating genotype 17 causes 24% of community-acquired pneumonia, the highest prevalence ever described. To explain this unusual virulence, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain Cb175, which was isolated from a patient from French Guiana. Cb175 has a greater number of mutations in genes involved in metabolism compared with the Nine Mile I strain. We found a 6105bp fragment missing in Cb175, which corresponds to the Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) hlyCABD operon region. This deletion was detected by a specific qPCR in the 8 other strains available from this territory an in none of 298C.burnetii strains from other areas and other genotypes (8/8 vs 0/298, Fisher's exact test, p<0.0000001). Loss of genes implicated in secretion systems has been observed in other epidemic bacterial strains. Thus, the virulence of Cb175 may be linked to this genome reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coordinated feeding tactics of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo H. O. Tardin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Differences in distribution, prey species, season and social learning opportunities influence the feeding tactics used by marine mammals. Here, we analyze the coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864, Delphinidae and its relation to seasonality and the presence of calves. In a total of 201 feeding bouts, we observed four types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in mean number of engaged individuals. Tactics in which dolphins used their bodies to herd and capture prey were the most frequent, presenting a higher frequency and engaging a higher number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fishes which form larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the feeding behavior used by dolphins. During spring-summer, a longer duration of bouts and a larger number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics was observed, which may be related to the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish, such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactic occurrences. This study indicates a complete preference of dolphins for coordinating their actions to capture prey and for the first time reports the presence of calves in the coordinated tactics and jumps. This broadens the current knowledge of the Guiana dolphin feeding tactics.

  8. A new Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura: Hylidae) of the parviceps group from the lowlands of the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill; Ernst, Raffael; Blanc, Michel; Martinez, Quentin; Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Ouboter, Paul; Jairam, Rawien; Ron, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Many Amazonian frog species that are considered widely distributed may actually represent polyspecific complexes.. A minute tree frog from the Guiana Shield originally assigned to the allegedly widely distributed Dendropsophus brevifrons proved to be a yet undescribed species within the D. parviceps group. We herein describe this new species and present a phylogeny for the D. parviceps group. The new species is diagnosed from other Dendropsophus of the parviceps group by its small body size (19.6-21.7 mm in males, 22.1-24.5 mm in females), thighs dorsally dark grey with cream blotches without bright yellow patch, absence of dorsolateral and canthal stripe, and an advertisement call comprising trills (length 0.30-0.35 s) composed of notes emitted at a rate of 131-144 notes/s, generally followed by click series of 2-3 notes. Its tadpole is also singular by having fused lateral marginal papillae and absence of both labial teeth and submarginal papillae. Genetic distances (p-distance) are >5.3% on the 12S and >9.3% on the 16S from D. brevifrons, its closest relative. This species occurs from the Brazilian state of Amapá, across French Guiana and Suriname to central Guyana and is likely to also occur in adjacent Brazilian states and eastern Venezuela. This species is not rare but is difficult to collect because of its arboreal habits and seasonal activity peaks.

  9. Soil biogeochemical and fungal patterns across a precipitation gradient in the lowland tropical rainforests of French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Janssens, I.

    2016-12-01

    The Guyafor network contains over 12 pristine tropical rainforest long-term research sites throughout French Guiana, with a focus on vegetation and environmental monitoring at regular intervals. However, biogeochemical and belowground insights are needed to complete the picture of ecosystem functioning in these lowland tropical rainforests, which are critical to Earth's water and energy balance. Improving our biogeochemical understanding of these ecosystems is needed to improve Earth System Models, which poorly represent tropical systems. In July 2015 we sampled soils and litter from 12 of the Guyafor permanent plots in French Guiana spanning a mean annual precipitation gradient of over 2000 mm per year. We measured soil texture, pH, C, N and available P stocks in the top 30 cm, and fungal biodiversity using ITS DNA sequencing and characterized soil organic matter (SOM) C, N and P distribution among physically defined SOM fractions. We also measured litter layer standing stocks and CNP stoichiometry. We found significant stocks of SOM in the top 30 cm of the soil varying by a factor of 4 in the top 30 cm of soil with a negative correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil C and N with available P. Available P was also a strong predictor of fungal community composition. Furthermore there is evidence for precipitation and mineralogical influences on leaf litter and SOM dynamics highlighting the importance of heterogeneity in tropical soil substrates and sub-climates in better understanding the biogeochemistry of tropical ecosystems.

  10. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : VI. Resurrection of Hyla ornatissima Noble (Amphibia, Hylidae) and remarks on related species of green tree frogs from the Guiana area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper Hyla ornatissima Noble is removed from the synonymy of Hyla granosa Boulenger, and resurrected as a separate species on the basis of morphological, ecological and acoustical differences. Another relative of this group occurring in Guiana is Hyla sibleszi Rivero. Because of its

  11. On the presence of Bufo nasicus Werner in Guiana, with a redescription of the species on the basis of recently collected material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    During research on material recently collected in Guyana and in Venezuelan Guiana, several specimens of the rare toad Bufo nasicus Werner, thus far only known from the holotype without known origin, were discovered. On the basis of this material the species is redescribed and some notes on its

  12. The mailed catfish genus Lasiancistrus Regan, 1904, from French Guiana and Surinam, with descriptions of two new species (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitmans, W.R.B.; Nijssen, H.; Isbrücker, I.J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of recently collected material of the mailed catfish genus Lasiancistrus Regan, 1904, from French Guiana and Surinam revealed L. niger (Norman, 1926), and two new species: L. brevispinis and L. longispinis. The three species are described and figured. Lasiancistrus is compared with 13

  13. British Capital, Industry and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’?: The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, 1750-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Oostindie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent historiography has reconsidered the idea that the Dutch role in the early modern Atlantic was of little significance, particularly in comparison to the accomplishments of the Dutch East India Company (voc in Asia. Revisionist studies have emphasised that in spite of the limited and fragmented nature of the Dutch Atlantic ‘empire’, the Atlantic contribution to the Dutch economy was significant and possibly even greater than the voc’s share. Moreover, this scholarship stresses the vital role of Dutch Atlantic colonies (Curaçao and St Eustatius, (partly Jewish networks and individuals in connecting the various subempires of the Atlantic. While Oostindie subscribes to many of these conclusions, he argues against excessive revisionism. His analysis of the development of the lesser Dutch Guianas, adjacent to Suriname, is used as a counter-weight to this revisionist impulse. He demonstrates that the spectacular economic and demographic development of these colonies was due mainly to British and (British American involvement culminating in the eventual British takeover of ‘Guiana’.

  14. Teleoncology uptake in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Melissa; Barnett, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Telehealth enables the delivery of specialized health care to patients living in isolated and remote regions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the current uptake of teleoncology in mainland British Columbia. Patient appointment data was extracted from the Cancer Agency Information System (CAIS) for the 2009 calendar year. Three types of practitioners used teleoncology in 2009: Medical Oncologists, Genetic Counsellors and Medical Geneticists. In total, 712 telehealth encounters were conducted; Medical Oncologists conducted 595 encounters (83.6%), Genetic Counsellors conducted 112 encounters (15.7%) and Medical Geneticists conducted 5 encounters (0.7%). The most common oncology appointments were Gastro-Intestinal (11.4%) and Lymphoma (11.0%) follow-up appointments with a Medical Oncologist. Telehealth encounters were conducted by 46 individual health care providers however, a single Medical Oncologist conducted 418 encounters and this accounts for more than half (58.7%) of all telehealth appointments in 2009. Radiation Oncologists on the mainland up to this point are not using the technology. The Local Health Areas with the highest number of oncology telehealth appointments were: Kamloops: 203 encounters (34.1%), Penticton: 84 encounters (14.1%), Cranbrook: 58 encounters (9.7%) and the Southern Okanagan: 33 encounter (5.5%). Use of telehealth in rural and remote areas of BC is limited and there is significant room for growth. Further research will be required to identify barriers and restrictions to the use of telehealth in order to increase teleoncology adoption in British Columbia.

  15. Interpersonal perception in Japanese and British observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Tsuneo; Lee, Billy

    2004-01-01

    We compared performance of Japanese and British observers in deciphering images depicting Japanese interpersonal relationships. 201 Japanese and 215 British subjects were assessed by means of a test consisting of 31 photograph problems accompanied by two or three alternative solutions one of which was correct. Japanese subjects outperformed British subjects on the test overall (z = 3.981, p interpersonal relationships, but it may sometimes cause specific errors. Differences in the perceptual cues used suggest that British subjects had difficulty reading Japanese facial expressions.

  16. As vivid as a weed… Medicinal and cosmetic plant uses amongst the urban youth in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareau, Marc Alexandre; Palisse, Marianne; Odonne, Guillaume

    2017-05-05

    French Guiana is a French overseas territory with a rich history of migration that has led to a highly intercultural society. Today, its population is one of the youngest in the French territory and is rapidly increasing. Despite a context of cultural revival seeking "tradition", a distanced baseline of local practices is still lacking. This work addresses some aspects of the cultural hybridizations in progress in urban areas. Semi directed interviews were conducted with willing participants aged between 18 and 40. Interviews took place in French Guiana's two main urban centres: Cayenne and Saint Laurent du Maroni. People were interviewed about the last medicinal plant they used in the preceding year. Due to the high use of plant baths in French Guiana, a focus was made on baths. Eighty-three people answered: 43 women and 40 men (mean age of 28.7 years old). In total, 226 remedies were counted in our study, 155 single plant remedies and 71 compound remedies leading to 316 use reports of plants from 16 cultural groups. A surprising number of 108 botanical species were recorded. Eighty-one recipes for baths were also collected. Despite this high citation rate, a rather low proportion of people declare a systematic and regular recourse upon local pharmacopoeia (46%; 38/83). Although many interviewees used plants, far from the majority used them on a regular basis. In practice, 50% of the species (54/108 spp.; 99/316 URs) are non-native but domesticated exotic species, imported from Asia, Europe, Africa or remote parts of America, either during colonization, the slave trade era, or more recently with the latest migrations. Although phytotherapy use is often thought to be related to countryside dwellers and older people, medicinal plants seem to play an important role in the lives of urban French Guianese youth. Research shows a large diversity of medicinal species used linked with the great cultural diversity of the Guianese cities. One characteristic of this

  17. High prevalence and fixation of Plasmodium vivax dhfr/dhps mutations related to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnadas, Céline; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Tichit, Magali; Briolant, Sébastien; Fusai, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Bouchier, Christiane; Picot, Stéphane; Ménard, Didier

    2009-07-01

    Plasmodium vivax isolates from French Guiana were studied for the presence of mutations associated with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) drug resistance. Ninety-six blood samples were collected from 2000 to 2005 from symptomatic malaria patients. SP drug resistance was predicted by determining point mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pvdhps) genes. All samples showed mutant genotypes in both genes with a prevalence > 90% for the 58R, 117N, 382C, and 383G. A new mutation (116G) in pvdhfr was found at a frequency of 3.3%. Six different pvdhfr/dhps multilocus genotypes were observed with the predominance of the quintuple mutant-type 58R/117N/173L-382C/383G (59.3%). No significant differences were observed between the prevalence of haplotypes and the year of collection. Our results indicate that, in this area, the fixation of SP drug-resistant parasites in the P. vivax population is stable.

  18. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Bustillos, Oscar W.V., E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisa Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guenther, Alex B.; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Emmons, Louisa, E-mail: guenther@ucar.edu [Biosphere Atmosphere Interaction Group, Atmosphere Chemistry Division of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Siebicke, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.siebicke@ecofog.gf [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA-UMR EEF), Nancy (France); Serca, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.serca@aero.obs-mip.fr [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d' Aerologie

    2013-07-01

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  19. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  20. Relationship satisfaction among Turkish and British adults

    OpenAIRE

    Celenk, O.; Van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Goodwin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We tested three theories (adult attachment, autonomy/relatedness, and gender roles) to understand relationship satisfaction among 150 British and 170 Turkish adults, all involved in romantic relationships. Avoidance, relatedness, autonomy–relatedness, and masculinity mediated the relationship between culture and romantic relationship satisfaction. Additionally, as anticipated, Turkish participants scored lower on relationship satisfaction and autonomy whereas British participants scored lower...

  1. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  2. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  3. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  4. Canopy height estimation in French Guiana with LiDAR ICESat/GLAS data using principal component analysis and random forest regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Fayad; Nicolas Baghdadi; Jean-Stéphane Bailly; Nicolas Barbier; Valéry Gond; Mahmoud El Hajj; Frédéric Fabre; Bernard Bourgine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Estimating forest canopy height from large-footprint satellite LiDAR waveforms is challenging given the complex interaction between LiDAR waveforms, terrain, and vegetation, especially in dense tropical and equatorial forests. In this study, canopy height in French Guiana was estimated using multiple linear regression models and the Random Forest technique (RF). This analysis was either based on LiDAR waveform metrics extracted from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter...

  5. The influence of oceanographic features on the foraging behavior of the olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea along the Guiana coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; de Thoisy, Benoît; Heerah, Karine; Conchon, Anna; Barrioz, Sébastien; Dos Reis, Virginie; Berzins, Rachel; Kelle, Laurent; Picard, Baptiste; Roquet, Fabien; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2016-03-01

    The circulation in the Western Equatorial Atlantic is characterized by a highly dynamic mesoscale activity that shapes the Guiana continental shelf. Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) nesting in French Guiana cross this turbulent environment during their post-nesting migration. We studied how oceanographic and biological conditions drove the foraging behavior of 18 adult females, using satellite telemetry, remote sensing data (sea surface temperature, sea surface height, current velocity and euphotic depth), simulations of micronekton biomass (pelagic organisms) and in situ records (water temperature and salinity). The occurrence of foraging events throughout migration was located using Residence Time analysis, while an innovative proxy of the hunting time within a dive was used to identify and quantify foraging events during dives. Olive ridleys migrated northwestwards using the Guiana current and remained on the continental shelf at the edge of eddies formed by the North Brazil retroflection, an area characterized by low turbulence and high micronekton biomass. They performed mainly pelagic dives, hunting for an average 77% of their time. Hunting time within a dive increased with shallower euphotic depth and with lower water temperatures, and mean hunting depth increased with deeper thermocline. This is the first study to quantify foraging activity within dives in olive ridleys, and reveals the crucial role played by the thermocline on the foraging behavior of this carnivorous species. This study also provides novel and detailed data describing how turtles actively use oceanographic structures during post-nesting migration.

  6. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street Prince ...

  7. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  8. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  9. Politics, policy and government in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carty, R. Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    ... and Gerry Kristiansonvi Contents Part 3: Governing the Province 9 The Government of the Day: The Premier and Cabinet in British Columbia / 143 Terence Morley 10 Provincial Governance and the Pu...

  10. First record of a ballophilid centipede from French Guiana with a description of Ityphilus betschi sp. nov. (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ityphilus betschi sp. nov. from French Guiana, (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae is here described and illustrated on the basis of the male holotype and a non-type female specimen. The new species is characterized by having the internal edge of the forcipular tarsungulum partially serrate; ventral pore-fields present along the entire body length; and all pore-fields undivided. It is compared in detail with the other Neotropical members of the genus sharing these three combined traits, and having a roughly similar range of leg-bearing segments, i.e., I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 (from Brazil; I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (from Brazil; I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921 (from Guyana, Brazil, Trinidad; I. perrieri (Brölemann, 1909 (from Brazil; and I. saucius Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000 (from Brazil. Complementary notes for these latter species are also given. Undiluted 2-Phenoxyethanol (CAS No. 122-99-6 has been used as an effective clearing agent/mounting medium for the preparation of temporary mounts of all body parts of the examined specimens. The discovery of the new species here described represents the first record of the family Ballophilidae from French Guiana.Ityphilus betschi sp. nov. de Guayana Francesa, (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae se describe e ilustra sobre la base del holotipo macho y un ejemplar no tipo hembra. La nueva especie se caracteriza por tener el borde interno de la tarsungula forcipular parcialmente serrado; campos de poros ventrales presentes a lo largo de todo el cuerpo; y todos los campos de poros no divididos. Se compara en detalle con los demás miembros neotropicales del género que comparten estos tres caracteres combinados y que tienen un rango aproximadamente similar de segmentos pedales, i.e., I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 (de Brasil; I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (de Brasil; I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921 (de Guyana, Brasil

  11. Transactional sex among men who have sex with men in the French Antilles and French Guiana: frequency and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelschmidt, Justine; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gontier, Barbara; Cabié, André; Hoen, Bruno; Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    The French Antilles (Martinique, Saint Martin and Guadeloupe) and French Guiana are the French territories most affected by the HIV epidemic. Some population groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those involved in transactional sex, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to HIV but few data exist to help characterize their health-related needs and thus implement relevant prevention interventions. To fill this knowledge gap, we used data collected from an HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey conducted in 2012 among MSM living in the French Antilles and French Guiana and recruited through snowball sampling. Our objectives were to compare social and demographic characteristics and sexual behaviours between MSM engaging in transactional sex and MSM not engaging in transactional sex and to identify factors associated with transactional sex involvement using a logistic regression model. A total of 733 MSM were interviewed, 21% of whom reported to undergo transactional sex. Their behaviour and social and demographic characteristics were different from other MSMs' and they were more exposed to factors that are recognized to potentiate HIV vulnerability, at the individual, community, network and structural levels. The variables positively associated with sex trade involvement were having ever consumed drug (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .002), having a greater number of sex partners than the median (OR = 8.31 [4.84-14.30]; p < .001), having experienced intimate partner violence (OR = 1.72 [0.99-3.00]; p = .053) and having undergone physical aggression because of sexual orientation (OR = 2.84 [1.23-6.52]; p = .014). Variables negatively associated with sex trade involvement were being older (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.97] per year; p = .001), having a stable administrative situation (OR = 0.10 [0.06-0.19]; p < .001), having a stable housing (OR = 0.29 [0.15-0.55]; p < .001) and

  12. Rabies Risk: Difficulties Encountered during Management of Grouped Cases of Bat Bites in 2 Isolated Villages in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Berger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In French Guiana, from 1984 to 2011, 14 animal rabies cases and 1 human rabies case (2008 were diagnosed. In January 2011, vampire-bat attacks occurred in 2 isolated villages. In mid-January, a medical team from the Cayenne Centre for Anti-Rabies Treatment visited the sites to manage individuals potentially exposed to rabies and, in April, an anti-rabies vaccination campaign for dogs was conducted. Twenty individuals were bitten by bats in 1 month, most frequently on the feet. The median time to start management was 15 days. The complete Zagreb vaccination protocol (2 doses on day 0 and 1 dose on days 7 and 21 was administered to 16 patients, 12 also received specific immunoglobulins. The antibody titration was obtained for 12 patients (different from those who received immunoglobulins. The antibody titers were ≥0.5 EU/mL for all of them. The serology has not been implemented for the 12 patients who received immunoglobulins. Accidental destruction of a vampire-bat colony could be responsible for the attacks. The isolation and absence of sensitization of the populations were the main explanations for the management difficulties encountered. Sensitization programs should be conducted regularly.

  13. A new species of Amazophrynella (Anura:Bufonidae) from the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rommel R; De Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu; Gordo, Marcelo; Avila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas

    2014-01-03

    Amazophrynella is a genus of the family Bufonidae, currently represented by three species. The type species of the genus, Amazophrynella minuta, however, is a complex of species occurring throughout the Amazonian biome. This group remains problematic taxonomically; the difficulty lays principally in the lack of diagnostic characters in the original description of A. minuta, the lack of molecular data and refined taxonomic comparison of individuals through its wide distribution. We describe a new species of the genus Amazophrynella, distributed in the southwestern part of the Guiana Shield of Brazil based on a series of morphological and molecular characters. The new species differs from others of the genus by presenting a slightly truncated triangular snout, ventral texture covered by many fine granules, white belly covered with black spots and by fifteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S rDNA fragment. Uncorrected p-distances of a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rDNA gene revealed high divergence among other Amazophrynella species (9%-14%). Additionally we provide a new diagnosis of topotypic material of Amazophrynella minuta including molecular data. Our results show the existence of a subestimated diversity in the genus Amazophrynella. 

  14. Parental care behavior in the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in Ilha Grande Bay, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo H. O. Tardin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parental care is any form of parental behavior that increases offspring fitness. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the intensity of parental care in the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1 to quantify the degree of parental care in S. guianensis in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro; 2 to investigate the influence of behavioral state and group size on the degree of parental care; and 3 to evaluate the differences between the intensity of parental care provided to calves and juveniles. Our results indicate that the intensity of parental care is high in S. guianensis and that care is more intense in larger groups. It is possible that these differences serve to maximize hydrodynamic gains and to minimize risks. Our results suggest that parental care is more intense during travel. A possible reason for this greater intensity is that the feeding dynamics show a more random pattern than other behavioral states. Moreover, the results indicate that calves receive more intense care than juveniles. These results suggest that parent-offspring conflict is possible in the study population.

  15. Rabies Risk: Difficulties Encountered during Management of Grouped Cases of Bat Bites in 2 Isolated Villages in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Franck; Desplanches, Noëlle; Baillargeaux, Sylvie; Joubert, Michel; Miller, Manuelle; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Spiegel, André; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    In French Guiana, from 1984 to 2011, 14 animal rabies cases and 1 human rabies case (2008) were diagnosed. In January 2011, vampire-bat attacks occurred in 2 isolated villages. In mid-January, a medical team from the Cayenne Centre for Anti-Rabies Treatment visited the sites to manage individuals potentially exposed to rabies and, in April, an anti-rabies vaccination campaign for dogs was conducted. Twenty individuals were bitten by bats in 1 month, most frequently on the feet. The median time to start management was 15 days. The complete Zagreb vaccination protocol (2 doses on day 0 and 1 dose on days 7 and 21) was administered to 16 patients, 12 also received specific immunoglobulins. The antibody titration was obtained for 12 patients (different from those who received immunoglobulins). The antibody titers were ≥0.5 EU/mL for all of them. The serology has not been implemented for the 12 patients who received immunoglobulins. Accidental destruction of a vampire-bat colony could be responsible for the attacks. The isolation and absence of sensitization of the populations were the main explanations for the management difficulties encountered. Sensitization programs should be conducted regularly.

  16. Anopheles fauna of coastal Cayenne, French Guiana: modelling and mapping of species presence using remotely sensed land cover data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adde, Antoine; Dusfour, Isabelle; Roux, Emmanuel; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the Anopheles species of the coastal areas of French Guiana, or their spatiotemporal distribution or environmental determinants. The present study aimed to (1) document the distribution of Anopheles fauna in the coastal area around Cayenne, and (2) investigate the use of remotely sensed land cover data as proxies of Anopheles presence. To characterise the Anopheles fauna, we combined the findings of two entomological surveys that were conducted during the period 2007-2009 and in 2014 at 37 sites. Satellite imagery data were processed to extract land cover variables potentially related to Anopheles ecology. Based on these data, a methodology was formed to estimate a statistical predictive model of the spatial-seasonal variations in the presence of Anopheles in the Cayenne region. Two Anopheles species, known as main malaria vectors in South America, were identified, including the more dominant An. aquasalis near town and rural sites, and An. darlingi only found in inland sites. Furthermore, a cross-validated model of An. aquasalis presence that integrated marsh and forest surface area was extrapolated to generate predictive maps. The present study supports the use of satellite imagery by health authorities for the surveillance of malaria vectors and planning of control strategies.

  17. British Teachers' Transnational Work within and beyond the British Empire after the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on British graduates from Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) in London, this article illustrates transnational history's concerns with the reciprocal flows of people and ideas within and beyond the British Empire. GHTC's progressive curriculum and culture positioned women teachers as agents of change, and the article highlights the lives…

  18. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  19. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  20. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory.......Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...

  1. A critical history of British earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in th...

  2. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesipov Mikhail Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students. The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.

  3. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  4. Cryptic diversity in Amazonian frogs: Integrative taxonomy of the genus Anomaloglossus (Amphibia: Anura: Aromobatidae) reveals a unique case of diversification within the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Kok, Philippe J R; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lorenzini, Andy; Martinez, Quentin; Fallet, Manon; Courtois, Elodie A; Blanc, Michel; Gaucher, Philippe; Dewynter, Maël; Jairam, Rawien; Ouboter, Paul; Thébaud, Christophe; Fouquet, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    Lack of resolution on species boundaries and distribution can hamper inferences in many fields of biology, notably biogeography and conservation biology. This is particularly true in megadiverse and under-surveyed regions such as Amazonia, where species richness remains vastly underestimated. Integrative approaches using a combination of phenotypic and molecular evidence have proved extremely successful in reducing knowledge gaps in species boundaries, especially in animal groups displaying high levels of cryptic diversity like amphibians. Here we combine molecular data (mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear TYR, POMC, and RAG1) from 522 specimens of Anomaloglossus, a frog genus endemic to the Guiana Shield, including 16 of the 26 nominal species, with morphometrics, bioacoustics, tadpole development mode, and habitat use to evaluate species delineation in two lowlands species groups. Molecular data reveal the existence of 18 major mtDNA lineages among which only six correspond to described species. Combined with other lines of evidence, we confirm the existence of at least 12 Anomaloglossus species in the Guiana Shield lowlands. Anomaloglossus appears to be the only amphibian genus to have largely diversified within the eastern part of the Guiana Shield. Our results also reveal strikingly different phenotypic evolution among lineages. Within the A. degranvillei group, one subclade displays acoustic and morphological conservatism, while the second subclade displays less molecular divergence but clear phenotypic divergence. In the A. stepheni species group, a complex evolutionary diversification in tadpole development is observed, notably with two closely related lineages each displaying exotrophic and endotrophic tadpoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Palikur Potters: an ethnoarchaeological case study on the Palikur pottery tradition in French-Guiana and Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn van den Bel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnographic fieldwork (1994-1998 by the author among the Palikur of French-Guiana and Amapá State, in Brazil, provided a description of the actual state of their pottery tradition. It shows how the last Palikur potters manufacture ceramics and how they decorate their pottery. The Palikur decoration motifs reflect the organisation of Palikur society which is embedded in their oral tradition. They play an important role during public (ritual events such as marriage, initiation and death. This information can be used as a tool for archaeologists to gain a better understanding of pre-Columbian ceramic complexes.

  6. The Palikur Potters: an ethnoarchaeological case study on the Palikur pottery tradition in French-Guiana and Amapá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn van den Bel

    Full Text Available Ethnographic fieldwork (1994-1998 by the author among the Palikur of French-Guiana and Amapá State, in Brazil, provided a description of the actual state of their pottery tradition. It shows how the last Palikur potters manufacture ceramics and how they decorate their pottery. The Palikur decoration motifs reflect the organisation of Palikur society which is embedded in their oral tradition. They play an important role during public (ritual events such as marriage, initiation and death. This information can be used as a tool for archaeologists to gain a better understanding of pre- Columbian ceramic complexes.

  7. Palynological reconstruction of the rain forest in French Guiana during the past 3000 years; Reconstitution palynologique de la foret guyanaise au cours des 3000 dernieres annees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledru, M.P.; Fournier, M.; Martin, L. [ORSTOM, 93 - Bondy (France); Charles-Dominique, P.; Riera, B. [Laboratoire d`ecologie generale, URA, CNRS, 91 - Brunoy (France); Tardy, Ch. [Laboratoire de paleobotanique, URA, CNRS, Institut de botanique 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1997-03-01

    Pollen analysis has been carried out on a core drilled in a peaty palm swamp forest in the rain forest of French Guiana. This has brought new data on the variations of the forest cover during the past 3000 years. Momentary peaks of the pioneer species Cecropia frequency give evidence of two phases of relatively open vegetation: on between 2124 - 1679 and 1525 - 1375 calibrated years B.P. and another shorter one around 658-424 yrs B.P. cal. The first one appears to be due to the combined incidence of a dry climatic period and of forest fires of human origins. (authors). 13 refs.

  8. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  9. Unraveling the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Leishmania RNA virus 1 strains of infected Leishmania isolates circulating in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirera, Sourakhata; Ginouves, Marine; Donato, Damien; Caballero, Ignacio S; Bouchier, Christiane; Lavergne, Anne; Bourreau, Eliane; Mosnier, Emilie; Vantilcke, Vincent; Couppié, Pierre; Prevot, Ghislaine; Lacoste, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) is an endosymbiont of some Leishmania (Vianna) species in South America. Presence of LRV1 in parasites exacerbates disease severity in animal models and humans, related to a disproportioned innate immune response, and is correlated with drug treatment failures in humans. Although the virus was identified decades ago, its genomic diversity has been overlooked until now. We subjected LRV1 strains from 19 L. (V.) guyanensis and one L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from cutaneous leishmaniasis samples identified throughout French Guiana with next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly. We generated and analyzed 24 unique LRV1 sequences over their full-length coding regions. Multiple alignment of these new sequences revealed variability (0.5%-23.5%) across the entire sequence except for highly conserved motifs within the 5' untranslated region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viral genomes of L. (V.) guyanensis grouped into five distinct clusters. They further showed a species-dependent clustering between viral genomes of L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, confirming a long-term co-evolutionary history. Noteworthy, we identified cases of multiple LRV1 infections in three of the 20 Leishmania isolates. Here, we present the first-ever estimate of LRV1 genomic diversity that exists in Leishmania (V.) guyanensis parasites. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of these viruses has shed light on their evolutionary relationships. To our knowledge, this study is also the first to report cases of multiple LRV1 infections in some parasites. Finally, this work has made it possible to develop molecular tools for adequate identification and genotyping of LRV1 strains for diagnostic purposes. Given the suspected worsening role of LRV1 infection in the pathogenesis of human leishmaniasis, these data have a major impact from a clinical viewpoint and for the management of Leishmania-infected patients.

  10. Unraveling the genetic diversity and phylogeny of Leishmania RNA virus 1 strains of infected Leishmania isolates circulating in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourakhata Tirera

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1 is an endosymbiont of some Leishmania (Vianna species in South America. Presence of LRV1 in parasites exacerbates disease severity in animal models and humans, related to a disproportioned innate immune response, and is correlated with drug treatment failures in humans. Although the virus was identified decades ago, its genomic diversity has been overlooked until now.We subjected LRV1 strains from 19 L. (V. guyanensis and one L. (V. braziliensis isolates obtained from cutaneous leishmaniasis samples identified throughout French Guiana with next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly. We generated and analyzed 24 unique LRV1 sequences over their full-length coding regions. Multiple alignment of these new sequences revealed variability (0.5%-23.5% across the entire sequence except for highly conserved motifs within the 5' untranslated region. Phylogenetic analyses showed that viral genomes of L. (V. guyanensis grouped into five distinct clusters. They further showed a species-dependent clustering between viral genomes of L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. braziliensis, confirming a long-term co-evolutionary history. Noteworthy, we identified cases of multiple LRV1 infections in three of the 20 Leishmania isolates.Here, we present the first-ever estimate of LRV1 genomic diversity that exists in Leishmania (V. guyanensis parasites. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analyses of these viruses has shed light on their evolutionary relationships. To our knowledge, this study is also the first to report cases of multiple LRV1 infections in some parasites. Finally, this work has made it possible to develop molecular tools for adequate identification and genotyping of LRV1 strains for diagnostic purposes. Given the suspected worsening role of LRV1 infection in the pathogenesis of human leishmaniasis, these data have a major impact from a clinical viewpoint and for the management of Leishmania

  11. Coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in southeastern Brazil: a comparison between populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. da S. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated feeding tactics used by delphinids are influenced by differences in the distribution of prey species, season, and opportunities for social learning. In the present study, we compared the coordinated feeding behavior of two populations of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in southeastern Brazil, and how these feeding tactics vary seasonality and in the presence of calves. We observed eight types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in the mean number of individuals engaged in them, and between both areas. Feeding tactics used to herd and capture prey were the most frequent and engaged a greater number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fish that gather in larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the occurrence of different prey items, which in turn modified the feeding tactics of the dolphins. In the Ilha Grande Bay we observed that bouts lasted longer and larger groups engaged in the feeding tactics, which may be associated with the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae. However, in the Sepetiba Bay, we observed longer feeding bouts and a smaller number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics during autumn-winter. This may be associated with the fact that the most abundant prey species, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, gathers in small schools. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactics that occurred in the Ilha Grande Bay and in approximately 61% of feeding tactics in the Sepetiba Bay, suggesting that these areas are important for social learning. This study provides more information about feeding tactics and improves knowledge of the coordinated behavior of Sotalia guianensis (Van Benéden, 1864.

  12. First report of a family outbreak of Chagas disease in French Guiana and posttreatment follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Denis; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Simon, Stéphane; Véron, Vincent; Mayence, Claire; Demar-Pierre, Magalie; Djossou, Félix; Aznar, Christine

    2014-12-01

    The outbreak of acute Chagas disease due to oral transmission of the parasite is a well-known phenomenon mainly occurring in the Amazon. Such an event is described here for the first time in French Guiana. Eight patients of the same family, presenting epidemiological and clinical histories compatible with recent Trypanosoma cruzi infection of Chagas disease due to the ingestion of palm Oenocarpus bacaba juice were, rather late after the putative date of infection, underwent four parasitological and two serological specific tests for confirmation of the diagnosis. Real-time PCR results were positive for all the patients; strains were isolated by hemoculture from four patients, PCR identification of TcI DTU was made for six patients, while parasites were not detected in any of the patients by direct microscopic examination. The results of two serologic tests were positive. All patients were treated with benznidazole, and two patients were additionally given nifurtimox. A 6-year follow-up was possible for six patients. Real-time PCR was negative for these patients after 1 year, while the antibody rates decreased slowly and serology results were negative only after several years (1-5 years). Our findings confirm the occurrence of an outbreak of Chagas infection in members of the same family, with the oral mode of infection being the most likely hypothesis to explain this group of cases. Our results show the successful treatment of patients infected by TcI and the usefulness of real-time PCR for the emergency diagnosis of recent Chagas disease cases and in posttreatment follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. British Higher Education and Its Older Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Alan; Wilson, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Using results from a survey of British graduates, examined outcomes of higher education for older students, including their current employment situation, relationship of degree to job, and student satisfaction. Found that mature students are an extremely heterogeneous group, with differences in outcomes by age and mode of study. (EV)

  14. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  15. British Technology Education. An American View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the British Craft, Design and Technology (CDT) curriculum, which is comparable to American technology education. According to the author, CDT is characterized by creative thinking and experimentation. He states, however, that little national coordination or cooperation is evident. (CH)

  16. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  17. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  18. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  19. British scorched earth and concentration camp policies.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nick

    THE BRITISH SCORCHED EARTH AND. CONCENTRATION CAMP POLICIES IN THE. POTCHEFSTROOM REGION, 1899–1902. 1. Prof GN van den Bergh. Research Associate, North-West University. Abstract. The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of. Bloemfontein and Pretoria and ...

  20. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  1. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  2. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    development or production. To Kennedy and MacNamara , the decision to cancel the SKYBOLT program in 1962 was only a measure to improve the cost...Kennedy- MacNamara decision to cancel SKYBOLT. Kennedy suc- cessfully solved the British dilemma by offering to sell them the American POLARIS submarine

  3. Demand for wildlife hunting in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present estimates of the demand for hunting licenses by residents and nonresidents in British Columbia for the period 19712000. We obtain estimates of both short-run and long-run price elasticities and discuss their revenue implications for future fee increases. We find the demand by nonresidents

  4. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  5. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  6. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.

    2011-01-01

    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth

  7. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  8. ARCTIC VECTOR OF BRITISH ENERGETIC STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Valerievna Eremina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the forms, methods, content of British strategy in Arctic. Arctic is becoming the area of international cooperation among, first of all, Arctic states. Britain has ambitions to get the status of so-called “subarctic state” to prove its international leadership and acquire guarantees of energetic security. Now Britain has been elaborating the two strategies: military and scientific ones. The main instrument to solve the tasks for Britain is to participate in international structures, connected with Arctic. The article pays attention to the aspects that were not previously analyzed, such as: reasons of British interests in Arctic, bilateral and multilateral relationships between Britain and its partners, first of all, cooperation between Russia and Britain; British institutions; positive and negative aspects of British Arctic strategy; factors that have impact on its evolution, mainly EU and Scottish factors. The research allowed to make the conclusion that Britain does not have enough instruments to have a strong disposition in Arctic, though it plans to accelerate its participation in Arctic organizations. The article is based upon system and structural analysis.

  9. subordination across ghanaian and british newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical research in this area is scanty, though this theoretical argumentation is not without contention, especially cross-culturally. Empirical investigation is therefore ... Frimpong: Subordination Across Ghanaian and British Newspaper Editorials: A Register. Perspective. 78. Figure 1: The Components in a register analysis.

  10. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    OpenAIRE

    McClelland, A.; S. Khanam; Furnham, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...

  11. A BRITISH TOUCH ON TANZIMAT: ARCHITECT WILLIAM JAMES SMITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma İgüs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the life and works of British architect William James Smith and outlines his contributions to nineteenth century Ottoman architecture and presents his prominence as an architectural historian of nineteenth century British architectural work.

  12. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group). Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work...

  13. Comparison between one and two injections of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg in each injection, in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, M; Nacher, M; Frémont, G; Rotureau, B; Clyti, E; Sainte-Marie, D; Carme, B; Pradinaud, R; Couppié, P

    2006-06-01

    In a retrospective study set in French Guiana, the efficacy and tolerance of the intramuscular treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with a single injection of pentamidine isethionate, at 7 mg/kg, were compared with those observed, earlier, using two such injections (given 48 h apart). Although 83.6% of the 281 patients given two injections each were cured, the single-injection protocol was generally as effective, curing 78.8% of 137 patients. The single-injection protocol was also associated with fewer adverse effects than the two-injection. In the treatment of "difficult" cases (those with satellite papules or relatively high numbers of amastigotes in their lesions), however, the two-injection protocol appeared significantly more effective than the single-injection. In French Guiana, therefore, patients with CL should be given one injection with pentamidine isethionate and only be given a second, 48 h later, if they have satellite papules and/or relatively high numbers of amastigotes in their lesions.

  14. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  15. The use of structural equation modelling and behavioural theory to target priority interventions to increase condom use among the intimate partners of sex workers in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Adriouch, Leila; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-12-01

    French Guiana is the French overseas territory that is most affected by HIV. Sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. Although female sex workers are informed by local NGOs, they still have risky behaviours, including not using condoms with their intimate partner despite knowing HIV is highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to find intervention targets on this specific behaviour. For this, a structural equation model (SEM) was built using assumptions from behavioural theories. Behaviour theories attempt to connect research and practice. Within the health belief model framework, perceived threats, perceived benefits, and self-perceived efficacy were tested. Vulnerability was added because of the particular context of French Guiana. The results highlight that female sex workers' perceived self-efficacy was central in condom use with the intimate partner (with a significant correlation coefficient of 0.52 in the SEM). The perceived self-efficacy was strongly influenced by sociodemographic factors, particularly by nationality. Female sex workers from Brazil seemed to be more comfortable about asking their intimate partner to use condoms (OR: 7.81; CI: 1.87-32.63) than sex workers of other nationalities. These results emphasize that prevention interventions for female sex workers should emphasize their empowerment.

  16. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  18. The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South African constabulary, 1900-1902. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... to the colonies but sought guidance from existing institutions throughout the British Isles and Empire in a single 'British-Imperial' model of administration.

  19. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  20. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series... instructions of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JM7862, Revision 1, dated...

  1. the relationship between british war correspondents in the field

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo

    on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal ... press corps in the field and British Military Intelligence, especially in the initial and formal part of the Anglo-Boer ..... recognised and acknowledged the Value and Power of the Press by establishing a Newspaper as ...

  2. Negative connotations in speech behaviour of the british and american men and women (british and american drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е М Люльчева

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of special linguistic means in the British and American men and women speech is researched in this article. Various linguistic means are typical of the British and American men and women negative emotional speech.

  3. Impacts of human activity and climate on the hydrology and ecosystem services of forests in the Guianas on the northern rim of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, G.; Wagner, T.; Bovolo, I.; Pereira, R.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical deforestation is one of the main areas of international concern in relation to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and feedbacks between land cover and climate. The Guiana Shield region, including the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana), contains one of the largest remaining continuous areas of tropical forest on the Earth, and is therefore of international importance for climate stability. Its importance to the regional climate of South America is also potentially significant, as a possible conduit for vapour transport between the Caribbean and the continental interior. However, recent studies have confirmed the paucity of reliable hydrometeorological data in the forested interior in the Guianas that could help to improve understanding of these macro-scale links as well as the more local impacts of forest activities. A new hydrological monitoring programme has been established at the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development in the interior of Guyana to provide evidence related to the impacts of forest activities and climate on ecosystem services provided by the forest. These services include water, carbon and nutrient cycling that are essential for maintaining biodiversity and other indicators necessary for long-term sustainability of the forest environment. The Iwokrama Centre aims to test the concept of a truly sustainable forest where conservation, environmental balance and economic use are mutually reinforcing. Iwokrama is uniquely placed for this research, in that it has integral involvement of the indigenous forest communities, and is geographically situated at a transition between mature intact forest and a savannah region that is likely to be sensitive to climate change, and on a larger scale at a transition between distinctive climate types in the coastal region of the Guianas influenced by the Equatorial Trough and the Amazonian interior which experiences a more continental type climate. The

  4. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W. [British Columbia Ministry of Finance, Victoria, BC (Canada). Land Use Coordination Office

    1998-12-31

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province.

  5. Russian-British Symposium on Quantum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadkov, V. N.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Naumov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    In the year 2017, declared 'The Year of Science and Education', the Russian Federation (RF) and the United Kingdom (UK) implemented the Promotion of UK-RF Joint Research in the Field of Quantum Technologies Project. In the framework of this project, Russian scientists from various scientific and science educational institutions in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhnii Novgorod and St. Petersburg and their British colleagues from scientific centres in London, Birmingham and Glasgow exchanged visits.

  6. Metaphor and creativity in British magazine advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Carita

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a cognitive linguistic study of the various ways in which conceptual metaphor and related cognitive processes are exploited for creative purposes in advertising texts and accompanying images. The material consists of advertisements collected from British magazines between the years 1996 and 2002, and is classified into four main categories according to how the metaphorical content is signalled in the advertisement. These categories include polysemous words, idiomatic expression...

  7. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    must create a vision, devise a strategy, and implement it. They require buy -in from the wider Army but this support is not guaranteed. Indeed, many...investigate. However, there is a compulsion element to any change in the British Army. Orders are orders after all. How much room there is to...support for change evident throughout? Whether Senior Leaders had any power to influence change is important due to the compulsion aspect of the

  8. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  9. What drives inter-annual variations in C flux and balance in a tropical rainforest of French Guiana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilos, Maricar; Herault, Bruno; Burban, Benoit; Wagner, Fabien; Bonal, Damien

    2017-04-01

    Amazon rainforests, a major contributor to the global carbon sink, is not on steady state and information about the long-term impact of climate change on carbon fluxes between this ecosystem and the atmosphere and the resulting balance is lacking. A thorough understanding of the forest responses to climate is indeed important to improve ecosystem process models and to reduce uncertainties in the contemporary carbon balance calculations for tropical forests. To address these issues, we examined the interannual variations in gross primary photosynthesis (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a tropical rainforest in French Guiana and identified key climatic drivers influencing such changes across a 12-year long period (2004 - 2015). The study period was characterized by strong differences in climate conditions, particularly in the intensity of the long dry and the long wet seasons. Fluctuations in annual average GPP vary from 9.27 ± 1.68 g C m?2 d?1 to 11.13 ± 2.21 g C m?2 d?1. RE is more varied than GPP having a difference of 2.53 C m?2 d?1 between the minimum (8.28 ± 0.85 g C m?2 d?1) and maximum (10.80 ± 1.67 g C m?2 d?1). GPP was always higher than RE annually and the forest remained a carbon sink in an annual basis although NEE has huge interannual variability, from -0.18 ± 1.64 g C m?2 d?1 to -1.62 ± 1.65 g C m?2 d?1. Annually, the combination of global radiation (Rg), relative extractable water (REW) and soil temperature (Ts) explained 51% of the variations of GPP, 30% for RE, and 39% for NEE, but global radiation was always the best predictor variable. Seasonally, Rg was the major controlling factor for GPP (r2 = 0.58; P area index, tree growth or litterfall did not contribute much to explain these variations. This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration the main drivers of C fluxes and balance for each seasonal type when integrating them in land atmosphere models. Detailed mechanisms on the impact of

  10. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  11. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  12. Health support for the Raid of the Seven Stones : in the footsteps of Navy physician Jules Crevaux in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, N; Boudsocq, J-P

    2017-06-01

    In the summer of 2015, soldiers of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment and civilian scientists mounted a joint expedition on foot to reconnoiter and better define the southern frontier of French Guiana with Brazil. Three doctor-nurse pairs worked in relay to provide medical support for this unprecedented 42-day, 320-km journey through a hostile and isolated environment, a mission whose success was made possible by large-scale logistic and technical prowess. The army health department, using knowledge gained from previous large-scale missions and expeditions and from its staff's local experience, provided its technical support for personnel selection, organization of the health logistics, and field support. This article describes the difficulties encountered from a medical perspective, the diseases encountered, and the final assessments of the personnel who completed this expedition.

  13. Guiana francesa, um território europeu e caribenho em via de “sul-americanização” ?

    OpenAIRE

    Ganger, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Um dos efeitos do fenômeno de globalização que afeta atualmente o mundo é ele que pode condenar, a curto ou longo prazo, os países isolados e afastados dos grandes eixos de intercâmbios econômicos, provocando assim recomposições territoriais como as integrações continentais, do tipo ALCAN, União Européia ou Mercosul.Um caso interessante é o da Guiana francesa, território francês – e portanto parte da União européia- encravado na América do sul, entre países com os quais sempre teve poucos laç...

  14. Guiana francesa, um território europeu e caribenho em via de “sul-americanização” ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Ganger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos efeitos do fenômeno de globalização que afeta atualmente o mundo é ele que pode condenar, a curto ou longo prazo, os países isolados e afastados dos grandes eixos de intercâmbios econômicos, provocando assim recomposições territoriais como as integrações continentais, do tipo ALCAN, União Européia ou Mercosul.Um caso interessante é o da Guiana francesa, território francês – e portanto parte da União européia- encravado na América do sul, entre países com os quais sempre teve poucos laç...

  15. The large impact of gold-mining in total-Hg content in sediment of the dam lake of Petit Saut (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélières, M.-A.; Pourchet, M.; Spadini, L.; Chalet, L.

    2003-05-01

    Gold-mining is a major source of Hg pollution, especially in the tropical rain forest of South America. This pollution has been shown to strongly increase the local natural background. Does this pollution ex tend far beyond the local areas? Here we present results concerning sediments cored in the large dam lake of Petit-Saut in French Guiana. This dam lake, created in 1994, collects waters from a large catchment area where gold-mining activity has been developing since the last century. and still is. Sediment depth profiles in ^{210}Pb and in total-Hg revealed a high Hg content in the last 4 years. This can only result from anthropogenic activities, which could be due either to propagation of sediments from gold mining sites, or chemical processes acting in recently flooded soils (both processes being related to the dam creation).

  16. Investigation of a Sudden Malaria Outbreak in the Isolated Amazonian Village of Saül, French Guiana, January–April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Franck; Flamand, Claude; Musset, Lise; Djossou, Félix; Rosine, Jacques; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Dusfour, Isabelle; Legrand, Eric; Ardillon, Vanessa; Rabarison, Patrick; Grenier, Claire; Girod, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in French Guiana. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant species responsible and Anopheles darlingi is described as the major vector. In mid-August 2008, an increase in malaria incidence was observed in Saül. A retrospective cohort survey was performed. In vitro susceptibility profiles to antimalarials were determined on P. falciparum isolates. Collections of mosquitoes were organized. The malaria attack rate reached 70.6/100. The risk of malaria increased for people between 40 and 49 years of age, living in a house not subjected to a recent indoor residual insecticide spraying or staying overnight in the surrounding forest. All isolates were susceptible. Anopheles darlingi females and larvae were collected in the village suggesting a local transmission. Our results strongly support a role of illegal mining activities in the emergence of new foci of malaria. Therefore, public health authorities should define policies to fight malaria at a transborder level. PMID:22492141

  17. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p seabird species (chi2 = 5.78; d.f.=3, p = 0.1223). In the CE, feeding associations were significantly more frequent in inner waters (subset A0; chi2 = 9.52; d.f. = 2, p seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird abundance and distribution, cetacean group size, and the life cycle of prey and seabirds are listed as the main factors addressing multi-species feeding associations in the Lagamar estuary.

  18. Cryptic diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the description of a new species from the eastern Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Zeidler, Lauren; Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-02-24

    We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2-3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11-1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species' range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade.

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Vector-Borne Disease Prevention during the Emergence of a New Arbovirus: Implications for the Control of Chikungunya Virus in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Camille; Raude, Jocelyn; Adde, Antoine; Dusfour, Isabelle; Quenel, Philippe; Flamand, Claude

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%), "moderate" (42%) and "high" (28%)". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease. This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.

  20. The British Monarchy. On the Teaching of British Affairs at College and School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Doherty, Julian

    1974-01-01

    Deals with "area study" aspects of the teaching of English in schools and colleges. Using as an example the British monarchy, it is shown how "area study" elements are handled in schoolbooks in use today. Suggestions relating to the subject are also offered. (IFS/WGA)

  1. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.

    2009-04-01

    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  2. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  3. Suicide reporting within British newspapers' arts coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Stevenson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Many suicide prevention strategies promote media guidelines on suicide reporting, given evidence that irresponsible reporting of suicide can influence imitative suicidal behavior. Due to limited resources, monitoring of guideline adherence has tended to focus on news outputs, with a risk of neglecting other journalistic content. To determine whether British newspapers' arts coverage adheres to media guidelines on suicide reporting. Purposive sampling was used to capture current national practice on suicide reporting within newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions. Recent major UK exhibitions by artists who had died by suicide were identified: Kirchner, Rothko, Gorky, and Van Gogh. Content analysis of all UK national newspaper coverage of these exhibitions was performed to measure the articles' adherence to widely accepted media guidelines. In all, 68 newspaper reviews satisfied inclusion criteria, with 100% failing to show full adherence to media guidelines: 21% used inappropriate language; 38% provided explicit descriptions of the suicide; 7% employed simplistic explanations for suicide triggers; 27% romanticized the suicide; and 100% omitted information on sources of support. British newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions deviates considerably from media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. The findings suggest scope to improve journalists' awareness of the importance of this component of suicide prevention strategies.

  4. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate

  5. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

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    D.R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  6. British view of Canadian general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N

    1971-02-06

    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  7. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  8. The Contradiction in the "Prevent Duty": Democracy vs "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolton, Suke

    2017-01-01

    The duty to monitor "the failure to uphold British Values" in the "Prevent" strategy, introduced in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015, is itself an attack on British democracy. This article explains the contradictory nature of the "Prevent Duty." First, the current state of democracy in Britain is examined…

  9. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  10. Southern Cameroons' financial contributions to British Second World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serious damage done to the British economy during World War II compelled the leaders of the British Government to look for ways of repairing the damage. Hence, they turned to the colonies for help. Inter alia, they needed financial assistance because of their inability to pay for imports from the United States. Imports of ...

  11. The Relationship between British War Correspondents in the Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military ...

  12. British and American Journal Evaluation: Divergence or Convergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Ivor; Norris, Pippa

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey comparing British and U.S. political scientists' familiarity with different journals, evaluations of journal quality, and measures of journal impact. Concludes that British and U.S. subjects agree about quality but read different sets of journals. Reports the two groups' familiarity with different literature,…

  13. Malta Stockholm Syndrome (or why we love the British)

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Between 1798 and 1800, Malta changed hands three times. The feudal Knights were easily replaced by Napoleonic France, whom the Maltese initially welcomed, then revolted against a mere 82 days later ushering in the British Empire. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/malta-stockholm-syndrome-or-why-we-love-the-british/

  14. Editorial. Themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2014-03-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the 7th in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (MPGPCR) held at the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Melbourne Australia from the 6th-8th December 2012. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Genesis of the Open Learning Institute of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Louise

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the history of distance education and provides historical background on the development of the Open Learning Institute in British Columbia. Topics addressed include the environment of British Columbia; expansion of higher education; political influences; and educational influences, including the role of Simon Fraser University. (Contains…

  16. Political Islam Under British Colonial Administration In Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most serious challenges faced by the British in the occupation of northern Nigeria was where and how to place Islam in the new dispensation. Islam provided the state structure and political machinery, which made it easy for British administrators to rule such a vast area through the Indirect Rule system. On the ...

  17. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  18. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  19. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  20. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig W. Shinn

    1993-01-01

    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  1. The British scorched earth and concentration camp policies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated the British High Command. In the case of the Potchefstroom region, British aggravation came to focus on the successful resurgence of the Potchefstroom ...

  2. Antiplasmodial and anti-inflammatory effects of an antimalarial remedy from the Wayana Amerindians, French Guiana: takamalaimë (Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC., Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houël, Emeline; Fleury, Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Nardella, Flore; Bourdy, Geneviève; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Villa, Pascal; Obrecht, Adeline; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-05-26

    Field investigations highlighted the use of Psidium acutangulum Mart. ex DC (syn. P. persoonii McVaugh), a small tree used by the Wayana Amerindians in Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata, French Guiana, for the treatment of malaria, and administered either orally in the form of a decoction or applied externally over the whole body. This use appears limited to the Wayana cultural group in French Guiana and has never been reported anywhere else. Our goal was to evaluate the antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities of a P. acutangulum decoction to explain the good reputation of this remedy. Interviews with the Wayana inhabitants of Twenke-Taluhwen and Antecume-Pata were conducted within the TRAMAZ project according to the TRAMIL methodology, which is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of medicinal plant uses. A decoction of dried aerial parts of P. acutangulum was prepared in consistency with the Wayana recipe. In vitro antiplasmodial assays were performed on chloroquine-resistant FcB1 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) and 7G8 (pLDH bioassay) P. falciparum strains and on chloroquine sensitive NF54 ([(3)H]-hypoxanthine bioassay) P. falciparum strain. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) was evaluated on LPS-stimulated human PBMC and NO secretion inhibition was measured on LPS stimulated RAW murine macrophages. Cytotoxicity of the decoction was measured on L6 mammalian cells, PBMCs, and RAW cells. A preliminary evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of the decoction, administered orally twice daily, was assessed by the classical four-day suppressive test against P. berghei NK65 in mice. The decoction displayed a good antiplasmodial activity in vitro against the three tested strains, regardless to the bioassay used, with IC50 values of 3.3µg/mL and 10.3µg/mL against P. falciparum FcB1 and NF54, respectively and 19.0µg/mL against P. falciparum 7G8. It also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in vitro in a

  3. Canopy Height Estimation in French Guiana with LiDAR ICESat/GLAS Data Using Principal Component Analysis and Random Forest Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fayad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimating forest canopy height from large-footprint satellite LiDAR waveforms is challenging given the complex interaction between LiDAR waveforms, terrain, and vegetation, especially in dense tropical and equatorial forests. In this study, canopy height in French Guiana was estimated using multiple linear regression models and the Random Forest technique (RF. This analysis was either based on LiDAR waveform metrics extracted from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System spaceborne LiDAR data and terrain information derived from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM (Digital Elevation Model or on Principal Component Analysis (PCA of GLAS waveforms. Results show that the best statistical model for estimating forest height based on waveform metrics and digital elevation data is a linear regression of waveform extent, trailing edge extent, and terrain index (RMSE of 3.7 m. For the PCA based models, better canopy height estimation results were observed using a regression model that incorporated both the first 13 principal components (PCs and the waveform extent (RMSE = 3.8 m. Random Forest regressions revealed that the best configuration for canopy height estimation used all the following metrics: waveform extent, leading edge, trailing edge, and terrain index (RMSE = 3.4 m. Waveform extent was the variable that best explained canopy height, with an importance factor almost three times higher than those for the other three metrics (leading edge, trailing edge, and terrain index. Furthermore, the Random Forest regression incorporating the first 13 PCs and the waveform extent had a slightly-improved canopy height estimation in comparison to the linear model, with an RMSE of 3.6 m. In conclusion, multiple linear regressions and RF regressions provided canopy height estimations with similar precision using either LiDAR metrics or PCs. However, a regression model (linear regression or RF based on the PCA of waveform samples with waveform

  4. High performance of histidine-rich protein 2 based rapid diagnostic tests in French Guiana are explained by the absence of pfhrp2 gene deletion in P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Trouvay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Care for malaria patients in endemic areas has been improved through the increasing use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs. Most RDTs target the histidine-rich protein-2 antigen (PfHRP2 to detect P. falciparum, as it is abundant and shows great heat stability. However, their use in South America has been widely questioned following a recent publication that pinpoints the high prevalence of Peruvian field isolates lacking the gene encoding this protein. In the remote rural health centers of French Guiana, RDTs are the main diagnosis tools. Therefore, a study of PfHRP2 RDT performances and pfhrp2 genotyping was conducted to determine whether a replacement of the current pLDH-based kit could be considered. METHODS: The performance study compared the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit with the current gold standard diagnosis by microscopy. The prevalence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions were evaluated from 221 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 in French Guiana. RESULTS: Between January 2010 and August 2011, 960 suspected cases of malaria were analyzed using microscopy and RDTs. The sensitivity of the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® for detection of P. falciparum was 96.8% (95% CI: 90.9-99.3, and 86.0% (95% CI: 78.9-91.5 for the detection of P. vivax. No isolates (95% CI: 0-4.5 lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene were identified among the 221 P. falciparum isolates analyzed, but 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-15.4 lacked the exon 2 part of the pfhrp3 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Field isolates lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene are absent in this western part of South America. Despite its sensibility to detect P. vivax, the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit is a satisfying alternative to microscopy in remote health centers, where it is difficult to provide highly skilled microscopists and to maintain the necessary equipment.

  5. Efficacy in the treatment of malaria by Plasmodium vivax in Oiapoque, Brazil, on the border with French Guiana: the importance of control over external factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Margarete do Socorro M; Vieira, José Luiz F; Machado, Ricardo L D; Nacher, Mathieu; Stefani, Aurélia; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Menezes, Rubens A O; Júnior, Aldo A P; Sousa, Ana P M; Couto, Vanja S C D'Almeida; Couto, Álvaro A R D'Almeida

    2015-10-09

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is an important public health issue in the Amazon region, and it accounts for approximately 84 % of cases of the disease. Migration across the border between Brazil and French Guiana contributes to the maintenance of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and parasitological responses of patients with P. vivax malaria treated with chloroquine and primaquine in the socio-environmental context of cross-border interactions between Brazil and French Guiana. The factors controlled were diagnostic agreement, adherence, adjustment of primaquine doses for patient weight, and quality of the drugs used. A prospective study was conducted in 2011 with 103 individuals aged 10-60 years with a positive diagnosis of P. vivax treated with chloroquine (10 mg base/kg on the first day, followed by 7.5 mg/kg on the second and third days) and primaquine for 7 days, who were followed for 28 days. The primaquine doses were adjusted for the patients' weight. A number of factors were determined: epidemiological characteristics, origin of patients, signs and symptoms, initial parasitaemia and parasitaemia clearance time, blood concentrations of chloroquine and primaquine, quality of anti-malarial drugs and diagnostic agreement. Ninety-five patients were followed for 28 days. There was a 100 % agreement in microscopic diagnosis between field laboratory and reference centre. The adhesion to the treatment was 100 %. Of these patients, 32.6 % received a weight-adjusted dose of primaquine. The chloroquine and primaquine tablets were consistent with the optimal quality limits for human consumption. The investigated patients achieved optimal blood exposure to anti-malarial drugs. The parasitological and therapeutic response was adequate in 99.0 % of cases. In the municipality of Oiapoque, the therapeutic regime used for the treatment of P. vivax malaria using chloroquine combined with primaquine remains effective, when external factors are

  6. Group size and composition of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCO. Santos

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of Guiana dolphins (S. guianensis group size and composition in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (25° 15' -25° 36' S and 48° 02'-48° 45' W, Paraná State, as well as to verify the existence of relationships between a given environmental variable (water depth, salinity, transparency and temperature and group size. An area of around 124 km² was surveyed by boat from April 2006 to February 2008 in the following subsets of the estuary: Canal do Superagui (~28 km², Pinheiros bay (~34 km², part of Laranjeiras bay, which included the Guaraqueçaba sub-estuary (~38 km², and part of the Mixture Section of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (~24 km². In 45 survey days, a total of 147 hours were spent observing 286 groups of S. guianensis. Groups varied from two individuals to aggregations of up to 90 individuals (mean ± SD: 11.5 ± 14.4 individuals. Solitary individuals were seen only on five occasions (1.7% of all observations. Groups with calves (n = 247 represented 86.4% overall and were more common in all sub-areas when compared to groups without calves. Groups without calves were found in all sub-areas and were usually smaller and composed of up to 12 individuals. A usual group composition of 70% of adults and 30% of calves was observed considering all sub-areas and seasons. No correlations were found between group size and water temperature (Spearman's rank test, r = 0.0059, p = 0.9338, transparency (Spearman's rank test, r = 0.0597, p = 0.9333, depth (Spearman's rank test, r = 0.1421, p = 0.4698, and salinity (Spearman's rank test, r = -0.1938, p = 0.0665. While Guiana dolphin groups were seen in the entire surveyed area, group size varied significantly among the three main surveyed sub-areas (Kruskal Wallis, H2,196 = 29.85, p = 0.0000. Groups were larger in Laranjeiras bay and smaller in Canal do Superagui. The physical environment, risk of predation, seasonal distribution

  7. Reconstruções identitarias em sociedades plurais: os povos da fronteira Brasil – Guiana / Reconstructions identity in plural societies: the people of the border Brazil – Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cunha Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As reconstruções identitárias que vem ocorrendo nas Américas estão interligadas com o fenômeno dos estados-nacão, uma vez que estes são conseqüências dos processos de colonização que dominaram povos e desintegrou culturas. A questão nacional iniciada no mundo colonial americano desde o século XVIII com os movimentos deindependência, para a América Latina se configura de modo contraditório posto que tais estados-nação passaram a ser a configuração do poder daqueles que deram continuidade aos interesses e prestígios do poder colonial. O que significou para os povos dominados - índios e negros - a permanência da colonialidade. Neste artigo pretende-se estudar como esses povos que apresentam suas reconstruções identitárias nesse movimento contra-hegemonico na região fronteiriça do Brasil com a Guiana. Pretende-se aqui estudar com base nas categorias de identidade, cultura e nacioanalidades.Abstract The reconstruction of identities that is taking place in the Americas is interconnected with the phenomenon of the Nation-State, for they are the consequences of colonization processes that have dominated peoples and disintegrated cultures. The national question - which began in the American colonial world as of the 1800’sindependence movements in Latin America – has been articulated with contradictions. The resulting Nation-States took on the configuration of power of those who continued to pursue the same set of interests and privileges of the colonial power. For those under domination – native and black people – this meant the continuation of colonialism.This paper will investigate the ways through which these peoples have reconstructed their identities within a counter-hegemonic movement in the Brazilian and Guiana frontier. My goal is to study culture and nationalities based on categories of identity.

  8. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  9. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  10. Unity is strength: staff college and the British officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Utilizing Bourdieu's concept of the habitus, Keith Macdonald has recently examined the elite social origins of the British officer corps. His analysis is valid as far at it goes but it ignores the professional practices of British officers. This article examines Britain's Joint Services Command and Staff College to assess the unification of the three services around common forms of military practice. It argues that while the new staff college has been effective in disseminating new forms of professional expertise among British officers, various practices have been institutionalized which actively undermine the unity of the officer corps.

  11. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  12. HIV/AIDS epidemic in French Guiana: 1979-1997. Groupe d'Etude Clinique de l'Infection VIH en Guyane Française.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobesky, M; Dabis, F; Le Beux, P

    2000-06-01

    The incidence of AIDS in French Guiana remains one of the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean. The annual AIDS incidence rate increased continually from the start of the epidemic until 1995, when it reached 59.3/100,000 population declining thereafter to 26.6 in 1997. The prevalence of HIV in pregnant women was 0.9% in 1993, increasing to 1.3% in 1995, and that in individuals attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics was 2.1% in 1996. We included 224 patients in a study of survival after AIDS diagnosis. The principal AIDS-defining diagnosis was tuberculosis in 20.5% of reported cases. The median duration of survival was 10.2 months. Multivariate analysis showed that, patients > or = 45 years at entry progressed more rapidly to AIDS than younger patients. HIV prevention and access to health care should be developed in the various ethnic communities and adapted to cultural status. The progressive implementation of multiple antiretroviral therapies since 1996 may further reduce progression of the disease but early HIV diagnosis is required to improve the overall prognosis of HIV-infected patients.

  13. Natural Leishmania (Viannia infections of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae indicate classical and alternative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Guiana Shield, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Adelson Alcimar Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 multi-trapping methods (Center of Diseases Control, CDC light traps, light-baited Shannon traps, and aspiration on tree bases were used to study the phlebotomine fauna of the “Serra do Navio” region of the Brazilian State of Amapá, which is part of the Guiana Shield. Fifty-three species were identified among 8,685 captured individuals. The following species, associated with the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonian Brazil, were captured: Nyssomyia umbratilis (3,388, Psychodopygus squamiventris maripaensis (995, Ny. anduzei (550, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (400, Ny. whitmani (291, Ps. paraensis (116, and Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (50. Flagellate infections were detected in 45 flies. Of the 19 parasites isolated in vitro, 15 were Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis (13 in Ny. umbratilis, 1 in Ny. whitmani, 1 in Ny. anduzei and three were L. (V. naiffi (2 in Ps. s. maripaensis, 1 in Ny. anduzei. The results indicate the participation of three phlebotomine species in the transmission of L. (V. guyanensis and two species in that of L. (V. naiffi, and show that the same phlebotomine species is involved in the transmission of different Leishmania (Viannia species in the Guianan/Amazon region. A review of the literature together with the results of the present study, and other published and unpublished results, indicate that eight phlebotomine species potentially participate in the transmission of Leishmania (Viannia naiffi in Amazonia.

  14. Objective sampling design in a highly heterogeneous landscape - characterizing environmental determinants of malaria vector distribution in French Guiana, in the Amazonian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Emmanuel; Gaborit, Pascal; Romaña, Christine A; Girod, Romain; Dessay, Nadine; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Sampling design is a key issue when establishing species inventories and characterizing habitats within highly heterogeneous landscapes. Sampling efforts in such environments may be constrained and many field studies only rely on subjective and/or qualitative approaches to design collection strategy. The region of Cacao, in French Guiana, provides an excellent study site to understand the presence and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes, their species dynamics and the transmission risk of malaria across various environments. We propose an objective methodology to define a stratified sampling design. Following thorough environmental characterization, a factorial analysis of mixed groups allows the data to be reduced and non-collinear principal components to be identified while balancing the influences of the different environmental factors. Such components defined new variables which could then be used in a robust k-means clustering procedure. Then, we identified five clusters that corresponded to our sampling strata and selected sampling sites in each stratum. We validated our method by comparing the species overlap of entomological collections from selected sites and the environmental similarities of the same sites. The Morisita index was significantly correlated (Pearson linear correlation) with environmental similarity based on i) the balanced environmental variable groups considered jointly (p = 0.001) and ii) land cover/use (p-value sampling approach. Land cover/use maps (based on high spatial resolution satellite images) were shown to be particularly useful when studying the presence, density and diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes at local scales and in very heterogeneous landscapes.

  15. Structural knowledge learning from maps for supervised land cover/use classification: Application to the monitoring of land cover/use maps in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoudh, Meriam; Roux, Emmanuel; Richard, Gilles; Nock, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The number of satellites and sensors devoted to Earth observation has become increasingly elevated, delivering extensive data, especially images. At the same time, the access to such data and the tools needed to process them has considerably improved. In the presence of such data flow, we need automatic image interpretation methods, especially when it comes to the monitoring and prediction of environmental and societal changes in highly dynamic socio-environmental contexts. This could be accomplished via artificial intelligence. The concept described here relies on the induction of classification rules that explicitly take into account structural knowledge, using Aleph, an Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, combined with a multi-class classification procedure. This methodology was used to monitor changes in land cover/use of the French Guiana coastline. One hundred and fifty-eight classification rules were induced from 3 diachronic land cover/use maps including 38 classes. These rules were expressed in first order logic language, which makes them easily understandable by non-experts. A 10-fold cross-validation gave significant average values of 84.62%, 99.57% and 77.22% for classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Our methodology could be beneficial to automatically classify new objects and to facilitate object-based classification procedures.

  16. Affective norms for 210 British English and Finnish nouns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eilola, Tiina M; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    .... The norms were collected with 135 native British English and 304 native Finnish speakers, who rated the words according to their emotional valence, emotional charge, offensiveness, concreteness, and familiarity...

  17. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  18. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  19. Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceia, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In his article "Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels" Carlos Ceia discusses a certain type of resistance to genre categorization in many novels in contemporary literature...

  20. Malaysia as the Archetypal Garden in the British Creative Imagination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Siti Nuraishah

    2014-01-01

    ...) of Malaysia as a garden. In order to ascertain the ways in which the garden archetype has been deployed by the British creative imagination in the past and the present, novels from the colonial and postcolonial periods...

  1. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  2. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  3. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  4. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-01-01

    .... The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized...

  5. Geology of British Columbia: a journey through time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannings, Sydney G; Nelson, JoAnne; Cannings, Richard

    2011-01-01

    "In this completely updated edition of the bestselling Geology of British Columbia, authors Sydney Cannings, JoAnne Nelson and Richard Cannings describe the various geological forces that have created...

  6. Shared Concerns: Thoughts on British Literature and British Music in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.

  7. Society and the British Army: Implications for Fighting Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    British one accepts some diversity, but within a tightly bounded community that insists on much conformity. In such an organisation , individualism, self...Used to ‘Bridge the Gap’ between the Attitudes and Culture of British Army Recruits and the Army’s Organisational Culture?” (Master’s diss...of military authority combines coercive and hierarchical elements typical of a military organization with ‘group consensus ’ and persuasive forms of

  8. Cultural change and lodestones in the British Police

    OpenAIRE

    Grint, Keith

    2017-01-01

    • Purpose: This Research Paper considers a challenge to an occupational jurisdiction in the British police. Historically, street cops have defended the importance of operational credibility as a way of sustaining the value of experience, and inhibiting attempts to introduce external leaders. This has generated a particular form of policing and leadership that is deemed by the British government as inadequate to face the problems of the next decade. \\ud • Design: The project used the High Pote...

  9. ABC: A Franco-British Intra-Group Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    John, Innes; Pierre, Mevellec; University of Dundee; University of Nantes

    1994-01-01

    This case study describes the implementation of ABC in two factories within the one British multinational group in France and Britain. It also explores the similarities and differences between the assessment, implementation and use of the ABC system in these two factories. The French managers assessed ABC with the major objective of product costing whereas in the British factory ABC was used mainly for cost management. However, it is important to realise that the French homogeneous cost pools...

  10. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an int......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....

  11. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  12. Explaining British Political Stability After 1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Though not its main focus, Goldstone's Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (1991 threw considerable new light on 19th century Europe's revolutions and near-revolutions. While Goldstone stresses the role of an expanding and industrializing economy in absorbing 19th century England's demographic shocks, we accept this analysis but argue alongside it for similar attention to the vector of emigration, settler-colonialism, and imperial state expansion into which at least some of the exhaust fumes of the population explosion were vented. Furthermore, it is important to note the crucial role of a highly interventionist state and 'big' government in the background to these dynamics—a far cry from the light-touch, laissez-faire qualities with which the 19th century British state is often associated. To make our case, this article takes advantage of secondary literature and raw data not available prior to the publication of Goldstone's book. Of crucial importance here is our unique dataset of fatality-inducing political violence events in Britain and Ireland from 1785 to 1900. This is the first research paper to utilise this dataset. We draw upon this in the following section, which seeks to establish what the real level of political instability was in 19th century Britain—thus cross-referencing Goldstone's account with more recent data—before moving on in the following section to a more detailed overview of the socio-economic conditions underlying events at the political level. This is followed by our account of the emigration-settler-colonialism-imperial state expansion vector and the interventionist state policy behind it, which we argue was crucial to making 19th century Britain relatively 'revolution-proof'—alongside the expanding economic opportunities rightly highlighted by Goldstone. Lastly come our brief concluding remarks, which lay out the implications, as we see them, of this article's findings for research on

  13. Annual variations in the number of malaria cases related to two different patterns of Anopheles darlingi transmission potential in the Maroni area of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaly Jean

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an Annual Parasite Incidence (API of 132.1, in the high and moderate risks zones, the Maroni area of French Guiana has the second highest malaria incidence of South-America after Guyana (API = 183.54 and far above Brazil (API = 28.25. Malaria transmission is occurring despite strong medical assistance and active vector control, based on general WHO recommendations. This situation is generated by two main factors that are the social and cultural characteristics of this border area, where several ethnic groups are living, and the lack of understanding of transmission dynamics of the main mosquito vector, Anopheles darlingi. In this context, entomological data collected in two villages belonging to two different ethnic groups of the French border of the Maroni River, were retrospectively analysed to find out how the mosquito bionomics are related to the malaria transmission patterns. Methods Data were provided by human landing catches of mosquitoes carried out each month for two years in two villages belonging to two ethnic groups, the Amerindians Wayanas and the Aloukous of African origin. The mosquitoes were sorted by species, sex, date, hour and place of collection and processed for Plasmodium sp. parasite detection. The data were compiled to provide the following variables: human biting rates (HBR, parity rates (PR, numbers of infective bites (IB, entomological inoculation rates (EIR and numbers of infected mosquitoes surviving enough to transmit (IMT. Spatial and temporal differences of variables between locations and during the night were tested by the Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance to find out significant variations. Results The populations of the main mosquito vector An. darlingi showed significant variations in the spatial and temporal HBR/person/night and HBR/person/hour, IB/person/month and IB/person/hour, and IMT/village/night and IMT/village/hour. In the village of Loca (Aloukous, the IMT peaked from June

  14. Part II: Muslims perceptions of British cobat troops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid; Hughes, Jamie Hacker

    2017-09-01

    On the 22nd May 2017, suicide bomber Salman Abedi detonated an improvised explosive device (IED) in the Manchester Arena killing 22 people and injuring 116 others. Following the 'massacre in Manchester', the leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn, linked UK foreign policy with terrorism on British soil. Controversial and contentious though Corbyn's claims may be, the terrorists themselves have also reported that what motivates them to carry out their abominable atrocities are British military operations in Muslim majority countries. Indeed, on the 22nd May 2013, British serviceman, Lee Rigby, was brutally attacked and killed by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. The perpetrators of this heinous act told passers-by at the scene that they wanted to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British Armed Forces. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study on Muslim perceptions of British combat troops and UK foreign policy. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. We crafted a survey that explored Muslim perceptions of the British military and the government's foreign policy. Response items were on a Likert-scale and there was white space for free text comments which were subjected to thematic analyses. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). 66/75 (88%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that British military operations in Muslim majority countries have negatively influenced perceptions towards combat troops. 42/75 (56%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that contact with a combat troops or veterans would positively influence their perceptions towards them. Themes of free text comments included the role that the media plays in demonising Muslims, the transcendental bond that Muslims around the world

  15. The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Cassar, Olivier; Tonasso, Laure; Tortevoye, Patricia; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2010-10-19

    Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries) is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY) coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR) were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8). Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin). Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal), female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola). The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.

  16. The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrouy Georges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. Results All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8. Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin. Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal, female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola. Conclusions The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.

  17. Applying the system viability framework for cross-scalar governance of nested social-ecological systems in the Guiana Shield, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Berardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Linking and analyzing governance of natural resources at different scales requires the development of a conceptual framework for analyzing social-ecological systems that can be easily applied by a range of stakeholders whose interests lie at different scales, but where the results of the analysis can be compared in a straightforward way. We outline the system viability framework, which allows participants to characterize a range of strategies in response to environment challenges for maintaining the long-term survival of their particular system of interest. Working in the Guiana Shield, South America, and with a range of local, regional, and international stakeholders, our aim was to use system viability to (1 investigate synergies and conflicts between distinct scales of governance, (2 identify scale-related challenges, and (3 test the framework as a conceptual tool for supporting cross-scalar analysis for environmental governance. At the international and national levels, a number of civil society organizations explored system viability indicators that would measure the successful implementation of governance mechanisms relevant to sustainable development and natural resource management. At the local level, we used participatory video and photography within two indigenous territories to enable local participants to identify indicators of viability within community governance systems. A grounded theory approach was then used to identify common themes across the different scales of analysis. Five key themes emerged: land rights, leadership, partnerships, lifestyle, and identity. We found that although most categories of interest were theoretically aligned across scales, all perceived systems of interest were struggling to face up to various cross-scalar challenges undermining different system viability responses. In conclusion, we highlight how the system viability framework can be used with a disparate variety of stakeholders as a practical

  18. Factors correlated with disclosure of HIV infection in the French Antilles and French Guiana: results from the ANRS-EN13-VESPA-DFA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillon, Kim; Lert, France; Sitta, Rémi; Schmaus, Annie; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    To determine the rate, patterns and predictors of HIV disclosure in the French Antilles and French Guiana. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a 15% random sample (n=398) of the hospital caseload in hospitals providing HIV care. Determinants of disclosure to a steady partner and other members of the individual's social network were analysed using logistic regression. From the time of diagnosis, 84.6% of those in a couple (n=173) disclosed their HIV-positive status to their steady partner, 55.6% disclosed to others, and 30.3% did not tell their status to anyone. Disclosure within a steady partnership was less likely among non-French individuals [Haitians: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.72; other nationalities: AOR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.68]; and among those diagnosed with HIV after 1997 (AOR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.86). Determinants of disclosure to others were found to be sex (women: AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.24-3.36), age at diagnosis (>or=50 versus<30 years: AOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.90), nationality (Haitians versus French: AOR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.77), transmission route (non-sexual versus sexual: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.12-10.23) and hospital inpatients (hospitalized versus non-hospitalized patients: AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.17-3.37). After disclosing, social and emotional support from confidants was common and discrimination was infrequent. One third of PLWHA had kept their HIV status secret. Interventions targeting the general population and social institutions, and support for PLWHA by healthcare staff are needed to improve the situation.

  19. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-06-01

    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  20. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  1. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  2. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  3. British Coal Opencast deals the 'ace'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.N. (British Coal Opencast, Mansfield (UK))

    1992-02-01

    1992 will see the introduction of the 4000 t Harnischfeger P H 757 'Ace of Spades' electric walking dragline into the Stobswood Opencast Coal Site in Northumberland which will complete a 16 million pound investment by British Coal Opencast in addition to a similar investment by Contractor Crouch Mining to fully equip the most modern opencast mine in the United Kingdom to produce 12 Mt of coal into the 21st century. This paper examines the background to the Stobswood Site and the selection and use of the latest mining equipment by British Coal Opencast and Crouch Mining to complement the mining method, devised by Crouch to ensure that Stobswood Site will be British Coal Opencast's flagship to low cost coal production in the North East of England. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Joshi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of postponement across cohorts and projects its impact on eventual levels of childlessness. Men and women are considered separately in our models of a population stratified by educational attainment. We find the most striking postponement occurring among graduate men. Among graduate women, after taking family building intentions into account, we estimate that about a quarter of 1970 born graduate women will remain childless, rather than something nearer 40 per cent as had been conjectured elsewhere.

  5. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C

    2015-02-01

    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  7. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  8. THE DECLINE OF BRITISH SHIPBUILDING: NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT AND THE SCOTT LITHGOW COMPANY 1960-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Philip Connors

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of British industrial decline since 1945 has focused on whether the decline was relative or an absolute process. As a British industry, shipbuilding illustrates many contradictions inherent in both views; although overtaken by Japanese competition from the mid 1950’s, between 1945-1973 the output and productivity of British shipbuilding increased faster than at any point previously. This paper will discuss the role of the state in this process by using the negotiations between government and the Scott Lithgow shipyard in Scotland concerning the market for 250,000-ton crude oil carriers as an example, demonstrating that the agency of both management and government influenced the eventual outcome more than prevailing market conditions of the time.

  9. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  10. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Chad O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  11. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous

  12. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is rooted in the British tradition, its possible evolution on the American model is demonstrated, and thus the role of the dictionary in a postcolonial community is briefly discussed. Keywords: lexicography, dictionary, definition, social labeling, race, racism, ethnicity, english, south africa, afrikaans, epithets, usage labels ...

  13. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  14. Graduate Evaluation of British Higher Education Courses: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The retrospective evaluations of their degree courses by 8,948 British 1980 graduates suggested 2 routes of analysis--one based on respondents' satisfaction in becoming an educated person and one based on satisfaction in acquiring an interesting job with a good income. Graduates differed according to the relative importance of the route used. (DB)

  15. Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information was also gathered from some chiefs and educationists who hail from the area, and from University dons who have provided written material about the area. Other relevant secondary source material, such as from books, enriched the study. The study found out that the British imposed levies on the caravan transit ...

  16. During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore Biological Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore. Biological Programme (latterly Pelagic Ecosystem. Studies Programme), two specimens of a cephalopod belonging to the squid family Chiroteuthidae were caught in the Scotia Sea by rectangular midwater trawl. (Baker et al. 1973). The material closely resembles. Chiroteuthis ...

  17. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  18. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  19. Deaf People as British Sign Language Teachers: Experiences and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Martin; Barnes, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken into the profession of British Sign Language (BSL) teaching, despite a huge increase in the number of BSL classes offered over the past twenty years. Following the introduction of Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards in 2007, BSL teachers working in "further education" (FE) colleges were…

  20. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners. PMID:7328548

  1. British colonial rule and food crops production in Esan, Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the conquest and imposition of colonial rule, the British authorities imposed new demands on the people; the production of raw materials such as rubber, palm oil and kernels among others. The production of these raw materials impeded the cultivation of food crop in Esan. This paper therefore, examines the factors ...

  2. Collecting Grey Literature : A British Library Lending Division Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillag, John

    Grey literature in its various aspects presents many problems for producers, intermediaries and end users. The paper describes the British Library Lending Division's activities in this field in the hope that organizations elsewhere will find some of them helpful in overcoming similar difficulties.

  3. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  4. Understanding British Strategic Failure in America: 1780-1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-17

    subject to this country or independent.”10 With the clairvoyance of hindsight, however, the British decision to employ force in the spring of 1775 rested...warfare. He possessed the presence of mind and clairvoyance of thought to employ a hybrid combination of conventional and non-conventional methods in

  5. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of

  6. The Dutch, French and British species of Psathyrella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kits van Waveren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The sole object of the present work is to furnish a monograph dealing exclusively with the species of the genus Psathyrella (exclusive of Lacrymaria, see Chapter VI) reported from the Netherlands, France and the British Isles. Ever since 1958 we intensively collected, described, depicted and stored

  7. Subordination Across Ghanaian And British Newspaper Editorials: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a corpus-based empirical study which argues in the light of the register theory that grammatical categories are functional and relate to their situational context of use. Using editorials from Ghanaian and British newspapers, this paper examined the usage dynamics and the functional motivations behind the use of ...

  8. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. British army commisions by purchase | Usher | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. British army commisions by purchase. HJ Dick ...

  10. Rethinking Apprenticeship Training in the British Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The British government continued intervention to support apprenticeship training across the economy has been notable in recent years. The construction industry is the only sector to retain a levy/grant scheme (that supports training including apprenticeships) since 1964, yet it still faces the problem of skills shortages. This article thus reviews…

  11. Health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, changes in the quality of health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population between 1991 and 1998 are analysed. It is found that at all given age levels, life expectancy increased during this period. Life expectancy at birth increased by 1 year for women and by 1.5 years for

  12. British colonial administration, development of Islam and lslamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British policy towards religion in colonial Africa was influenced by its intrinsic value to the maintenance of a very strong administration over the continent and achieving the socio-economic objectives Britain set itself at the beginning of its colonization. The Benin Kingdom had been largely untouched by any world religion ...

  13. Pitch Alterations in British Motherese: Some Preliminary Acoustic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Brenda; Wheldall, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of speech samples from British female adults (N=8) revealed that the subjects increased vocal pitch when addressing young children, but not as much as previously studied North American subjects did. Pitch increases were more commonly observed in free speech than in reading-aloud conditions. (23 references) (Author/CB)

  14. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  15. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  16. Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction through Russian documents. DR GENNADY SHUBIN. Institute for African Studies, Moscow. On the eve of the outbreak of the All'glo-Boer War in South Africa, Colonel. N.S. Yermolov, the Russian Military agent [attache] in London reported on October I,.

  17. British Columbia Library Network: A Study of Feasibility. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffner, Ralph M.; Madden, Mary A.

    This feasibility study was conducted to collect financial, operational, and other data concerning the alternatives of continuing with the University of Toronto Library Automation System (UTLAS), the present supplier of catalog support to the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC) participating libraries, or of replicating the Washington Library…

  18. integration and disintegration in british colonial west africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually attributed largely to the mood or the British public and parliament rather than to the ..... amongst Tribes hostile to each other. is a hot bed of intrigue. and from the ... arise which would seriously affect the interests or Lagos. In such an.

  19. Spanish listeners’ perception of American and Southern British English vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Chládková, K.

    2010-01-01

    L2 studies demonstrate that learners differ in their speech perception patterns. Recent explanations attribute this variation to the different initial stages with which learners start their L2 development. Spanish listeners' categorization of Standard Southern British English and American English

  20. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  1. Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Smith, Marjorie; Upton, Penney; Heverin, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    British mothers (n=362) and fathers (n=103) of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed concerning physically punishing their children. The proportion of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar. Percentages of types and severity of punishments varied. These findings are discussed in…

  2. Colors in French, American and British dictionaries | Williams | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colors have senses specific to particular fields such as physics and printing, in addi-tion to senses used in everyday life. This article examines the specialized information found in color definitions in French, American and British dictionaries. We explore whether specialized and non-specialized definitions are lumped or split ...

  3. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  4. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  5. Algorithm for Concrete Mix Design Based on British Method | Ezeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the algorithm were compared with those obtained based on the British method and the differences between them were found to be less than 10% in each example. Hence, the algorithm developed in this paper is working with minimum error. It is recommended for use in obtaining good results for ...

  6. Farmland Preservation Verdicts - Rezoning Agricultural Land in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Eagle, A.J.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development

  7. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Karen

    2014-11-01

    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The composition of sedimentary organic matter in relation to the dynamic features of a mangrove-fringed coast in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Baltzer, F.

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentary organic matter content of a series of 2-m-deep cores was examined in relation to the evolution of mangrove forest, on the basis of geochemical analyses and optical observations. Avicennia-dominated forest deposits, developing along the highly dynamic coastline of French Guiana, were collected in five stations based on stage of forest evolution. The sedimentary organic matter in the upper sediment of the youngest mangrove swamp is mainly derived from algal mats with low carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N ratio, from 6 to 8) and typical greyish amorphous organic flakes as observed in optical studies. Indeed, rare young Avicennia trees are present, and effectively, geochemical parameters do not give evidence of a litter made up of higher plant debris, these rare debris being probably exported by the tides. A slight increase with depth in the first decimetres of both total organic carbon (TOC) content and C:N ratio results from the development of the radial cable root-system of the pioneer Avicennia germinans. Early diagenetic conditions of this young forest are rather controlled by dominant suboxic processes, as suggested by high Eh values (range, 200-400 mV) and local anoxic processes (occurrence of pyrite) in micro-environments: this is mainly due to the oxygen available by roots and crab bioturbation. The organic content of the senescent mangrove sediment is mainly derived from higher plant debris in the uppermost 30 cm, as indicated by relatively high C:N ratios and the predominance of ligno-cellulosic debris. The strong decrease in hydrogen index values results from the degradation of the higher plant debris, losing hydrogen bounds through decay processes. Moderately acidic pH values, low Ehs and the presence of pyrite framboids point towards the reducing decay processes in surficial layers of the senescent mangrove mediated by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Whatever the stage of evolution of the forest, the geochemical characteristics of the sediment below

  9. Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex: insights on the use of area based on the photo-identification technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. de O. Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary description of habitat use by Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864 in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, state of Paraná, Brazil. Approximately 124 km² were surveyed by small boat from April 2006 to July 2008 in the following subsets of the PEC: Canal do Superagui (~28 km²; Pinheiros Bay (~34 km²; part of Laranjeiras Bay, which included the Guaraqueçaba sub-estuary (~38 km²; and part of the Mixture Section of the PEC (~24 km². Our efforts were unevenly distributed in the study area. During 55 survey days covering seven distinct seasons, we spent 165 hours observing 323 groups of S. guianensis. Group size varied from two individuals to aggregations as large as approximately 100 dolphins. A total of 49,921 photographs were analyzed; 15,038 (30% were considered useful for identification purposes. A total of 182 individuals were catalogued, from which 122 (67% were cataloged in the last three seasons, when the surveyed area was expanded. The number of individual sightings in distinct days varied from one to 16. A total of 94 individuals (51.6% were re-sighted at least once. From the 37 individuals cataloged in the first season, 18 (48.6% were re-sighted in the last season. Eleven individuals with 5+ sightings were always observed in the same subset of the estuary, including an individual with 13 sightings. Sixteen individuals with three to 16 sightings were observed in three of the four estuary subsets surveyed. An individual cataloged in May 2002 in a pilot study was re-sighted up to August 2006. Our preliminary results correspond to the first evidence of site fidelity for several monitored individuals; it also revealed, for the first time, the flexibility of movements throughout the entire estuarine complex by several other individuals

  10. Anopheles darlingi bionomics and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae in Amerindian villages of the Upper-Maroni Amazonian forest, French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Girod

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available French Guiana is one of the areas in South America most affected by malaria and where the disease has become a serious public health problem. In spite of this situation, little recent entomological data are available from the main localities where the disease occurs, even though they are crucial for development of an effective vector control strategy. A longitudinal entomological survey was carried out from March 2000-February 2002 in three Amerindian villages, namely Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, located in the Amazonian forest of the Upper-Maroni area, to assess anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission dynamics. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae was the most abundant mosquito species caught during the study. This efficient American malaria vector was active the entire year, but showed an evident peak of abundance during the main rainfall season, from April-June, with an average human biting rate of 255.5 bites per person per night. Parity rates were homogeneous all year, indicating no significant seasonal variability in female survival rates. Estimated vectorial capacity indices were higher during the rainy season, even though the risk of transmission was present throughout the year (VCI > 1. A total of 14 An. darlingi were found infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium malariae. The annual circumsporozoite indices were 0.15, 0.14 and 0.05, and the entomological inoculation rates were 22.8, 27.4 and 14.4 infected bites per person per year in Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, respectively. An. darlingiwas endo-exophagic and rather exophilic in these localities. The species was collected throughout the night but was more aggressive between 21:30-03:30 h and after 05:30 h. Parity rates were homogeneous during the entire night. Impregnated hammock and/or bed nets, coupled with the use of mosquito repellents, as well as the early treatment of malarial cases, appear to be the most suitable tools for fighting

  11. Sex Ratios Among Births in British Columbia, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Lee, Lily; Williams, Kim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have reported distorted sex ratios among live births within specific immigrant groups in Canada. We carried out an investigation into sex ratios in British Columbia. All stillbirths and live births to residents of British Columbia from April 2000 to March 2013 were included in the study, with data obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined sex ratios among births and among pregnancy terminations that resulted in a stillbirth or live birth. Analyses were stratified by congenital anomaly status, maternal residence, and parity. The study population included 567 225 stillbirths and live births. In the Fraser Health Authority, the sex ratio among births without congenital anomalies was 51.3% males (95% CI 51.1 to 51.5); this was significantly higher than the sex ratio of 40.7% males (95% CI 33.2 to 48.6) among late pregnancy terminations without congenital anomalies (P = 0.008). However, in British Columbia, excluding the Fraser Health Authority, the same sex ratios were 51.1% (95% CI 50.9 to 51.3) and 51.1% (95% CI 45.5 to 56.7), respectively (P = 0.99). Sex ratios among births to multiparous women were also significantly different in the Fraser Health Authority. Only a negligible fraction of the shortfall in female births in the Fraser Health Authority could be explained by sex ratio distortions among late pregnancy terminations. Sex ratios among stillbirths and live births to residents of the Fraser Health Authority are distorted relative to those observed elsewhere in British Columbia. This is likely due to sex differences in early pregnancy terminations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. All rights reserved.

  12. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  13. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  14. Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.

    2012-01-01

    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until

  15. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  16. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream... Service Information BAE Systems (Operations) Limited has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA020741, dated November 2, 2002; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  17. 75 FR 59170 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009; and British Aerospace Regional Aircraft has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009. (2) Replace the...

  18. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  19. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  20. The Evolution of Capitalism: A Comparison of British and American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of capitalism in British and American literature. The impact of capitalism on the lives of individuals has been well represented in both American and British literature throughout the centuries. The paper will discuss how seminal British authors such as Thomas More, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George…

  1. Educating for British Values: Kant's Philosophical Roadmap for Cosmopolitan Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The UK's 2016 decision to exit the European Union and the discussion surrounding it indicate that public understanding of British identity has important consequences, one way or another. Defining British identity will be an important task in the years to come. The UK government not long ago provided some guidance on the matter of British identity…

  2. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  3. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  4. SOME LINGUO-CULTURAL CONCEPT IN CONTEMPORARY BRITISH LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asratyan, Z.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of some aspects of the British conceptual world on the basis of contemporary imaginative literature examination. Concept is understood as the individual author’s vision of the reflected world, as a predication of the topic to its author’s interpretation. The work analyses concepts reflecting the collective unconscious of the nation which turns them into linguo-cultural ones. The article examines the concept of tolerance through cause-effect relations of crime and punishment. The problems of children-parents relations in the British Muslim culture are also touched upon. The work shows the differences of some basic linguo-cultural concepts in Britain and in Russia.

  5. Language and identity among British South Asians: a theoretical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2010-01-01

    Given the pervasiveness of language in social life and the implications that language use can have for one’s individual and collective identities, attempts were made to explore the theoretical and empirical advantages in connecting social psychological theories of identity and sociological/sociolinguistic approaches to language use and language choices in order to make sense of language and identity among second-generation British Asians. The current theoretical essay features a brief overvie...

  6. Still Invisible? Women artists in British public collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Montfort

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Does women's work in British public collections receive curatorial care and scholarly attention? And if or when it does not—when it lingers on the darkest racks of museums stores, collected for a posterity it will never achieve—how has this happened, and why? Or should we be especially concerned about the display of women’s work in public collections, in an age of digital images and online archives?

  7. Tracing Sydenham's chorea: historical documents from a British paediatric hospital

    OpenAIRE

    de Martino, D.; Tanner, A.; Defazio, G.; Church, A J; Bhatia, K.P.; Giovannoni, G.; Dale, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) became a well defined nosological entity only during the second half of the nineteenth century. Such progress was promoted by the availability of large clinical series provided by newly founded paediatric hospitals. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical features of patients with chorea admitted to the first British paediatric hospital (the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London) between 1852 and 1936. The seasonal and demographic characterist...

  8. Popular Music Pedagogy: band rehearsals at British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis of participants’ interview responses suggested their perceptions could be grouped into three over-arching categories: operational mechanics of rehe...

  9. Identifying and characterising price leadership in British supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Jonathan S.; Waterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Price leadership is a concept that lacks precision. We propose a deliberately narrow, falsifiable, definition then develop it, illustrate its feasibility and test it using the two leading British supermarket chains. We find both firms engaging in leading prices upward over a range of products, with the larger being initially more dominant but the smaller increasing leadership activity to take overall leadership over time. However, more price leadership events are price reductions than price i...

  10. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  11. The British warning; L'avertissement britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-09-01

    Just as the Stone Age did not come to an end for want of stones, the end of the LPG Age will not occur due to a shortage of LPG. This witticism, offered by Tom Fidell (the Director-General of the British LP Gas Association) conceals a serious warming: these needs to be a fast response in terms of technology, as the advantages of autogas are being reduced by competing fuels and their supporting technologies. (authors)

  12. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  13. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K.; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  14. Directors in British and Irish cinema 

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Directors in British and Irish Cinema is an assessment of the careers and achievements of over a thousand directors, most of whom have received little scholarly attention. It draws upon the expertise of over sixty contributors. Each of the 1028 entries has been provided with a comprehensive filmography (which for some of the silent film directors includes over a hundred films). Comprehensive coverage have made it a standard reference work. Collaboration with the BFI-based website Screenonli...

  15. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  16. Western false hemlock looper in British Columbia, 1947-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Compilation and summary of published and unpublished data on western false hemlock looper in British Columbia since its discovery near Chase in 1942. Information is based on file reports of the Insect and Disease Survey for Pacific and Yukon Regions. The report describes biology, methods of detection, tree mortality and incremental loss, and controls, including insect parasites, bacterial and viral disease, predators, and chemical insecticides.

  17. British political values, attitudes to climate change, and travel behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Ron; Deeming, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The UK is committed to a sharp reduction of greenhouse gases. Progress towards its goal will depend on whether the public can be persuaded to change their travel behaviour. Using British Social Attitudes 2011 survey data, analyses show that the majority of adults – especially the young and better-educated – believe that climate change is occurring but even concerned believers appear reluctant to modify their behaviour. Policies designed to alter transport habits and induce behaviour change ne...

  18. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren

    2016-02-01

    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. British Air Power in Peripheral Conflict, 1919-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    the Somaliland cam - paign, however, was its effect on British internal security policy in a more recent imperial acquisition: the territory of...unquestionably a critical element in the successful prosecution of the counterinsurgency cam - paign. Air Vice-Marshal N. M. Maynard cites transport as...than a coffee planta - tion with a few tents pitched at the side of a 400-yard soil airstrip. Mweiga nevertheless became the nerve center of the

  20. Patterns of outdoor recreational injury in northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Floyd A; Caron, Nadine R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the patterns of severe injury documented at a northern British Columbia regional trauma center based on age, sex, month of year, activity type, injury type, and injury severity as they relate to participation in outdoor recreational activities. A retrospective analysis of data abstracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for patients sustaining injuries between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, while engaged in outdoor recreational activities in the Northern Health Authority. The British Columbia Trauma Registry inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) admitted for treatment of injuries sustained from the transfer of external energy or force; 2) admitted to the facility within 7 days of injury; and 3) length of stay more than 2 days or in-hospital mortality. In all, 159 patients met study criteria. August and September were peak injury months (mean 7.3 and 7.0 per month, respectively). The highest injury patterns involved cycling (n = 31), all-terrain vehicle operation (n = 30), horseback riding (n = 22), and snowmobiling (n = 22). Of the 159 patients, 76.1% were male, with a peak age distribution between 10 years and 19 years (22%). Males were more commonly injured than females among cycling (83.9%), all-terrain vehicle (86.7%), and snowmobile (100%) traumas. Females were more commonly injured from horseback riding events (42.1%). This study emphasizes the need for rapid translation of research findings into injury prevention awareness and programming in northern British Columbia, particularly relating to cycling, horseback riding, snowmobiling, and all-terrain vehicle operation. Further investigation is required to analyze long-term outcomes for this common injury population. Wilderness Medical Society.

  1. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  2. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  3. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  4. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)…

  5. Conventional natural gas play atlas, northeast British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson, Calgary, AB (Canada); Davidson, J.; Feduniak, B. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hayes, M.; Walsh, W.; Ferri, F.; Hickin, A.; Richardson, D.; Fournier, M.; Adams, C.; Kerr, B.; Lee, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC (Canada); Johnson, J.; Mclean, D.; Barker, J.; Walker, D.; Farr, G. [British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of British Columbia's undiscovered resources. Although it covers all of the province's gas potential areas, its main focus is the quantification of the remaining undiscovered conventional gas potential of northeast British Columbia. The Conventional natural gas play atlas for northeast British Columbia contains both established and conceptual plays. Play definitions include resources that are considered proven and developable with current technology. They include exploration concepts that have been typically exploited in the province's portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Play descriptions were also provided. Unconventional plays such as coalbed gas, some tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates were also included, although they were deemed not currently productive. The atlas provides a framework for the assessment process as well as a reference point for future analyses. The current play definitions are expected to evolve with new geological concepts, technological developments and changing commodity prices. The northeast BC geographic areas covered in this report include the Deep Basin; Liard Basin and Fold Belt; the Northern Foothills; the southern Foothills; Fort St. John; and, Fort Nelson/Northern Plains. A series of maps were created to spatially display cumulative data for all plays throughout northeast BC. Values for the following categories were assigned to PNG and NTS grid units: discovered gas in place; discovered initial established marketable gas; discovered remaining marketable gas; cumulative marketable gas produced; undiscovered gas in place; undiscovered marketable gas; ultimate gas in place; ultimate marketable gas and ultimate remaining marketable gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Pessimism Preserved: Real Wages in the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Allen; Allen, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The paper compares Feinstein`s and Clark`s consumer price and real wage indices for the British industrial revolution. The sources for their weights and component price series are evaluated. While some of Clark`s innovations are improvements, many of his changes degrade the price index. A new price index is developed using the best components of Clark`s and Feinstein`s. This index is much closer to Feinstein`s than to Clark`s. The implied growth in real wages is also close to Feinstein`s and ...

  7. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  8. Locating Ancestry in Notions of Britishness/Germanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pöllmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on ancestry as a controversial marker of Britishness/Germanness. Considering developments in nationality law and large-scale survey data for England and Germany, it illustrates that macrocontextual distinctions into civic and ethnic nations tend to overestimate cross-national differences, while underestimating important within-country variations according to people’s educational background. The fact that—in both countries—higher levels of formal education are strongly associated with more ethnically inclusive notions of legitimate national membership underlines the formative potential of formal education in contemporary multicultural societies.

  9. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community Paramedicine Initiative: Transforming Paramedicine in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Colton; Brittain, Michelle; Sirivar, Daniel; Kotani, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    British Columbia's health care system is facing challenges related to rural access to care and an ever increasing demand for services. These variables are compounded by the anticipated needs of an aging population that can expect to live several of their golden years with a chronic illness. The introduction of community paramedicine in BC allows for a care delivery model that expands the role of qualified paramedics to include the delivery of prevention, health promotion and primary care services in the community. The implementation of the Community Paramedicine Initiative in rural and remote BC highlights a transformational approach to health care delivery empowered by a technology enabled perspective of community needs.

  11. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Laraine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  12. Joseph Kestner, Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880–1915

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Thanh, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880-1915 compte deux cent treize pages, dont cent soixante-seize réservées à l’étude à proprement parler. La formulation inaugurale plurielle du titre place l’analyse dans le cadre des Masculinities Studies, Joseph Kestner (université de Tulsa, USA) posant ainsi implicitement que la société phallocentrique de la Grande-Bretagne est traversée par la « crise de la masculinité dont parle Elaine Showalter. En outre, le même titre indique que cette remi...

  13. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  14. The British species of Enicospilus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Broad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nine British and Irish species of Enicospilus are revised, mapped and an identification key provided. One species, Enicospilus myricae sp. nov., is described as new; Enicospilus merdarius (Gravenhorst, 1829 is a senior synonym of E. tournieri (Vollenhoven, 1879 syn. nov.; the only available name for E. merdarius auctt. is Enicospilus adustus (Haller, 1885 stat. rev., and a neotype is designated for Ophion adustus Haller, 1885. Enicospilus cerebrator Aubert, 1969 and E. repentinus (Holmgren, 1860 are newly recorded from Britain. Some host data are available for eight of the nine species.

  15. Negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Amandip; Moneta, Giovanni B

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. Based on a study of levels of alcohol consumption (Spada & Moneta, 2004), it was hypothesized that the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms would be present only in British White students. A sample of 150 British Indian students and 150 British White students completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Structural regression modeling indicated that negative emotions predict higher levels of alcohol dependence symptoms in British White students, and do not predict alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian students. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. What did British nuclear report really say: an EEI perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The British Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution was instituted ''to advise on matters, both national and international, concerning the pollution of the environment; on the adequacy of research in this field; and the future possibilities of danger to the environment.'' The decision to undertake a study of nuclear power was made early in 1974; the final report, Sixth Report, Nuclear Power and the Environment, was submitted to Parliament in September 1976. Generally, the Commission has given nuclear power a clean bill of health, but the Commission's positive findings have been obscured. One of its recommendations says, ''the abandonment of nuclear fission power would, however, be neither wise nor justified. But a major commitment to fission power and a plutonium economy should be postponed as long as possible.'' It is felt that this is a new weapon for the opponents of nuclear power. A major impact of its misinterpretation is expected in the United States. The head of the Commission has said the statements concerning the ''plutonium economy'' were made in the context of looking far into the future. Comments from the Secretary of State for the Environment, a spokeman from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., and a spokesman from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority are included. (MCW)

  17. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism.

  18. Dental anxiety levels in British servicemen and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, G P; Boyle, C A; Newton, T

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine: 1, the level of dental anxiety in British Service personnel; 2 whether there was a difference in dental anxiety levels across the three Services; and, 3, the relationship between number of operational tours and level of dental anxiety. Cross sectional questionnaire survey of individuals attending 3 Armed Services dental treatment centres in the UK. The questionnaires were completed between February 2008 and April 2009. 50 patients each from the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force, selected consecutively from those attending the centres for treatment. There was a 100% response rate. Dental fear as assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and scores on a scale of fear of dental injections. 27% of the Armed Services experienced severe dental anxiety: a level similar to that found in the general population. There was no difference in the level of dental anxiety or fear of dental injections across the three Armed Services. There was no relationship between number of operational tours undertaken and level of dental anxiety. Dental anxiety is found amongst members of the British Armed Services at levels similar to that in the general population. This represents a challenge for service provision, particularly in operational settings.

  19. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    To explore ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults, and the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in those inequalities. We analysed data on 1925 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults living in an ethnically diverse and socially deprived area. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD)≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA)≥4 mm. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal measures were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (gender and age groups) and SEP indicators (education and socioeconomic classification). Compared to White British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Asian Others had more teeth with PPD≥4 mm whereas White East European, Black African and Bangladeshi had more teeth with LOA≥4 mm, after adjustments for demographic and SEP measures. The association of ethnicity with periodontal disease was moderated by education, but not by socioeconomic classification. Stratified analysis showed that ethnic disparities in the two periodontal measures were limited to more educated groups. This study showed considerable ethnic disparities in periodontal disease between and within the major ethnic categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  1. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  3. Introduction to British Sculpture Abroad in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Wood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, British sculpture enjoyed a complex transitional life, taking on a new, bold, and increasingly internationalized profile, at the very same time that its forms and meanings were being challenged and contested. Both in Britain and beyond its shores, sculpture experienced substantial reorientation at the same time as it developed a rich and complicated “import” and “export” life, conceptually, commercially, and curatorially. When “Sculpture” was “British” and “Abroad”, its “abroad-ness” was not always so explicitly visible, since its forms and concerns frequently chimed with sensibilities and approaches that were emerging elsewhere too, whether they were figurative or abstract, Constructivist or Pop. At the same time, when sculpture was being displayed in Britain, whether in terms of groups, schools, and/or recent tendencies, it was increasingly described as “British Sculpture”. Visual evidence of foreign impact and exchange gradually emerged at the same time as this national and generational trope became a cultural identifier on a broader cultural landscape.

  4. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Booy, R; El Bashir, H; Ali, K; Zambon, MC; Memish, ZA; Ellis, J; Coen, PG; Haworth, E

    2008-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT) of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18%) were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3) accounted for 54% (20/37) of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37), influenza B 19% (7/37), and influenza A (H1) 3% (1/37). Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28) had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%). The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202). This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:22460211

  5. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  6. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  7. Legionum Urbs and the British Martyrs Aaron and Julius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Breeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the localization of the martyrdom of the British saints Aaron and Julius, known of solely from Gildas, writing in the early 530s. His remarks were taken up by Bede (d. 737, so that the two saints have never been forgotten, their cult surviving to this day. The author provides a detailed survey of discussion of Aaron and Julius over the centuries, and argues that their martyrdom was neither at Caerleon (in south-east Wales nor Chester (in north-west England, as suggested by numerous scholars, but at Leicester, another major city of Roman Britain. Working from epigraphic sources and taking into account ancient models of naming, the author attempts a reinterpretation of Legionum urbs in the original texts by emending it to Legorum urbs “city of the Legores,” the Celtic people of the Leicester region. The latter, by the time of Gildas, was occupied by the Angles, while the city itself was abandoned, which may explain Gildas’s remarks, otherwise unclear if one identifies Legionum urbs with Caerleon or Chester. The author adduces both historical and linguistic arguments for his proposal and shows that it sheds new light on the history of early British Christianity.

  8. Geographical aspects of British overseas trade: a framework and a review

    OpenAIRE

    A G Hoare

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an overview of geographical studies into the British involvement in international trade. A conceptual framework comprising three elements is presented: internal regional economies, British trading ports, and overseas trading partners. The interactions among these three elements are discussed in order to review the rationale for an academic interest in British geography of overseas trade. The existing literature on the subject is also briefly discussed.

  9. Public ownership, privatisation and regulation: social welfare counterfactuals for British Telecom

    OpenAIRE

    Puglisi, Riccardo; Florio, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Is privatization per se socially beneficial? Or do those benefits depend on the subsequent changes in the regulatory regime? In this paper, building on Vogelsang, Jones and Tandon (1994), we answer these questions by analyzing three different counterfactuals about British Telecom privatization and regulation. In the factual scenario, the British government decided to privatize British Telecom, and at the same time to establish an independent agency (OFTEL), which was to impose a price cap mec...

  10. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  11. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis displaying beach hunting behavior in the Cananéia Estuary, Brazil: social context and conservation issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To elaborate a fuller description of the beach hunting behavior displayed by Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis in the Cananéia Estuary (CE (25ºS, 48ºW, a photo-identification study was conducted from May 2000 to July 2003. Three land platforms were chosen at the main entrance of the above-mentioned estuary, where scientists enjoy a unique opportunity to observe dolphins at greater proximity, undisturbed. Observations were opportunistic and unevenly distributed in time and space. To enhance the identification efforts, an 80-pound crossbow was used to collect skin samples in order to determine the sex of the eight individuals thus monitored. In 67 days of surveys, rendering approximately 80h of direct observations, 4,102 photographs were taken, of which 1,098 (26.8% were considered useful for identification purposes. A total of 103 groups were reported (3.7 ± 2.6 individuals, ranging from solitary dolphins to 15 individuals. Female-calf pairs were observed in 92.4% of all the groups investigated. On the first occasion, a calving interval was observed for the species in the CE: approximately 3 years and 9 months. Of the 40 individuals identified at least once, eleven used the sloping beaches regularly: females KN #s 10, 30, 255, 268 and 279; males KN #s 86 and 257; and four individuals of unknown sex. The characteristics of the associations among beach hunters were evaluated by the analyses of association indices. A total of 83 possible associations between dyads were analyzed using the half-weight index and two selective criteria (5+ and 8+ sightings/individual. Mean association indices varied from 0.12 to 0.16, evidencing weak bonds among beach hunters. Most regular beach hunters were females, showing that the beach hunting behavior should probably be considered more typically female. Beach hunting in the CE might be considered another example of cultural transmission in cetacean societies.Com o intuito de detalhar o comportamento de

  12. The role of fluvial sediment supply and river-mouth hydrology in the dynamics of the muddy, Amazon-dominated Amapá-Guianas coast, South America: A three-point research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Proisy, Christophe; Fromard, François; Gensac, Erwan; Peron, Christina; Walcker, Romain; Lesourd, Sandric

    2013-07-01

    probably lessened muddy deposition. The third theme concerns sand supply by the Guiana Shield rivers. The rare sand deposits are important in providing sites for human settlements and routes and for nesting by marine turtles. The limited presence of sand bodies on this coast may reflect 'mud blanketing', a hypothesis that requires verification through high-resolution seismic analyses of shelf deposits and coring operations. The large Guiana Shield rivers, especially in Surinam and Guyana, have supplied sand for the construction of significant bands of cheniers, probably enhanced by the afore-mentioned downdrift hydraulic-groyne effect on hindered mud deposition. In all the three themes of this future research agenda, two central elements are the sediment input of the rivers of the Amazon basin, starting with the massive mud supply from the Amazon catchment itself, followed by sand inputs by the Guiana Shield rivers and their river-mouth effects on mud banks.

  13. Multiculturalism and Contemporary British Fiction: Londonstani and The Islamist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Elia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the need to move beyond post-colonial and cultural studies somewhat abstract categories seems to be stronger than ever. In order to analyse all-encompassing issues such as ‘Europe', ‘black' and ‘white', a reification of post-colonial theoretical tools is made possible by an ever-increasing permeability of the boundaries between subjects such as literature, sociology, contemporary history, political science, international relations, anthropology. By pursuing an interdisciplinary and pragmatic approach, one finds it difficult to identify a persuasive idea of ‘Europe' when even its ‘capital' Brussels has to face an identity compromise between Flemish and Walloons (Castells, AlSayyad: 2002; by the same token, it is hard to imagine that, say, Scottish people would define themselves first as Europeans, and then as British and Scottish - the opposite sequential order is much more likely. Traditional categories such as ‘black' and ‘white' are also being repeatedly challenged and disrupted, witness the recent publication of novels such as Gautam Malkani's Londonstani (2006 and Ed Husain's The Islamist (2007. The former displays a religion-free kind of identity describing the life in Hounslow of apolitical British-Asian teenage rude-boys ironically embracing the traditionally opposed black hip-hop culture. The latter, instead, is based on a real account of a British Muslim who, after becoming an Islamic fundamentalist, rejected political Islam and returned to normal life. My essay aims to investigate this anti-essentialist notion of the South-Asian community in contemporary Britain by reflecting on the passionate debate between those who keep celebrating multiculturalism as the necessary path to a more tolerant society, and those who blame the policy of appeasement that supposedly fostered the growth of Muslim fundamentalism in Britain. Bearing in mind the diverse colonial histories and the dangers of

  14. Gaps and spaces: representations of dementia in contemporary British poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2014-03-01

    This article considers the work of a number of contemporary British poets who have attempted to articulate some of the experiences that dementia entails. The unique potential of poetry as a means of portraying the dislocations and reinventions of self that dementia involves has been mostly overlooked. The insights offered by critical gerontology are central to this article. This perspective calls for critical thought about the ways in which dementia has been socially constructed. The challenges posed by poets such as Vuyelwa Carlin, Valerie Laws and Jo Shapcott in particular, are examined. The complex poetic representations offered by these poets acknowledge the pathological declines of dementia and simultaneously celebrate the individuality and life of their subjects. Considering dementia with reference to the work of contemporary poets and critical gerontology is one way in which we can deepen our understanding of what this illness involves and humanise those who suffer from it.

  15. The Electronic Agora of the British Society in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rangelova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available H. Rheyngold (1993 introduces the concept of "electronic agora", claiming that virtual communities act on the square - an open space where it all happens. The theoretical framework of this paper will be set by the theory of Schutz for multiplication of reality and will build on the theory of Muggleton virtual identity. Commonwealth in Bulgaria communicates in a parallel to the real world to the virtual. Through virtual identity can reinvent itself, moving freely between multiple online roles, to be the opposite sex, younger, older, anonymous and thus to avoid the presentation of the true self. What roles occupy the British in Bulgaria in the early 21st century in cyberspace and how it used? Do they experiment with their identity? Do they develop strong relationships in social groups? Answers to these questions will be looking for in this study.

  16. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  17. Economic Consequences of BREXIT after the British Referendum

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    Critian PĂUN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project is strongly challenged today by the historical decision of United Kingdom’s citizens to exit from this structure, with all consequences assumed. United Kingdom will be the first nation that will quit this ambitious initiative and the decision is transmitted by the organized national referendum’s results in this respect. The population’s opinion expressed by a huge number of voting persons should be taken into consideration by British politicians and transposed very soon into political actions that could have a strong and clear economic impact on both sides. This paper will discuss the possible economic consequences of such historical decision, including potential effects on a small country like Romania.

  18. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  19. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1993-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The annual report reviews the work of the Occupational Health Service of British Coal during 1993. The report summarises medical examinations and consultations carried out; presents, in detail, the reports of the Periodic X-ray surveys (1993 was the final year of the eighth round of surveys); reports on various hazards and problems such as noise, temperature, detection inks, occupational stress; discusses activities relating to compliance with health and safety regulations; reports on work of the toxicology unit on hazardous substances and on carcinogenicity; reports on injuries and treatments (including counselling after the Bilsthorpe Accident in August 1993) and on the nursing service, and summarises research on 1-hydroxypyrene as a monitor of exposure to coal liquefaction workers and on monitoring exposure to benzene.

  20. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Hirst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  1. Appearance of bacteriology in the British medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, S P

    2006-01-01

    Published histories of bacteriology concentrate on the scientific concepts, exemplified by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Arguably, the early British bacteriological studies are headed by Lord Lister, whereas other notables such as Ronald Ross, Robert Bruce and Patrick Manson are honoured for their discoveries of 'tropical' microbes, accomplished abroad. What then was happening in Great Britain? The introduction of bacteriology into the medical school curriculum is examined according to the published lectures in The Lancet between 1889 and 1901 and the dates are reviewed in light of other published sources. The names of the people delivering bacteriology at the medical schools in Great Britain and Ireland provide a guide to the relevance of crediting Lister as the leading light for microbiology in the UK. The diversity of names and backgrounds suggests that a critical reassessment of the perceived late and limited start of UK medical bacteriology is needed.

  2. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R

    2004-06-01

    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  3. The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baltar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.

  4. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  5. Keeping up Appearances on the Romano-British Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Birley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Roman Vindolanda lies on the Stanegate Road to the south of Hadrian's Wall, on the northern frontier of the Romano-British province. It has complex stratigraphy with at least ten layers of occupation dating from around AD 85 to its abandonment in the 5th century, but it is the first five levels from AD 85 to AD 130-139 that have produced some of the most significant organic objects from the Empire, including the Vindolanda writing tablets (Birley 2009. One of the distinctive aspects of the Vindolanda collection is the large number of wooden hair combs found in these levels. Over 160 boxwood hair combs have been unearthed from the site. Resembling modern nit combs, these small objects had the primary function of cleaning and detangling hair, but further examination of the collection allows for the exploration of different aspects of style and function.

  6. Finding official British information official publishing in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Inman, Jane; Purushothama, B

    2011-01-01

    Examining the different bodies that publish official material, this book describes the types of material published, how it is made available and how it is recorded. Finding Official British Information focuses on the digital availability of official information and considers how much is now freely available on the web and how to locate it as well as addressing issues of web only publishing. It covers public bodies in the UK and includes publications issued by central and local government as well as the devolved assemblies and the many other organisations that issue official publications. Quick 'how to find' section for each area Designed for the non-specialist Covering central and local government, the devolved assemblies and other public bodies in the UK.

  7. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Carolyn K

    2014-01-01

    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  8. Acute hepatitis A virus infections in British Gurkha soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.

  9. Towards targeted screening for acute HIV infections in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Cook, Darrel A; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Haag, Devon; Tsang, Peggy; Wong, Elsie; Brooks, James I; Merks, Harriet; Rekart, Michael L

    2011-08-09

    Our objective was to describe the characteristics of acute and established HIV infections diagnosed in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Province-wide HIV testing and surveillance data were analyzed to inform recommendations for targeted use of screening algorithms to detect acute HIV infections. Acute HIV infection was defined as a confirmed reactive HIV p24 antigen test (or HIV nucleic acid test), a non-reactive or reactive HIV EIA screening test and a non-reactive or indeterminate Western Blot. Characteristics of unique individuals were identified from the British Columbia HIV/AIDS Surveillance System. Primary drug resistance and HIV subtypes were identified by analyzing HIV pol sequences from residual sera from newly infected individuals. From February 2006 to October 2008, 61 individuals met the acute HIV infection case definition, representing 6.2% of the 987 newly diagnosed HIV infections during the analysis period. Acute HIV infection cases were more likely to be men who have sex with men (crude OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.01-2.89], to have had a documented previous negative HIV test result (crude OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.52-5.51), and to have reported a reason for testing due to suspected seroconversion symptoms (crude OR 5.16; 95% CI 2.88-9.23). HIV subtypes and rates of transmitted drug resistance across all classes of drugs were similar in persons with both acute and established HIV infections. Targeted screening to detect acute HIV infection is a logical public health response to the HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest that acute HIV infection screening strategies, in our setting, are helpful for early diagnosis in men who have sex with men, in persons with seroconversion symptoms and in previously negative repeat testers.

  10. Electricity and Static: Franklin and his British compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mankin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Les découvertes en électricité de Benjamin Franklin ont mobilisé des chercheurs depuis des décennies. Cet essai ne traite pas de ces découvertes au sens strict, mais étudie le contexte dans lequel Franklin a présenté certains de ses travaux scientifiques et politiques en 1751, ainsi que leur réception en Grande-Bretagne. L’essai suggère que Franklin ne fut ni l’enfant des Lumières britanniques ou européennes, ni un de leurs jouets. Bien que célébré très généralement par son siècle, Franklin demeurait comme une force étrangère à laquelle les Lumières britanniques devaient faire face, tant sur le plan intellectuel que politique. Peut-être que cette situation explique pourquoi il fut un adversaire si redoutable pour l’Etat britannique.Franklin’s discoveries in electricity have rewarded scholarly attention for many decades. This short essay is not about electricity in the strict sense, but about the context in which Franklin presented some of his work in science and in politics in 1751, and about the way that work was received in Britain. The aim of the essay is to suggest that Franklin was neither a child of the British or European Enlightenment nor one of its toys. And though he may have been touted very generally as an inspiration, he was closer to a foreign force with which, intellectually as well as a politically, it had to contend. This may help in explaining why he proved so considerable a foe to the British state.

  11. Alexander von Humboldt and British artists: the Oriental taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Humboldtian landscape is the best result of a close relationship between artists and scientists in the context of the Enlightenment. Many artists inspired Humboldt to develop his concept of landscape as the best way of representing Nature, but some British artists in particular were a strong reference for him. Thomas Daniell and William Hodges had travelled to Asia creating a particular imagery, which inspired the desire to travel and the feeling of the exotic taste in Humboldt. Around Humboldt, mainly two types of artists have been studied: on the one hand, painter travellers who received direct instructions from Humboldt after his experience in America, and on the other, artists who started their trips by themselves after reading his works. However, this paper is focused on the links between Humboldt and these British painters of the Orient, whom he met on a European tour with Georg Forster, before making his trip to America.El paisaje teorizado por Humboldt es el resultado de una estrecha relación entre artistas y científicos, en el contexto de la Ilustración. Muchos artistas inspiraron a Humboldt a desarrollar su concepto del paisaje como la mejor forma de representar la naturaleza pero particularmente, algunos artistas británicos supusieron una fuerte referencia para él. Principalmente, alrededor de Humboldt se han estudiado dos tipos de artistas: por una parte, los pintores viajeros que recibieron instrucciones directas de Humboldt tras su experiencia en América y por otra, los artistas que iniciaron sus viajes por iniciativa propia tras haber leído los sus trabajos. Sin embargo, este texto se centra en las relaciones entre Humboldt y los pintores británicos de Oriente, a quienes él conoció en su viaje europeo junto a Georg Forster, antes de realizar su viaje americano.

  12. British surgeons' experiences of mandatory online workplace-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Dean, Benjamin J F

    2009-07-01

    An online workplace-based assessment tool, the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP), has become mandatory for all British surgical trainees appointed since August 2007. A compulsory pound125 annual trainee fee has also been introduced to fund its running costs. The study sought to evaluate user satisfaction with the ISCP. A total of 539 users across all surgical specialties (including 122 surgeons acting as assessors) were surveyed in late 2008 by online questionnaire regarding their experiences with the ISCP. Sixty-seven percent had used the tool for at least one year. It was rated above average by only 6% for its registration process and only 11% for recording meetings and objectives. Forty-nine percent described its online assessments as poor or very poor, only 9% considering them good or very good. Seventy-nine percent rated the website's user friendliness as average or worse, as did 72% its peer-assessment tool and 61% its logbook of procedures. Seventy-six percent of respondents had carried out paper assessments due to difficulties using the website. Six percent stated that the ISCP had impacted negatively on their training opportunities, 41% reporting a negative impact overall upon their training; only 6% reported a positive impact. Ninety-four percent did not consider the trainee fee good value, only 2% believing it should be paid by the trainee. The performance of the ISCP leaves large numbers of British surgeons unsatisfied. Its assessments lack appropriate evidence of validity and its introduction has been problematic. With reducing training hours, the increased online bureaucratic burden exacerbates low morale of trainees and trainers, adversely impacting potentially upon both competency and productivity.

  13. Dental caries experience of British children in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, M C; Drugan, C S; Blinkhorn, A S

    2005-06-01

    To document data on current and past levels of dental decay in British children and compare trends with those in other countries, in Europe in particular. Data were abstracted from multiple sources and collated and tabulated. The dental health of the majority of British children has improved dramatically since the early 1970s. Twelve-year-old children now have on average less than one decayed, missing (extracted) or filled tooth. Levels of dental decay in UK children at 5 and 12 years are among the lowest in the world. There are still marked inequalities in the dental decay experience of children between the territorial regions of the UK, high and low socio-economic groups, and regular and symptomatic dental attenders. Many children in areas of deprivation are either not motivated to seek dental treatment or experience barriers in obtaining it. In parallel with improvements in the dental health of the majority of children, the proportion of UK adults who have no natural teeth has fallen from 37% to 12% over the past four decades. Total tooth loss is now confined almost entirely to individuals over 45 years of age. Most of the improvements in children's dental health are attributable to environmental factors, in particular the widespread availability of fluoride containing toothpastes since the 1970s. There are clear benefits from fluoridation of public water supplies over and above those attributable to other factors. The findings suggest initiatives should be directed to bringing children from deprived backgrounds under the umbrella of dental care. To help alleviate the inequalities in dental health, water fluoridation should be implemented, in urban industrial areas in particular, where levels of dental decay are still unacceptably high.

  14. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  15. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles

  16. British ‘Bollocks’ versus American ‘Jerk’: do native British English speakers swear more –or differently- compared to American English speakers?

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the differences between 414 L1 speakers of British and 556 L1 speakers of American English in self-reported frequency of swearing and in the understanding of the meaning, the perceived offensiveness and the frequency of use of 30 negative emotion-laden words extracted from the British National Corpus. Words ranged from mild to highly offensive, insulting and taboo. Statistical analysies revealed no significant differences between the groups in self reported freq...

  17. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  18. Using Web-Based Technologies and Tools in Future Choreographers' Training: British Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyuk, Dmytro

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the problem of using effective web-based technologies and tools in teaching choreography in British higher education institutions has been discussed. Researches on the usage of web-based technologies and tools for practical dance courses in choreographers' professional training at British higher education institutions by such British…

  19. British Policy Towards Loyalists in the Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Loyalists. The Queens Rangers provide clear evidence of the potential that resided within the Loyalist volunteers. The British publicly acknowledged...University of North Carolina Press, 1941. Davies, K. G. “The Restoration of Civil Government by the British in the War of Independence.” In. Red

  20. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly

  1. How British-Chinese Parents Support Their Children: A View from the Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei

    2014-01-01

    Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…

  2. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  3. Comics Unmasked: A Conversation with Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Priego

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this interview Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library, talks to Ernesto Priego about the Comics Unmasked: Art and Anarchy in the UK exhibition at The British Library, 2 May – 19 August 2014.

  4. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas…

  5. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated January 18, 2010. (2... defined in paragraph 2.D.(4) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32... bores for cracks. Do the inspections following British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service...

  6. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series 3101, and... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...

  7. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content

  8. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  9. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999

  10. Proposal to Fund the Establishment of a Computer Based Library Service Utility in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Union Catalogue, Richmond.

    Sponsored by the 28 member libraries of the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC), this proposal requests funds from provincial government to establish the British Columbia Library Network (BCLN), a computerized library information system based on the existing BCUC organization and database. Chapters describe the need for the establishment of…

  11. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-10

    Iberian Peninsula, some twenty-five years later, suggesting perhaps that at least some officers in the British Army did absorb key lessons from 20 the...lived 1723-1786. A career British officer he was wounded serving in 60th Foot under Wolfe at Quebec. He was promoted Colonel in September 1775

  12. "I dumped my husband for a Turkish toyboy": romance tourism and intersectionality in British tabloid newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; van Zoonen, L.; Kuipers, G.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyse how British tabloid newspapers represent relationships between mature British women and the younger Turkish toyboy lovers they meet (and sometimes look for) on their holiday; a practice that is often considered as the female counterpart to male sex tourism, albeit

  13. Is the Culture of the British Army Conducive to the Successful Execution of Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    John W. Creswell , Research Design : Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014), 14, 242...in the U.S., British, and Israeli Armies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. Creswell , John W., Research Design : Qualitative ...The research for this paper was qualitative in nature. It investigated the relationship between two elements, Mission Command and British Army

  14. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  15. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  16. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora. PMID:28069962

  17. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2017-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  18. Perceptions of technology at sea amongst British seafaring officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    The use of Information Communication Technology is growing in the maritime industry as more systems become monitored remotely and new technologies are introduced to aid environmental awareness and increase safety. An exploratory survey was conducted as part of the EU project 'FLAGSHIP' to assess how seafarers perceive the current state of technology onboard ship and to identify areas of resistance to advancements in this area. Only 5.8% of the sample of British officers (overall n = 805) reported feeling resistant to new technology either 'quite a lot' or 'a great deal' at a general level compared to 82.8% when asked about the specific issue of training. Logistic regression analysis revealed older seafarers and those with low computer literacy to show greater resistance to new technology. Resistance was also higher on vessels with smaller crews, although a confound with vessel type is likely. Technology training for seafarers should be improved but not as a means of compensating for equipment developed without reference to user-centred design principles. Around 90% of all goods are transported by ship yet ergonomic research into the onboard environment is extremely limited. New technology is being introduced to substitute for the human element but little has been done to investigate how work processes have adapted. Seafarers' perceptions of new technology are examined here.

  19. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Corstanje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  20. Regional landslide hazard susceptibility mapping for pipelines in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leir, M.; Ramsay, S. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Mitchell, A. [Terasen Gas Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Terasen Gas Inc. is a major supplier of natural gas in British Columbia. Much of its network of gas distribution pipelines passes through rugged and varied terrain. In an effort to manage ground movement hazards that may potentially affect the operation of their system, Terasen conducted a mapping project to identify slow progressive, subsurface ground deformations that could cause leaks in buried gas pipelines. This paper describes the mapping program and the challenges of the GIS based regional scale landslide hazard susceptibility mapping project that ranked and prioritized the 88 communities serviced by Terasen according to which ones required further hazard and risk studies. Landslide subtypes were restricted to earth and debris slides; earth and rock flows; and, earth and rock creep. An international framework for probabilistic hazard and risk management was used during the project along with landslide hazard zonation and simple Fuzzy Logic operators. The landslide causal factors used in the study were: slope angle, surficial geology, bedrock geology, proximity to water bodies, and proximity to faults. A score was assigned to each community. This study provides useful information to those involved in geohazard management and hazard zonation, geoscience data providers, municipal planners and pipeline integrity personnel. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. HIV/AIDS in Vancouver, British Columbia: a growing epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Colin W; Druyts, Eric; Harvard, Stephanie S; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Lima, Viviane D; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV in Vancouver, British Columbia was subject to two distinct periods of rapid increase. The first occurred in the 1980s due to high incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), and the second occurred in the 1990s due to high incidence among injection drug users (IDU). The purpose of this study was to estimate and model the trends in HIV prevalence in Vancouver from 1980 to 2006. HIV prevalence data were entered into the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) where prevalence trends were estimated by fitting an epidemiological model to the data. Epidemic curves were fit for IDU, MSM, street-based female sex trade workers (FSW), and the general population. Using EPP, these curves were then aggregated to produce a model of Vancouver's overall HIV prevalence. Of the 505 000 people over the age of 15 that reside in Vancouver, 6108 (ranging from 4979 to 7237) were living with HIV in the year 2006, giving an overall prevalence of 1.21 percent (ranging from 0.99 to 1.43 percent). The subgroups of IDU and MSM account for the greatest proportion of HIV infections. Our model estimates that the prevalence of HIV in Vancouver is greater than one percent, roughly 6 times higher than Canada's national prevalence. These results suggest that HIV infection is having a relatively large impact in Vancouver and that evidence-based prevention and harm reduction strategies should be expanded. PMID:19265531

  2. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1989-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains detailed results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners of various age groups from 1962 to 1989. Only 0.6% of 14,300 men X-rayed in 1989 showed any sign of the disease and the overall figure for the 112 collieries surveyed after the completed seventh round of surveys was 0.7%. Emphasis has continued on dust control measures on coal faces and in drivages - dust concentration of 3.1 mg/m {sup 3} in 1989-90 was in keeping with the trend since 1970. A 'cohort' of young miners is being monitored to develop an early warning system to identify changes in the incidence of pneumoconiosis. The role of Medical Service in treating injuries, skin diseases, back pain etc. and problems caused by noise and chemicals is explained. Continued attention has been paid to implication of the COSHH regulations and audiometry has been introduced to all British Coal's employees. Services are now provided to workers of Coal Products Ltd. Reports of first aid and nursing services are included. Use of pethidine for relieving pain is now being advocated. 6 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. The Biographical Management of Risk and Uncertainty—British Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available How individuals deal with risk and uncertainties in the context of an organizational culture is a neglected area in the sociology of risk and uncertainty. This contribution reports from an explorative qualitative study (n=14 which examines the intersection of biographical experiences and organizational culture in the perspective of risk and uncertainty. This study with ex-serviceman of the British Armed Forces shows that coming from different biographical contexts, young adults become soldiers for different reasons and they experience their time as soldiers differently. Some chose the certainty culture of the military as a life perspective; others see it rather as a stage in their life. It is the group which assimilates most into military culture which has serious problems with the transition into civil life. But these problems seem to be rooted in the way in which soldiers adopt the military certainty culture rather than the transition itself. Soldiers who maintain competing interpretations and biographical projects are less assimilated but better prepared to deal with all kinds of issues such as drinking culture, ethical and life and death issues. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001102

  4. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  5. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.

    2017-09-01

    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  6. The dental status of asthmatic British school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDerra, E J; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of dental disease in British school children with asthma. A convenience sample of 100 asthmatic children (aged 4-16 years) was examined for dental caries, periodontal condition, and tooth surface loss. School children, equated for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status were chosen for comparison. Children were divided into two age ranges; 4-10 and 11-16 years. A significant difference was found in DMFT (0.96 vs. 0.31) and DMFS (1.37 vs. 0.37) between the 4-10-year-old asthmatic children compared with healthy control children. In the 11-16-year age range, the asthmatic children had a DMFT and DMFS of 2.48 and 3.39 compared with the control children who had a DMFT and DMFS of 1.11 and 1.97 respectively. Asthmatic children had significantly more plaque, gingivitis, and calculus compared with the control group. There was a significant difference in the severity and number of teeth affected by tooth surface loss affecting labial surfaces of the anterior teeth and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth of asthmatic children. It was concluded that asthmatic children have more decay affecting their permanent teeth, poorer periodontal status, and more tooth surface loss than healthy controls.

  7. Questionnaire survey of proliferative enteropathy on British pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S H; McOrist, S; Green, L E

    1998-06-20

    Risk factors for proliferative enteropathy were investigated by means of a postal questionnaire survey of randomly selected British pig farms. Replies were received from 319 (56 per cent) of the 569 questionnaires posted, representing 1.5 per cent of the total number of pig farms in Britain. Thirty-one per cent of the farms had experienced at least one episode of proliferative enteropathy within the previous three years, usually confirmed by their veterinary surgeon. There was a strong association for the occurrence of proliferative enteropathy in herds of over 500 sows (P proliferative enteropathy, compared with the use of straw bedding or solid floors. The destocking of entire buildings containing pigs two to four months old before the introduction of fresh pigs, was associated with a reduced risk (P < 0.05), but the destocking of selected pens rather than the whole building had no such association. The type of diet, or feeding or watering system and the types of buildings used were not identified as risk factors.

  8. Funding, Performance and Participation in British Olympic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Goranova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport funding, performance and mass participation. Elite sport development has become a key component in countries’ sport systems. National governing bodies continuously invest money and resources in developing effective sport structures for future current athletes. It could be suggested that with continuously rising sport competition, the British Elite sport funding system needs to be revised to optimize the support for elite athletes in more sports with potential to win medals and in that way increase competitiveness and dominance across a wider range of sports, as well as to minimize the threat for the nation to be surpassed by its rivals (Duffy et al. 2006. A historical database of funding (UK Sport, performance (Olympic medals and participation (Active People Survey statistics has been constructed. All Olympic sports from Sydney 2000 to London 2012 with Team GB representation have been included. Bivariate correlation was used to test the relationship between variables and results indicate no strong correlation to exist. We discuss the implications and limitations of our findings in the context of current sport policy in the UK before making suggestions for future research in this area.

  9. Short Legal Study on “British Exit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Stancu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After waiting nearly 13 years to become member of the European Union (EU, the United Kingdom, by the referendum in June 2016, it wants to be the first country leaving the European construction structures. However, the manner by which it was decided to exit the EU, namely the “referendum” raises many legal constitutional debates within the United Kingdom, even to the admission of the possibility to invoke the nullity of the vote of the British people. However, the London Government reaffirmed their desire to abandon the European ship. Thus, engaging the technical procedures for negotiating the conclusion of exiting from the EU cannot be sustained for too long. However, the future relationship between the European Union and Britain gives rise to many uncertainties. It puts in question the type of framework agreement which will regulate the cooperation between the EU and the UK. Maybe it will take as a model the existing agreement, such as that between the Union and the Switzerland or Russia, or it will be preferred the agreement “sur mesure” (customized according to their interests? Also, another question is that of knowing the effects of exiting, in terms of international relations. The European Union is party to various international treaties, the United Kingdom, through its membership, has enjoyed the benefits of these international agreements. Since the Union is no longer serving as interface, should Britain renegotiate bilaterally these treaties? To all these questions we will give an objective answer in this article.

  10. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  11. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Parvin; Barroetavena, Maria Cristina; Hislop, T Greg; Bajdik, Chris D

    2010-04-21

    Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR) and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  12. British women's attitudes towards oocyte donation: ethnic differences and altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, S; van den Akker, O B A

    2006-12-01

    This study assessed the importance of altruism and willingness to donate oocytes in British Asian and Caucasian samples. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was used to test the importance of attitudes towards oocyte donation, normative and control beliefs to attitudes to donate oocytes. One hundred and one participants (55% Asian, 45% Caucasian) completed questionnaires measuring altruism and attitudes to Oocyte donation. There were no socio-demographic differences between ethnic groups. Few women were willing to donate oocytes, Asian women were least likely to donate oocytes, and altruism was not related to willingness to donate. Forty-one participants considered themselves 'possible' oocyte donors and 54 as definite 'non' donors. Possible donors reported significantly more positive attitudes towards egg donation; asking women to donate under various circumstances; to the consequences of donating their eggs; positively experiencing egg donation and to factors that would induce women to donate. Subjective norms and behavioural control also influenced intention to donate. A number of components of the TPB were able to predict possible oocyte donation, and non-oocyte donation. This study provides some empirical support for specific factors influencing cultural differences in gamete donation in the UK. A future culturally appropriate targeted approach to donation education could redress the present imbalance in supply and demand of gametes in infertility treatment.

  13. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  14. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  15. Sinonasal aspergillosis in a British Shorthair cat in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Tamborini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-year-old, castrated male, British Shorthair cat presented for investigation of chronic, intermittent, bilateral epistaxis and stertor. CT revealed severe asymmetric bilateral intranasal involvement with extensive turbinate lysis, increased soft tissue attenuation and lysis of the sphenopalatine bone and cribriform plate. On retroflexed pharyngoscopy, a plaque-like mass occluded the choanae. Rostral rhinoscopic examination revealed extensive loss of nasal turbinates, necrotic tissue and mucosal fungal plaques in the left nasal cavity. The right nasal cavity was less severely affected. The nasal cavities were debrided extensively of plaques and necrotic tissue. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated on fungal culture, and species identity was confirmed using comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin gene. On histopathology of nasal biopsies, there was ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, and fungal hyphae were identified on nasal mucosa, consistent with a non-invasive mycosis. The cat was treated with oral itraconazole after endoscopic debridement, but signs relapsed 4.5 months from diagnosis. Residual left nasal fungal plaques were again debrided endoscopically and oral posaconazole was administered for 6 months. Fourteen months from diagnosis, the cat remains clinically well with mild intermittent left nasal discharge secondary to atrophic rhinitis. Relevance and novel information This is the first case of rhinoscopically confirmed sinonasal aspergillosis to be diagnosed in a cat in the UK. Endoscopic confirmation of resolution of infection is useful in cases where mild nasal discharge persists after treatment.

  16. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  18. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  19. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Duthie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  20. Selective Memory: British Perceptions of the Herero-Nama Genocide, 1904-1908 and 1918

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt Nielsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This article examines British officials’ perceptions of, and degree of involvement in, the Herero–Nama war and subsequent genocide in German South-West Africa in 1904–1908. By examining contemporary British correspondence on this event and comparing it to the British ‘Blue Book’ of 1918, the arti...... to German colonial history, this article challenges the idea of German colonial exceptionalism and the approach to this genocide within a historical framework of the Third Reich. Instead, this event should be understood within the wider transnational context of imperial history....

  1. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  2. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Shin, Hyoung-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19(th) Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities.

  3. Perspectives for Researching British Appeasement of Nazi Germany in the Inter-War Years Using the Digitized Newspaper Collections of the British Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Vasiliu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify that the methods for researching the British appeasement policy towards Germany in the inter-war years can include the new method of studying the digitized collections of newspapers of the British Library. The policy of appeasement led by Great Britain during the inter-war years still represents a very attractive subject of research. The challenge lies not only in the new data harvested from primary sources such as documents and newspapers but also in the new methods of researching that may be applied, and that may increase the interest of scholars. Today, researching the digitized collections of archives are not even a futuristic resource, but a growing necessity. Accessing the British Library's digitized collections through the British Newspaper Archive website is often easier and more efficient than going to the archives. The site has more than 40 million digitized newspapers, mainly local periodicals, which can be accessed by searching for keywords, establishing filters and saving results to retrieve them later. The electronic resources of the digitized collections provide valuable help in my doctoral research on the Anglo-French appeasement reflected in the newspapers, which proves to be a great challenge, given the fact that the subject was widely covered in many of the central newspapers. But, of course, this method immediately poses multiple questions: is this method of research as rigorous as the traditional research conducted in the archives? Does this method provide the intercoder reliability framework required for such works? These are the research questions that remain at the center of this article. Previous research on the subject of digitized collections and also the analysis of the resources of the British Newspaper Archive in comparison with the traditional British Library resources can provide an answer.

  4. Cancer incidence in relatives of British Fanconi Anaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson Shirley V

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fanconi anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive DNA repair disorder with affected individuals having a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia and certain solid tumours. Thirteen complementation groups have been identified and the genes for all of these are known (FANCA, B, C, D1/BRCA2, D2, E, F, G, I, J/BRIP1, L, M and N/PALB2. Previous studies of cancer incidence in relatives of Fanconi anemia cases have produced conflicting results. A study of British FA families was therefore carried out to investigate this question, since increases in cancer risk in FA heterozygotes would have implications for counselling FA family members, and possibly also for the implementation of preventative screening measures in FA heterozygotes. Methods Thirty-six families took part and data was collected on 575 individuals (276 males, 299 females, representing 18,136 person years. In this cohort, 25 males and 30 females were reported with cancer under the age of 85 years, and 36 cancers (65% could be confirmed from death certificates, cancer registries or clinical records. Results A total of 55 cancers were reported in the FA families compared to an estimated incidence of 56.95 in a comparable general population cohort, and the relative risk of cancer was 0.97 (95% C.I. = 0.71–1.23, p = 0.62 for FA family members. Analysis of relative risk for individual cancer types in each carrier probability group did not reveal any significant differences with the possible exception of prostate cancer (RR = 3.089 (95% C.I. = 1.09 – 8.78; Χ2 = 4.767, p = 0.029. Conclusion This study has not shown a significant difference in overall cancer risk in FA families.

  5. Mortality from multiple sclerosis in British military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T; Cox, Vanessa; Darnton, Andrew; Osman, John; Coggon, David

    2017-08-01

    While analysing trends in occupational mortality in England and Wales, we noticed an unexpectedly elevated proportion of deaths from multiple sclerosis (MS) among men in the armed forces. To document and explore possible explanations for the observed excess. We analysed data on underlying cause of death and last full-time occupation for 3,688,916 deaths among men aged 20-74 years in England and Wales during 1979-2010, calculating proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) standardised for age. We compared PMRs for MS in the armed forces with those for each main social class, and in selected other occupations. We also compared PMRs for MS with those for motor neurone disease (MND). The overall PMR for MS in the armed forces during 1979-2010 was 243 (95%CI 203-288). The excess was apparent in each of three separate decades of study (PMRs, ranging from 220 to 259), and across the entire age range. PMRs for MS were not elevated to the same extent in comparator occupations, nor in any of the main social classes. There was no parallel increase in PMRs for MND. These findings suggest that the high proportional mortality from MS in British military personnel is unlikely to have occurred by chance, or as an artefact of the method of investigation. However, the only military cohort study with published results on MS does not support an increased risk. It would be useful to analyse data on MS from other established military cohorts, to check for evidence of a hazard.

  6. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Lynd, Larry; Marra, Carlo; Carleton, Bruce; Tan, Wan C; Sullivan, Sean; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health care costs associated with asthma would enable the estimation of the economic burden of this increasingly common disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct medical costs of asthma-related health care in British Columbia (BC). METHODS: Administrative health care data from the BC Linked Health Database and PharmaNet database from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed for BC residents five to 55 years of age, including the billing information for physician visits, drug dispensations and hospital discharge records. A unit cost was assigned to physician/emergency department visits, and government reimbursement fees for prescribed medications were applied. The case mix method was used to calculate hospitalization costs. All costs were reported in inflation-adjusted 2006 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Asthma resulted in $41,858,610 in annual health care-related costs during the study period ($331 per patient-year). The major cost component was medications, which accounted for 63.9% of total costs, followed by physician visits (18.3%) and hospitalization (17.8%). When broader definitions of asthma-related hospitalizations and physician visits were used, total costs increased to $56,114,574 annually ($444 per patient-year). There was a statistically significant decrease in the annual per patient cost of hospitalizations (P<0.01) over the study period. Asthma was poorly controlled in 63.5% of patients, with this group being responsible for 94% of asthma-related resource use. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of asthma is significant in BC, with the majority of the cost attributed to poor asthma control. Policy makers should investigate the reason for lack of proper asthma control and adjust their policies accordingly to improve asthma management. PMID:20422063

  7. Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Ysbrand John

    This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

  8. National diet and nutrition surveys: the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Margaret; Barlow, Susan; Gibson, Sigrid; Harris, Caroline

    2006-06-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) are a series of government-funded surveys of food intake, nutrient intake and nutritional status of individuals, undertaken to support nutritional policy and risk assessment. This paper summarises a review that considered the extent to which NDNS met the needs of users and suggested options for the future. The Food Standards Agency has since progressed favoured options. This paper aims to help others wishing to obtain this type of information within their own populations. A detailed questionnaire was used to probe use of data and gather opinions from users, producers and managers of the NDNS. It asked about general information needs from NDNS and changes that might be made. This was followed by a two-day workshop which included discussion of the main issues and the generation of 19 possible future options for consideration by the Agency. Options to improve effectiveness included methods to prioritise breadth and depth of coverage and possible ways of improving response and compliance. Strategies to make surveys more efficient and timely, such as adopting a rolling programme, disaggregating survey components, integrating with other studies and improving data access, were also suggested. A rolling programme, in which data are collected continuously, was the favoured option to address some of the concerns and a strategy is now in place to achieve this. There is widespread support for the NDNS from its users. There is no alternative source for such high-quality data on food and nutrient consumption and nutritional status and physical measurements in the same individuals. Useful information, such as the potential value of using a rolling programme from the outset, can be gained from this British experience by others wishing to measure food and nutrient intakes and status in their own populations.

  9. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): mind the gap!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanidou, Eleni; McQueen, James M; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were preceded by nonsense signs which were produced in either the target location or another location (with a small or large transition). Half of the transitions were within the same major body area (e.g., head) and half were across body areas (e.g., chest to hand). Deaf adult BSL users (a group of natives and early learners, and a group of late learners) spotted target signs best when there was a minimal transition and worst when there was a large transition. When location changes were present, both groups performed better when transitions were to a different body area than when they were within the same area. These findings suggest that transitions do not provide explicit sign-boundary cues in a modality-specific fashion. Instead, we argue that smaller transitions help recognition in a modality-general way by limiting lexical search to signs within location neighbourhoods, and that transitions across body areas also aid segmentation in a modality-general way, by providing a phonotactic cue to a sign boundary. We propose that sign segmentation is based on modality-general procedures which are core language-processing mechanisms.

  10. RADICALIZATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE PRINCIPALS' PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  11. An aminostratigraphy for the British Quaternary based on Bithynia opercula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Bridgland, David R; Keen, David H; Meijer, Tom; Parfitt, Simon A; White, Tom S; Collins, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    Aminostratigraphies of Quaternary non-marine deposits in Europe have been previously based on the racemization of a single amino acid in aragonitic shells from land and freshwater molluscs. The value of analysing multiple amino acids from the opercula of the freshwater gastropod Bithynia, which are composed of calcite, has been demonstrated. The protocol used for the isolation of intra-crystalline proteins from shells has been applied to these calcitic opercula, which have been shown to more closely approximate a closed system for indigenous protein residues. Original amino acids are even preserved in bithyniid opercula from the Eocene, showing persistence of indigenous organics for over 30 million years. Geochronological data from opercula are superior to those from shells in two respects: first, in showing less natural variability, and second, in the far better preservation of the intra-crystalline proteins, possibly resulting from the greater stability of calcite. These features allow greater temporal resolution and an extension of the dating range beyond the early Middle Pleistocene. Here we provide full details of the analyses for 480 samples from 100 horizons (75 sites), ranging from Late Pliocene to modern. These show that the dating technique is applicable to the entire Quaternary. Data are provided from all the stratotypes from British stages to have yielded opercula, which are shown to be clearly separable using this revised method. Further checks on the data are provided by reference to other type-sites for different stages (including some not formally defined). Additional tests are provided by sites with independent geochronology, or which can be associated with a terrace stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. This new aminostratigraphy for the non-marine Quaternary deposits of southern Britain provides a framework for understanding the regional geological and archaeological record. Comparison with reference to sites yielding independent geochronology, in

  12. Forming Pedagogical Aesthetic Culture of Students in British Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papushyna Valentyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the concept and primary factors of personality aesthetic culture development in the context of higher education in England. The scholars’ works and pedagogical advanced experience of the country nowadays pay special attention to forming personal creativity and self-realization of modern specialists. They are grounded on a high level of aesthetic culture. Among these essential conditions, the following are indicated: solving the issue of forming aesthetic culture at the national level, financing educational cultural projects and the cultural environment in educational institutions, functioning a wide network of cultural centers, which create the opportunities for everybody to aspire to cultural development. Determining the role of control and coordination of the process of forming students’ aesthetic culture, the author highlights the state policy that is interested in education of personal aesthetic culture as well as encourages students’ creative projects. The pedagogical factors of forming aesthetic culture in higher education institutions have been distinguished, namely, aestheticization of the education process, integration of academic subjects and art, implementation of art disciplines, introduction of new methodologies and technologies in the education process. In the article, there have been shown the best standards of experience of English pedagogy for higher education institutions, indicated on the research base of foreign and native scholars. They deserve a thorough study and adoption: collaboration between artists, culture experts an educational institutions, aesthetic practice of students as a part of public life, support of modern cultural-aesthetic environment of educational institutions. It has been concluded that the British education system offers exciting possibilities for development of aesthetic interests for everybody who aims at cultural growth with the help of the wide network of

  13. Anatomy of the Kitimat fiord system, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Stacey, Cooper D.; Wu, Yongsheng; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    2017-09-01

    The geomorphic complexity of the Kitimat fiord system, on the active margin of British Columbia, Canada, is analysed from several perspectives. Sub-glacial landforms and sediments show that grounded ice exiting the fiord system at the last glacial maximum streamed down Moresby Trough towards the Queen Charlotte trough mouth fan. After brief halts on the inner shelf, grounded ice margins cleared the fiord threshold perhaps by c. 15.5 ka cal. yrs BP, and certainly before 13 ka cal. yrs BP. Just outside the fiords, meltwater plumes deposited stratified glaciomarine sediments interbedded with submarine slides. Inside the fiords, thick glaciomarine sediments were deposited, and large transverse moraines formed during temporary halts in retreat. Several glacial outburst floods eroded the Kitkiata moraine and deposited distinctive mud deposits. Postglacial sedimentation on fiord floors has been spatially variable: drifts of mud > 90 m-thick corresponding with areas of low current velocity alternate with areas of non-deposition and erosion corresponding with areas of high velocity. The fiord system hosts more than a hundred morphologically diverse fan deltas that can be classified in the Prior and Bornhold (1989, 1990) system. Submarine mass transport was most frequent immediately following ice retreat (15.5-11.5 ka cal. yrs BP). The largest event ( 1.2 km3) involved failure of glaciomarine sediment on a submarine moraine at Squally Channel, and consequent movement of material into the adjacent deep basin. This event occurred post-13 ka cal. yrs BP. In the postglacial phase, mass transport continued on a lesser scale up to the present day, most intensively in Kitimat Arm. From the perspective of glacial landforms, postglacial sedimentation and mass transport, this Pacific active margin fiord system has some parallels with fiord systems on Canada's east coast passive margin, and with Norwegian fiords, but the intensive development of Holocene fan deltas is strongly

  14. Treatment of leishmaniasis in the Oyapock basin (French Guiana): A K.A.P. survey and analysis of the evolution of phytotherapy knowledge amongst Wayãpi Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonne, Guillaume; Berger, Franck; Stien, Didier; Grenand, Pierre; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2011-10-11

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a high incidence in French Guiana, mainly in the middle and upper Oyapock basin, where Amerindian and some Brazilian people live. The main goals of this work were (i) to assess the knowledge about leishmaniasis in the different populations of the middle and upper Oyapock basin, (ii) to study the therapeutic strategies adopted by people affected by leishmaniasis and (iii) to document the use of phytotherapeutic remedies for leishmaniasis. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) related to this disease and its treatments have been studied according to cultural group and geographical settlement. Within the Wayãpi group, the evolution of the knowledge of phytoremedies over the last 20 years has been characterised by literature-based comparisons. A total of 144 questionnaires were administered in all the villages of the upper Oyapock and Camopi basins. Correspondence analyses were used for multivariate analysis. Plant species were identified at the Cayenne Herbarium (CAY). The biomedical concept of leishmaniasis correlates well with the Teko and Wayãpi concepts of kalasapa and kalasapau. Although the vector of this disease was not correctly identified, the most commonly cited aetiology (74.5%) was vector-borne, and related epidemiological schemes correlate well with the one encountered in French Guiana. Theoretically and practically, health centres were the most commonly used resource for diagnostic in instances of leishmaniasis infection (65.9%), independently of the patient's cultural group, along with the use of pharmaceutical drugs (85.3%). Pharmaceuticals were commonly utilised despite the frequent (51.5%) use of phytotherapeutic remedies, alone or in combination with drugs. The most cited medicinal plant species for the treatment of leishmaniasis included Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. (Iridaceae, cited 14 times), Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae, 9), Cecropia obtusa Trecul (Cecropiaceae, 8), Jatropha

  15. Three thousand families: English Canada's colonizing vision and British family settlement, 1919-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    After the First World War, Canada's immigration policy became more restrictive and immigration more controlled. For English Canadians, immigration of the "right type" of people—those from the British Isles—remained vital to strengthening the nation. This article examines the 3,000 Family Scheme, a joint British-Canadian settlement project in which British families, comprised of over 18,000 individuals, were relocated to homesteads as colonizers of Canada's remote areas. There, many endured isolation and hardship, and were largely blamed for their own plight. A nation-building project that failed, the 3,000 Family Scheme reveals the connections among several enduring national myths in the interwar years: the potential for agricultural expansion, British superiority, and the capabilities of a maturing Canadian state to control the settlement process.

  16. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne,

  17. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  18. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981...

  19. DONALD FRASER, THE LONDON TIMES, AND THE GOLD RUSHES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenton Storey

    2017-01-01

    ....2 This article explores Fraser's work for the London Times, charting his development as a journalist during the California gold rush in 1849 and then between 1858 and 1866 when he wrote about British Columbia...

  20. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Nielen-Kiezebrink, van M.F.; Locking, T.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology - multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins - and lateral channel stability We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper

  1. British domestic synchronous clocks 1930-1980 the rise and fall of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pook, Leslie Philip

    2015-01-01

    This book complements available one-make books on domestic synchronous clocks. It is also a history of science book that sets British domestic synchronous clocks, their manufacturers and technology in their social context. Part I covers the historical background, British domestic synchronous clock manufacturers and brands, how synchronous clocks work, domestic synchronous clock cases, practical advice on the servicing of domestic synchronous clocks, and analysis of the marketing and reliability of British domestic synchronous clocks. This analysis provides an explanation of the rise and eventual fall of their technology. Part II contains galleries of a selection of British domestic synchronous clocks, and of the movements with which they are fitted. There is a front and back view of each clock, together with a brief description. Views of each movement include views with the movement partly dismantled, together with a brief technical description of the movement. This profusely illustrated book is primarily fo...

  2. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 1 infection in British tourists visiting Mallorca, June 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, P; Ward, Linda; Crespi, S; Furtado, C

    1997-01-01

    Three British tourists became ill while on holiday in the same hotel in Alcudia, Mallorca from 11 to 25 June 1996; Salmonella enteritidisinfections were diagnosed upon their return to England. An environmental health officer informed the Gastrointestinal

  3. Number Agreement in British and American English : Disagreeing to Agree Collectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, K.; Butterfield, S.; Cutler, A.; Cutting, J.C.; Eberhard, K.M.; Hunphreys, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    British and American speakers exhibit different verb number agreement patterns when sentence subjects have collective head nouns. From linguistic and psycholinguistic accounts of how agreement is implemented, three alternative hypotheses can be derived to explain these differences. The hypotheses

  4. Archive of Geosample Information from the British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF), National Oceanography Centre, is a contributor to the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  5. A Method to Determine British Anti-Lewisite in Plasma Utilizing Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Christopher E; Holloway, Evan R; Korte, William D; Smith, John R; Capacio, Bebedict R

    2005-01-01

    British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is a potential therapeutic compound against the effects of cutaneous sulfur mustard, and an method for its determination in plasma has been developed...

  6. Steering under Conditions of Retrenchment in Higher Education: The British Experiences from a German Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1988-01-01

    The West German and British experiences in higher education planning and governance during a period of retrenchment are compared. Changes are interpreted in terms of the underlying characteristics of the two systems and their governance. (Author/MSE)

  7. Forming Communicative Competence of Future Tesol Teachers by Microteaching (Based on British Experience)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalya Bidyuk

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of the process of forming communicative competence of future TESOL students by means of microteaching based on the experience of leading British higher education institutions...

  8. Food habits of wolverine Gulo gulo in montane ecosystems of British Columbia, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric C. Lofroth; John A. Krebs; William L. Harrower; Dave Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We examined the seasonal food habits of wolverine Gulo gulo in subboreal and interior wet-belt montane environments in British Columbia by analyzing scats collected during the course of two...

  9. The British Labour Party and the Trade Unions: Crisis and Compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Lewis

    1974-01-01

    The article offers an historical overview of the changing social and economic environment in which the English political parties and labor unions have operated, discussing the links between the two groups and the ensuing problems facing the British government. (MW)

  10. The social construction of identities by British-Muslim pupils aged 14-15 years

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Louise

    1998-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis examines the social construction of ethnic and gender identities by British-Muslim pupils, from a critical, feminist, discursive position. The research draws upon critical, feminist conceptualisations of identity which challenge positivistic Social Psychological theories of ethnic identity for constructing British-Muslim young people in racist and sexist ways. The aims of this study were to (i) identify ways in which young people conceptualise their identi...

  11. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-10-01

    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored.

  12. The British Government, Ernest Shackleton, and the rescue of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Dudeney; Sheail, J.; Walton, D.W.H.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable rescue of Shackleton's men from Elephant Island, after the sinking of Endurance, and from Ross Island, has been recounted many times by both participants and historians. There has been little critical examination of the part played by governments, nor assessment of some of Shackleton's own actions. In this paper we explore more fully from official British archival sources the extent to which the British Government was prepared to underwrite the rescue efforts; the importance of...

  13. Concreteness in Business letters : a Corpus-based Analysis of British and Pakistani English

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Akbar

    2010-01-01

    Linguistic features of business letters have been a research target of both linguists and business writers. In this study, the language of British and Pakistani Business letters was compared and contrasted in terms of concreteness and abstractness. A corpus of 100 business letters from Inner Circle and Outer Circle writers were collected for analysis. The findings of the study revealed that British writers use more specific and concrete nouns, definite determiners, numeral, possessive and dem...

  14. Difference in treatment outcome of British and Japanese surgical class III patients associated with mandibular setback

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Koyo; Nagata, Norio; IIDA, YOSHIRO; Iida, Kayo; KAGEYAMA, TORU; Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical research was to examine the racial differences in skeletal morphology of skeletal Class III abnormalities and in the ortho-surgical treatment outcome of Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular setback sagittal osteotomy between Japanese and British Caucasian female adult Class III patients. The sample consisted of 35 Class III Japanese female surgical subjects in MDU Hospital and 30 Class III British subjects (23 female and 7 male). The operative procedu...

  15. Social representations, identity and social relations among non-heterosexual British Asian men

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores and compares social representations, identity and social relations among non-heterosexual British Asian Indian and British Pakistani men. After an overview of two relevant theories from social psychology - Identity Process Theory and Social Representations Theory, the chapter outlines dominant social representations of sexuality that inform individuals’ meaning-making, the impact of these representations for identity processes, how individuals cope with potential threats...

  16. The Problems of the Status of British Troops in Egypt After the Occupation in 1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khizriev Ali Khizrievich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of defining the status of the British occupational troops in Egypt from 1882 to 1922 and the diplomatic struggle of the great European states of that time over this problem. This whole problem is described in detail in its development since the establishment of the “veiled protectorate” designed to hide the true purpose of the British Government in the region, to the formal approval of the Protectorate status of the British Empire. It attempts to find the motives and methods of management of the British Foreign Office in this difficult situation considering counter of such powers as Russia and France. Herewith it provides data from the archives of the British Foreign Office, confirming all these facts. The evidences of the contemporaries of those events – Lord Milner and Cromer – who were representatives of the occupation authorities and published their memoirs, complete the picture. In addition to these documents we used the archival materials of India Records Office in the British Library. All these sources indicate that the official declaration of the Protectorate in 1914 only temporarily solved the problems creating additional difficulties for those officials who were responsible for the situation in the country. This decision allowed the British officials to conceal the explicit nature of the occupation and the British military presence in the Suez Canal zone. However, such policy aroused some problems, which led to a new round of the Egyptian national liberation movement in the future, and needed new solutions which were made only after the World War I and the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

  17. Jews and British Sport: integration, ethnicity and anti-semitism, c1880-c1960

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, David Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Between the 1890s and the 1960s, sport had a distinctive and varied impact on the social, cultural, political and economic life of the British Jewish community. During this period, Anglo-Jewry developed a clear sporting tradition, in both a direct and indirect sense, and their participation in the world of British sport had a significant impact on processes and discourses surrounding integration, ethnicity and anti-Semitism. Through a broad analysis of archival materials, newspaper source...

  18. Survey of instructions to authors in Indian and British Dental Journals with respect to ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, V P; Dhillon, J K; Kalra, G; Sharma, A; Mathur, R

    2013-01-01

    Publication can become a symbol of presenting how meticulously a person has followed ethical principles in research. It is the duty of the investigators or authors to carefully read the instructions to authors and generate data with honesty and genuineness. In fulfillment of the basic requisite to publish, clearly defined instructions to authors should be provided by the journal. To assess the pattern of instructions regarding the ethical requirements given to authors in Indian Dental Journals and tried to compare the same with British Dental Journals. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of guidelines on ethical processes, was done. Instructions to authors of Indian and British Dental Journals indexed in PubMed were reviewed for guidelines with regard to seven key ethical issues. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed in percentages as well as numbers. Of the 10 Indian Dental Journals, 7 (70%) cited ethical guidelines such as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines whereas out of 27 British Dental Journals, 16 (59.25%) cited these. Protection of human subjects such as approval from an institutional/independent ethics committee, obtaining informed consent and maintenance of confidentiality of patient records was covered with 8 (80%) Indian and 19 (70.3%) British Dental Journals. Four (40%) Indian and 13 (48.1%) instructed about animals welfare. Nine (90%) of the Indian and 25 (92.5%) British Dental Journals required declaration of conflicts of interest by authors. Publication issues and authorship/contributorship criteria were specified by all 10 Indian and 25 (92.5%) and 24 (88.8%) British journals respectively. 6 (60%) of Indian and 11 (40.75%) of British Journals explained about data management, in case of clinical trials. A significant proportion of Indexed Indian and British Dental Journals did not provide adequate

  19. Vatican ceremonies and tourist culture in nineteenth-century British travelogues

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, B.

    2010-01-01

    Nineteenth-century British tourists who attended Catholic ceremonies in Italy were more than mere passive observers. Their accounts of Holy Week in the Vatican reveal a tension between, on the one hand, British tourists’ denigration of Catholic rituals stemming from theological or perceived cultural differences and, on the other, their fascination with spectacle. This fascination undermines their self-image as culturally superior to sensuous South Europeans and suggests the increasing attract...

  20. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Since 1984, British zoos have been required to meet the animal welfare standards set out under the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. Zoos are regularly assessed by government-appointed inspectors, who report on animal welfare standards in each zoo. This is the first analysis of those reports from a representative sample of British zoos. We highlight a number of concerns about the inspection process itself, and identify areas where changes would lead to improvements in both the inspection...