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Sample records for british guiana

  1. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.

    1956-01-01

    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these deposi

  2. A palynological study on the Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous of British Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der T.; Wymstra, T.A.

    1964-01-01

    The pollen content of bore-hole samples and mine sections from the coast and from the bauxite belt of British Guiana has been studied. The pollen zonation is shown in fig. 6 and diagram IV. The description of the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary pollen species is partly given in this article and partly

  3. Glimpses of British Guiana at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886

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    Albuquerque, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of the British Guiana Court at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 as a case study to demonstrate how British Guiana (now Guyana was represented in Britain at the time, by crossreferencing different materials (e.g. objects, correspondence, reports, and newspapers from that period. This exhibition also shows which raw materials from the British Guiana were of interest to Britain and the involvement of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew in this matter. Nevertheless, the exhibition not only displayed objects and commodities, such as the case of sugar, but also displayed people. Here, particular attention is paid to the Amerindians who were portrayed as living ethnological exhibits at the exhibition. This paper aims to understand how British Guiana was seen and administered by its mother country and also how Everard im Thurn (1852-1932, the explorer, sought to manoeuvre that representation, as well as his relation with RBG, Kew. Taking into consideration that this colony was a neglected area of the British Empire, even in im Thurn’s time, this exhibition was an opportunity not only to display the empire but also for advertising the potential of the neglected colony and to ensure that it would not be forgotten.Este análisis se centra en la Exposición Colonial de 1886; a través del estudio de caso del Pabellón de la Guayana Británica (hoy Guyana, demuestra cómo ésta estaba representada en Gran Bretaña. Para mostrar sus contenidos cruza diferentes fuentes de la época: objetos, correspondencia, informes y periódicos. La exposición en aquel pabellón refleja que las materias primas de la Guayana Británica eran de interés para Gran Bretaña y la implicación en esta materia de los Jardines Reales Botánicos, llamados Kew. La exposición no sólo mostró los objetos y las materias primas, como el caso del azúcar, sino que también llevó habitantes de la Guayana. Aquí se presta especial atención a los amerindios

  4. Dispensers, obeah and quackery: medical rivalries in post-slavery British Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Juanita

    2007-08-01

    This paper examines the ambiguous place of medical assistants-dispensers-in a post-slavery British Caribbean colony, British Guiana, from the end of slavery in the 1830s to the early twentieth century. Although the latter were crucial to the functioning of the colonial medical system, local physicians resented them, complaining about the economic threat they posed and at times condemning them as quacks. These attacks were part of a wider discussion about the composition of the medical profession and the role of medical auxiliaries in colonial society, and to an extent, they echoed debates conducted in other jurisdictions in this period. But in the British Caribbean, this discussion was significantly different. There, long-standing views about obeah-an Afro-Creole medico-religious practice-as a particularly dangerous and uncivilised type of quackery was part of the discursive context. That those participating in this debate included African-descended physicians whose arrival in the medical profession was recent and contested demonstrates the vexed and complex nature of professionalisation in a post-slavery society.

  5. Living Guianas Report 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, A.T.N.; Verweij, P.A.; Plouvier, D.; Gomes, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Guianas are the three countries Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, in the north east corner of mainland South America. They are included in the larger Guiana Shield and the Amazon biome. As such they are part of the largest tract of continuous tropical forest in an almost pristine state in the

  6. ECOLOGICAL CHANGE AS A FACTOR IN RENEWED MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN AN ERADICATED AREA. A LOCALIZED OUTBREAK OF A. AQUASALIS-TRANSMITTED MALARIA ON THE DEMERARA RIVER ESTUARY, BRITISH GUIANA, IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF A. DARLINGI AND MALARIA ERADICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GIGLIOLI, G

    1963-01-01

    In British Guiana, the successful eradication of Anopheles darlingi and malaria from the coastal areas has caused a very rapid increase in the population and has favoured a considerable social and economic improvement and expansion of both agriculture and industry. Housing and industrial developments and the constantly expanding rice cultivation have taken over most of the accessible pasture-lands, displacing the livestock which previously abounded around villages and settlements. Mechanization on the roads and in the fields increases daily, and the horse, the mule, the donkey and the ploughing oxen are gradually becoming obsolete.In some areas these changes have already caused such an upset in the balance between the human and the livestock population that A. aquasalis, a very abundant species all along the coast, but until recently entirely "fixed" by the livestock population, is now shifting its attention from livestock to man. On the Demerara river estuary, an area where malaria transmission was interrupted sixteen years ago and where eradication has been continually maintained, this mosquito has been responsible for a sharp, but localized, outbreak of P. vivax malaria. An entirely new epidemiological problem thus presents itself.Environmental changes, introduced and fostered by successful malaria eradication, may thus cause an anopheline species, potentially capable of malaria transmission, but originally inactive and harmless as a vector, to alter its feeding habits and thereby renew transmission. The immediate and long-term significance of some secondary and potential vectors may therefore require renewed evaluation in the planning of malaria eradication campaigns.

  7. Living Guianas Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Verlinden, A.T.N.; Verweij, P.A.; Plouvier, D.; Gomes, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Guianas are the three countries Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, in the north east corner of mainland South America. They are included in the larger Guiana Shield and the Amazon biome. As such they are part of the largest tract of continuous tropical forest in an almost pristine state in the world. Their coastal and marine habitats form a highly productive and biodiverse region. Their beaches are important nesting sites for several species of endangered marine turtles and vast tracts o...

  8. Q fever in French Guiana.

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    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, French Guiana.

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus, Séverine; Djossou, Félix; Moua, David; Bourbigot, Anne Marie; Hommel, Didier; Lacoste, Vincent; Dussart, Philippe; Lavergne, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A systematic serological survey of patients suffering from symptoms suggestive of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome allowed us to identify a native case in French Guiana. Partial molecular characterization of the implicated hantavirus revealed its close relationship with the Bolivian Rio Mamore virus. We tentatively named it Maripa virus.

  10. Histoplasma capsulatum in Cayenne, French Guiana.

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    Moquet, Olivier; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Michel, Myriam; Aznar, Christine

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a soil sampling survey in September 2008 in central Cayenne, French Guiana, using molecular methods to assess the presence of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Four of the 31 samples collected (12.9 %) tested positive by PCR, with confirmation of the result by DNA sequencing. H. capsulatum is therefore present in urban environments in French Guiana. These results provide additional support for the primary prophylaxis of AIDS-related histoplasmosis in French Guiana.

  11. Malaria on the Guiana Shield: a review of the situation in French Guiana

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    Lise Musset

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a climate of growing concern that Plasmodium falciparum may be developing a drug resistance to artemisinin derivatives in the Guiana Shield, this review details our current knowledge of malaria and control strategy in one part of the Shield, French Guiana. Local epidemiology, test-treat-track strategy, the state of parasite drug resistance and vector control measures are summarised. Current issues in terms of mobile populations and legislative limitations are also discussed.

  12. Malaria on the Guiana Shield: a review of the situation in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musset, Lise; Pelleau, Stéphane; Girod, Romain; Ardillon, Vanessa; Carvalho, Luisiane; Dusfour, Isabelle; Gomes, Margarete S M; Djossou, Félix; Legrand, Eric

    2014-08-01

    In a climate of growing concern that Plasmodium falciparum may be developing a drug resistance to artemisinin derivatives in the Guiana Shield, this review details our current knowledge of malaria and control strategy in one part of the Shield, French Guiana. Local epidemiology, test-treat-track strategy, the state of parasite drug resistance and vector control measures are summarised. Current issues in terms of mobile populations and legislative limitations are also discussed.

  13. First record of Myotis albescens ( Chiroptera , Vespertilionidae ) in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Moratelli; Maël Dewynter; Marguerite Delaval; François Catzeflis; Manuel Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. New information Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identificat...

  14. Checklist of the terrestrial vertebrates of the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Distributions are given for 1850 species of terrestrial vertebrates in the Guiana Shield region of northeastern South America, with introductory text by the authors of each section. Distributions cover the three Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana), and the states of the Venezuelan Guayna (Amazonas, Bolivar, and Delta Amacuro), and in some cases the states of the Brazilian portion of the Guiana Shield (Amazonas, Roraima, Para, and Amapa), and the Colombian portion of the Guiana Shield. The first section is a checklist of amphibians of the Guiana Shield, by J. Celsa Sefiaris and Ross MacCulloch, detailing the distribution of 269 species. The second section is a checklist of the reptiles of the Guiana Shield by Teresa C. S. de Avila Pires, detailing the distribution of 295 species. The third section is a checklist of the birds of the Guiana Shield, by Chris Milensky, Wiltshire Hinds, Alexandre Aleixo, and Maria de Fatima C. Lima, detailing the distribution of 1004 species. The fourth section is a checklist of the mammals of the Guiana Shield, by Burton K. Lim, Mark D. Engstrom, and Jose Ochoa G., detailing the distribution of 282 species.

  15. Four new species of Sapindaceae from the Guianas

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    Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Sapindaceae from the Guianas, South America, are described, illustrated and contrasted with their putative, relatives: Matayba ayangannensis Acev.-Rodr. a small shrub from Mt. Ayanganna, Guyana; and Paullinia degranvillei Acev.-Rodr., Paullinia oldemanii Acev.-Rodr., and Paullinia prevostiana Acev.-Rodr., three species of lianas from French Guiana.

  16. Predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment French Guiana.

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    Elenga, Narcisse; Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    French Guiana is the French territory where the HIV epidemic is most preoccupying. In Cayenne, the mother to child HIV transmission rate was 6% in 2006-2008. Despite free testing and treatment, HIV pregnant women often have delayed or insufficient access to care. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors of antiretroviral treatmentFrench Guiana) and then to describe their attitudes, practices, and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. A case control study was conducted including all deliveries in Cayenne from 2003 to 2010. For each case, a standardized questionnaire including epidemiological, clinical, and biological data was administered. The analysis first described the summary statistics and then bivariate analysis studied the relation of each variable with the outcome. Multivariate analysis adjusted for the confounding factors. Thirty-three women in the first group and 96 in the control group were included in the study. Women born in French Guiana (OR = 5, IC95% = 1.22-20.86, p=0.027) had a high risk of treatment<4 weeks. The other factors associated with treatment<4 weeks in our study were benefiting from food parcels (OR = 12.72, IC95% = 2.07-78.14, p=0.006), consulting a traditional healer when sick (OR = 9.86, IC95% = 2.57-37.88, p= < 0.001), and drug use (OR = 6.27, IC95% = 1.26-31.13, p=0.025). These predictive factors should be considered in prevention programs against mother to child transmission of HIV.

  17. Electroreception in the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis).

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    Czech-Damal, Nicole U; Liebschner, Alexander; Miersch, Lars; Klauer, Gertrud; Hanke, Frederike D; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2012-02-22

    Passive electroreception is a widespread sense in fishes and amphibians, but in mammals this sensory ability has previously only been shown in monotremes. While the electroreceptors in fish and amphibians evolved from mechanosensory lateral line organs, those of monotremes are based on cutaneous glands innervated by trigeminal nerves. Electroreceptors evolved from other structures or in other taxa were unknown to date. Here we show that the hairless vibrissal crypts on the rostrum of the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), structures originally associated with the mammalian whiskers, serve as electroreceptors. Histological investigations revealed that the vibrissal crypts possess a well-innervated ampullary structure reminiscent of ampullary electroreceptors in other species. Psychophysical experiments with a male Guiana dolphin determined a sensory detection threshold for weak electric fields of 4.6 µV cm(-1), which is comparable to the sensitivity of electroreceptors in platypuses. Our results show that electroreceptors can evolve from a mechanosensory organ that nearly all mammals possess and suggest the discovery of this kind of electroreception in more species, especially those with an aquatic or semi-aquatic lifestyle.

  18. The blattodeas.s. (Insecta, dictyoptera) of the Guiana shield.

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    Evangelista, Dominic A; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L; Wilson, Megan M; Ware, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblattaberenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodeas.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under-sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under-sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  19. Five new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Morawetz, W.

    2006-01-01

    As a precursor to a taxonomic treatment of Annonaceae for the Flora of the Guianas project, five new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav. from French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname (Northern South America) are described here.

  20. An unusual new species of Guatteria (Annonaceae) from French Guiana and adjacent Brazil (Amapá)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Prévost, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    During a taxonomic treatment of Annonaceae for the Flora of the Guianas project, an unusual new species of Guatteria Ruiz & Pav., G. anteridifera from French Guiana and Amapá in Brazil (Northern South America) was found and described herein.

  1. Widespread occurrence of bd in French Guiana, South America.

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    Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme; Schmeller, Dirk S

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a purported agent of decline and extinction of many amphibian populations worldwide. Its occurrence remains poorly documented in many tropical regions, including the Guiana Shield, despite the area's high amphibian diversity. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of Bd in French Guiana in order to (1) determine its geographical distribution, (2) test variation of Bd prevalence among species in French Guiana and compare it to earlier reported values in other South American anuran species (http://www.bd-maps.net; 123 species from 15 genera) to define sentinel species for future work, (3) track changes in prevalence through time and (4) determine if Bd presence had a negative effect on one selected species. We tested the presence of Bd in 14 species at 11 sites for a total of 1053 samples (306 in 2009 and 747 in 2012). At least one Bd-positive individual was found at eight out of 11 sites, suggesting a wide distribution of Bd in French Guiana. The pathogen was not uniformly distributed among the studied amphibian hosts, with Dendrobatidae species displaying the highest prevalence (12.4%) as compared to Bufonidae (2.6 %) and Hylidae (1.5%). In contrast to earlier reported values, we found highest prevalence for three Dendrobatidae species and two of them displayed an increase in Bd prevalence from 2009 to 2012. Those three species might be the sentinel species of choice for French Guiana. For Dendrobates tinctorius, of key conservation value in the Guiana Shield, smaller female individuals were more likely to be infected, suggesting either that frogs can outgrow their chytrid infections or that the disease induces developmental stress limiting growth. Generally, our study supports the idea that Bd is more widespread than previously thought and occurs at remote places in the lowland forest of the Guiana shield.

  2. Primary prophylaxis of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV patients in French Guiana: arguments for cost effectiveness.

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    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Basurko, Celia; Vantilcke, Vincent; Blanchet, Denis; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Histoplasmosis is the first cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related deaths in French Guiana. Cohort data were used to determine whether primary prophylaxis with 100 mg itraconazole for patients with CD4 counts French Guiana, and presumably in the rest of the Guianas and the Amazon.

  3. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010...... guidelines and governance practices. The case captures the intricacies of corporate management and provides a realistic overview of the complexities that often surround leadership approaches and executive decisions. Hence, it can be used in various graduate and executive courses in strategic management......, leadership development and corporate governance that all grapple with issues of responsible ethical behaviour. This case is part of the CBS free case collection (visit www.thecasecentre.org/CBSfreecases for more information on the collection). This case can be downloaded by educators as a clean pdf...

  4. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

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    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  5. Biodiversity baseline of the French Guiana spider fauna.

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    Vedel, Vincent; Rheims, Christina; Murienne, Jérôme; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The need for an updated list of spiders found in French Guiana rose recently due to many upcoming studies planned. In this paper, we list spiders from French Guiana from existing literature (with corrected nomenclature when necessary) and from 2142 spiders sampled in 12 sites for this baseline study. Three hundred and sixty four validated species names of spider were found in the literature and previous authors' works. Additional sampling, conducted for this study added another 89 identified species and 62 other species with only a genus name for now. The total species of spiders sampled in French Guiana is currently 515. Many other Morphospecies were found but not described as species yet. An accumulation curve was drawn with seven of the sampling sites and shows no plateau yet. Therefore, the number of species inhabiting French Guiana cannot yet be determined. As the very large number of singletons found in the collected materials suggests, the accumulation curve indicates nevertheless that more sampling is necessary to discover the many unknown spider species living in French Guiana, with a focus on specific periods (dry season and wet season) and on specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg and cambrouze (local bamboo monospecific forest).

  6. Mercury in canopy leaves of French Guiana in remote areas.

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    Mélières, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, M; Charles-Dominique, P; Gaucher, P

    2003-07-20

    A study of total Hg concentration in the foliage of the canopy was carried out in two remote areas in French Guiana. The sampled canopy is representative of the French Guiana canopy. The concentration in the foliage, 64+/-14 ngg(-1) (dry wt.), is used to estimate the annual input of total Hg to the soil through the litterfall, found to be 45+/-10 microgm(-2)y(-1). As translocation is negligible, mercury in the canopy originates mainly from atmospheric uptake by the leaves and this litterfall deposit represents a direct atmospheric input from the background atmospheric load into the soil. PMID:12826397

  7. Canopy dynamics of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The canopy dynamics (i.e. the formation and closure of canopy gaps) of a tropical rain forest in French Guiana are described. The formation of canopy gaps is investigated. The difficulties with gap size measurements are studied, and causes and consequences of treefalls and branchfalls are examined.

  8. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas. 1. Croton macradenis (sect. Podostachys, fam. Euphorbiacece), a new species from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Punt, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Croton, sect. Podostachys (C. macradenis) from French Guiana and Suriname is described. It has remarkable long glands. The distinctive characters of the species are the following: long, tubiform glands at the base of the leaves; male flowers with a hairy receptacle and 5-6 anthers ;

  9. The Guiana and the West African Shield Palaeoproterozoic grouping: new palaeomagnetic data for French Guiana and the Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Chen, Yan; Pouclet, André; Féraud, Gilbert; Théveniaut, Hervé; Daouda, Bertin Yao; Vidal, Max; Rigolet, Cécile

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to document the Palaeoproterozoic palaeomagnetic database for the Guiana and West African Shields in order to better understand the paleogeographic evolution of these two cratons. A total of 59 sites were sampled (33 in French Guiana and 26 in the Ivory Coast) in granites and metavolcanic rocks. Magnetic, petrographic and palaeomagnetic investigations were carried out on these rocks. Magnetic experiments and petrographic observations show that undeformed magnetite is the main magnetic remanent carrier in granites of French Guiana and both magnetite and haematite in rocks from the Ivory Coast. Both thermal and magnetic alternating-field demagnetizations were applied to the rocks. Four high-temperature magnetic remanent directions were isolated in French Guiana and the Ivory Coast. These directions are distinct from the present Earth's field and to the local Early Jurassic palaeomagnetic components. Reversal and contact tests were obtained for the collection from French Guiana. Based on these arguments and mineralogical investigations, we propose that the magnetic remanence represent a Palaeoproterozoic magnetization. Four virtual palaeomagnetic poles were calculated: GUI1, GUI2 for French Guiana; IC1 and IC2 for the Ivory Coast with their corresponding coordinates: GUI1: λGUI1=-62°N, φGUI1= 61°E, k= 18, A95= 10°, N= 15; GUI2: λGUI2=-5°N, φGUI2= 50°E, k= 26, A95= 18°, N= 5; IC1: λIC1=-82°N, φIC1= 292°N, k= 28, A95= 13°, N= 6; IC2: λIC2=-25°N, φIC2= 83°E, k= 11, A95= 16°, N= 9. The magnetization age ranged from 2.04 to 1.97 Ga for the French Guiana poles (40Ar/39Ar) and between 2.10 to 2.00 Ga for the Ivory Coast poles (startigraphic ages). Combining these new palaeomagnetic poles and previously published data, two apparent polar wander paths were proposed for these two shields. The comparison of these two Palaeoproterozoic paths seems to indicate that the two cratons belonged to the same block at about 2.00 Ga but

  10. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  11. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment.

  12. Alloimmunization in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisse Elenga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study in French Guiana assessed the frequency of alloimmunization to red cell antigens in sickle cell disease patients over 1995–2011 and identified the most common antibodies. A retrospective analysis of the transfusion history and medical records of 302 patients showed that 29/178 transfused patients had developed alloantibodies (16%. The most frequent alloantibodies were anti-LE1, anti-MNS1, anti-LE2, and anti-FY1 and were developed after transfusion of standard red cell units. The frequency of the clinically significant antibodies in this population of SCD patients was 11% (19/178. The antibodies found on those patients who had delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction were anti-K1, anti-FY1, and anti-MNS3. The strategies used to decrease alloimmunization in French Guiana are discussed.

  13. Migrant health in French Guiana: Are undocumented immigrants more vulnerable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolivet Anne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data exist on the health status of the immigrant population in French Guiana. The main objective of this article was to identify differences in its health status in relation to that of the native-born population. Methods A representative, population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 1027 adults living in Cayenne and St-Laurent du Maroni. Health status was assessed in terms of self-perceived health, chronic diseases and functional limitations. The migration variables were immigration status, the duration of residence in French Guiana and the country of birth. Logistic regression models were conducted. Results Immigrants account for 40.5% and 57.8% of the adult population of Cayenne and St-Laurent du Maroni, respectively. Most of them (60.7% and 77.5%, respectively had been living in French Guiana for more than 10 years. A large proportion were still undocumented or had a precarious legal status. The undocumented immigrants reported the worst health status (OR = 3.18 [1.21-7.84] for self-perceived health, OR = 2.79 [1.22-6.34] for a chronic disease, and OR = 2.17 [1.00-4.70] for a functional limitation. These differences are partially explained by socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. The country of birth and the duration of residence also had an impact on health indicators. Conclusion Data on immigrant health are scarce in France, and more generally, immigrant health problems have been largely ignored in public health policies. Immigrant health status is of crucial interest to health policy planners, and it is especially relevant in French Guiana, considering the size of the foreign-born population in that region.

  14. AIDS-related Pneumocystis jirovecii genotypes in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Blanchet, Denis; Damiani, Céline; Guéguen, Paul; Virmaux, Michèle; Abboud, Philippe; Guillot, Geneviève; Kérangart, Stéphane; Merle, Cédric; Calderon, Enrique; Totet, Anne; Carme, Bernard; Nevez, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The study described Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) multilocus typing in seven AIDS patients living in French Guiana (Cayenne Hospital) and seven immunosuppressed patients living in Brest, metropolitan France (Brest Hospital). Archival P. jirovecii specimens were examined at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus using a PCR-RFLP technique, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 2 and the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mtLSUrRNA) gene using PCR and sequencing. Analysis of typing results were combined with an analysis of the literature on P. jirovecii mtLSUrRNA types and ITS haplotypes. A wild DHPS type was identified in six Guianese patients and in seven patients from metropolitan France whereas a DHPS mutant was infected in the remaining Guianese patient. Typing of the two other loci pointed out a high diversity of ITS haplotypes and an average diversity of mtLSUrRNA types in French Guiana with a partial commonality of these haplotypes and types described in metropolitan France and around the world. Combining DHPS, ITS and mtLSU types, 12 different multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were identified, 4 MLGs in Guianese patients and 8 MLGs in Brest patients. MLG analysis allows to discriminate patients in 2 groups according to their geographical origin. Indeed, none of the MLGs identified in the Guianese patients were found in the Brest patients and none of the MLGs identified in the Brest patients were found in the Guianese patients. These results show that in French Guiana (i) PCP involving DHPS mutants occur, (ii) there is a diversity of ITS and mtLSUrRNA types and (iii) although partial type commonality in this territory and metropolitan France can be observed, MLG analysis suggests that P. jirovecii organisms from French Guiana may present specific characteristics.

  15. Tropical forest phenology in French Guiana from MODIS time series

    OpenAIRE

    PENNEC A.; Gond, V.; Sabatier, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing need for knowledge on how terrestrial ecosystems function, phenological studies are rather rare. This study characterizes the temporal evolution of forest covers in French Guiana using variations in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite signal and vegetation indices, such as the Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index and the Enhanced Vegetation Index. The principle consists of reconstructing a temporal cycle mosaiced from a 9-year database. Rathe...

  16. Mayaro virus fever in French Guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarmin, A; Chandler, L J; Kazanji, M; de Thoisy, B; Debon, P; Lelarge, J; Labeau, B; Bourreau, E; Vié, J C; Shope, R E; Sarthou, J L

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the first isolation of Mayaro (MAY) virus from a patient infected in French Guiana. The identification was initially performed using immunofluorescent antibody testing with specific mouse antibody, and confirmed by plaque-reduction neutralization testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To determine if MAY virus infection is widespread in French Guiana, a serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibody to this virus in various ethnic groups and areas of French Guiana. Human sera (n = 1,962) were screened using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To determine whether MAY virus circulates in the rain forest, a serosurvey in monkey populations was performed. Monkey sera (n = 150) were also screened for antibody to MAY virus using HI testing. Of the human sera tested, 6.3% were positive for anti-MAY virus antibodies. Significant differences in MAY virus seroprevalence between different age groups were observed. Seroprevalence rates increased with age, with a large increase in people 10-19 years of age in comparison with those less than 10 years of age. After adjustment for age, significant differences were also found between places of residence. The prevalence of anti-MAY virus antibody was higher in people living in contact with the forest, especially in the Haut Oyapock area (odds ratio [OR] = 97.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.2-197.9) and along the Maroni River (OR = 39.7, 95% CI = 20.6-76.6). The ethnic differences observed in this study were probably due to differences in residence. Among monkeys, higher seroprevalence rates were found in Alouatta seniculus (66.0%) than in Saguinus midas (18.2%). Among Alouatta, the seroprevalence increased significantly with weight (and therefore with age). This study indicates that MAY virus is present in French Guiana, and human infections occur in areas where people live near the tropical rain forest. PMID:9749643

  17. Made in Europe: will artemisinin resistance emerge in French Guiana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Guérin, Philippe J; Demar-Pierre, Magalie; Djossou, Félix; Nosten, François; Carme, Bernard

    2013-05-04

    Resistance to artemisinin casts a shadow on the fight against malaria. The importance of illegal gold miners and of malaria in isolated regions of French Guiana constitutes a threat that endangers the fight against malaria in the Amazon. The hurdles of French laws and the remoteness of the territory from France make it impossible for the system to adapt to the problem of total inaccessibility of an important part of the malaria problem. Transmission is high in these areas and gold miners self-medicate with erratic regimens of artemisinin combinations, thus creating perfect conditions for the emergence of resistance. What needs to be done is being done, but within the limits of national law, with some results. However, facing the same difficult problem, Suriname shows more flexibility and is doing much better than French Guiana despite having lower resources. Local authorities in French Guiana cannot overrule the laws that block appropriate malaria care from reaching a third of malaria-exposed persons. Thus the health authorities in France should take immediate calibrated legislative and financial measures to avoid a predictable disaster.

  18. [Update on the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme, B; Ardillon, V; Girod, R; Grenier, C; Joubert, M; Djossou, F; Ravachol, F

    2009-02-01

    The last study describing the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana was published 20 years ago. Yet French Guiana in the Americas along with Mayotte in the Indian Ocean is the only French territory with persisting endemic malaria. The purpose of this study is to provide an update based on official malaria surveillance data as well as on information from hospital records and various field surveys that have been carried out in recent years. Due to recurrent problems in collecting thorough, continuous, and consistent data, exact determination of incidence by plasmodium species has always been difficult in French Guiana. These problems include not only the remote location of endemic areas and intense unpredictable migration patterns but also poor data collection methods that do not always ensure consistency and homogeneity. Another factor hindering thorough collection of conventional epidemiological data is the requirement for rapid effective treatment in remote regions. The overall incidence of malaria in French Guiana appears to have remained stable since the beginning of the decade with an average of 3,920 case reports per year for an incidence rate of 20 per thousand, noting that three fourths of the 206,000 inhabitants of French Guiana live outside of endemic areas. Overall involvement of P. falciparum and P. vivax appears to be equal with P. malariae accounting for only 2.6% of cases. Trends in recent years indicate an increase in the number of cases involving P. vivax especially in the eastern zones, i.e. in the Oyapock focus where annual incidences in children have reached up to 500 per thousand and in the whole region located between Saint Georges and Cayenne. Conversely a decrease in endemic levels has been observed in western areas, especially for P. falciparum in the upper and middle focuses of the Maroni. Most zones now causing problems are located near migration points, particularly in relation with clandestine gold panning activities. In the coastal

  19. Rainfall and sloth births in may, Q fever in July, Cayenne, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Djossou, Felix; Raoult, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Q fever in French Guiana is correlated with the rainy season. We found a 1- to 2-month lagged correlation between Q fever incidence and the number of births of three-toed sloth. This result strengthens the hypothesis that the three-toed sloth is the wild reservoir of Q fever in French Guiana.

  20. A new species of Auyantepuia González-Sponga, 1978 (Scorpiones, Chactidae) from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ythier, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion belonging to the genus Auyantepuia González-Sponga, 1978 (family Chactidae Pocock, 1893) is described on the basis of three specimens collected in a rainforest formation located in Saut Sabbat, South of Mana, French Guiana. This is the tenth species of the Guiano-Amazonian genus Auyantepuia, and the fifth reported from French Guiana.

  1. Guatteria richardii (Annonaceae) rediscovered along with two new species from French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharf, U.; Maas, P.J.M.; Morawetz, W.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, 140 years after the collection of the first specimen and 70 years after the description of Guatteria richardii R.E. Fr. from French Guiana, more specimens that are referable to this species were discovered during a taxonomic treatment for the Flora of the Guianas project, concern

  2. Validation of Eustiromastix guianae (Caporiacco, 1954 (Araneae, Salticidae with a first description of the female, and additions to the salticid fauna of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Courtial

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we validate the doubtful species status of E. guianae, with redescriptions of (supposedly lost type and holotype males, and a first description of the female. Both sexes are measured and illustrated by pictures of habitus and copulatory organs. Seventeen new salticid species for French Guiana are also reported and a detailed catalogue of all salticid species from the Trinité National Nature Reserve is provided.

  3. Contact-induced changes in Amerindian Languages of French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Françoise; Renault-Lescure, Odile

    2008-01-01

    The article presents two cases of language contacts in French Guiana. This region is the home of two Amerindian languages, Kali'na and Emérillon, belonging to the Cariban and Tupi-guarani families respectively. Living near the coast, the speakers of Kali'na had earlier and more intensive contact with Portuguese, Spanish, English, Dutch and French than the Emérillon, who live deeper into the rainforest. During the last century, both languages underwent a certain amount of Francisation. Further...

  4. Fever in hospitalized HIV-infected patients in Western French Guiana: first think histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantilcke, Vincent; Boukhari, Rachida; Jolivet, Anne; Vautrin, Cyrille; Misslin, Caroline; Adenis, Antoine; Nacher, Mathieu

    2014-08-01

    In Western French Guiana, there was a dramatic increase in HIV prevalence between 1990 and 2000. The present study describes the causes of fever among HIV patients hospitalized in the medical ward of the only hospital in the western part of French Guiana. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted between 1 January 2008 and 30 June 2010 in the department of medicine of Saint Laurent du Maroni Hospital. The main characteristics of 67 patients having presented with fever in the first 48 hours of hospitalization were described. Among patients with CD4 French Guiana. Primary prophylaxis with itraconazole among immunocompromised patients seems warranted.

  5. Predictive factors of HTLV1-HIV coinfections in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier, Elise; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Abboud, Philippe; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2013-09-01

    French Guiana, the French territory most affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (1.3% of pregnant women), is also endemic for human T lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV1). The objective of this study was to determine if the HTLV1/HIV coinfected patients had particular characteristics. All HIV-infected patients having a computerized medical file containing an HTLV1 serology were included: there were 1,333 HIV monoinfections and 76 HTLV1/VIH coinfections. The prevalence of HTLV1/HIV coinfections was 5.39%. Women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91[1.13-3.24]), subjects > 40 years of age, and patients of Surinamese origin (OR = 2.65 [1.25-5.61]) were overrepresented among the coinfected. CD4 count at the time of diagnosis and viral loads were higher among coinfected patients. The clinical stage was not significantly different between the two groups. The number of CD4 cells was not higher among the coinfected, unlike most reports from the literature. Prevalence of HTLV1 among HIV-infected patients is high in French Guiana, and physicians seem to omit the prescription of serology for this potentially serious coinfection.

  6. Intestinal parasitoses among Wayampi Indians from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme B.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitism and its epidemiological characteristics were studied in an isolated Amerindian population from Upper Oyapock (French Guiana that has retained its traditional social and cultural specificities. This population consisted of 138 Wayampi Indians, 68 adults and 70 children (below the age of 15 years, with a sex ratio (M/F of 0.86, spread over the four villages of the community of Trois Sauts, corresponding to more than two thirds of the population recorded as inhabiting the sector in the last census (375 inhabitants. Fecal examination combined the direct examination of fresh feces with the quantitative techniques of Kato-Katz method, Baermann and MIF staining. Overall, 92 % of the subjects were found to have intestinal parasites, 85 % if only direct examination of fresh stools was taken into account. Fourteen species of human parasite were identified: seven protozoa and seven helminths. We observed in particular 1 a high frequency of hookworm infection due to Necator americanus. Over 50 % of subjects were affected, with a range of 25 % to 75 % according to the village, but with only moderate parasite loads; 2 a high level of parasitism by E. histolytica/E. dispar (17 %, Stongyloides stercoralis (16 % and Hymenolepis nana (18% ; 3a lower level of parasitism by Ascaris lumbricoides and very low levels (almost absent of Trichiuris trichiura ; 4 the absence of Schistosoma and fluke eggs. With the exception of H. nana, which was more frequent in children than in adults, there was no significant difference in the level of parasitism according to sex and age. Although the Wayampi of French Guiana are French citizens and consequently have quite high incomes and ready access to clinics and medicines, intestinal parasites are far from under control in this population. A lack of fecal hygiene and the habit of walking barefoot are widespread in the unchanging Amazonian environment and contribute to this phenomenon.

  7. NO2 possible effects on human health in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinddass, Marie-Line; Dendele, Beatrice; Molinie, Jack; panechou-pulcherie, Kathy; Gatineau, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently declared air pollution carcinogenic to humans. Humans are continuously exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions, a strong oxidizing pollutant commonly found in urban air and homes with unvented combustion appliances. Children and Individuals with asthma have been reported to be more sensitive to NO2exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 pollution has been reported to induce defective pulmonary function, inflammation, irritations, respiratory infections like bronchitis, lung fibrosis, asthma exacerbation and an increase in inhalational allergies. Pollution peaks are responsible for older people premature death in city. According to W H O guideline values for NO2 emissions, a 1-hour level of 200 μg/m3 (0.1 ppm) and daily annual average of 40 μg/m3 (0.02 ppm) can be a real danger to human health. In general, current exposures in Europe are below this range. However, climate warming changes NO2 emissions and can become a real public health problem in few years. We will study here the temporal series of NO2 variation from data measurement campaigns of 2010 and 2014 in Cayenne city, the French Guiana capital. In this urban zone, NO2 is mainly created by cars traffic. Only 40% comes from combustion in thermal electric plan. A statistical approach will be used to compare NO2 Cayenne level to the daily and the annual threshold. Finally the NO2 evolution related to the climate warming and the growth of road traffic in French Guiana for the next year will be discussed.

  8. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  9. Prevent and "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  10. 1927: a British eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  11. Genetic diversity and population structure in wild stands of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims The native cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.) in French Guiana represent an important fraction of genetic diversity of this species. Several scientific surveys have led to the collection of germplasm accessions from south-eastern French Guiana, which provides an ideal opportunit...

  12. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012.

  13. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  14. The epidemiology of breast cancer in French Guiana 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roue, Tristan; Fior, Angela; Plenet, Juliette; Belliardo, Sophie; Nacher, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    For the first time the incidence and mortality of breast cancer were estimated in French Guiana, an overseas French Territory of South America. A certified cancer registry collected exhaustive data on breast cancer between 2003 and 2005. The age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 47.1 per 100 000 women. The age-standardized death rate was 11.0 per 100 000 women. Although the standardized incidence and death rates were lower than in metropolitan France and South America, the ratio between incidence and mortality showed that the prognosis of breast cancer in French Guiana was worse than in metropolitan France (23 deaths per 100 incident cases versus 17 deaths per 100 incident cases, respectively). The demographics of French Guiana, suggests that mass organized screening may benefit from lowering the age of its target population.

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, Sudan, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.

  16. Two new combinations in Euploca Nutt. (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales) and a conspectus of the species of the Guiana Shield area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium foliatum and Tournefortia humilis are transferred to Euploca Nutt. respectively as Euploca foliata comb. n. and Euploca humilis comb. n. A collection from Guyana has been recently identified as Euploca humistrata, a species previously considered a Brazilian endemic. A collection from French Guiana documents for the first time the species in that country. A key to the species of the Guiana Shield area is given. The species of Euploca from the Guiana Shield are listed with synonymy and a brief description: Euploca filiformis, Euploca humilis, Euploca humistrata, Euploca lagoensis, Euploca polyphylla, Euploca procumbens.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Vampire Bat Rabies Virus from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; Darcissac, Edith; Bourhy, Hervé; Tirera, Sourakhata; de Thoisy, Benoît; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    A rabies virus was detected in a common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in French Guiana. Its genomic sequence was obtained and found to be closely related to other hematophagous bat-related viruses that widely circulate in the northern Amazon region. This virus is named AT6. PMID:27056216

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of a Vampire Bat Rabies Virus from French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Lavergne, Anne; Darcissac, Edith; Bourhy, Hervé; Tirera, Sourakhata; de Thoisy, Benoît; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    A rabies virus was detected in a common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in French Guiana. Its genomic sequence was obtained and found to be closely related to other hematophagous bat-related viruses that widely circulate in the northern Amazon region. This virus is named AT6.

  19. Patawa Virus, a New Arenavirus Hosted by Forest Rodents in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; de Thoisy, Benoit; Donato, Damien; Guidez, Amandine; Matheus, Séverine; Catzeflis, François; Lacoste, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Molecular screening of rodents from French Guiana has detected a new arenavirus, named "Patawa," in two Oecomys species (Muridae, Sigmodontinae). Further investigations are needed to better understand the circulation of this virus in rodent and human populations and its public health impact.

  20. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera of the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A. Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp. and Suriname (136 spp. rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  1. Malaria Hyperendemicity and Risk for Artemisinin Resistance among Illegal Gold Miners, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Djossou, Félix; Barthes, Nicolas; Bogreau, Hervé; Hyvert, Georges; Nguyen, Christophe; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria among illegal gold miners in the French Guiana rainforest, we screened 205 miners during May-June 2014. Malaria prevalence was 48.3%; 48.5% of cases were asymptomatic. Patients reported self-medication with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Risk for emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance among gold miners in the rainforest is high.

  2. Annotated checklist of the herpetofauna of Petit Saut, Sinnamary River, French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mission Radeau des Cimes to Petit Saut, French Guiana, offered the opportunity to study the herpetofauna of the canopy of the tropical rainforest, an area hardly studied sofar. Two localities at heights of 30 and 35 m could be studied, whereas data on a third site were obtained through informati

  3. Tatuidris kapasi sp. nov.: A New Armadillo Ant from French Guiana (Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Lacau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tatuidris kapasisp. nov. (Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae, the second known species of “armadillo ant”, is described after a remarkable specimen collected in French Guiana. This species can be easily distinguished from Tatuidris tatusia by characters related to the shape of the mesosoma and petiole as well as to the pilosity, the sculpture, and the color.

  4. Regional distribution of mercury in sediments of the main rivers of French Guiana (Amazonian basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, Valérie; Hellal, Jennifer; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Joseph, Bernard; Laporte, Pierre; Breeze, Dominique; Blanchard, François

    2014-01-01

    Use of mercury (Hg) for gold-mining in French Guiana (up until 2006) as well as the presence of naturally high background levels in soils, has led to locally high concentrations in soils and sediments. The present study maps the levels of Hg concentrations in river sediments from five main rivers of French Guiana (Approuague River, Comté River, Mana River, Maroni River and Oyapock River) and their tributaries, covering more than 5 450 km of river with 1 211 sampling points. The maximum geological background Hg concentration, estimated from 241 non-gold-mined streams across French Guiana was 150 ng g(-1). Significant differences were measured between the five main rivers as well as between all gold-mining and pristine areas, giving representative data of the Hg increase due to past gold-mining activities. These results give a unique large scale vision of Hg contamination in river sediments of French Guiana and provide fundamental data on Hg distribution in pristine and gold-mined areas.

  5. Mires and Histosols in French Guiana (South America: new data relating to location and area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Large peatland areas have been identified in French Guiana, an equatorial province (département of France, but the exact distribution and ecological condition of mires is not well known. Maps of pedological and agronomic units that were prepared between the early 1950s and 1975 enable us to improve on previously published estimates of Histosol areas in French Guiana. Only the non-forested parts of the province have been studied because there are hardly any pedological maps for the portion that lies within the Amazon rainforest. The extent of Histosols recorded in French Guiana is around 975 km², which is 57–60 % of the estimates of peatland area (1620 km² and 1720 km² reported in the scientific literature. The largest Histosol areas are located near the coast in the north-east of the province, between Cayenne and the border with Brazil. This region receives the highest annual rainfall recorded in French Guiana and provides a particularly favourable hydro-geomorphological setting for peat formation. It will be necessary to explore these large Histosol areas in order to characterise them and to study the associated mire vegetation. Difficult access, combined with the adverse hydro-climatic conditions, will make this a long-term endeavour.

  6. Unique clone of Coxiella burnetii causing severe Q fever, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Aba; Edouard, Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Patrice, Jean-Yves; La Scola, Bernard; Okandze, Antoine; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    Acute Q fever is an emergent and severe disease in French Guiana. We obtained 5 Coxiella burnetii isolates from samples of patients from Cayenne and found an epidemic clone circulating in Cayenne. This clone has caused pneumonia and endocarditis and seems to be more virulent than previously described strains.

  7. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species.

  8. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  9. Situação atual da doença de Chagas na Guiana Francesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Esterre

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Localizada entre dois focos endêmicos da doença de Chagas, a Venezuela e o Brasil, a Guiana Francesa conheceu poucos casos dessa afecção de 1940 até 1956. Um inquérito sorológico, utilizando-se uma pesquisa ativa sobre pacientes cardiopáticos e uma pesquisa passiva, permitiu evidenciar a existência de dois casos autóctones. Apesar da presença de vetores domésticos, o risco da doença de Chagas na Guiana Francesa parece limitado à aparição episódica de escassos casos humanos.Although located between two endemic areas of Chagas' disease (Venezuela and Brazil, French Guiana recorded only few cases of this infection between 1940 and 1956. A serological survey, using either active detection in cardiopathic patients or a passive one resulted in the finding of two autochthonous cases. In spite ofthe presence of a peridomiciliary cycle the risk of Chagas' disease in French Guiana seems to be limited to the episodic occurrence of rare sporadic human cases.

  10. A survey of adult anophelines in French Guiana: enhanced descriptions of species distribution and biting responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusfour, Isabelle; Carinci, Romuald; Issaly, Jean; Gaborit, Pascal; Girod, Romain

    2013-12-01

    In French Guiana, Anopheles darlingi is considered the main malaria vector. However, several reports have hypothesized the implication of other anopheline species in malaria transmission for the territory. Data on the ecology of these other potential vectors is rare or even unexplored in French Guiana. The aim of this study was to describe the biting habits of several anopheline species in multiple localities in French Guiana. Six sampling sites yielded 1,083 anopheline adults. Results indicated the presence of An. darlingi in all study locations and it was the only species to be collected inside villages. Other anophelines collected included An. aquasalis, An. braziliensis, An. intermedius, An. mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, and An. triannulatus, all of which were associated with open areas and forests. The environment and time, at which biting behavior was recorded, varied for each species. It was noted that An. oswaldoi showed a daytime rhythm in open areas. This study is the first to report on the biting habits of a range of anophelines in French Guiana that may play a role in malaria transmission. This information is vital to fully describe the risk of malaria transmission and thereby design appropriate vector control measures and malaria prevention programs.

  11. Polymorphism versus species richness - systematics of large Dendrobates from the eastern Guiana Shield (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Wollenberg; M.K.H. Veith; B.P. Noonan; S. Lötters

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and morphological comparisons suggest that only one polymorphic species of large Dendrobates, commonly assigned to D. tinctorius, occurs on the eastern Guiana Shield and its vicinities. The oldest available name fo

  12. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species. PMID:27305604

  13. New combinations in Eumachia (Rubiaceae) for species occurring on the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen new combinations are made in the genus Eumachia for species formerly in the genus Margaritopsis in Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. For these 13 new combinations, their basionyms, other synonyms, types, and distributions are given. Three new combinations are also made for the...

  14. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  15. Numerous clones resistant to Phytophthora palmivora in the "Guiana" genetic group of Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Thevenin

    Full Text Available Cocoa black pod rot, a disease caused by Stramenopiles of the genus Phytophthora, and particularly by the pan-tropical species P. palmivora, causes serious production losses worldwide. In order to reduce the impact of these pests and diseases, preference is given to genetic control using resistant varieties and, to that end, breeders seek sources of resistance in wild cocoa trees. For instance, surveys of spontaneous cocoa trees in French Guiana between 1985 and 1995 led to the collection of abundant plant material forming a particular genetic group (the "Guiana" group. Following numerous one-off studies demonstrating the merits of this group as a source of resistance to Phytophthora, this article presents the results of a comprehensive study assessing the resistance of 186 "Guiana" clones in relation to the Guianan strain (GY 27 of P. palmivora. This study, undertaken in French Guiana, using an efficient methodology (ten series of tests and a statistical test adapted to the ordinal nature of the data confirmed that the "Guiana" genetic group does indeed constitute an important source of resistance to P. palmivora, though with some variations depending on the demes of origin. Numerous clones (59 proved to be as resistant as the SCAVINA 6 resistance control, whilst nine were statistically more resistant. The "Resistant" and "Moderately Resistant" Guianan clones totalled 108 (58% of the total tested. Some of the clones more resistant than SCAVINA 6 could be incorporated into numerous cocoa breeding programmes, particularly those that also display other notable qualities. The same applies for numerous other clones equivalent to SCAVINA 6, especially the "elite"' clones GU 134-B, GU 139-A and GU 285-A.

  16. Species richness and phytogeography of the bryophyte flora of the Guianas, with special reference to the lowland forest

    OpenAIRE

    Gradstein, Stephan Robbert; Montfoort, D.; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.

    1990-01-01

    The Guianas (French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana) are probably one of the last areas of the world covered largely by virgin lowland rain forest. Species diversity of epiphytic bryophytes was investigated in dry evergreen forest and mixed forest using mountaineering techniques to ascend into the canopy. The results indicate that the lowland rain forest is richer in species than previously believed due to neglect of the canopy flora, which may hold more than 50% of the local species. The mixed fore...

  17. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana: Description of one new genus and species (Scorpiones: Chactidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species, Spinochactas mitaraka gen. n., sp. n. (Chactidae) are described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of the new genus and species brings further evidence of the biogeographic pattern of distribution presented by some elements of the family Chactidae endemic to the Tepuys or to the Inselberg formations of South America.

  18. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana. II. Description of a new species of Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new remarkable species belonging to the genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891 (Buthidae) is described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of this new species brings further evidence about the biogeographic patterns of distribution presented by most species of the genus Ananteris, which are highly endemic in most biogeographic realms of South America, including the Tepuys and Inselberg Massifs.

  19. Predictive factors of the survival of women with invasive breast cancer in French Guiana: the burden of health inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Roué, Tristan; Labbé, Sylvain; Belliardo, Sophie; Plenet, Juliette; Douine, Maylis; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This study aimed to compare the relative survival of patients with invasive breast cancer between women from French Guiana (a French territory in South America) and metropolitan France. No study hadever compared survival of breast cancer on the basis of immigrant status in France. Our study underlined that access to care for migrants is challenging whichwgenerates health inequalities. Background The prognosis of breast cancer in French Guiana is worse than in France wi...

  20. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOMES, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; VIEIRA, José Luiz Fernandes; CASSIANO, Gustavo Capatti; MUSSET, Lise; LEGRAND, Eric; NACHER, Mathieu; COUTO, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; MACHADO, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; COUTO, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana. PMID:27680177

  1. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  2. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  3. Impact of Launchers on the Environment in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S.; Chemoul, B.

    2012-01-01

    The main combustion products of the Ariane 5 solid rocket boosters are alumina and chlorhyde gas. When the launcher lift off the significant concentrations of this components are around the launch zone. We use samplers to evaluate the concentrations of this two elements. To optimize the localisation of the samplers we use a model to obtain the projected traces of the combustion cloud according to meteorological data (software sarrim). During the first seconds of takes 1000 m3 of water flood the base right to decrease the acoustic vibration. The major parts of the pollutants fall close to the launch zone and acidic cloud is formed. Once having stabilized the cloud begins diluting, it is subjected to the influence of the different layers of wind. To measure air quality we use first continuous analysers, secondly containers with distilled water to sample the acidic particles from the cloud. We also monitor the physicochemical quality of water in a river near the launch zone, the impact of the combustion products on vegetation, the aquatic fauna. Noise and vibrations are also measured. For terrestrial fauna like birds, we monitor the general population and a colony of wade. The most important colony of this species is located on the base : around 75% of the population of the French Guiana. We use also a new protocol to estimate the impact of launch by measuring the thickness of eggshells. We use research results which show that calcium can be replaced by alumina. When the thickness of eggshells is thin, the reproduction can be affected. For each measurement campaign, we have more than 100 sites and around 600 samples. The results shows that the land around the space centre is like a natural refuge. The impact of the launches is low, hunting is forbidden and security personal controls the zone base is a protected zone. The space centre is now a natural wildlife refuge. For the two new launchers, Vega and Soyuz, we will also monitor the environmental impact of the launch

  4. [Diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection by PCR: report of 3 cases observed in French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, A; Couppié, P; Sainte-Marie, D; Pradinaud, R

    2003-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans infection is the third most important mycobacterial infection in the world. It has been described in many different countries including French Guiana. The diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection by culture is often difficult because culture is hard to perform in endemic areas and their sensitivity is not reliable. As a result the diagnosis of this infection is often delayed. However, molecular methods are now available to diagnose rapidly infections by M. ulcerans and distinguish it from other mycobacteria. We report three cases of skin infection due to M. ulcerans observed in French Guiana. Diagnosis was initially made by polymerase chain reaction and was confirmed later by culture (in two patients) and inoculation to mice (in one patient). A faster diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection should lead to a better prognosis of this infection.

  5. Fluid-escape structures and slope instabilities along the French Guiana margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, L.; Gaullier, V.; Basile, C.; Maillard, A.; Patriat, M.; Vendeville, B. C.; Folens, L.; Roest, W.

    2009-04-01

    Many of the world's passive margins are shear margins. Those margins present a very steep ocean-continent boundary which is expressed by high surface-slope gradients. In this type of margins, complex rift structures including wrench and strike-slip faults affect the continental crust. These rift basins usually trap organic matter, hence kerogen that later become hydrocarbons. Along the Guiana margin, late cretaceous black Shales provide additional organic matter. The French Guiana margin has been recently surveyed (GUYAPLAC cruise, 2003) allowing the discovery of a giant pockmark field likely caused by active degassing of deep reservoirs and expressed at the surface through giant elongated pock-marks. These pockmarks are systematically associated with massive slope instabilities and underlying polygonal fault network. Major seaward collapses seem to have affected the margin, and the breakup unconformity is tilted seaward. We believe that fluid overpressure above Cretaceous under-consolidated organic rocks may have destabilized part of the sedimentary cover, allowing massive escape of fluids toward the surface, as is suggested further North by geotechnical analyses made after leg ODP 207 (O'Regan & Moran, 2007). A compactional origin of fluids is also possible. In any case, the specific structural pattern of the Guiana transform margin, with a seaward tilted geometry and no marginal ridge, may favour particularly active fluid releases and slope instabilities (favoured by the decrease in sediment's strength related to high pore-fluid pressure). As suggested by O'Regan & Moran (2007) it is possible also that fluid migration occurs along the break-up unconformity, which crops out along the very steep continental slope. If this is correct, a great part of fossil hydrocarbon resources may escape to the surface along of the Guiana and Surinam continental margins. References: O'Regan M. & K. Moran, 2007. Compressibility, permeability and stress history of sediments from

  6. Influence of Light Intensity on Methanotrophic Bacterial Activity in Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Dumestre, J. F.; Guézennec, J.; Galy-Lacaux, C; Delmas, R.; Richard, S.; Labroue, L.

    1999-01-01

    One year after impoundment in January 1994, methanotrophic bacteria in Petit Saut Reservoir (French Guiana) were active at the oxic-anoxic interface. This activity was revealed by the sudden extinction of diffusive methane emission (600 metric tons of CH4 · day−1 for the whole lake surface area, i.e., 360 km2). Lifting of inhibition was suspected. After reviewing the potential inhibitors of this physiological guild (O2, NH4+, sulfides) and considering the similarities with nitrifiers, we sugg...

  7. Insects of French Guiana: a baseline for diversity and taxonomic effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Stéphane; Touroult, Julien

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the first checklist of insects from French Guiana. Compiled by a group of 70 experts based on published records, it comprises about 15 100 valid species names belonging to 20 orders and 322 families. Currently, about 17% of the species are only known from French Guiana or from the Guiana Shield region. Since Linné, the average rate of description has been 59 species per year, which has been increasing in the last 10 years. Based on a sample of recent taxonomic and faunistic papers covering 736 new species for French Guiana, 46% of the species came from new country records, the rest from new species descriptions. The rate of faunistic progress (new species or new records) is about 180 species per year over the last five years. Sixty-five percent of these faunal records came from non-professional entomologists and 74% of the holotypes of new species were collected by amateur entomologists. A rough extrapolation, using two different methods, provides a likely estimate of around 100 000 species, the most conservative estimate being 67 000 species and the highest 184 000. Therefore, an estimated 80% of the species remain to be recorded and, in a best-case scenario, at least 270 years would be needed to complete the biotic inventory, at the current rate of species descriptions and distribution records. Although no order is exhaustively inventoried, the most in need of study are Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera and Trichoptera; and in absolute numbers, Coleoptera. These results and the fundamental role of non-professional entomologists in collecting and describing new species are discussed.

  8. A new polymorphic Hemilophini Thomson, 1868 from the Tumuc Humac inselbergs, French Guiana (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touroult, Julien; Dalens, Pierre-Henri

    2015-09-03

    A new Zeale Pascoe, 1866, Zeale granvillei sp. nov., is described from open areas at Mitaraka Mounts, French Guiana. The key to the species of Zeale is updated and the different forms of the new species are illustrated. A list of the material from Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris) in this genus is provided. Some aspects of its behavior are given, including its possible host plant, Ichtyothere granvillei H. Robinson (Asteraceae).

  9. Characteristics and specificities of Cryptococcus infections in French Guiana, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourgogne, Anne; Iriart, Xavier; Blanchet, Denis; Veron, Vincent; Boukhari, Rachida; Nacher, Mathieu; Carme, Bernard; Aznar, Christine

    2011-11-01

    Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic systemic mycosis caused by members of the encapsulated yeast genus Cryptococcus. The aetiological agents of the disease are classified into two species, i.e., Cryptococcus neoformans (serotypes A, D, and AD) affecting mainly immunocompromised patients and Cryptococcus gattii (serotypes B and C) usually found in immunocompetent individuals. Limited data exist on Cryptococcus infections in French Guiana, the department with the highest HIV incidence in the French territories. A retrospective study between January 1998 and December 2008 was performed on all patients with cryptococcosis, admitted to hospitals in French Guiana. Epidemiological data, clinical forms and diagnosis methods were studied. Of the 43 patients with cryptococcosis, 29 (67.4%) had HIV infections. Among the HIV-negative patients, two (4.7%) presented identified risk factors for cryptococcosis. This study has shown a high frequency of patients with HTLV-1 positive serology (12.1%). C. neoformans var. grubii was recovered with a frequency of 77.3% and was mainly isolated from patients with AIDS (13/17), whereas C. gattii (22.7%) was strictly isolated from HIV-negative patients with no apparent risk factors. Despite a socio-economic environment closer to western countries, the overall epidemiology of cryptococcosis in French Guiana is more similar to that found in South America, particularly with reference to the serotypes of the causative yeasts. Indeed, French Guiana presents an especially high proportion of cases caused by C. gattii, which may explain the significant incidence of this disease, particularly in HIV-negative and immunocompetent patients.

  10. Prevalence and Distribution of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 in Leishmania Parasites from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginouvès, Marine; Simon, Stéphane; Bourreau, Eliane; Lacoste, Vincent; Ronet, Catherine; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu; Demar, Magalie; Prévot, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    In South America, the presence of the Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) was described in Leishmania guyanensis and Leishmania braziliensis strains. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence distribution of LRV1 in Leishmania isolates in French Guiana given that, in this French overseas department, most Leishmania infections are due to these parasite species. The presence of the virus was observed in 74% of Leishmania spp. isolates, with a highest presence in the internal areas of the country.

  11. The reproductive biology of euglossine-pollinated plants in the natural reserve Nouragues, French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Hentrich, Heiko

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive biology of several euglossine-pollinated species of an understory community in the natural reserve Nouragues in French Guiana were studied. The first two chapters deal with the pollination biology of three sympatric, co-flowering aroids (Anthurium sagittatum, Anthurium thrinax and Spathiphyllum humboldtii). Each of the studied species possessed a specific floral scent bouquet that attracted species-specific pollinators. The pollinators were male euglossine bees, which collect...

  12. Trypanosomatidae from wild mammals in the neotropical rainforest of French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Dereure, J.; Barnabé, Christian; Vié, J.C.; Madélenat, F.; Raccurt, C.

    2001-01-01

    The initial filling of the reservoir behind the Petit Saut hydro-electric dam, on the Sinnamary River in French Guiana, threatened the terrestrial and arboreal animals living in the neotropical rainforest from being flooded. During a rescue programme between 24 October and 12 November in 1994, many of these animals were checked for infection with trypanosomatids. Overall, 45 blood samples and 54 skin biopsies were collected from 53 mammals (of 13 species representing five orders) and blood sa...

  13. Malaria Hyperendemicity and Risk for Artemisinin Resistance among Illegal Gold Miners, French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Djossou, Félix; Barthes, Nicolas; Bogreau, Hervé; Hyvert, Georges; Nguyen, Christophe; Pelleau, Stéphane; Legrand, Eric; Musset, Lise; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of malaria among illegal gold miners in the French Guiana rainforest, we screened 205 miners during May–June 2014. Malaria prevalence was 48.3%; 48.5% of cases were asymptomatic. Patients reported self-medication with artemisinin-based combination therapy. Risk for emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance among gold miners in the rainforest is high. PMID:27089004

  14. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  15. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  16. Heterogeneity among Mycobacterium ulcerans from French Guiana revealed by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Brown, Christopher; Couppié, Pierre; Legrand, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is an emerging and neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Few cases have been reported so far in the Americas. With 250 cases reported since 1969, French Guiana is the only Buruli ulcer endemic area in the continent. Thus far, no genetic diversity studies of strains of M. ulcerans from French Guiana have been reported. Our goal in the present study was to examine the genetic diversity of M. ulcerans strains in this region by using the Multilocus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) approach. A total of 23 DNA samples were purified from ulcer biopsies or derived from pure cultures. MVLA was used in the study of six previously-described Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) markers. A total of three allelic combinations were characterized in our study: genotype I which has been described previously, genotype III which is very similar to genotype I, and genotype II which has distinctly different characteristics in comparison with the other two genotypes. This high degree of genetic diversity appears to be uncommon for M. ulcerans. Further research based on complete genome sequencing of strains belonging to genotypes I and II is in progress and should lead soon to a better understanding of genetic specificities of M. ulcerans strains from French Guiana.

  17. Toward a clear-sky model for the French Guiana Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobinddass, M.; Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Atmospheric Science; Remote Sensing Team

    2011-12-01

    French Guiana is an equatorial area which feels the effects of two anticyclones (Azores anticyclone and Saint-Helena anticyclone). This area is disturbed by the atmospheric circulation of the IZC (Intertropical Zone of Convergence). However, its position on the Earth explains the fact that it is one of the most solar irradiated areas on the globe (about 1700 Kwh/m2). Therefore, it is becoming a proper district to the setting of solar panels and to this solar energy exploitation. This work is a part of the SOLAREST project. It aims to accurately estimate the radiation in French Guiana. Several methods are used to estimate solar radiation. Some of those are inverted methods (e.g. Heliosat, Heliosat-2, Heliosat-3), while other methods (e.g. Heliosat-4) directly modelize the effects of the atmosphere on the incident radiation. The inverse models are divided into three parts : the first is a clear sky model(e.g. Modtran, ESRA model, Bird model, ...), the second is an overcast sky model for radiation and finally the last is a strong method which combine the results of these two models with a measure based on the cloud information to estimate the radiation. Physical models using a numerical radiative transfer code (ie: LibRadtran, Lowtran) and requires parameters such as position of the sun and optical properties of the atmosphere above the point considered. When the inverse method (Heliosat-2) radiation result by using Meteosat images is compared to the pyranometers radiation results for the six French Guiana ground stations a daily RMSE of 17 % and a daily MBE of 11% are obtained (I. Marie-Joseph et al., submitted). These values are higher than these of temperate climate area. In fact, the Heliosat-2 software use the clear sky ESRA model to calculate solar radiation and all the atmospheric disturbances are represented by the Linke turbidity factor. Even if this factor represent "total" characteristic phenomena of atmospheric absorption and scattering (Rigollier, 2000

  18. Notes on the Herpetofauna of surinam : IX. Xenodon Werneri Eiselt, a poorly known snake from Guiana, with notes on Waglerophis Merremii (Wagler) (Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Xenodon werneri Eiselt is redescribed on the basis of new material from Surinam and French Guiana. Its distribution and the Zoogeographie meaning of it are discussed. A key to the species of Xenodon in Guiana is presented. From the present data it appears that Waglerophis merremii (Wagler) is absent

  19. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) as marine ecosystem sentinels: ecotoxicology and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lemos, Leila; Emin-Lima, Renata; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) are small cetaceans that inhabit coastal regions down to a 50 m depth. As a coastally distributed species, they are exposed to a variety of human-induced risks that include passive fishing nets, persistent environmental pollution, and emerging diseases. As a top predatorS. guianensis occupies an important ecological niche in marine ecosystems. However, this niche also exposes this dolphin to extensive biomagnification of marine contaminants that may accumulate and be stored throughout their life of about 30 years.In this paper, we have compiled available data on the Guiana dolphin as regards its exposure to chemical pollutants, pathogenic microbes, infectious diseases, and injuries caused by interactions with passive fishing gears. Our analysis of the data shows that Guiana dolphins are particularly sensitive to environmental changes.Although the major mortal threat to dolphins results from contact with fishing other human-related activities in coastal zones also pose risks and need more attention.Such human-related risks include the presence of persistent toxicants in the marine environment, such as PCBs and PBDEs. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in Guiana dolphin's tissues at similar or higher levels that exist in cetaceans from other known polluted areas. Another risk encountered by this species is the non lethal injuries caused by fishing gear. Several incidents of this sort have occurred along the Brazilian coast with this species. When injuries are produced by interaction with fishing gear, the dorsal fin is the part of the dolphin anatomy that is more affected, commonly causing severe laceration or even total loss.The Guiana dolphins also face risks from infectious diseases. The major ones thus far identified include giardiasis, lobomycosis, toxoplasmosis, skin and skeletal lesions. Many bacterial pathogens from the family Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae have been isolated from Guiana dolphins. Several

  20. Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) as marine ecosystem sentinels: ecotoxicology and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Lemos, Leila; Emin-Lima, Renata; Siciliano, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) are small cetaceans that inhabit coastal regions down to a 50 m depth. As a coastally distributed species, they are exposed to a variety of human-induced risks that include passive fishing nets, persistent environmental pollution, and emerging diseases. As a top predatorS. guianensis occupies an important ecological niche in marine ecosystems. However, this niche also exposes this dolphin to extensive biomagnification of marine contaminants that may accumulate and be stored throughout their life of about 30 years.In this paper, we have compiled available data on the Guiana dolphin as regards its exposure to chemical pollutants, pathogenic microbes, infectious diseases, and injuries caused by interactions with passive fishing gears. Our analysis of the data shows that Guiana dolphins are particularly sensitive to environmental changes.Although the major mortal threat to dolphins results from contact with fishing other human-related activities in coastal zones also pose risks and need more attention.Such human-related risks include the presence of persistent toxicants in the marine environment, such as PCBs and PBDEs. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in Guiana dolphin's tissues at similar or higher levels that exist in cetaceans from other known polluted areas. Another risk encountered by this species is the non lethal injuries caused by fishing gear. Several incidents of this sort have occurred along the Brazilian coast with this species. When injuries are produced by interaction with fishing gear, the dorsal fin is the part of the dolphin anatomy that is more affected, commonly causing severe laceration or even total loss.The Guiana dolphins also face risks from infectious diseases. The major ones thus far identified include giardiasis, lobomycosis, toxoplasmosis, skin and skeletal lesions. Many bacterial pathogens from the family Aeromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae have been isolated from Guiana dolphins. Several

  1. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    OpenAIRE

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...

  2. Três espécies novas de Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae da Costa Rica, Panamá e Guiana Francesa Three new species of Lestrimelitta Friese (Hymenoptera, Apidae from Costa Rica, Panama and French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favízia Freitas de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Três espécies novas de abelhas do gênero Lestrimelitta são descritas: L. danuncia sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e Panamá, L. mourei sp. nov. (da Costa Rica e L. glaberrima sp. nov. (da Guiana Francesa. Todas essas espécies foram identificadas anteriormente como Lestrimelitta limao Smith.Three new species of bees of the genus Lestrimelitta are described: L. danuncia sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and Panama, L. mourei sp. nov. (from Costa Rica and L. glaberrima sp. nov. (from French Guiana. All of these new species were previously identified as Lestrimelitta limao Smith.

  3. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  4. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  5. Guiana Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for Screening Coastal Brazilian Environments for Dioxins and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Bisi, Tatiana L; Domit, Camila; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Meirelles, Ana C O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Brose, François; Das, Krishna; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-10-01

    Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species. However, due to high costs of the analyses, only one investigation comprised the determination of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in Guiana dolphin tissues. The dioxin responsive-chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX(®)) cell bioassay was used in the present study for the analyses of hepatic samples from 28 male Guiana dolphins in order to screen estuarine environments for DRCs, comprising three regions (Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern) and four states [Paraná (PR), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espírito Santo (ES), and Ceará (CE)] of Brazil. High bioanalytical equivalent (BEQ) concentrations [dioxins (pg BEQ/g lipid)] were found, varying from 1.94 to 15.6 pg BEQ/g. A significant negative correlation between BEQ concentrations and total length was found in Guiana dolphins from Brazil (all analysed dolphins). This pattern also was verified for RJ state, pointing to (1) chemically induced developmental disruption or to (2) increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal. Comparison was performed with literature data and significantly higher BEQ levels were found in Brazilian Guiana dolphins than in those reported for North Sea harbour porpoises. Higher levels were found in Southeastern (the most PBT-contaminated area of the country) than in Southern region. However, it is not possible to affirm that Guiana dolphins are more contaminated by DRCs in SE than in S region, because individuals were lengthier in S than in SE region. Our results seem to have mirrored dolphin exposure to PCBs in Brazil according to the literature. Further studies are required for investigating the hypotheses 1 and 2 mentioned above.

  6. A fronteira num jogo de poder multiescalar: a França, a Guiana e a ponte sobre o Oiapoque

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine Boudoux d’Hautefeuille

    2010-01-01

    A Guiana francesa está hoje engajada num processo de autonomização em relação à França metropolitana. Este processo é intimamente ligado à vontade de abrir-se sobre o ambiente regional. Neste contexto, o projeto da ponte sobre o rio Oiapoque, fronteira entre a Guiana Francesa e o Brasil, poderia surgir como uma oportunidade para desenvolver as relações com o Estado brasileiro vizinho, o Amapá. Decidido por e para a França e o Brasil num objetivo de apoiar simbolicamente as relações bilater...

  7. Amazonian Triatomine Biodiversity and the Transmission of Chagas Disease in French Guiana: In Medio Stat Sanitas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Julie; Nguyen, Anne; Flores-Ferrer, Alheli; Blanchet, Denis; Gourbière, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The effects of biodiversity on the transmission of infectious diseases now stand as a cornerstone of many public health policies. The upper Amazonia and Guyana shield are hot-spots of biodiversity that offer genuine opportunities to explore the relationship between the risk of transmission of Chagas disease and the diversity of its triatomine vectors. Over 730 triatomines were light-trapped in four geomorphological landscapes shaping French-Guiana, and we determined their taxonomic status and infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. We used a model selection approach to unravel the spatial and temporal variations in species abundance, diversity and infection. The vector community in French-Guiana is typically made of one key species (Panstrongylus geniculatus) that is more abundant than three secondary species combined (Rhodnius pictipes, Panstrongylus lignarius and Eratyrus mucronatus), and four other species that complete the assemblage. Although the overall abundance of adult triatomines does not vary across French-Guiana, their diversity increases along a coastal-inland gradient. These variations unravelled a non-monotonic relationship between vector biodiversity and the risk of transmission of Chagas disease, so that intermediate biodiversity levels are associated with the lowest risks. We also observed biannual variations in triatomine abundance, representing the first report of a biannual pattern in the risk of Chagas disease transmission. Those variations were highly and negatively correlated with the average monthly rainfall. We discuss the implications of these patterns for the transmission of T. cruzi by assemblages of triatomine species, and for the dual challenge of controlling Amazonian vector communities that are made of both highly diverse and mostly intrusive species.

  8. Trypanosomatidae from wild mammals in the neotropical rainforest of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereure, J; Barnabé, C; Vié, J C; Madélenat, F; Raccurt, C

    2001-03-01

    The initial filling of the reservoir behind the Petit Saut hydro-electric dam, on the Sinnamary River in French Guiana, threatened the terrestrial and arboreal animals living in the neotropical rainforest being flooded. During a rescue programme between 24 October and 12 November in 1994, many of these animals were checked for infection with trypanosomatids. Overall, 45 blood samples and 54 skin biopsies were collected from 53 mammals (of 13 species representing five orders) and blood samples were also taken from each of nine reptiles (six species from four families). When the skin biopsies and the buffy-coats from the blood samples were cultured in NNN medium, 10 of the cultures, each initiated with mammalian blood, were found to be positive for trypanosomatids. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) on cellulose acetate plates, with 20 enzyme systems, was then used to investigate each of the positive cultures. The results were analysed by clustering from a genetic distance matrix, using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), and applying a bootstrap procedure to Wagner parsimony trees. A stock obtained from Didelphis marsupialis was identified as a zymodeme of Trypanosoma cruzi (Miles' zymodeme 1) known to cause Chagas disease in French Guiana. Five stocks (one each from Bradypus tridactylus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Alouatta seniculus and two from Saguinus midas) were of a single zymodeme close to Trypanosoma rangeli reference stock RGB. This is the first confirmation of the presence of Tr. rangeli in French Guiana, and the first time that it has been identified, by iso-enzyme analysis, in the neotropical primates A. seniculus and S. midas. Two other stocks, isolated from Choloepus didactylus, were related to Endotrypanum schaudinni reference stock LEM 2790. Although the remaining stocks, one from C. didactylus and the other from A. seniculus, clustered together on UPGMA and in a Wagner tree, they did not appear to be related to

  9. Human impact on genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: example of the anthropized environment from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, A; Ajzenberg, D; Devillard, S; Demar, M P; de Thoisy, B; Bonnabau, H; Collinet, F; Boukhari, R; Blanchet, D; Simon, S; Carme, B; Dardé, M-L

    2011-08-01

    In French Guiana, severe cases of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients are associated with atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii linked to a wild neotropical rainforest cycle and a higher genetic diversity than usually observed for T. gondii isolates from anthropized environment. This raises the question of the impact of anthropization of the natural environment, on genetic diversity and on the population structure of T. gondii. However, few data are available on strains circulating in the anthropized areas from French Guiana. Seropositive animals originating mainly from anthropized sub-urban areas and punctually from wild environment in French Guiana were analyzed for T. gondii isolation and genotyping. Thirty-three strains were obtained by bioassay in mice and compared with 18 previously reported isolates chiefly originating from the Amazon rainforest. The genotyping analysis performed with 15 microsatellite markers located on 12 different chromosomes revealed a lower genetic diversity in the anthropized environment. Results were analyzed in terms of population structure by clustering methods, Neighbor-joining trees reconstruction based on genetic distances, F(ST,) Mantel's tests and linkage disequilibrium. They clearly showed a genetic differentiation between strains associated to the anthropized environment and those associated to the wild, but with some inbreeding between them. The majority of strains from the anthropized environment were clustered into additional lineages of T. gondii that are common in the Caribbean. In conclusion the two environmental populations "wild" and "anthropized" were genetically well differentiated. The anthropization of the environment seems to be accompanied with a decreased diversity of T. gondii associated with a greater structure of the populations. We detected potential interpenetration and genetic exchanges between these two environmental populations. As a higher pathogenicity in human of "wild" genotypes has been

  10. Identification of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus in house mouse (Mus musculus, Rodentia) in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Anne; de Thoisy, Benoît; Tirera, Sourakhata; Donato, Damien; Bouchier, Christiane; Catzeflis, François; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-seven house mice (Mus musculus, Rodentia) caught in different localities in French Guiana were screened to investigate the presence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV). Two animals trapped in an urban area were found positive, hosting a new strain of LCMV, that we tentatively named LCMV "Comou". The complete sequence was determined using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that this strain is related to genetic lineage I composed of strains inducing severe disease in humans. These results emphasize the need for active surveillance in humans as well as in house mouse populations, which is a rather common rodent in French Guianese cities and settlements.

  11. Description of a new species of the genus Adenomera (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Boistel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Adenomera from French Guiana. Collecting conditions, details about the localities and microhabitats are given. The advertisement call was recorded and is herein analyzed and described. Morphological and bioacoustic comparisons are drawn with other species of the genus. The new species is readily distinguished from other taxa by its distinctive coloration pattern, the occurrence of dorsolateral ridges and inguinal glands, and by the longer duration of the notes of its advertisement call. The taxonomy of Adenomera is evaluated with regard to current available knowledge.

  12. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa

    OpenAIRE

    Kornijezuk, Nádia Bandeira Sacenco

    2012-01-01

    Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento). Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado ...

  13. Western boundary current variability off French Guiana as observed from moored current measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Christian; Bourlès, Bernard; Chuchla, Rémy; Dangu, François

    1994-01-01

    Moored current measurements carried out from 31 March 1990 to 15 September 1991 in two stages at a point (near 6 degrees N) located over the mid-continental slope off French Guiana are presented. Six current meters were positioned between 200 and 2700 m depth. Upper level mean current data showed a northwestward flowing North Brazil Current (NBC) with mean velocity values decreasing from 10 cm/s in the range 200-250 m to almost zero at 800 m depth, the level of the Antarctic Intermediate Wate...

  14. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  15. British Telecom and Project Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.

    1983-07-01

    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  16. The rare rhinoceros beetle, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, in French Guiana and Suriname (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae, Phileurini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Gillett

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rare dynastine, Ceratophileurus lemoulti Ohaus, 1911, previously known only from French Guiana, is here reported for the first time from Suriname. All biological, distributional and temporal data available for the species in both territories are presented and discussed.

  17. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  18. The burden of Plasmodium vivax relapses in an Amerindian village in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Stefani, Aurelia; Basurko, Celia; Lemonnier, Delphine; Djossou, Félix; Demar, Magalie; Elenga, Narcisse; Brousse, Paul; Ville, Muriel; Carme, Bernard

    2013-10-24

    Malaria is a public health problem in French Guiana. Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent parasite. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the proportion of relapses in the burden of vivax malaria using the statistical rule stating that any case of vivax malaria occurring less than 90 days following a first episode is a relapse.A total of 622 subjects were followed for 2,9 years with 336 first single episodes of P. vivax malaria, and a total of 1,226 episodes of vivax malaria among which 559 were relapses (45.5%). For 194 patients having had falciparum malaria followed by vivax malaria it was estimated that 19% of the vivax episodes occurred less than 90 days following the falciparum episode and thus were possibly relapses due to the activation of latent hypnozoites. Despite the number of vivax cases and the number of relapses, there were only 28 recorded primaquine prescriptions (3.4% of vivax episodes, 4.5% of subjects).The present study points out that despite the fact that nearly half of the P. vivax cases, many of which in children, are caused by latent hypnozoites, only a minority of them benefit from primaquine radical cure. The obstacles to this are discussed and suggestions are made to reduce the burden of vivax malaria in Camopi and other remote health centres in French Guiana.

  19. Comparison between emerging Q fever in French Guiana and endemic Q fever in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Felix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Q fever is an emergent disease in French Guiana. We compared the incidence clinical and serologic profiles between patients from Cayenne, French Guiana and Marseille in metropolitan France during a four-year period. The annual incidence of diagnosed acute Q fever was significantly higher in Cayenne (17.5/100,000) than in Marseille (1.9/100,000) (P = 0.0004), but not the annual incidence of endocarditis (1.29 versus 0.34/100,000). Most patients had fever (97%) and pneumonia (83%) in Cayenne versus 81% and 8% in Marseille (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but transaminitis was more common in patients from Marseille (54% versus 32%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular infections was significantly lower in Cayenne (7%) than in Marseille (17%) (P = 0.017), although they showed a stronger immune response with higher levels of phase I IgG (P = 0.024). The differing epidemiology, clinical, and serologic responses of patients from Cayenne and Marseille suggest a different source of infection and a different strain of Coxiella burnetii.

  20. HIV-associated disseminated histoplasmosis in western French Guiana, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putot, A; Perrin, S; Jolivet, A; Vantilcke, V

    2015-03-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is the most current revelation mode of AIDS in French Guiana. We describe the clinical and paraclinical presentation of DH, diagnostic tools, evolution and factors associated with 1-year mortality in HIV-infected patients from western French Guiana. Microbiologically proven AIDS-related DH in Saint Laurent du Maroni's hospital between May 2002 and May 2012 were retrospectively included. Among the 82 patients included, 58 (71%) were male, 44 (53%) presented concurrent histoplasmosis and HIV diagnosis and 63 (80%) had a CD4 cell count under 50 cells μL(-1). Almost all patients had weight loss (97%) and fever (95%), while 84% had digestive symptoms (63% diarrhoea), 55% lymphadenopathy, and 49% respiratory symptoms. Documented and presumed locations of H. capsulatum var capsulatum (Hcc) concerned almost all organs, with a particular affinity for the bone marrow and the digestive system. Co-infections were associated in 65%. Following treatment initiation, 10 patients (13%) died within 1 month and 17 patients (25%) died within a year. DH is a polymorphous systemic mycosis with haematological and digestive tropism. Co-infections are frequent and mortality rate is high.

  1. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  2. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Sébastien; Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette; Murienne, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  3. Molecular Population Structure of Junonia Butterflies from French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber P. Gemmell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 9 described species of Junonia butterflies occur in the Americas, but authorities disagree due to species similarities, geographical and seasonal variability, and possible hybridization. In dispute is whether Caribbean Junonia are conspecific with South American species. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcodes, wingless (wg sequences, and Randomly Amplified Fingerprints (RAF were studied to reveal Junonia population structure in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Argentina. Phylogenetic analysis of COI recovered 2 haplotype groups, but most Junonia species can have either haplotype, so COI barcodes are ambiguous. Analysis of nuclear wingless alleles revealed geographic patterns but did not identify Junonia species. Nuclear RAF genotyping distinguished 11 populations of Junonia arranged into 3 clusters. Gene flow occurs within clusters but is limited between clusters. One cluster included all Argentinian samples. Two clusters included samples from French Guiana, Martinique, and Guadeloupe and appear to be divided by larval host plant use (Lamiales versus Scrophulariales. Many Junonia taxa were distributed across populations, possibly reflecting patterns of genetic exchange. We had difficulty distinguishing between the Caribbean forms J. zonalis and J. neildi, but we demonstrate that Caribbean Junonia are genetically distinct from South American J. evarete and J. genoveva, supporting the taxonomic hypothesis that they are heterospecific.

  4. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Cally

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/. This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  5. Epidemiology of superficial fungal diseases in French Guiana: a three-year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonnet, Christine; Berger, Franck; Gantier, Jean-Charles

    2011-08-01

    A three-year retrospective analysis of fungi isolated from specimens of patients with superficial fungal infections in French Guiana is presented. Clinical samples from 726 patients with presumptive diagnoses of onychomycosis (28.2% of the patients), tinea capitis (27.8%), superficial cutaneous mycoses of the feet (22.0%), and of other areas of the body (21.9%), were assessed by microscopic examination and culture. Dermatophytes accounted for 59.2% of the isolates, followed by yeasts (27.5%) and non-dermatophytic molds (13.1%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most common dermatophyte recovered from cases of onychomycosis (67.4%), tinea pedis (70.6%) and tinea corporis (52.4%). In contrast, Trichophyton tonsurans was the predominant species associated with tinea capitis (73.9%). Yeasts were identified as the principal etiologic agents of onychomycosis of the fingernails (74.2%), whereas molds were found mainly in cases of onychomycosis of the toenails. In such instances, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum (70.8%) was the most common mold recovered in culture. In conclusion, the prevalence of T. rubrum and the occurrence of onychomycosis and fungal infections of the feet in French Guiana are similar to results reported from Europe, whereas the frequency of tinea capitis and the importance of T. tonsurans in such infections are similar to the situation in the Americas.

  6. First human rabies case in French Guiana, 2008: epidemiological investigation and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Meynard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Until 2008, human rabies had never been reported in French Guiana. On 28 May 2008, the French National Reference Center for Rabies (Institut Pasteur, Paris confirmed the rabies diagnosis, based on hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsy and saliva specimens from a Guianan, who had never travelled overseas and died in Cayenne after presenting clinically typical meningoencephalitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular typing of the virus identified a Lyssavirus (Rabies virus species, closely related to those circulating in hematophagous bats (mainly Desmodus rotundus in Latin America. A multidisciplinary Crisis Unit was activated. Its objectives were to implement an epidemiological investigation and a veterinary survey, to provide control measures and establish a communications program. The origin of the contamination was not formally established, but was probably linked to a bat bite based on the virus type isolated. After confirming exposure of 90 persons, they were vaccinated against rabies: 42 from the case's entourage and 48 healthcare workers. To handle that emergence and the local population's increased demand to be vaccinated, a specific communications program was established using several media: television, newspaper, radio. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This episode, occurring in the context of a Department far from continental France, strongly affected the local population, healthcare workers and authorities, and the management team faced intense pressure. This observation confirms that the risk of contracting rabies in French Guiana is real, with consequences for population educational program, control measures, medical diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis.

  7. [Operation to promote use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) in French Guiana in 2006: design, implementation and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansotte, F; Ravachol, F; Carlisi, R; Caudal, J; Pinchon, S; Maison, D

    2010-06-01

    In 2006, the Regional Health Office (DSDS) in French Guiana undertook a major operation involving importation and distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLIN/ITN). In collaboration with the WHO, a Vietnamese manufacturer of LLINs suited to the requirements of French Guiana was sourced. With the help of a dynamic local importer and dealer, a sales network was developed through chemist shops located all over French Guiana. This network provided wide coverage since these outlets can be found in all large communities. The selling price ranged from 15 to 23 euros depending on the model, i.e., hammock or bed size. In addition, LLINs were distributed within the framework of two special programs. First they are given to women giving birth in French Guiana and undergoing medical surveillance as part of the Mother and Child Protection program by public healthcare system. Second they are distributed in case of natural disaster or other events that could lead to an increased risk of vector-borne outbreaks. Thanks to this operation, a total of 13,882 LLINs were delivered in French Guiana from July 2006 to December 2008. This milestone operation in the fight against malaria was made possible thanks to funding granted on a one-time basis after the outbreak of dengue in 2005-2006. The structure of this operation and its survival will depend on the continued goodwill and determination of a small group of local partners who created this successful distribution campaign with no specific guidance or program from the national authorities.

  8. British Capital, Industry and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’?: The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, 1750-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Oostindie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent historiography has reconsidered the idea that the Dutch role in the early modern Atlantic was of little significance, particularly in comparison to the accomplishments of the Dutch East India Company (voc in Asia. Revisionist studies have emphasised that in spite of the limited and fragmented nature of the Dutch Atlantic ‘empire’, the Atlantic contribution to the Dutch economy was significant and possibly even greater than the voc’s share. Moreover, this scholarship stresses the vital role of Dutch Atlantic colonies (Curaçao and St Eustatius, (partly Jewish networks and individuals in connecting the various subempires of the Atlantic. While Oostindie subscribes to many of these conclusions, he argues against excessive revisionism. His analysis of the development of the lesser Dutch Guianas, adjacent to Suriname, is used as a counter-weight to this revisionist impulse. He demonstrates that the spectacular economic and demographic development of these colonies was due mainly to British and (British American involvement culminating in the eventual British takeover of ‘Guiana’.

  9. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  10. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  11. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  12. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田露

    2011-01-01

    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  13. The Falklands War and the British Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.

  14. Risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Dufour, Julie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 countenvironmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era.

  15. Elemental mercury in the atmosphere of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouroux, D.; Wasserman, J.C.Tessier, E.; Donard, O.F.X. [Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l`Adour, Pau (France). Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement

    1999-09-01

    Gaseous atmospheric mercury was investigated at two sites of a tropical Amazonian forest (French Guiana) in the Petit Inini River basin and the Petit Saut Lake in June, 1998. Gaseous atmospheric mercury was identified as elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). Diurnal variation of atmospheric Hg{sup 0} in both studied aquatic environments were significantly correlated with air temperature and anticorrelated with relative humidity. Average Hg{sup 0} concentrations were higher above the Petit Inini River that the Petit Saut Lake. Background Hg{sup 0} concentrations in the Petit Inini River basin were higher than those observed in remote environments. These data suggest that gold mining activity (i.e., Petit Inini River basin) may influence mercury mobilization in tropical forest ecosystems and that atmospheric transfer is a major pathway for mercury cycling in these environments.

  16. First identification of Anaplasma platys in the blood of dogs from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmani, Mustapha; Marié, Jean-Lou; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Anaplasma platys is the causative agent of infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia in dogs. This infection is worldwide and reported with a higher incidence in tropical and subtropical areas such as South America. Until now, there has been no report of this bacterium in French Guiana. The aim of this study was molecular investigation of A. platys occurrence in the blood of autochthonous dogs in this region. A total 65 blood samples were taken from the shelter dogs in the cities of Cayenne and Kourou, and from dogs of private owners in the city of Cayenne. The results show that at least 15.38% (10/65) were positive to this pathogen. The strain identified in this study has been reported worldwide. These findings should be considered in the way that local veterinarians handle suspected cases of canine anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis.

  17. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries.

  18. [Zika virus outbreak in Latin America: what are the challenges for French Guiana in April 2016?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, L; Douine, M; Carles, G; Villemant, N; Nacher, M; Rousset, D; Djossou, F; Mosnier, E

    2016-05-01

    Started in 2015 in Brazil, an outbreak linked to a little known arbovirus, Zika virus spread throughout Latin America. This virus, considered until recently as responsible of only mild symptoms, made mention of previously unsuspected complications, with severe neurological manifestations in adults and malformations of the central nervous system, including microcephaly, in newborns of mother infected during the pregnancy. While the continent is more accustomed to the succession of arbovirus epidemics, suspected complications and the many unknowns keys of the latter arriving raise many public health issues. French Guiana, a French territory located in the north-east of the continent, combines both European level of resources and climate and issues specific to the Amazon region and Latin America. We discuss here the issues for 2016 Zika virus epidemic in our region, many of them are generalizable to neighboring countries. PMID:27167975

  19. Clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, French Guiana, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Aba; Bertrand, Xavier; Moreau, Brigitte; Hommel, Didier; Couppie, Pierre; Simonnet, Christine; Kallel, Hatem; Demar, Magalie; Djossou, Felix; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii and characterised the clonal diversity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) during an ICU-associated outbreak at Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana. All non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates from 2008 to 2014 were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion. Multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterisation of carbapenemase-encoding genes were performed on CRAB. Of the 441 A. baumannii isolates, most were from males (54.0%) and were detected mainly from the ICU (30.8%) and medicine wards (21.8%). In the ICU, strains were mainly isolated from the respiratory tract (44.1%) and bloodstream (14.0%), whereas in medicine wards they mainly were from wound/drainage (36.5%) and bloodstream (25.0%). A. baumannii showed the greatest susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam (92.7%), imipenem (92.5%), colistin (95.6%) and amikacin (97.2%), being lower in the ICU and medicine wards compared with other wards. An outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB occurred in the 13-bed ICU in 2010. CRAB strains were more co-resistant to other antimicrobials compared with non-CRAB. Molecular genetics analysis revealed five sequence types [ST78, ST107 and ST642 and two new STs (ST830 and ST831)]. Analysis of PFGE profiles indicated cross-transmissions of CRAB within the ICU, between the ICU and one medicine ward during transfer of patients, and within that medicine ward. This study provides the first clinical and molecular data of A. baumannii from French Guiana and the Amazon basin. The ICU was the highest risk unit of this nosocomial outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB, which could subsequently disseminate within the hospital.

  20. Geomorphic control of rain-forest floristic composition in French Guiana : more than a soil filtering effect ?

    OpenAIRE

    Guitet, S.; Freycon, V; Brunaux, O.; Pélissier, Raphaël; Sabatier, Daniel; Couteron, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geomorphological features on rain-forest diversity has been reported in different Amazonian regions. Soil filtering is often assumed to underlie the observed geomorphic control on the floristic composition but other hypotheses related to biogeography or long-term forest dynamics are also possible. We tested relationships between geomorphology, soil properties and forest composition in French Guiana rain forest using a recent geomorphological map and a large dataset comprising...

  1. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizosphe...

  2. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  3. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen reconstructs...

  4. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  5. Prey consumed by Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea, Delphinidae and franciscana dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine environment in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides information about the diet of sympatric populations of small cetaceans in the Babitonga Bay estuary. This is the first study on the diet of these species in direct sympatry. The stomach contents of seven Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis and eight franciscanas Pontoporia blainvillei were analyzed. The prey of both cetaceans was mostly teleost fishes, followed by cephalopods. We identified 13 teleost fishes as part of the diet of the franciscanas, and 20 as part of the diet of Guiana dolphins. Lolliguncula brevis was the only cephalopod recorded, and was the most important prey for both cetaceans. Stellifer rastrifer and Gobionellus oceanicus were also important for franciscana, so as Mugil curema and Micropogonias furnieri were important for Guiana dolphins. Stellifer rastrifer and Cetengraulis edentulus were the fishes with the highest frequency of occurrence for franciscana (50%, while Achirus lineatus, C. edentulus, S. brasiliensis, Cynoscion leiarchus, M. furnieri, M. curema, Diapterus rhombeus, Eugerres brasilianus and G. oceanicus showed 28.6% of frequency of occurrence for Guiana dolphins. Franciscanas captured greater cephalopods than the Guiana dolphins in both total length (z= -3.38; n= 40; p< 0.05 and biomass (z = -2.46; n = 40; p<0.05. All of the prey species identified occur inside the estuary, which represents a safe habitat against predators and food availability, reinforcing the importance of the Babitonga Bay for these cetacean populations.

  6. The moral reading of the British constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Lakin, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the philosophical assumptions which underpin established theories of the British constitution, paying particular attention to the influence of traditional (and sometimes outdated) theories of legal positivism. I attempt to identify, analyze and challenge these assumptions, exploring how recent developments in legal theory can inform and enrich our approach to British constitutional theory. Drawing, in particular, on the anti-positivist theory of Ronald Dworkin, I cont...

  7. Radon in British mines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the occupational hazards experienced by non-coal miners in British mines is presented, with emphasis on the radiation hazards of radon. Topics reviewed include legislation and radiation standards, radiation monitoring methods in Britain, the geology of the Pennine range wherein the tin and fluorspar mines are located, and survey and workplace monitoring results. Lung cancer risk coefficients are derived from radon decay product data and from British epidemiology on lung cancer

  8. Two Views of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Temin

    1996-01-01

    There are two views of the British Industrial Revolution in the literature today. The more traditional description, represented by the views of Ashton and Landes, sees the Industrial Revolution as a broad change in the British economy and society. This broad view of the Industrial Revolution has been challenged by Crafts and Harley who see the Industrial Revolution as a much narrower phenomenon, as the result of technical change in a few industries. This paper presents a test of these views u...

  9. The Repatriation, Readjustment, and second-term migration of Ex-Indentured Indian Laborers from British Guiana and Trinidad to India, 1838-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomarsh Roopnarine

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the readjustment and remigration of ex-indentured Indian laborers from India to the Caribbean. The author shows that there was a small but steady influx of ex-indentured Indian laborers or second-term Indian migrants to the Caribbean. The central question is why ex-indentured Indians returned to the Caribbean to again work under an abusive indenture system? The author contends that desperate conditions along with the restrictive caste structure in India as well their Caribbean experience forced ex-indentured Indian laborers to re-indenture themselves for a second and even third time.

  10. Paleoecological Analysis of Cheilostome Bryozoa from Venezuela - British Guiana Shelf Sediments, 14 September 1963 to 19 September 1963 (NODC Accession 7100130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abundance of cheilostome Bryozoa in many Cenozoic sublittoral marine facies, their sedentary existence, minute size and sensitivity to environmental conditions...

  11. Aboveground biomass mapping in French Guiana by combining remote sensing, forest inventories and environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Ibrahim; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Guitet, Stéphane; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Hérault, Bruno; Gond, Valéry; El Hajj, Mahmoud; Tong Minh, Dinh Ho

    2016-10-01

    Mapping forest aboveground biomass (AGB) has become an important task, particularly for the reporting of carbon stocks and changes. AGB can be mapped using synthetic aperture radar data (SAR) or passive optical data. However, these data are insensitive to high AGB levels (>150 Mg/ha, and >300 Mg/ha for P-band), which are commonly found in tropical forests. Studies have mapped the rough variations in AGB by combining optical and environmental data at regional and global scales. Nevertheless, these maps cannot represent local variations in AGB in tropical forests. In this paper, we hypothesize that the problem of misrepresenting local variations in AGB and AGB estimation with good precision occurs because of both methodological limits (signal saturation or dilution bias) and a lack of adequate calibration data in this range of AGB values. We test this hypothesis by developing a calibrated regression model to predict variations in high AGB values (mean >300 Mg/ha) in French Guiana by a methodological approach for spatial extrapolation with data from the optical geoscience laser altimeter system (GLAS), forest inventories, radar, optics, and environmental variables for spatial inter- and extrapolation. Given their higher point count, GLAS data allow a wider coverage of AGB values. We find that the metrics from GLAS footprints are correlated with field AGB estimations (R2 = 0.54, RMSE = 48.3 Mg/ha) with no bias for high values. First, predictive models, including remote-sensing, environmental variables and spatial correlation functions, allow us to obtain "wall-to-wall" AGB maps over French Guiana with an RMSE for the in situ AGB estimates of ∼50 Mg/ha and R2 = 0.66 at a 1-km grid size. We conclude that a calibrated regression model based on GLAS with dependent environmental data can produce good AGB predictions even for high AGB values if the calibration data fit the AGB range. We also demonstrate that small temporal and spatial mismatches between field data and GLAS

  12. Nitrogen gas emissions and their genetic potential in tropical peatlands of French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasak, Kuno; Oopkaup, Kristjan; Järveoja, Järvi; Maddison, Martin; Ligi, Teele; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, nitrogen gas (N2, N2O) emissions from tropical peatlands (French Guiana) were measured and their relationships with the soil chemical parameters, water regime, and abundances of genes encoding denitrification associated nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases were analysed. The measurements and soil sampling (from 0-10 cm layer) were carried out in October 2013 in two sites (undisturbed and drainage influenced) of the northern part of French Guiana. In both study sites, three transects along the groundwater depth gradient with three sampling points in each transect were established. At each sampling point, N2O emissions were measured in six sessions during three days using static closed chambers. N2 emission from the top-soil samples were measured in the laboratory applying He-O (N2) method. Soil pHKCl, NO3-N, NH4-N, soluble P, K, Ca and Mg, totN and soil organic matter content were determined from the collected samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene, (and marker genes for measuring denitrification potential) nirS, nirK, nosZ clade I and clade II copies were quantified in the soils using qPCR method. Whole genome shotgun sequencing of DNA extracted from soil samples was performed on Illumina NextSeq system. Metagenomes were used for microbial profiling, identifying functional genes and relating them to biogeochemical cycles and biological processes. N2O emissions were significantly lower and N2 emissions higher (pgenes) was not different between the two sites. N2O reduction potential (by the abundance of nosZ genes) was higher (pgenes abundances along the groundwater depth gradient in both areas was notable. Variation in dominant bacterial groups between drained site samplings was more noticeable, than along the groundwater depth gradient in natural site. However ten out of twenty four bacterial genera (over 1% of taxonomically classified sequences) were shared between two sites (mostly Mycobacterium, Rhodopseudomonas, and Streptomyces). Archaea were

  13. Limited pollen dispersal and biparental inbreeding in Symphonia globulifera in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, B; Bandou, E; Caron, H

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we report a study of the mating system and gene flow of Symphonia globulifera, a hermaphroditic, mainly bird-pollinated tree species with a large geographic distribution in the tropical Americas and Africa. Using three microsatellites, we analysed 534 seeds of 28 open pollinated families and 164 adults at the experimental site 'Paracou' in French Guiana. We observed, compared to other tropical tree species, relatively high values for the effective number of alleles. Significant spatial genetic structure was detected, with trees at distances up to 150 m more genetically similar than expected at random. We estimated parameters of the mating system and gene flow by using the mixed mating model and the TwoGener approach. The estimated multilocus outcrossing rate, tm, was 0.920. A significant level of biparental inbreeding and a high proportion of full-sibs were estimated for the 28 seed arrays. We estimated mean pollen dispersal distances between 27 and 53 m according to the dispersal models used. Although the adult population density of S. globulifera in Paracou was relatively high, the joint estimation of pollen dispersal and density of reproductive trees gave effective density estimates of 1.6 and 1.3 trees/ha. The parameters of the mating system and gene flow are discussed in the context of spatial genetic and demographic structures, flowering phenology and pollinator composition and behaviour. PMID:15316558

  14. Risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in French Guiana.

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    Mathieu Nacher

    Full Text Available Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 count<50 per mm3, CD4 count between 50 and 200 per mm3, a CD4 nadir <50 per mm3, CD8 count in the lowest quartile, herpes infection, and recent antiretroviral treatment initiation (less than 6 months. The variables associated with decreased incidence of histoplasmosis were antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months, fluconazole treatment, and pneumocystosis. There were 13.5% of deaths at 1 month, 17.5% at 3 months, and 22.5% at 6 months after the date of diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The most important predictive factors for death within 6 months of diagnosis were CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment. The present study did not study environmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era.

  15. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Heligmonellidae from the Guianan arboreal mouse (Oecomys auyantepui from French Guiana

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    Weirich Jessica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the number and arrangement of cuticular ridges and configuration of the dorsal ray, nematode specimens collected from the small intestine of eight Guianan arboreal mice, Oecomys auyantepui (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae, in French Guiana are herein described and characterized. Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. (Heligmosomoidea: Heligmonellidae shows a synlophe consisting of more than 40 ridges and a unique bursal arrangement with ray 8 (externo-dorsal extending to the edge of the bursal margin, and appearing more prominent than the dorsal ray. This bursal arrangement is common in members of Hassalstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1971, but uncommon in the other four species in Guerrerostrongylus Sutton & Durette-Desset, 1991. The placement of the new species in Guerrerostrongylus is based on the number and nature of cuticular ridges and the ray arrangement and symmetry of the caudal bursa. Diagnostic characteristics of Guerrerostrongylus marginalis n. sp. include the length of ray 8 relative to bursal margin, the relative size of the spicules and vestibule, and the number of eggs in the uterus. We propose an amendment to the generic diagnosis of Guerrerostrongylus to modify the characters of the long rays 6 (postero-lateral, rays 8 (externo-dorsal, and dorsal ray as diagnostic, since at least ray 6 appears to be short in two different species in the genus, namely G. ulysi Digiani, Notarnicola & Navone, 2012 and G. marginalis n. sp.

  16. Influence of light intensity on methanotrophic bacterial activity in Petit Saut Reservoir, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestre, J F; Guézennec, J; Galy-Lacaux, C; Delmas, R; Richard, S; Labroue, L

    1999-02-01

    One year after impoundment in January 1994, methanotrophic bacteria in Petit Saut Reservoir (French Guiana) were active at the oxic-anoxic interface. This activity was revealed by the sudden extinction of diffusive methane emission (600 metric tons of CH4. day-1 for the whole lake surface area, i.e., 360 km2). Lifting of inhibition was suspected. After reviewing the potential inhibitors of this physiological guild (O2, NH4+, sulfides) and considering the similarities with nitrifiers, we suggest that sunlight influenced the methanotrophic bacteria. On the basis of phospholipid analysis, only a type II methanotrophic community was identified in the lake. Both growth and methanotrophic activity of an enriched culture, obtained in the laboratory, were largely inhibited by illumination over 150 microeinsteins. m-2. s-1. These results were confirmed on a pure culture of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3B. In situ conditions showed that water transparency was quite stable in 1994 and 1995 and that the oxycline moved steadily deeper until January 1995. Considering the mean illumination profile during this period, we showed that removal of methanotrophic growth inhibition could only occur below a 2-m depth. The oxycline reached this level in October 1994, allowing methanotrophic bacteria to develop and to consume the entire methane emission 4 months later.

  17. Monitoring strategy for eight amphibian species in French Guiana, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Elodie A; Devillechabrolle, Jennifer; Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Chave, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR), estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius), a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19) can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes.

  18. Monitoring strategy for eight amphibian species in French Guiana, South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A Courtois

    Full Text Available Although dramatic amphibian declines have been documented worldwide, only few of such events have been quantitatively documented for the tropical forests of South America. This is due partly to the fact that tropical amphibians are patchily distributed and difficult to detect. We tested three methods often used to monitor population trends in amphibian species in a remote lowland tropical forest of French Guiana. These methods are capture-mark-recapture (CMR, estimation of the number of calling males with repeated counts data and distance sampling, and rates of occupancy inferred by presence/absence data. We monitored eight diurnal, terrestrial amphibian species including five Dendrobatidae and three Bufonidae. We found that CMR, the most precise way of estimating population size, can be used only with two species in high density patches where the recapture rate is high enough. Only for one of the species (Dendrobates tinctorius, a low coefficient of variation (CV = 0.19 can be achieved with 15 to 20 capture events. For dendrobatid species with day-calling males, audio surveys yield a better probability of detection with only 8 audio surveys needed; quantitative estimates can be achieved by computing the number of calling males inferred from audio counts or distance sampling analysis. We therefore suggest that an efficient monitoring protocol for Neotropical amphibian species should include a combination of sighting and audio techniques, and we discuss the need of implementing a large-scale monitoring in order to provide a baseline for comparison with future changes.

  19. [Study on the venoms of the principal venomous snakes from French Guiana and the neutralization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, J; Magaña, P; Chippaux, J P; Vidal, N; Mancilla, R; Paniagua, J F; de Roodt, A R

    2008-10-01

    We studied some biochemical, toxic and immunological characteristics of the venoms of Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili and Lachesis muta, Viperidae responsible for most of the bites of venomous snakes in French Guiana. Chromatographic (HPLC) and electrophoretical profiles (SDS-PAGE), lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, coagulant, thrombin like, proteolytic, fibrino(geno)lytic and phospholipase activities were studied. In addition, the neutralization of some toxic activities conferred by four antivenins was compared. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles were different for the three venoms, showing differences between Bothrops and L. muta venoms. In general, bothropic venoms showed the highest toxic and enzymatic activities, while the venom of L. muta showed the lowest lethal, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities. The enzymes of bothropic venoms responsible for gelatinolytic activity were around 50-90 kDa. All the venoms were able to hydrolyze a and beta chains of the fibrinogen, showing different patterns of degradation. Although all the antivenoms tested were effective to various degrees in neutralizing the venom of B. brazili and B. atrox, neutralization of L. muta venom was significantly better achieved using the antivenom including this venom in its immunogenic mixture. For the neutralization of L. muta venom, homologous or polyvalent antivenoms that include the "bushmaster" venom in their immunogenic mixture should be preferred. PMID:18956820

  20. A questão da diversidade na experiência escolar de jovens na Guiana Francesa The issue of diversity in the school experience of youngsters in the French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Galvão

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa realizada em dois colégios (5ª à 8ª séries do Ensino Fundamental da cidade de Caiena, na Guiana Francesa, e analisa práticas discursivas produzidas por alunos, visando compreender como se manifesta a questão da diversidade e como ela participa da construção da experiência escolar. O dispositivo empírico consistiu em entrevistas coletivas e individuais e se apoiou numa perspectiva compreensiva das práticas sociais, que valoriza a capacidade de ação e reflexão dos atores. Examina-se o modo como esses alunos constroem sua experiência escolar numa sociedade dependente e marcada pela diversidade cultural e lingüística, numa escola que combina a retórica da igualdade de oportunidades e um clima fortemente competitivo. A sociabilidade entre pares se destaca como importante dimensão da experiência escolar e os jovens relatam como ela é balizada pelas imagens de si e do outro, construídas a partir de elementos próprios ao mundo escolar, ao universo das culturas juvenis, ao contexto sociocultural da Guiana. Os alunos fazem eco às diferentes visões sobre a escola na Guiana e, situando-se entre a crítica e a adesão ao modelo e às práticas da escola francesa, expressam suas expectativas, formulam suas perspectivas. Por trás das críticas que tecem, os adolescentes formulam a demanda de serem reconhecidos como pessoa singular, questão que se situa no cerne dos processos de sua construção subjetiva.The article presents a study conducted with two schools (5th to 8th year of fundamental school in the city of Cayenne, French Guiana. It analyzes discursive practices produced by pupils with the purpose of understanding how the issue of diversity is manifested, and how it takes part in the construction of the experience of schooling. The empirical device consisted of collective and individual interviews, and was supported by a perspective sensitive to the social practices, recognizing the value of the

  1. Usages et gestion du domaine forestier de Regina / Saint- Georges Uso e gestão da floresta Regina / Saint-Georges, Guiana Francesa Use and management of forest area of Regina / Saint-Georges, French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Sévelin-Radiguet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Le domaine forestier de Régina / Saint-Georges fait l’objet d’une attention grandissante en Guyane française. En effet, cet espace possède plusieurs particularités. C’est le domaine le plus à l’est du département et il représente une activité d’exploitation forestière grandissante. D’autre part, sa limite sud est en contact direct avec le fleuve Oyapock qui représente la frontière naturelle entre la Guyane française et le Brésil. Afin de déterminer le réel potentiel attractif du domaine forestier de Régina / Saint- Georges, il est nécessaire d’en préciser les différents acteurs et leurs usages. Au travers de questionnaires, d’enquêtes, d’entretiens menés auprès de la population, différents intervenants ont été déterminés. L’activité d’exploitation forestière est de plus en plus importante dans ce domaine, les professionnels du bois jouant un rôle considérable sur la ressource. Cette étude permet de retracer la filière bois de l’Est guyanais et de proposer des perspectives d’évolution quant à l’utilisation du domaine. D’autant plus que son contexte frontalier avec le Brésil et l’ouverture prochaine du pont transfrontalier entre le Brésil et la Guyane française apporte différents questionnements sur l’évolution de l’accessibilité aux ressources de part et d’autre de la frontière. Inquiétudes qui se posent aussi bien pour les professionnels que pour les particuliers. Il est important de ne pas omettre que la population locale a également un impact non négligeable sur les ressources qu’offre la forêt. Les activités traditionnelles de chasse et de cueillette sont encore beaucoup pratiquées par certaines communautés et le domaine forestier reste pour elles une source indispensable de produits alimentaires.Regina / Saint-Georges forest estate is the subject of increasing attention in French Guiana. In fact, this location has several specific aspects. As the

  2. Revision of the genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonidae) with a description of a new species from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Laurent, Ryan A; Dombroskie, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 is revised to include four species. Eadmunaguianensis sp. n., is described from French Guiana and Guyana. The holotype of Perophorapulverula Schaus, 1896, currently placed in Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, is determined to be a previously unrecognized female Eadmuna, and is transferred accordingly as Eadmunapulverula comb. n.. Eadmunapaloa Schaus, 1933, rev. status, is removed from synonymy with the type species Eadmunaesperans (Schaus, 1905). Eadmunaesperans, Eadmunapaloa, and Eadmunapulverula may be of conservation concern due to their limited extent of occurrence and endemicity to the highly imperiled Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  3. Revision of the genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonidae with a description of a new species from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. St. Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 is revised to include four species. Eadmuna guianensis sp. n., is described from French Guiana and Guyana. The holotype of Perophora pulverula Schaus, 1896, currently placed in Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, is determined to be a previously unrecognized female Eadmuna, and is transferred accordingly as E. pulverula comb. n.. Eadmuna paloa Schaus, 1933, rev. status, is removed from synonymy with the type species E. esperans (Schaus, 1905. Eadmuna esperans, E. paloa, and E. pulverula may be of conservation concern due to their limited extent of occurrence and endemicity to the highly imperiled Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  4. Anphira guianensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the gills of Acnodon oligacanthus Eigenmann (Pisces, Serrasalmidae of French Guiana

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Anphira guianensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described from the branchial cavity of a freshwater fish, Acnodon oligacanthus Eigenmann, 1903 from French Guiana. The new species differs from the other known species of the genus in a number of important respects. Adult females are less convex than those of the other two known species and the mouth points downward. The coxal plates are largest posteriorly, unlike those of the other species. The antennule is much stouter and longer than the antenna whereas in the other species these appendages are subequal. Additionally, the dactyls of the new species are much longer.

  5. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

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    David Howarth

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  6. Convergence, divergence and realignment in British macroeconomics

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    D. COBHAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author argues that the still frequent and simplistic distinction between Keynesians and monetarists that makes up a large part of the British popular economic debate has become seriously misleading. Changes that have taken place in British macroeconomics since the early 1970s are thus indicated and some of the theoretical and empirical factors responsible for these changes are suggested. The author presents a brief characterisation of British Keynesianism and monetarism as of late 1960s/early 1970s, arguing that there have been important elements of convergence. He proceeds to discuss some of the theoretical developments and some of the experiences of UK macroeconomic policy which have contributed to this convergence. Finally, he considers whether the labels “Keynesian” and “monetarist” continue to be relevant.

  7. Ambient Noise Tomography of the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, H. J.; Curtis, A.; Baptie, B.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave tomography using empirical Green’s functions computed via the ambient noise interferometry method has become an established approach to lithospheric imaging problems. To date, ambient noise tomography has been successfully applied to seismometer arrays in the United States, Australia, Iceland, China, South Africa, Europe and the Tibetan Plateau. The basis of the ambient seismic interferometry method is that, by cross-correlating noise data between two seismic stations and stacking over a long enough time period, one can approximate the Green’s Function that would have been recorded at one of the stations if the other had actually been a source. Consequently, one of the main advantages of ambient noise interferometry is that traditional seismic sources such as earthquakes or ballistics are not required; therefore it is ideal for application to seismically quiescent areas such as the British Isles. The British Isles are an archipelago located adjacent to the Eurasian continental shelf in a typically intra-plate setting, formed by a complex amalgamation of several terranes. These range from Laurentian north of the Highland Boundary fault to Avalonian south of the Iapetus Suture and evidence of the regions turbulent geological past can be inferred from its lithospheric structure. Previous studies of the structure of the British Isles considered relatively few seismic stations and/or were limited to using offshore shots, quarry blasts or teleseismic earthquakes as seismic energy sources. We have applied the ambient noise tomography method to noise data recorded on approximately 100 broadband and short period seismometers, including many new stations, in the British Isles and mainland Europe. This dense coverage of the British Isles allows us to image the crust and upper mantle velocity structure with a horizontal resolution in the region of 100km across the North Sea and 30km in the mainland United Kingdom. Here we present the first

  8. CRITERIA OF BRITISH TEACHERS’ COMMUNICATION CULTURE FORMEDNESS

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    Михаил Алексеевич Есипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students.The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-13

  9. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This revision of all 21 species of Argia known to occur within the Guiana Shield includes descriptions of new species, synonymies, keys to both sexes based primarily on morphology of caudal appendages and genital ligula in males and of the mesostigmal plates in females, diagnoses accompanied by illustrations and distribution maps for all species. Twelve new species are described: A. appendiculata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 18 ii 1985, P.J. & P.M. Spangler, R.A. Faitoute leg., in USNM), A. azurea (Holotype ♂: Guyana, Potaro-Siparuni Region, Kaieteur Ravine, about 5°10' N, 59°28' W, 11 iv 1912, J.M. Geddes leg., in UMMZ), A. cuneifera (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 20-24 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. & J.A. Louton leg., in USNM), A. deceptor (Holotype ♂: French Guiana, Cayenne Department, Régina Commune, Saut Athanase, 4°10'59" N, 52°20'6" W, 9 x 2001, L. Juillerat leg, in MHNN), A. donnellyi (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, small marsh and creek on plateau surface above Coñac River, 10 km E of El Paují; about 4°31' N, 61°31' W, 5 viii 1990, RWG leg., in CSCA), A. gemella (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Reserva Ducke, 26 km E Manaus (3°0'15'' S, 59°56'23'' W, 120 m), 2-4 ii 1979, O.S. Flint Jr. leg., in USNM), A. guyanica (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Camp IV, 0°58' N, 65°57' W, 15-18 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in USNM), A. joallynae (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, Canaima, palm marsh, 6°14'30" N, 62°50'53" W, 22-25 ix 1980, R.W. & J.A. Garrison. leg., in CSCA), A. loutoni (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Purus River, Nova Olinda, about 3°30' S, 57°56' W, 6 ii 1979, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in FSCA), A. meioura (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 2°55' S, 59°59' W, 26 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), A. palmata

  10. Damselflies of the genus Argia of the Guiana Shield (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Rosser W; Von Ellenrieder, Natalia

    2015-11-16

    This revision of all 21 species of Argia known to occur within the Guiana Shield includes descriptions of new species, synonymies, keys to both sexes based primarily on morphology of caudal appendages and genital ligula in males and of the mesostigmal plates in females, diagnoses accompanied by illustrations and distribution maps for all species. Twelve new species are described: A. appendiculata (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 18 ii 1985, P.J. & P.M. Spangler, R.A. Faitoute leg., in USNM), A. azurea (Holotype ♂: Guyana, Potaro-Siparuni Region, Kaieteur Ravine, about 5°10' N, 59°28' W, 11 iv 1912, J.M. Geddes leg., in UMMZ), A. cuneifera (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Base Camp, 0°50' N, 66°10' W, 20-24 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. & J.A. Louton leg., in USNM), A. deceptor (Holotype ♂: French Guiana, Cayenne Department, Régina Commune, Saut Athanase, 4°10'59" N, 52°20'6" W, 9 x 2001, L. Juillerat leg, in MHNN), A. donnellyi (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, small marsh and creek on plateau surface above Coñac River, 10 km E of El Paují; about 4°31' N, 61°31' W, 5 viii 1990, RWG leg., in CSCA), A. gemella (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Reserva Ducke, 26 km E Manaus (3°0'15'' S, 59°56'23'' W, 120 m), 2-4 ii 1979, O.S. Flint Jr. leg., in USNM), A. guyanica (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Amazonas State, Cerro de la Neblina, Camp IV, 0°58' N, 65°57' W, 15-18 iii 1984, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in USNM), A. joallynae (Holotype ♂: Venezuela, Bolívar State, Canaima, palm marsh, 6°14'30" N, 62°50'53" W, 22-25 ix 1980, R.W. & J.A. Garrison. leg., in CSCA), A. loutoni (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Purus River, Nova Olinda, about 3°30' S, 57°56' W, 6 ii 1979, O.S. Flint, Jr. leg., in FSCA), A. meioura (Holotype ♂: Brazil, Amazonas State, Manaus, about 2°55' S, 59°59' W, 26 vi 1922, J.H. Williamson & J.W. Strohm leg., in UMMZ), A. palmata

  11. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corain Lopes, Paula Regina; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Bonal, Damien; Serça, Dominique; Burban, Benôit; Siebicke, Lukas; Emmons, Louisa; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variations in isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Paracou French Guiana (5o16´54´´N, 52o54´44´´W), during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at approximately 20 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively followed by a slight increase in middle April (still wet season) and a higher concentration later in mid-June. The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were deposited by wet or dry

  12. The British Monarch——A key element in British society and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰艺

    2014-01-01

    <正>Although the British Monarch has already lost its true powe to govern the country,it is still a key element in British societ and culture for its specialty in the country.Admittedly,the British Monarch has no substantial right t nominate the cabinet and deal with some other important politica issues.What it can do is to work as a symbol in some importan ceremonies.Its power is just a form,or a symbol,and in essence

  13. Maternal transfer of trace elements in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) of French Guiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In sea turtles, parental investment is limited to the nutrients and energy invested in eggs that will support embryonic development. Leatherback females have the largest clutches with the biggest eggs of the sea turtles and the highest reproductive output in reptiles. The migration between foraging sites and nesting beaches also represents high energy expenditure. The toxicokinetic of pollutants in the tissues is thus expected to vary during those periods but there is a lack of information in reptiles. Concentrations of essential (Copper, Zinc, Selenium) and non-essentials elements (Cadmium, Lead, Mercury) were determined in blood (n = 78) and eggs (n = 76) of 46 free-ranging leatherback females collected in French Guiana. Maternal transfer to eggs and relationships between blood and eggs concentrations during the nesting season were investigated. All trace elements were detectable in both tissues. Levels of toxic metals were lower than essential elements likely due to the high pelagic nature of leatherbacks that seems to limit exposure to toxic elements. Significant relationships between blood and egg concentrations were observed for Se and Cd. Se could have an important role in embryonic development of leatherback turtles and Cd transfer could be linked to similar carrier proteins as Se. Finally, as multiple clutches were sampled from each female, trends in trace elements were investigated along the nesting season. No change was observed in eggs but changes were recorded in blood concentrations of Cu. Cu level decreased while blood Pb levels increased through the nesting season. The high demand on the body during the breeding season seems to affect blood Cu concentrations. Calcium requirement for egg production with concomitant Pb mobilization could explain the increase in blood Pb concentrations along the nesting season

  14. Maternal transfer of trace elements in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) of French Guiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirlet, Elodie [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Batiment 362, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: elodie.guirlet@u-psud.fr; Das, Krishna [Centre de recherche MARE, Laboratoire d' Oceanologie, Universite de Liege, B6, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)], E-mail: krishna.das@ulg.ac.be; Girondot, Marc [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, Batiment 362, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Departement Evolution et Systematique, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 25 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: marc.girondot@u-psud.fr

    2008-07-30

    In sea turtles, parental investment is limited to the nutrients and energy invested in eggs that will support embryonic development. Leatherback females have the largest clutches with the biggest eggs of the sea turtles and the highest reproductive output in reptiles. The migration between foraging sites and nesting beaches also represents high energy expenditure. The toxicokinetic of pollutants in the tissues is thus expected to vary during those periods but there is a lack of information in reptiles. Concentrations of essential (Copper, Zinc, Selenium) and non-essentials elements (Cadmium, Lead, Mercury) were determined in blood (n = 78) and eggs (n = 76) of 46 free-ranging leatherback females collected in French Guiana. Maternal transfer to eggs and relationships between blood and eggs concentrations during the nesting season were investigated. All trace elements were detectable in both tissues. Levels of toxic metals were lower than essential elements likely due to the high pelagic nature of leatherbacks that seems to limit exposure to toxic elements. Significant relationships between blood and egg concentrations were observed for Se and Cd. Se could have an important role in embryonic development of leatherback turtles and Cd transfer could be linked to similar carrier proteins as Se. Finally, as multiple clutches were sampled from each female, trends in trace elements were investigated along the nesting season. No change was observed in eggs but changes were recorded in blood concentrations of Cu. Cu level decreased while blood Pb levels increased through the nesting season. The high demand on the body during the breeding season seems to affect blood Cu concentrations. Calcium requirement for egg production with concomitant Pb mobilization could explain the increase in blood Pb concentrations along the nesting season.

  15. Determination of the Plasmodium vivax relapse pattern in Camopi, French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacher Mathieu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major public health problem in French Guiana, where Plasmodium vivax has become the dominant malaria species since 2000. As in others endemic areas, it is important to specify the pattern of vivax malaria relapses and to try to discriminate efficiently re-infections from relapses. Methods This study was conducted in children born between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2008 in Camopi, an Amerindian village located in the Amazon forest (n = 325, using an open cohort design. Primary and secondary attack rates of P. vivax were calculated using survival analysis. With the difference between the primary and secondary rates, this study aimed to estimate indirectly P. vivax relapse rate and evaluate its time evolution. Results Of the 1042 malaria attacks recorded, 689 (66% were due to P. vivax (without mixed infection. One hundred and fifty one children had their primary attack with P. vivax and 106 had their two first attacks with P. vivax. In the absence of primaquine treatment, it was shown that P. vivax relapses mainly occurred during the first three months after the first attack. Thirty percent of children never had a relapse, 42% had a relapse before the first month after primary attack, 59% before the second month and 63% before the third month. Conclusion This study confirmed that the relapse pattern in Camopi was compatible with the pattern described for the P. vivax Chesson (tropical strain. In addition, due to the relapse rate time evolution, a simple arbitrary classification rule could be constructed: before 90 days after the primary attack, the secondary attack is a relapse; after 90 days, it is a re-infection. Adapted management of malaria cases based on these results could be devised.

  16. Weak Environmental Controls of Tropical Forest Canopy Height in the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youven Goulamoussène

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy height is a key variable in tropical forest functioning and for regional carbon inventories. We investigate the spatial structure of the canopy height of a tropical forest, its relationship with environmental physical covariates, and the implication for tropical forest height variation mapping. Making use of high-resolution maps of LiDAR-derived Digital Canopy Model (DCM and environmental covariates from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM acquired over 30,000 ha of tropical forest in French Guiana, we first show that forest canopy height is spatially correlated up to 2500 m. Forest canopy height is significantly associated with environmental variables, but the degree of correlation varies strongly with pixel resolution. On the whole, bottomland forests generally have lower canopy heights than hillslope or hilltop forests. However, this global picture is very noisy at local scale likely because of the endogenous gap-phase forest dynamic processes. Forest canopy height has been predictively mapped across a pixel resolution going from 6 m to 384 m mimicking a low resolution case of 3 points·km − 2 . Results of canopy height mapping indicated that the error for spatial model with environment effects decrease from 8.7 m to 0.91 m, depending of the pixel resolution. Results suggest that, outside the calibration plots, the contribution of environment in shaping the global canopy height distribution is quite limited. This prevents accurate canopy height mapping based only on environmental information, and suggests that precise canopy height maps, for local management purposes, can only be obtained with direct LiDAR monitoring.

  17. Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox conditions (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Disnar, J. R.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Lottier, N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and δ 13C analyses, was carried out on sedimentary cores, and on various vascular plant species collected in mangrove swamps of French Guiana. The main purpose of this study was to assess the diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox conditions. Distribution of carbohydrates in sediments reflects both the lability of these compounds and their efficient recycling. They are subject to selective degradation, cellulosic glucose and xylose appearing to be the two most labile neutral sugars. In contrast a relative increase in arabinose, rhamnose, fucose and hemicellulosic glucose between plants and sediments, suggests that they may be more refractory and/or that they also derive from microbial synthesis. The total carbon from lignin-derived phenols is higher in sediments than in mangrove plants as a consequence of their rather refractory character. Nevertheless, evidence of lignin decomposition was found to be independent of local environmental conditions. The various redox processes that occur in mangrove sediments depend on plant species, stages in forest development and season. Different redox conditions induce different mechanisms for the decomposition of lignin and thus induce changes in phenol distributions. At depth, in most mangroves, an increase in (Ad/Al) v ratios and in deoxy sugars (fucose and rhamnose) content was significantly correlated with increased proportions of oxidized allochthonous organic debris deriving from the Amazonian detrital discharge, thus suggesting a specific source effect rather than a diagenesis induced change. Therefore, this study illustrates that both lignin and cellulose, derived from vascular plant debris, can be degraded in waterlogged mangrove sediments, and that their distribution depends on environmental conditions.

  18. Notes on the genera Exasticolus van Achterberg (Homolobinae) and Orgilus Haliday (Orgilinae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with the description of three new species from French Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Among the collected material from the Kaw Montains, French Guiana, a new species of the genus Exasticolus van Achterberg, 1979 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Homolobinae: E. thirionae spec. nov.) and two new species of the genus Orgilus Haliday, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae: O. podus spec. no

  19. New species of the genera Foenomorpha Szépligeti (Cenocoeliinae) and Chelonus Panzer (Cheloninae) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), from French Guiana, Suriname, and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.

    2001-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Foenomorpha Szépligeti, 1904, are described (F. rufa spec. nov. from Brazil and F. senlura spec. nov. from French Guiana). A key to the known species is added and notes on the other two species are added. Foenomorpha filicornis (Cameron, 1887) is a new combination for Ce

  20. Archaeological investigations between Cayenne Island and the Maroni river : a cultural sequence of western coastal French Guiana from 5000 BP to present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel, Martijn Marijn van den

    2015-01-01

    This study entitled Archeological Investigation between Cayenne Island and the Maroni River is not a history of Amerindian life in French Guiana from c.5000 BP to the present-day. Rather, it presents us with an anthology of archaeological materials with which this history has to contend, extracting

  1. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : VI. Resurrection of Hyla ornatissima Noble (Amphibia, Hylidae) and remarks on related species of green tree frogs from the Guiana area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper Hyla ornatissima Noble is removed from the synonymy of Hyla granosa Boulenger, and resurrected as a separate species on the basis of morphological, ecological and acoustical differences. Another relative of this group occurring in Guiana is Hyla sibleszi Rivero. Because of its s

  2. The Differences between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章继宁

    2013-01-01

    British English and American English are two varieties of English. American English derived from British English and they have many similarities and differences. British English and American English are different in pronunciation, spelling, vocabu⁃lary and customary usage/syntax, etc.

  3. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  4. Some nematodes of the genus Rhabdias Stiles et Hassall, 1905 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) parasitising amphibians in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; du Preez, Louis H; Junker, Kerstin

    2015-06-04

    Based on material collected from Rhinella cf. margaritifera (Laurenti) and Rhi. marina (Linnaeus) (Anura: Bufonidae) during a parasite survey of the herpetofauna of French Guiana, updated descriptions of Rhabdias androgyna Kloss, 1971 and R. fuelleborni Travassos, 1926 are presented. In addition to metrical data, which may overlap in closely related species, emphasis is placed on qualitative characters. Rhabdias androgyna is distinguished by the unique presence of an outer and inner cephalic cuticular inflation, a shoulder-like broadening of the body at the anterior end, a wide and shallow buccal capsule (average buccal ratio 0.36) with serrated lumen in apical view, a prominent anterior dilatation of the oesophagus, and the presence of an additional posterior dilatation anterior to the oesophageal bulb. Characters that may help to differentiate R. fuelleborni from closely related species parasitising the Rhi. marina species group are the presence of six relatively uniform lips, and the division of the buccal capsule into an anterior and posterior segment, with differently structured walls. Both the presence of R. androgyna and R. fuelleborni in French Guiana constitute new geographic records. A single specimen of Rhabdias sp. is described from Pristimantis chiastonotus (Lynch et Hoegmood) (Anura: Craugastoridae). This species differs from all its Neotropical congeners by the distinct globular swelling of its head, similar to that seen in only one Palaearctic and one Afrotropical Rhabdias species. A list of species of Rhabdias parasitising amphibians in the Netropical Realm is also provided.

  5. Population estimates of Dendrobates tinctorius (Anura: Dendrobatidae at three sites in French Guiana and first record of chytrid infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie A. Courtois

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropics shelter the highest number of frog species on Earth and is also one of the regions where anurans are most threatened. Nonetheless, few data are available to assess the population status of Neotropical anurans. We studied three populations (Tresor, Favard, and Nouragues of the poison frog, Dendrobates tinctorius, in French Guiana and used Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR to make robust estimations of the species’ density at these three sites. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of the pathogen fungal Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd in two populations (Favard and Nouragues. Based on the CMR protocol, the densities of frogs was 8.43 individuals/100 m² at Favard, 4.28 individuals/100 m² at Nouragues and from 2.30 to 4.67 individuals/100 m² at Tresor (depending on the CMR model used; these data provide a baseline for population densities of D. tinctorius in French Guiana, against which future population estimates can be compared. We found that 25 encounter events may be sufficient for stable population estimates, if the captures are concentrated in time. Bd was detected at both sites (Favard 7/152; Nouragues 3/18.

  6. HIV-testing among female sex workers on the border between Brazil and French Guiana: the need for targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; van Melle, Astrid; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Marechal, Emilie; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Rogier, Stéphanie; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    The border between Brazil and French Guiana is a place of economic, cultural, social and sexual exchange. Female sex workers represent a high risk population for HIV in this area where sexual tourism is particularly developed. HIV testing seems to be an important element in the fight against the epidemic. Indeed, early HIV testing gives access to treatments and prevention. An HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and practices survey was conducted in 2011 among sex workers along the border between Brazil and French Guiana. A total of 213 female sex workers were interviewed. One third (31.5%) of the interviewed had never tested for HIV. Factors associated with non HIV-testing were the lack of knowledge of places where to do an HIV test, to be 30 or older, feeling at risk of HIV, not evaluating one's own risk towards HIV, and living in Oiapoque. These results clearly suggest that targeted interventions are needed to encourage and assist female sex workers to get tested regularly.

  7. A new species of the genus Pristimantis (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) associated with the moderately elevated massifs of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Courtois, Elodie A; Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Marty, Christian; Kok, Philippe J R

    2013-12-23

    We describe a new Pristimantis from French Guiana, northern South America, which is mainly distinguished from known phenotypically related congeners (i.e. species from the polyphyletic unistrigatus species group) occurring at low and middle elevations in the Guiana Shield by the combination of a distinct tympanum, a lower ratio of tibia vs. hand length, a reddish groin region, and a distinct advertisement call consisting of clusters of generally four short notes. The new species inhabits pristine primary forests on the slopes of isolated massifs reaching more than 400 m elevation, and seems not to occur below ca. 200 m above sea level. Such a sharp altitudinal limit suggests a strong influence of thermal variation on the distribution of the species, and therefore a potential sensitivity to climate change. With only nine isolated populations documented so far, the new species should be prioritized for conservation. Historical climate fluctuations during the Quaternary are likely responsible for the distribution pattern of the new species. 

  8. Loss of TSS1 in hypervirulent Coxiella burnetii 175, the causative agent of Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Felicetta; Eldin, Carole; Georgiades, Kalliopi; Edouard, Sophie; Delerce, Jeremy; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    In French Guiana, the unique Coxiella burnetii circulating genotype 17 causes 24% of community-acquired pneumonia, the highest prevalence ever described. To explain this unusual virulence, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain Cb175, which was isolated from a patient from French Guiana. Cb175 has a greater number of mutations in genes involved in metabolism compared with the Nine Mile I strain. We found a 6105bp fragment missing in Cb175, which corresponds to the Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) hlyCABD operon region. This deletion was detected by a specific qPCR in the 8 other strains available from this territory an in none of 298C.burnetii strains from other areas and other genotypes (8/8 vs 0/298, Fisher's exact test, p<0.0000001). Loss of genes implicated in secretion systems has been observed in other epidemic bacterial strains. Thus, the virulence of Cb175 may be linked to this genome reduction.

  9. Knowledge of free voluntary HIV testing centres and willingness to do a test among migrants in Cayenne, French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Bousser, Veronique; Parriault, Marie Claire; Van-Melle, Astrid; Nouvellet, Marie-Louise; Adriouch, Leila; Sebillotte, Claire Goddard; Couppie, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2011-04-01

    In Cayenne, French Guiana, 80% of HIV-positive patients followed at the hospital are migrants. Behavioural information is crucial for optimising HIV testing for this vulnerable group. Predictors of ignorance of the existence of free voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centre and willingness to get tested were investigated in 2006 among 398 migrants from Haiti, Guyana, Suriname and Brazil using a structured questionnaire. Only 27% of migrants knew simultaneously about the existence of free VCT, its localisation and its operating hours. Factors associated with ignorance of the existence of free VCT centre were birthplace in Haiti, being in French Guiana for less than three years, not thinking one's birth country as strongly affected by HIV and not thinking to be personally at risk for HIV. Factors independently associated with willingness to get tested were thinking to be at risk for HIV, birthplace in Brazil and Haiti, having a high-integration level and fear of suffering if HIV test was positive. In order to improve testing among migrants, the accessibility of testing facilities and the knowledge of their whereabouts and operating hours must be improved to promote the desired behaviour among the majority of migrants which is often willing to do the test.

  10. A new Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura: Hylidae) of the parviceps group from the lowlands of the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill; Ernst, Raffael; Blanc, Michel; Martinez, Quentin; Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Ouboter, Paul; Jairam, Rawien; Ron, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Many Amazonian frog species that are considered widely distributed may actually represent polyspecific complexes.. A minute tree frog from the Guiana Shield originally assigned to the allegedly widely distributed Dendropsophus brevifrons proved to be a yet undescribed species within the D. parviceps group. We herein describe this new species and present a phylogeny for the D. parviceps group. The new species is diagnosed from other Dendropsophus of the parviceps group by its small body size (19.6-21.7 mm in males, 22.1-24.5 mm in females), thighs dorsally dark grey with cream blotches without bright yellow patch, absence of dorsolateral and canthal stripe, and an advertisement call comprising trills (length 0.30-0.35 s) composed of notes emitted at a rate of 131-144 notes/s, generally followed by click series of 2-3 notes. Its tadpole is also singular by having fused lateral marginal papillae and absence of both labial teeth and submarginal papillae. Genetic distances (p-distance) are >5.3% on the 12S and >9.3% on the 16S from D. brevifrons, its closest relative. This species occurs from the Brazilian state of Amapá, across French Guiana and Suriname to central Guyana and is likely to also occur in adjacent Brazilian states and eastern Venezuela. This species is not rare but is difficult to collect because of its arboreal habits and seasonal activity peaks.

  11. Loss of TSS1 in hypervirulent Coxiella burnetii 175, the causative agent of Q fever in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Felicetta; Eldin, Carole; Georgiades, Kalliopi; Edouard, Sophie; Delerce, Jeremy; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    In French Guiana, the unique Coxiella burnetii circulating genotype 17 causes 24% of community-acquired pneumonia, the highest prevalence ever described. To explain this unusual virulence, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain Cb175, which was isolated from a patient from French Guiana. Cb175 has a greater number of mutations in genes involved in metabolism compared with the Nine Mile I strain. We found a 6105bp fragment missing in Cb175, which corresponds to the Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) hlyCABD operon region. This deletion was detected by a specific qPCR in the 8 other strains available from this territory an in none of 298C.burnetii strains from other areas and other genotypes (8/8 vs 0/298, Fisher's exact test, p<0.0000001). Loss of genes implicated in secretion systems has been observed in other epidemic bacterial strains. Thus, the virulence of Cb175 may be linked to this genome reduction. PMID:25982513

  12. British Writers; Modules for Teacher Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliard, Fred

    This booklet, containing eight instructional modules on works by major British writers, can be used either within a lower-level literature course for non-English majors or in a survey course for English majors. The first four modules focus on works from the early English period through the Elizabethan Age: "Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green…

  13. Macro and Microenvironments at the British Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Helen

    This paper describes the storage of the 12 million items that have just been moved into the new British Library building. The specifications for the storage and environmental conditions for different types of library and archive material are explained. The varying environmental parameters for storage areas and public areas, including reading rooms…

  14. An American on a British Train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    大川

    2004-01-01

    A young American entered a compartment on a British train, and discovered that all seats were occupied, including one on which a small dog was seated. To his owner, a middle-aged lady who wore a large hat, he said po-

  15. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  16. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  17. The British Experience of Reform in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, Geraint

    1996-01-01

    The nature and impact of reforms since 1988 in British education, both compulsory and postsecondary, are examined, focusing on changes in organizational structure and financing mechanisms. The success of these changes in meeting their objectives is assessed, and unresolved issues are identified. (MSE)

  18. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…

  19. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.

    2011-01-01

    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth century

  20. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  1. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  2. A very British spectacle? : critical reception of the fantasy genre within contemporary British cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Rickards, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the period since 2001, cinema has witnessed what David Butler refers to as a ‘golden age’ of fantasy film production. The majority of fantasy films released during this time have originated from British literature, and have to some extent been produced and located within Britain, showcasing a wealth of national characters, acting talent, and landscapes on screen. Yet, despite vital revisionist work conducted on British horror, science fiction and melodrama, there remains a hesitancy to emb...

  3. AS GUIANAS E O BRASIL DA CONTENÇÃO À CONTINENTALIZAÇÃO, OU PERIGOS E VANTAGENS DE UMA INTERFACE CARIBENHA E EUROPEIA (Guianas and Brazil, from the containment to the continentalization, or perils and advantages of a Caribbean and European interface)

    OpenAIRE

    Granger, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Depois de séculos de isolamento reforçado pelos receios do Brasil em relação à situação política do Caribe durante a Guerra fria, as Guianas (República da Guiana, Suriname e Guiana francesa), depois de uma integração informal por fluxos ilícitos, estão agora entrando num processo de continentalização, participando de projetos de integração continental na América do Sul, concretizado pela construção de pontes fronteiriças com o Brasil. Foi de fato este Estado que percebeu a situação de interfa...

  4. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  5. Truffle diversity (Tuber, Tuberaceae) in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berch, Shannon M; Bonito, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    To improve baseline data for the developing truffle industry in British Columbia, we compiled existing Tuber species sequences from published and unpublished studies and generated new ITS sequences for truffles belonging to Tuber collected in the province. In doing so, we obtained evidence that 13 species of Tuber occur in the province, including six introduced and seven native species, two of which are putative undescribed species. Of the native species, the Tuber anniae species complex is widely distributed in the province while Tuber beyerlei appears to be much more restricted in distribution. Four of the introduced species have commercial value (Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum, Tuber brumale, and Tuber borchii) as do two of the native species (Tuber gibbosum and Tuber oregonense). Focused sampling on likely tree hosts, both hardwood and Pinaceae species, as well as in currently unexplored parts of the province seems likely to expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of Tuber species in British Columbia. PMID:27083929

  6. Thermoluminescence dating of the british coversand deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, M. D.

    Coversand deposits, thought to be of Lateglacial age are found in Britain in North Lincolnshire, South-West Lancashire and Central East Anglia. A comprehensive dating study of them, using thermoluminescence (TL) techniques, is currently underway in an attempt to link the British coversand deposits to the European coversand chronology. Initial results from four of the British coversand sites sampled are presented. The 26 TL dates from 14 samples show that in Lincolnshire aeolian deposition took place from 12.5 ka to I1 ka. Cessation of the initial sand deposition was synchronous with this in Lancashire, but sand deposition occurred significantly earlier in East Anglia. The upper layers of aeolian sand in Lancashire are much younger and are attributed to Holocene reworking. On the basis of these dates, Lincolnshire and Lancashire coversand deposition occurred at a similar time to the Younger Coversand II, whilst East Anglian coversand deposition coincided with the Younger Coversand I phase in the European coversand chronology.

  7. The parliamentary representation of British Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Shane

    2010-01-01

    Parliamentary parties in the British House of Commons tend to experience high levels of voting unity with individual MPs only occasionally dissenting from party policy. Although constituency influence has been used extensively to predict legislative behaviour in candidate-centred electoral environments, it is argued here that constituency preferences can, under certain circumstances, shape parliamentary behaviour in a strong-party, weak personal-vote, electoral environment such as the United ...

  8. Hearing care policy analysis in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Fadyeyeva, Inna

    2007-01-01

    Reduced hearing is a wide spread disability. One out of ten British Columbians estimated to suffer from a variable degree of hearing loss (CASLPA, 2005). It is the most common sensory impairment affecting 50 percent of Canadians over 65 (CHHA, 2005). The hearing loss problem is expected to progress from bad to worse due to demographic changes of the society and aging population. Hearing loss problem bears serious consequences for the affected individuals and society as a whole. This paper is ...

  9. The Differences between British and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进

    2012-01-01

    English is used as one of the most important languages in the world. As a result of the military, economic, scientific, political, and cultural influence, English has been used in many parts of the world, and the most prominent language in international business and science. It is used extensively as a second language and as an oflacial language in Commonwealth countries and many international organizations, and developed to many forms. This paper compares the differences between the British English and American English.

  10. Fourth Sino-British Local Government Seminar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The 4th Sino-British Local Government Seminar jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the China International Friendship Cities Association, the China-EU Association and the Local Government International Bureau of the UK (LGIB) was held in Beijing on June 29, 2004. He Luli, vice-chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, attended the seminar and delivered a speech. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu made a keynote speech. Ken Bodfish,

  11. Care credits in the British pension system

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachantoni, Athina

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a brief outline of the first stage of a comparative research project in the role and adequacy of care credits in the British and German pension systems. The provision of care credits has been an essential part of pension reforms around Europe, which significantly changes the prospects of carers to accumulate adequate pension contributions through their life course. But although the policy significance of care credits is due to rise in line with an increasing demand...

  12. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  13. Dystopia in British and American literature

    OpenAIRE

    GODOVANNAYA E; FLEGONTOVA A

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates dystopian fiction in British and American literature as exemplified in the books ‘Brave New world’ by Aldous Huxley and ‘451 Fahrenheit’ by Ray Bradbury. It draws the reader’s attention to the authors’ anxious attitude towards the portrayed events which can be considered to be a warning to future generations. The research mainly concentrates on common features of dystopian novels in both cultures.

  14. A critical history of British earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in the work of Davison, whose book-length catalogue was published finally in 1924. After that appears a gap, until interest in the subject was renewed in the mid 1970s. The expansion of the U.K. nuclear programme in the 1980s led to a series of large-scale investigations of historical British earthquakes, all based almost completely on primary historical data and conducted to high standards. The catalogue published by BGS in 1994 is a synthesis of these studies, and presents a parametric catalogue in which historical earthquakes are assessed from intensity data points based on primary source material. Since 1994, revisions to parameters have been minor and new events discovered have been restricted to a few small events.

  15. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  16. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  17. Histoplasmosis diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction method. Application on human samples in French Guiana, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubon, Danièle; Simon, Stéphane; Aznar, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Untreated histoplasmosis is life threatening, especially in immunosuppressed patients. In French Guiana, South America, it is one of the most common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients. Twenty-one cases of disseminated histoplasmosis were diagnosed in 2004 in the mycology laboratory of Cayenne hospital. Culture samples for histoplasmosis diagnosis is simple, sensitive, and specific, but it is a lengthy process. Management of the disease is then dangerously delayed. In this work, we tested a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on 40 samples from patients with suspected disseminated histoplasmosis. The recently described Hcp100 nested PCR method was used to detect Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in these samples. All of the positive cultures for H. capsulatum were also positive with PCR method. Tested on other fungi or negative culture, it also showed high specificity. Furthermore, it allows treating patients more rapidly. Culture remains necessary, but histoplasmosis PCR offers great prospects, on a clinical point of view.

  18. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.

  19. Precolombian settlements in French Guiana : geoarchaeological approach toward a new understanding of the human impact on landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancier, J.; Cammas, C.; Todisco, D.; Fouache, E.

    2012-04-01

    Recent archaeological research in French Guiana conducted by INRAP (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives), specifically in the Couac Program (Cirad, Inra, Inrap) revealed precolombian settlements on different geomorphic contexts like coastal and fluvial areas, as is seen in Brazil, but also what seems to be quite a dense occupation on higher grounds (mounds). Most of the times, the excavation shows cultural remains like pottery, archaeological pits and ditches, as well as sediments that are described by the archaeologists as "thick and dark-coloured layers". In Brazil, dark layers found in archaeological sites are called Terra Preta do Indio or Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), and their study is thought necessary to explain and understand ancient human settlement. In Brazil, geoarchaeological methods as well as chemical analyses, pedology and micromorphology helped to describe ADE and understand their archaeological potential and characteristics. In order to better understand the French Guiana dark layers, we studied two sites from the estuarine zone of the lower Maroni River (Surinam border) (Chemin Saint Louis and Balaté at Saint Laurent du Maroni), and two ring-ditched hilltop sites, on ferralsols, in the interfluvial forest area ("Montagnes Couronnées" in French) (MC 87 et 88, near Regina). Regarding Brazilians research on ADE, we described for the first time the archaeological stratigraphy of French Guiana ancient settlement using a geoarchaeological approach combining biogeochemistry, pedology in correlation with micromorphological analyses. Our first results show that dark layers from archaeological sites studied are very different from natural soils underneath in the estuarine zone. Although, the pH is quite low, micromorphological analyses show clay coatings in the alluvial terrace before human settlement. These analyses also show more organic matter and charcoals in the archaeological layers than beneath, and very large amounts of

  20. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  1. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  2. Electron impact ionization technique on the study of terpenes and related species in French Guiana tropical forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Paula Regina Corain; Bustillos, Oscar W.V., E-mail: paulinhacorain@usp.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisa Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guenther, Alex B.; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Emmons, Louisa, E-mail: guenther@ucar.edu [Biosphere Atmosphere Interaction Group, Atmosphere Chemistry Division of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO (United States); Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Siebicke, Lukas, E-mail: lukas.siebicke@ecofog.gf [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA-UMR EEF), Nancy (France); Serca, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.serca@aero.obs-mip.fr [Universite Paul Sabatier (UPS), Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d' Aerologie

    2013-07-01

    The electron impact ionization is, originally, a mass spectrometry ionization method and still the most widely used of all ionization methods.In this technique, a beam of electrons passes through the gas phase sample. An electron that collides with a neutral analyte molecule can knock off another electron, resulting in a positively charged ion. The fragmentation process dependent sup on many qualities including primary structure, electron energy and ion source temperature. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variation of isoprene and some other significant biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-βocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in French Guiana using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique and analyzed by a mass spectrometer coupled to a gas chromatograph, a thermo desorption unit and a flame ionization detector (TD-GC-MS-FID). The results showed that isoprene was by far the biogenic volatile organic compound with the highest concentration and flux, followed by alpha-pinene. Previous limited studies in Amazonia and the Congo suggested that a higher concentration and flux rate of isoprene and alpha-pinene should be expected during the dry season with lower emissions during the wet season, which is in relative agreement with what was observed at this tropical forest site in French Guiana. The exceptions were observed in a long wet period in which the concentration of isoprene and alpha-pinene increased more than it was expected to, for this time of the year. (author)

  3. Monkeys of the rainforest in French Guiana are natural reservoirs for P. brasilianum/P. malariae malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandeur, T; Volney, B; Peneau, C; de Thoisy, B

    2000-01-01

    Monkey blood samples were collected from 214 monkeys relocated as part of the wildlife rescue organized in French Guiana during the filling of the Petit Saut Dam on the Sinnamary River. These samples were tested for malaria parasites by microscopy of thick blood filsm and by nested PCR for small subunit rRNA genes (SSUrRNA). Parasitic blood forms similar to Plasmodium brasilianum were detected in 4 monkey species: Alouatta seniculus macconnelli, Saguinus midas midas, Pithecia pithecia and Ateles paniscus paniscus, with the highest prevalence in Alouatta monkeys. PCR was more sensitive than the conventional method for detecting low-grade parasitaemia in positive monkeys. The examination of blood films indicated that 5.6% of the animals carried parasites whereas the nested PCR for ribosomal DNA indicated a prevalence of 11.3%. The P. brasilianum SSUrRNA gene sequence was analysed and aligned with those from P. malariae, P. falciparum and P. vivax. This suggested that P. brasilianum and P. malariae are very closely related. Similar results were obtained from analysis of the sequences in P. malariae and P. brasilianum isolates of a polymorphic gene fragment analogous to the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) gene of P. falciparum. The P. brasilianum/P. malariae sequences were more similar to those of P. vivax than to those of P. falciparum, at least in the gene region examined. The high degree of DNA homology in the sequences of the SSUrRNA and msp1-like genes is consistent with other characterizations demonstrating a taxonomic relationship between P. brasilianum and P. malariae species. Our results provide further evidence that P. brasilianum and P. malariae are virtually identical and should probably be considered to be a single malaria species. This raises the question as to whether monkeys living in the rainforest are natural reservoirs for both simian and human malaria. These results have implications for the interpretation of the current epidemiological

  4. British Jewish history within the framework of British history 1840 - 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Kershen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This essay is a context statement in critical defence of my submission for the degree of Ph.D by Published Works in keeping with the requirements of MIddlesex University as laid down in the Guidance Notes dated April 1996. The underlying theme of the submission is that my published works serve to illustrate my belief that it is imperative to locate British Jewish history within the broader framework of British history. Thus, I have not limited my research and writing to one issue, event or se...

  5. [Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Incomers in Remire-Montjoly Prison, French Guiana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Romain; Ayhan, Gülen; Pinganaud, Éric; Basurko, Célia; Jehel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent interest in psychiatric illness in prison, the psychopathology of the Remire-Montjoly prison population remains largely unknown. Subject to significant population movements, French Guiana and its prison houses a very mixed population in which recent history has left a strong mark (earthquake in Haïti, civil war in Suriname, violence related to gold mining population and drug trafficking). These negative life events appear as potential vectors of psychological trauma. Additionally, strong links have been established in the literature between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and many other psychiatric disorders, including suicidal behavior and addictions. Under these conditions, we felt it essential to focus on the identification of PTSD in this sensitive population.Through adapted reception interviews, we tried to identify the PTSD, to describe by means of socio-demographic factors the studied population and to detect psychiatric comorbidities. The screening tool was the M.I.N.I. 5.0, which identifies 17 psychiatric disorders including the PTSD, based on the DSM IV definition. The target population was the prison incomers, agreeing to participate in the study, aged more than 18 years old and imprisoned between 18 January 2013 and 31 December 2013. To this date, 549 inmates were included in the study.The main result of this study was a prevalence of PTSD of 17% for incomers in detention. We found that the PTSD+ population is more likely to be female (15% against 7% p = 0.0246), which is consistent with the literature data. The M.I.N.I. 5.0 showed a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the PTSD+ group. This association was confirmed in several types of pathology like mood disorders including: major depressive episode and manic or hypomanic episode, suicidal risk, some anxiety disorders including: panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Strong association was found for current major depressive

  6. Precocious Albion: A New Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2014-01-01

    Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...

  7. 'I never faced up to being gay': sexual, religious and ethnic identities among British Indian and British Pakistani gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a comparative qualitative study of British Indian and British Pakistani gay men, all of whom self-identified as members of their religious communities. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and identity process theory. Results suggest that the intersection between sexuality and religion is more relevant to British Pakistani participants, while the intersection between sexuality and ethnicity is more relevant to British Indian participants. For British Indian participants in particular, homosexuality seems to be socially problematic, posing potential obstacles for interpersonal and intergroup relations. Conversely, for British Pakistanis, homosexuality is both socially and psychologically problematic, affecting intrapsychic as well as interpersonal levels of human interdependence. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:22651130

  8. Mercury-Selenium Relationships in Liver of Guiana Dolphin: The Possible Role of Kupffer Cells in the Detoxification Process by Tiemannite Formation

    OpenAIRE

    José Lailson-Brito; Renato Cruz; Paulo Renato Dorneles; Leonardo De Andrade; Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo; Ana Bernadete Fragoso; Lara Gama Vidal; Marianna Badini Costa; Tatiana Lemos Bisi; Ronaldo de Almeida; Dario Pires de Carvalho; Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos; Olaf Malm

    2012-01-01

    Top marine predators present high mercury concentrations in their tissues as consequence of biomagnification of the most toxic form of this metal, methylmercury (MeHg). The present study concerns mercury accumulation by Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), highlighting the selenium-mediated methylmercury detoxification process. Liver samples from 19 dolphins incidentally captured within Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) from 1994 to 2006 were analyzed for total mercury (THg), meth...

  9. Decreasing fallow duration in tropical slash-and-burn agriculture alters soil macro-invertebrate diversity: a case study in southern French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Celini, Léonide; Mora, Philippe; Mathieu, Jerome; Lapied, Emmanuel; Nahmani, Johanne; PONGE, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    International audience In the humid tropics, slash-and-burn cultivation causes changes in the composition of soil biota communities. We investigated the soil macro-invertebrates (body length higher or equal to 2 mm) in five sites, two at Maripasoula, an Aluku village along the Maroni river (French Guiana), with short fallow ( around 8 years), and the other three at Elahe, a Wayana village along the same river, with long fallow ( around 25 years). We report observed species richness, the co...

  10. Treatment of leishmaniasis in the Oyapock basin (French Guiana) : a KAP survey and analysis of the evolution of phytotherapy knowledge amongst Wayapi Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Odonne, G.; Berger, F; Stien, D.; Grenand, Pierre; Bourdy, Geneviève

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a high incidence in French Guiana, mainly in the middle and upper Oyapock basin, where Amerindian and some Brazilian people live. The main goals of this work were (i) to assess the knowledge about leishmaniasis in the different populations of the middle and upper Oyapock basin, (ii) to study the therapeutic strategies adopted by people affected by leishmaniasis and (iii) to document the use of phytotherapeutic...

  11. Making sense of British newspaper campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2013 Ghana reported 7 cases of measles; Britain reported over 900 – the second highest in the EU. Ghana had a 100% vaccination rate; in Britain most reported cases were among 10- 16 year olds in areas where vaccination had fallen to 50%. Last month the British government said it would lobby the European Commission to relax the restrictions on GM food and crops. In 2012, 270 million ha of GM crops were grown in 28 countries; in the EU only 2 such crops have been license...

  12. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  13. A history of British Assemblies of God

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, William K.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main historical works on Assemblies of God in Britain. The first is Donald Gee's Wind and Flame (originally published under the title The Pentecostal Movement in 1941; later revised and enlarged for publication in 1967). Gee was intimately involved in much of AoG's development not only in the British Isles but also overseas, There are, however, three things which Donald Gee fails to do and which I decided to attempt in the history which follows. First, and very properly, Gee und...

  14. The influence of oceanographic features on the foraging behavior of the olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea along the Guiana coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; de Thoisy, Benoît; Heerah, Karine; Conchon, Anna; Barrioz, Sébastien; Dos Reis, Virginie; Berzins, Rachel; Kelle, Laurent; Picard, Baptiste; Roquet, Fabien; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2016-03-01

    The circulation in the Western Equatorial Atlantic is characterized by a highly dynamic mesoscale activity that shapes the Guiana continental shelf. Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) nesting in French Guiana cross this turbulent environment during their post-nesting migration. We studied how oceanographic and biological conditions drove the foraging behavior of 18 adult females, using satellite telemetry, remote sensing data (sea surface temperature, sea surface height, current velocity and euphotic depth), simulations of micronekton biomass (pelagic organisms) and in situ records (water temperature and salinity). The occurrence of foraging events throughout migration was located using Residence Time analysis, while an innovative proxy of the hunting time within a dive was used to identify and quantify foraging events during dives. Olive ridleys migrated northwestwards using the Guiana current and remained on the continental shelf at the edge of eddies formed by the North Brazil retroflection, an area characterized by low turbulence and high micronekton biomass. They performed mainly pelagic dives, hunting for an average 77% of their time. Hunting time within a dive increased with shallower euphotic depth and with lower water temperatures, and mean hunting depth increased with deeper thermocline. This is the first study to quantify foraging activity within dives in olive ridleys, and reveals the crucial role played by the thermocline on the foraging behavior of this carnivorous species. This study also provides novel and detailed data describing how turtles actively use oceanographic structures during post-nesting migration.

  15. Prevalence and predictive factors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV in the remote villages on the Maroni River in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Jolivet, Anne; Flamand, Claude; Pigeon, Perrine; Caudal, Johanna; Lydié, Nathalie; Halfen, Sandrine; Goerger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The Maroni basin, an isolated region which lies between Suriname and French Guiana, has been affected by the HIV epidemic 10 years after coastal French Guiana. However, the rise in HIV prevalence was sharp with a prevalence exceeding 1% within 10 years. Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWHIV) or "suspected to have HIV" is rampant as reported by health professionals or non-governmental organisations. The objective of this article is to present the first quantitative data from the general population of this region on stigma towards people living with HIV. Data were collected in 2012 by a structured questionnaire among a random sample of 896 individuals residing in remote villages on the Maroni River. Proportion comparisons between the Maroni sample and the sample from the general population on the coastline in 2011 were conducted. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict stigmatising attitudes. For all situations involving PLWHIV, the proportion of negative attitudes was significantly higher on the Maroni than in coastal French Guiana (p French health insurance) were associated with stigmatising attitudes. The present data could help both sides coordinate interventions both at the individual level by improving knowledge and at the community level to change norms in order to reduce stigma and discrimination aiming for increased impact.

  16. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  17. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  18. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  19. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  20. British and Finnish Baseball: International Variations on an American Pastime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emyr W.; Romar, Jan-Erik; Hartman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Both British and Finnish baseball are easy to introduce, as the specific skills involved in both sports are identical to those used in traditional baseball. If students have the skills to play traditional baseball, they have the skills to play British and Finnish baseball as well. After a brief overview of the unique rules and strategies of these…

  1. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  2. Knowledge, Character and Professionalisation in Nineteenth-Century British Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…

  3. Rapid shoreline erosion induced by human impacts in a tropical muddy coast context, an example from western French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    The Guyanas coast (French Guiana, Surinam and Guiana) is the longest muddy coast in the world (1500 km). It is under the influence of mud banks in transit from the Amazon delta in Brazil to the Orinoco delta in Venezuela. This westward mud bank migration induces a strong geomorphic control on the shoreline which can be summarized in terms of "bank" (shoreline advance and wave energy dissipation) and "inter-bank" phases (erosion of shoreline by waves). Our study site, rice polders close to Mana city (western French Guiana), is a fine example of the exacerbation, by human activities, of the erosional dynamics on this muddy coast during an "inter-bank" phase. The polders cover 50,000 ha, in 200 x 600 m compartments flanked by earth dikes and canals. They were built in the muddy Holocene coastal plain in the 1980s and are rapidly eroding. Waves (mean significant height = 1.5 m height) comprise Atlantic swell and local trade wind-waves, and the tidal context is semi-diurnal and meso-tidal. We determined historical shoreline evolution from satellite (Landsat & SPOT) and orthophotography images, and conducted four field campaigns between October 2013 and October 2014, comprising topographic (RTK-DGPS) and hydrodynamic (pressure sensors) measurements. The results show intense erosion of 150 m/year affecting the polders since 2001, and lesser retreat (30 to 100 m/year) of the adjacent sectors colonized by mangrove forests. The erosive shoreface shows the same structure in each polder compartment: a chenier beach which freely retreats backwards under the influence of wave overwash. The chenier retreat rate is 100 m/year and it appears to be more intense (net retreat of 45 m) during the high wave-energy season (December to March), which generates more overwashing. In front of the chenier, we observed a large (50 m) inter-tidal mud bed showing different levels of induration and bioturbation by mangrove roots. The mud shorefaces exhibit an erosion rate of 100 m/year on average

  4. First record of a ballophilid centipede from French Guiana with a description of Ityphilus betschi sp. nov. (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ityphilus betschi sp. nov. from French Guiana, (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae is here described and illustrated on the basis of the male holotype and a non-type female specimen. The new species is characterized by having the internal edge of the forcipular tarsungulum partially serrate; ventral pore-fields present along the entire body length; and all pore-fields undivided. It is compared in detail with the other Neotropical members of the genus sharing these three combined traits, and having a roughly similar range of leg-bearing segments, i.e., I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 (from Brazil; I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (from Brazil; I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921 (from Guyana, Brazil, Trinidad; I. perrieri (Brölemann, 1909 (from Brazil; and I. saucius Pereira, Foddai & Minelli, 2000 (from Brazil. Complementary notes for these latter species are also given. Undiluted 2-Phenoxyethanol (CAS No. 122-99-6 has been used as an effective clearing agent/mounting medium for the preparation of temporary mounts of all body parts of the examined specimens. The discovery of the new species here described represents the first record of the family Ballophilidae from French Guiana.Ityphilus betschi sp. nov. de Guayana Francesa, (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha: Ballophilidae se describe e ilustra sobre la base del holotipo macho y un ejemplar no tipo hembra. La nueva especie se caracteriza por tener el borde interno de la tarsungula forcipular parcialmente serrado; campos de poros ventrales presentes a lo largo de todo el cuerpo; y todos los campos de poros no divididos. Se compara en detalle con los demás miembros neotropicales del género que comparten estos tres caracteres combinados y que tienen un rango aproximadamente similar de segmentos pedales, i.e., I. crabilli Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1994 (de Brasil; I. demoraisi Pereira, Minelli & Barbieri, 1995 (de Brasil; I. guianensis Chamberlin, 1921 (de Guyana, Brasil

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRITISH WAR CORRESPONDENTS IN THE FIELD AND BRITISH MILITARY INTELLIGENCE DURING THE ANGLO-BOER WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal P McCrachen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military intelligence operation. In particular, the article looks at the problem issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists’ activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the attempt to make British Military Intelligence a scapegoat for British initial failures is also mentioned.

  6. Differences Between British English and American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金苹

    2015-01-01

    American English(AmE)is the form of English used in the United States.It includes all English dialects used within the United States. British English(BrE)is.the form of English used in the United Kingdom. It includes all English dialects used within the United Kingdom. Language is a part of culture, and it plays an important role in culture. Language reflects the characteristic of a nation. It not only includes the history and cultural background of a nation, but also fosters the nation ’s attitudes towards life, and ways of living and thinking of the nation. Therefore, to my point of view, the cause of language differences is basically the differences between cultures.

  7. GM2 gangliosidosis in British Jacob sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M E; Holmes, J P; Jeffrey, M; Jackson, M; Mackintosh, A; Kolodny, E H; Zeng, B J; Wang, C B; Scholes, S F E

    2014-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid--Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock. PMID:24309906

  8. Ocean energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia's significant wave, tidal, ocean and river current resources will help to provide a clean, renewable energy source to meet the growing demand for electricity in local and North American markets. Various sites in the province are now being investigated for their energy development potential. A demonstration project located in the Race Rocks ecological reserve is producing electricity from tidal currents, while 3 other sites have received provincial funding in order to demonstrate new wave and tidal energy technologies off the coast of Vancouver Island. This guide provided an outline of the province's emerging ocean energy sector, and described the principal companies involved in developing ocean resources in the region. Details of new ocean energy projects were also provided. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  9. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  10. Parental care behavior in the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in Ilha Grande Bay, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo H. O. Tardin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parental care is any form of parental behavior that increases offspring fitness. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the intensity of parental care in the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864. The objectives of this study are as follows: 1 to quantify the degree of parental care in S. guianensis in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro; 2 to investigate the influence of behavioral state and group size on the degree of parental care; and 3 to evaluate the differences between the intensity of parental care provided to calves and juveniles. Our results indicate that the intensity of parental care is high in S. guianensis and that care is more intense in larger groups. It is possible that these differences serve to maximize hydrodynamic gains and to minimize risks. Our results suggest that parental care is more intense during travel. A possible reason for this greater intensity is that the feeding dynamics show a more random pattern than other behavioral states. Moreover, the results indicate that calves receive more intense care than juveniles. These results suggest that parent-offspring conflict is possible in the study population.

  11. Rabies Risk: Difficulties Encountered during Management of Grouped Cases of Bat Bites in 2 Isolated Villages in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Berger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In French Guiana, from 1984 to 2011, 14 animal rabies cases and 1 human rabies case (2008 were diagnosed. In January 2011, vampire-bat attacks occurred in 2 isolated villages. In mid-January, a medical team from the Cayenne Centre for Anti-Rabies Treatment visited the sites to manage individuals potentially exposed to rabies and, in April, an anti-rabies vaccination campaign for dogs was conducted. Twenty individuals were bitten by bats in 1 month, most frequently on the feet. The median time to start management was 15 days. The complete Zagreb vaccination protocol (2 doses on day 0 and 1 dose on days 7 and 21 was administered to 16 patients, 12 also received specific immunoglobulins. The antibody titration was obtained for 12 patients (different from those who received immunoglobulins. The antibody titers were ≥0.5 EU/mL for all of them. The serology has not been implemented for the 12 patients who received immunoglobulins. Accidental destruction of a vampire-bat colony could be responsible for the attacks. The isolation and absence of sensitization of the populations were the main explanations for the management difficulties encountered. Sensitization programs should be conducted regularly.

  12. Rabies Risk: Difficulties Encountered during Management of Grouped Cases of Bat Bites in 2 Isolated Villages in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Franck; Desplanches, Noëlle; Baillargeaux, Sylvie; Joubert, Michel; Miller, Manuelle; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Spiegel, André; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-06-01

    In French Guiana, from 1984 to 2011, 14 animal rabies cases and 1 human rabies case (2008) were diagnosed. In January 2011, vampire-bat attacks occurred in 2 isolated villages. In mid-January, a medical team from the Cayenne Centre for Anti-Rabies Treatment visited the sites to manage individuals potentially exposed to rabies and, in April, an anti-rabies vaccination campaign for dogs was conducted. Twenty individuals were bitten by bats in 1 month, most frequently on the feet. The median time to start management was 15 days. The complete Zagreb vaccination protocol (2 doses on day 0 and 1 dose on days 7 and 21) was administered to 16 patients, 12 also received specific immunoglobulins. The antibody titration was obtained for 12 patients (different from those who received immunoglobulins). The antibody titers were ≥0.5 EU/mL for all of them. The serology has not been implemented for the 12 patients who received immunoglobulins. Accidental destruction of a vampire-bat colony could be responsible for the attacks. The isolation and absence of sensitization of the populations were the main explanations for the management difficulties encountered. Sensitization programs should be conducted regularly. PMID:23826400

  13. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizospheric and surface soils were collected from three stations based on successional stages of mangrove colonization: pioneer (P), coppice (C), and young forest (F). The microbial functional patterns showed significant progressive shifts along the mangrove vegetation profile. The P stages, those most influenced by tide currents, were macroscopically characterized by hydro-sedimentary instability and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC) content and quality, showed the lowest extracellular enzymatic activities and the highest functional metabolic diversities. TOC quality analyses by (13)C CPMAS NMR provided evidence of progressive TOC enrichment and an increasing imprint of aboveground vegetation on C quality as succession occurs. These differences in the origin, amount, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) of older stages exerted both a quantitative and qualitative control over microbial functional responses. This indicated the enhancement of aboveground-belowground functional linkages, leading to the expression of high decomposition activities and a functional loss and specialization of rhizospheric microbial communities.

  14. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550). PMID:27698572

  15. Leishmania spp. identification by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and its applications in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Carme, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis was for many years the only species commonly identified in French Guiana, but precise species identifications were quite rare. We describe a new restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction technique using a 615-bp fragment of the RNA polymerase II gene and 2 restriction enzymes, TspRI and HgaI. Seven reference strains (Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) lainsoni, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, Leishmania (Leishmania) major, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum) and 112 clinical samples from positive lesions were used for the development of the technique. The rates of positive species identification were 85.7% for punch skin biopsy specimens, 93.1% for positive Giemsa-stained smears, and 100% for positive culture supernatants. In the framework of cutaneous leishmaniasis species surveillance for the 2006 to 2008 period, parasite identification was carried out for 199 samples from different patients. The prevalence of the various Leishmania spp. was 84.4% for L. (V.) guyanensis, 8.0% for L. (V.) braziliensis, 5.0% for L. (L.) amazonensis, and 2.6% for L. (V.) lainsoni. L. (V.) braziliensis seems to be locally an emerging pathogen.

  16. Ecological Factors Acting on the Microfauna in Mangrove Swamps. The Case of Foraminiferal Assemblages in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenay, J.-P.; Guiral, D.; Parra, M.

    2002-10-01

    Thirty-seven surface sediment samples were collected in January 1999 and July 2000 in the mangrove swamps and mud flats of French Guiana where strong seasonal contrasts occur. Sampling stations were selected to provide information on the foraminiferal assemblages associated with different environmental conditions, on the mud banks and in the mangrove forest. A total of 44 species have been identified. The main parameter acting on the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages is the hydrodynamics of the estuary, characterized by the double influence of coastal water and low-Ca fresh water, with drastic seasonal changes. The coastal end member is dominated by the calcareous species Ammonia tepida, A. parkinsoniana and Cribroelphidium spp., the continental (freshwater) end member is characterized by Miliammina fusca and Trochamminita irregularis . The calcareous species penetrate into the estuary, even into the mangrove forest during the dry season, but totally disappear from the estuary during the rainy season. The second parameter acting on the distribution of foraminiferal assemblages is the vertical elevation that acts indirectly by influencing the time of aerial exposure and the colonization by mangrove trees. Both canopy and litter of the mangrove forest protect the sediment from heating, drying and increases in salinity due to sun and wind. Foraminifera are very rare or absent on the open mud banks affected by mud cracks, but begin to grow as soon as young Avicennia are present. In the mangrove swamps, local conditions influence the composition of the assemblages and the taphonomic processes.

  17. Hematology and serum biochemistry values of free-ranging red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vié, J C; Moreau, B; de Thoisy, B; Fournier, P; Genty, C

    1998-06-01

    One hundred twenty-two wild red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were translocated during flooding of the forest at a hydroelectric dam site in French Guiana. Blood samples from 103 animals were evaluated for 13 hematologic and/or 22 serum chemistry parameters. Significant age-specific variation was found for white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and platelet counts and for alkaline phosphatase values. Adult males and females had significant differences in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin, creatinine, cholesterol, and calcium values. In juveniles, amylase and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in males than in females. Significant differences associated with reproductive status were also observed; i.e., lower cholesterol level in pregnant females and higher packed cell volume in lactating females. Chronic stress due to habitat disappearance may have been responsible for significant differences between thin animals and those in good condition. Thin animals had lower WBC, eosinophil, basophil, and monocyte counts and higher platelet counts. Capture stress was probably responsible for high and variable levels of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:9732027

  18. Functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luglia, Mathieu; Criquet, Stéven; Sarrazin, Max; Ziarelli, Fabio; Guiral, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. The study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in Montabo Bay at Cayenne (French Guiana). It is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Rhizospheric and surface soils were collected from three stations based on successional stages of mangrove colonization: pioneer (P), coppice (C), and young forest (F). The microbial functional patterns showed significant progressive shifts along the mangrove vegetation profile. The P stages, those most influenced by tide currents, were macroscopically characterized by hydro-sedimentary instability and micro-phytobenthic colonization of mudflat. This stage, characterized by low total organic carbon (TOC) content and quality, showed the lowest extracellular enzymatic activities and the highest functional metabolic diversities. TOC quality analyses by (13)C CPMAS NMR provided evidence of progressive TOC enrichment and an increasing imprint of aboveground vegetation on C quality as succession occurs. These differences in the origin, amount, and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) of older stages exerted both a quantitative and qualitative control over microbial functional responses. This indicated the enhancement of aboveground-belowground functional linkages, leading to the expression of high decomposition activities and a functional loss and specialization of rhizospheric microbial communities. PMID:24141938

  19. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  20. Effect of gold mining activities on water turbidity and river sediment discharge: comparison of two nearby river basin in French Guiana, using remote sensing and field measurements data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjorie, Gallay; Jean-Michel, Martinez; Alain, Laraque; Max, Sarrazin; Jean-Claude, Doudou; Antoine, Gardel; Vincent, Vantrepotte; Franck, Chow-Toun

    2016-04-01

    The Maroni and Oyapock rivers are two nearby basin in French Guiana, South America. The Maroni river drains a basin of 66 000 km² between French Guiana and Surinam. The Oyapock river basin covers 28 000 km² over French Guiana and Brazil. The Both over the Guyana shield presenting very lowest erosion rates. For both rivers, Suspended Sediment Concentration and remote sensing reflectance have been determined, during 3 fields sampling campaigns, using TriOs RAMSES radiometers operating in the 350-900 nm spectral range. Field data are compared with MODIS spaceborne sensors onboard calibration Terra and Aqua satellites. For the first time over the Maroni river, we show that it is possible to monitored from space both Surface Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSSC) and the Turbidity (R²=0,81), making possible to evaluate water quality long term. Combining fields and satellite derived SSSC measurements, we detected an increase of median SSSC (20 to 30 mg/l)and sediment budget in the Maroni river and a stability for the Oyapock river (10 mg/l), since 2000. Almost, relationship between SSSC and river water discharge was investigated for both rivers and for the 2000-2015 period. We show that SSSC and Maroni river discharge present decreasing correlation over the period of study. For the Oyapock River, SSSC and river discharge show good relationship over the period of study. Analysis of land-use change in the Maroni catchment showed an important increase of areas affected by gold mining which explain the observed modification of the Maroni River Suspended Sediment budget.

  1. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J L

    1999-03-01

    nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.

  2. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands,...

  3. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  4. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  5. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  6. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  7. Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae), in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex: insights on the use of area based on the photo-identification technique

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos C. de O. Santos; Júlia E. de F. Oshima; Eduardo dos S. Pacífico; Ednilson da Silva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary description of habitat use by Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénéden, 1864) in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), state of Paraná, Brazil. Approximately 124 km² were surveyed by small boat from April 2006 to July 2008 in the following subsets of the PEC: Canal do Superagui (~28 km²); Pinheiros Bay (~34 km²); part of Laranjeiras Bay, which included the Guaraqueçaba sub-estuary (~38 km²); and part of the Mixture Section of ...

  8. A new species of Colostethus (Anura, Dendrobatidae from French Guiana with a redescription of Colostethus beebei (Noble, 1923 from its type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J. R. Kok

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Colostethus, long mistaken for Colostethus beebei, is described from French Guiana. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by absence of median lingual process, first finger longer than second, third finger not distinctly swollen in males, differences in tadpole morphology, coloration and pattern (e.g. absence of dorsolateral stripe, bioacoustics, and reproductive behavior. A complete redescription of Colostethus beebei plus description of its tadpole and call is provided on the basis of recently collected topotypic specimens. The range of C. beebei is restricted to the Kaieteur plateau, Pakaraima Mountains, Guyana.

  9. Palynological reconstruction of the rain forest in French Guiana during the past 3000 years; Reconstitution palynologique de la foret guyanaise au cours des 3000 dernieres annees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledru, M.P.; Fournier, M.; Martin, L. [ORSTOM, 93 - Bondy (France); Charles-Dominique, P.; Riera, B. [Laboratoire d`ecologie generale, URA, CNRS, 91 - Brunoy (France); Tardy, Ch. [Laboratoire de paleobotanique, URA, CNRS, Institut de botanique 34 - Montpellier (France)

    1997-03-01

    Pollen analysis has been carried out on a core drilled in a peaty palm swamp forest in the rain forest of French Guiana. This has brought new data on the variations of the forest cover during the past 3000 years. Momentary peaks of the pioneer species Cecropia frequency give evidence of two phases of relatively open vegetation: on between 2124 - 1679 and 1525 - 1375 calibrated years B.P. and another shorter one around 658-424 yrs B.P. cal. The first one appears to be due to the combined incidence of a dry climatic period and of forest fires of human origins. (authors). 13 refs.

  10. Numerical analysis of the combined action of littoral current, tide and waves on the suspended mud transport and on turbid plumes around French Guiana mudbanks

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Cristèle; Froidefond, J.m.; Devenon, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Large mudbanks migrate westwards in the nearshore zone from the Cabo Cassipore in the Amapa state (Brazil) to the Waini River in Guiana. These mudbanks are noticeable by their size (about 4 x 10(9) m(3) of sediment) and by the sediment dynamics they induce. Notably, visible remote sensing pictures present high turbid mud plume associated to mudbank erosion. The sediment transport is directly linked to the ambient forcing-littoral current, waves, and tide. In this paper, the turbid plume and t...

  11. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  12. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  13. Making of British India fictions, 1772-1823

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates British fictional representations of India in novels, plays and poetry from 1772 to 1823. Rather than simply correlating literary portrayals to shifting colonial context and binary power relationships, the project relates representations to the impact of India on British popular culture, and print capitalism’s role in defining and promulgating national identity and proto-global awareness. The study contends that the internal historical development of th...

  14. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  15. British anarchism 1881-1914: reality and appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Shpayer, H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis examines the history of British anarchism in the late Victorian and Edwardian era against the background of the movement's popular image. The prevalent image of anarchism assumed the individual to be an unscrupulous criminal and the movement to be a conspiracy intent on unleashing revolutionary violence upon the world. Such a description imparted little of the authentic pursuits and beliefs of British anarchism and proved to be one of the major obstacles ev...

  16. The Ambitious Young Woman and the Contemporary British Sports Film

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the figure of the ambitious young woman is mediated within contemporary female-centred British sports films. The article begins by briefly outlining the relationship between postfeminism and neoliberalism and highlights the relevance of these discourses to contemporary female-centred sports films. It then goes on to explore how postfeminist, neoliberal values are mediated in the construction of the ambitious young woman through an analysis of the British film Chalet ...

  17. Small farms and climate change adaptation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Kaleen

    2011-01-01

    Small-scale farms in British Columbia (BC) face the challenge of adapting to both positive and negative climate change impacts, while maintaining their financial viability. This study explores the issue of climate change adaptation for small-scale farmers in British Columbia using semi-structured interviews and case study analysis. Small farms frequently employ soil preservation techniques, organic methods, and grow a diversity of crops, which make them more resilient to some of the negative ...

  18. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  19. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-08-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  20. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H.

    2013-04-01

    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  1. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  2. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  3. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  4. Appendix XXIX: Succession management in British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy has formal succession management arrangements, which have evolved over the years to meet the needs of the company. Whilst they are an ongoing process, the arrangements are most manifest in an annual review which results in an overall succession plan for the company. The process embodies a twin-track approach of reviewing existing managers whilst also identifying younger staff with significant potential. These younger staff members are allocated into one of two groupings: those identified as having director level potential, who have their development managed centrally, and those considered to have management potential, the development of whom is managed by the business unit to which they belong, with support from the center as requested. The staff members in both these groupings are kept under review and, if the circumstances warrant it, there may be movement between the two groupings. The aim of succession management is to ensure the company has sufficient experienced, qualified and tested staff to provide succession to senior and other key posts

  5. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  6. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  7. Morphodynamic evolution of an intertidal mudflat under the influence of Amazon sediment supply - Kourou mud bank, French Guiana, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensac, Erwan; Gardel, Antoine; Lesourd, Sandric; Brutier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The coastal environment between the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers is characterised by the migration of large mud banks formed by accretion of the muddy discharge from the Amazon. The migration of mud in the shallow coastal waters is associated with the creation of mudflats that form a surface for the development of coastal mangroves after consolidation. This study focuses on the fine-scale sedimentary processes involved in the morphodynamic evolution of a consolidated mudflat and its erosion. Mudflats can be divided into two areas: the seafront and the inner part between the seafront and the land. This study highlights a link between tidal mud supply, biofilm migration and increasing elevation in the latter area. The migration of a biofilm through each cycle of tidal supply prevents erosion and permits the continuous accretion of the entire mudflat over several years. This increase in topography is also modulated by fortnightly tidal cycles. Desiccation greatly impacts the mudflat's structure at a yearly scale. This process plays an important role in the erosion of the seafront area under wave action by allowing the formation of mud pebbles, which are progressively abraded into fluid mud supplied to the inner part of the mudflat by over-wash processes. This study provides a better understanding of the behaviour of mudflats on the wave-exposed coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon by describing: (1) the processes involved in sediment exchanges between mudflats and mud banks, (2) the mechanisms associated with the persistence of mudflats along the French Guiana coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon, and (3) the processes involved in the erosion and recycling of these mudflats.

  8. Adaptive evolution of malaria parasites in French Guiana: Reversal of chloroquine resistance by acquisition of a mutation in pfcrt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleau, Stéphane; Moss, Eli L; Dhingra, Satish K; Volney, Béatrice; Casteras, Jessica; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Volkman, Sarah K; Wirth, Dyann F; Legrand, Eric; Fidock, David A; Neafsey, Daniel E; Musset, Lise

    2015-09-15

    In regions with high malaria endemicity, the withdrawal of chloroquine (CQ) as first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections has typically led to the restoration of CQ susceptibility through the reexpansion of the wild-type (WT) allele K76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) at the expense of less fit mutant alleles carrying the CQ resistance (CQR) marker K76T. In low-transmission settings, such as South America, drug resistance mutations can attain 100% prevalence, thereby precluding the return of WT parasites after the complete removal of drug pressure. In French Guiana, despite the fixation of the K76T allele, the prevalence of CQR isolates progressively dropped from >90% to <30% during 17 y after CQ withdrawal in 1995. Using a genome-wide association study with CQ-sensitive (CQS) and CQR isolates, we have identified a single mutation in pfcrt encoding a C350R substitution that is associated with the restoration of CQ susceptibility. Genome editing of the CQR reference strain 7G8 to incorporate PfCRT C350R caused a complete loss of CQR. A retrospective molecular survey on 580 isolates collected from 1997 to 2012 identified all C350R mutant parasites as being CQS. This mutation emerged in 2002 and rapidly spread throughout the P. falciparum population. The C350R allele is also associated with a significant decrease in piperaquine susceptibility in vitro, suggesting that piperaquine pressure in addition to potential fitness costs associated with the 7G8-type CQR pfcrt allele may have selected for this mutation. These findings have important implications for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of antimalarial drug resistance.

  9. First report of a family outbreak of Chagas disease in French Guiana and posttreatment follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Denis; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Simon, Stéphane; Véron, Vincent; Mayence, Claire; Demar-Pierre, Magalie; Djossou, Félix; Aznar, Christine

    2014-12-01

    The outbreak of acute Chagas disease due to oral transmission of the parasite is a well-known phenomenon mainly occurring in the Amazon. Such an event is described here for the first time in French Guiana. Eight patients of the same family, presenting epidemiological and clinical histories compatible with recent Trypanosoma cruzi infection of Chagas disease due to the ingestion of palm Oenocarpus bacaba juice were, rather late after the putative date of infection, underwent four parasitological and two serological specific tests for confirmation of the diagnosis. Real-time PCR results were positive for all the patients; strains were isolated by hemoculture from four patients, PCR identification of TcI DTU was made for six patients, while parasites were not detected in any of the patients by direct microscopic examination. The results of two serologic tests were positive. All patients were treated with benznidazole, and two patients were additionally given nifurtimox. A 6-year follow-up was possible for six patients. Real-time PCR was negative for these patients after 1 year, while the antibody rates decreased slowly and serology results were negative only after several years (1-5 years). Our findings confirm the occurrence of an outbreak of Chagas infection in members of the same family, with the oral mode of infection being the most likely hypothesis to explain this group of cases. Our results show the successful treatment of patients infected by TcI and the usefulness of real-time PCR for the emergency diagnosis of recent Chagas disease cases and in posttreatment follow-up.

  10. Rhizosphere-bacterial community in Eperua falcata (Caesalpiniaceae) a putative nitrogen-fixing tree from French Guiana rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadas, P J; Fernández-López, M; Ramírez-Saad, H; Toro, N

    2007-02-01

    The rainforest of French Guiana is still largely unaffected by human activity. Various pristine sites like the Paracou Research Station are devoted to study this tropical ecosystem. We used culture-independent techniques, like polymerase chain reaction-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis, and construction of clone libraries of partial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, to analyze the composition of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere of mature trees of Eperua falcata and Dicorynia guianensis, both species within the Caesalpiniaceae family. E. falcata is one of the more abundant pioneer tree species in this ecosystem and so far, no root nodules have ever been found. However, its nitrogen-fixing status is regarded as "uncertain", whereas D. guianensis is clearly considered a non-nitrogen-fixing plant. The rhizospheres of these mature trees contain specific bacterial communities, including several currently found uncultured microorganisms. In these communities, there are putative nitrogen-fixing bacteria specifically associated to each tree: D. guianensis harbors several Rhizobium spp. and E. falcata members of the genera Burkholderia and Bradyrhizobium. In addition, nifH sequences in the rhizosphere of the latter tree were very diverse. Retrieved sequences were related to bacteria belonging to the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria in the E. falcata rhizoplane, whereas only two sequences related to gamma-Proteobacteria were found in D. guianensis. Differences in the bacterial communities and the abundance and diversity of nifH sequences in E. falcata rhizosphere suggest that this tree could obtain nitrogen through a nonnodulating bacterial interaction.

  11. Coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae, in southeastern Brazil: a comparison between populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. da S. Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coordinated feeding tactics used by delphinids are influenced by differences in the distribution of prey species, season, and opportunities for social learning. In the present study, we compared the coordinated feeding behavior of two populations of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in southeastern Brazil, and how these feeding tactics vary seasonality and in the presence of calves. We observed eight types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in the mean number of individuals engaged in them, and between both areas. Feeding tactics used to herd and capture prey were the most frequent and engaged a greater number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fish that gather in larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the occurrence of different prey items, which in turn modified the feeding tactics of the dolphins. In the Ilha Grande Bay we observed that bouts lasted longer and larger groups engaged in the feeding tactics, which may be associated with the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879 (Teleostei: Clupeidae. However, in the Sepetiba Bay, we observed longer feeding bouts and a smaller number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics during autumn-winter. This may be associated with the fact that the most abundant prey species, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, gathers in small schools. Calves were present in 95% of all coordinated feeding tactics that occurred in the Ilha Grande Bay and in approximately 61% of feeding tactics in the Sepetiba Bay, suggesting that these areas are important for social learning. This study provides more information about feeding tactics and improves knowledge of the coordinated behavior of Sotalia guianensis (Van Benéden, 1864.

  12. Introduction : from the British Tertiary into the future - modern perspectives on the British Palaeogene and North Atlantic Igneous provinces.

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Dougal A.; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Troll, Valentin R.

    2009-01-01

    The study of volcanic rocks and igneous centres has long been a classic part of geological research. Despite the lack of active volcanism, the British Isles have been a key centre for the study of igneous rocks ever since ancient lava flows and excavated igneous centres were recognized there in the 18th century (Hutton, 1788). This led to some of the earliest detailed studies of petrology. The starting point for many of these studies was the British Palaeogene Igneous Province (BPIP; formerly...

  13. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  14. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  15. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  16. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners.

  17. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for ΣDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for ΣPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  18. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  19. Impacts of human activity and climate on the hydrology and ecosystem services of forests in the Guianas on the northern rim of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, G.; Wagner, T.; Bovolo, I.; Pereira, R.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical deforestation is one of the main areas of international concern in relation to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and feedbacks between land cover and climate. The Guiana Shield region, including the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, and French Guiana), contains one of the largest remaining continuous areas of tropical forest on the Earth, and is therefore of international importance for climate stability. Its importance to the regional climate of South America is also potentially significant, as a possible conduit for vapour transport between the Caribbean and the continental interior. However, recent studies have confirmed the paucity of reliable hydrometeorological data in the forested interior in the Guianas that could help to improve understanding of these macro-scale links as well as the more local impacts of forest activities. A new hydrological monitoring programme has been established at the Iwokrama International Centre for Rainforest Conservation and Development in the interior of Guyana to provide evidence related to the impacts of forest activities and climate on ecosystem services provided by the forest. These services include water, carbon and nutrient cycling that are essential for maintaining biodiversity and other indicators necessary for long-term sustainability of the forest environment. The Iwokrama Centre aims to test the concept of a truly sustainable forest where conservation, environmental balance and economic use are mutually reinforcing. Iwokrama is uniquely placed for this research, in that it has integral involvement of the indigenous forest communities, and is geographically situated at a transition between mature intact forest and a savannah region that is likely to be sensitive to climate change, and on a larger scale at a transition between distinctive climate types in the coastal region of the Guianas influenced by the Equatorial Trough and the Amazonian interior which experiences a more continental type climate. The

  20. Use of cluster-graphs from spoligotyping data to study genotype similarities and a comparison of three indices to quantify recent tuberculosis transmission among culture positive cases in French Guiana during a eight year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brudey Karine

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background French Guiana has the highest tuberculosis (TB burden among all French departments, with a strong increase in the TB incidence over the last few years. It is now uncertain how best to explain this incidence. The objective of this study was to compare three different methods evaluating the extent of recent TB transmission in French Guiana. Methods We conducted a population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis in French Guiana based on culture-positive TB strains (1996 to 2003, n = 344 to define molecular relatedness between isolates, i.e. potential transmission events. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by comparing two methods: a "cluster-graph" method based on spoligotyping results, and a minimum spanning tree method based on both spoligotyping and variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR. Furthermore, three indices attempting to reflect the extent of recent TB transmission (RTIn, RTIn-1 and TMI were compared. Results Molecular analyses showed a total amount of 120 different spoligotyping patterns and 273 clinical isolates (79.4% that were grouped in 49 clusters. The comparison of spoligotypes from French Guiana with an international spoligotype database (SpolDB4 showed that the majority of isolates belonged to major clades of M. tuberculosis (Haarlem, 22.6%; Latin American-Mediterranean, 23.3%; and T, 32.6%. Indices designed to quantify transmission of tuberculosis gave the following values: RTIn = 0.794, RTIn-1 = 0.651, and TMI = 0.146. Conclusion Our data showed a high number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clusters, suggesting a high level of recent TB transmission, nonetheless an estimation of transmission rate taking into account cluster size and mutation rate of genetic markers showed a low ongoing transmission rate (14.6%. Our results indicate an endemic mode of TB transmission in French Guiana, with both resurgence of old spatially restricted genotypes, and a significant importation of new TB

  1. Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.

  2. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S

    2006-06-01

    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  3. A STAFF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME FOR BRITISH COUNCIL ELT PROJECT COUNTERPARTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; Hall

    1997-01-01

    In British Council-managed ELT projects in Chinese universities,Chinese project counterparts areselected from among the English-language teaching staff of the University.They work alongside aBritish Council-recruited lecturer(BCL)in developing whatever it is the project has been set up tocreate:a syllabus,teaching materials,a course,etc.During the lifetime of the project eachcounterpart is sent for a year’s postgraduate training(typically an MA in applied Linguistics)at aBritish university,the rationale being that the combination of training on the job and in the UK willequip them to take over the running of the project and ensure its long-term sustainability.This paperlooks at the staff development of the counterparts prior to their UK training.

  4. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)

  5. The British gas market; Le marche gazier britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    The tension observed on the British gas market has raised many worries and questions. The last meeting of the French gas association (AFG) aimed at shading light and at supplying some elements of analysis necessary for the correct understanding of the British gas market problem. The volatility of the spot market, its capacity to adjust the supply and demand and the role of long-term contracts in ensuring the security of supplies were explained and debated by a various panel of high level orators: P.W. Wright (Sheffield univ.), J. Harvard (deputy director, Gas Markets, Dept. of trade and industry), S. Caudron (manager business development, Statoil) and P. Vedrenne (managing director, Gaselys). They also examined the trends chosen by the British government to supply corrective measures. (J.S.)

  6. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....... interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks...

  7. Is the British Army medical grading functional assessment tool effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Isobel

    2015-12-01

    Decision Support Aids (DSAs) have been widely used throughout industry and one (known as Table 7) is available to support British Army Medical Officers (MOs) grade soldiers against the Joint Medical Employment Standards. It is unknown how useful this DSA is in practice. An electronic questionnaire was distributed to British Army MOs working within Defence Primary Care facilities enquiring about MOs views on the usefulness of the DSA. Although the response rate was low, informative data were obtained. Between a half and a third of respondents felt that their judgement was affected in the application of the grading system when there were career implications to the grading MOs felt that the DSA allowed subjectivity in the grading. The results of this research suggest that although minor changes to Table 7 may improve service provision, an improvement in training in the application of Table 7 would be of greater benefit to the quality of occupational health service provision in the British Army.

  8. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  9. Classifying airborne radiometry data with Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering: A tool for geological mapping in context of rainforest (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelet, G.; Truffert, C.; Tourlière, B.; Ledru, P.; Perrin, J.

    2006-09-01

    acquired in 1996 across most of French Guiana. Access to the field in this region, almost entirely covered by tropical rainforest, is difficult, and therefore, use of airborne geophysical data is highly suitable to complement ground observations. Despite the vegetal cover, the U, K and Th maps, exhibit to the first order, a fairly good correlation with lithological units recognised by geologists in the field. Consequently, classification of the radiometric data is globally concordant with existing 1:100,000-scale geological map. In addition, using the radioelement contents and relations between classes at different levels of classification, additional relevant information concerning weathering effects, unexpected lithological differences or transfer by erosion, are evidenced.

  10. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  11. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  12. REVISITING COLONIAL BEHAVIOUR IN FRENCH ALGERIA AND BRITISH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKACEM BELMEKKI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The British and the French differed in both the approach and method adopted in governing their overseas subjects during their colonial enterprise in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This had a tremendous impact on the psyche of the colonized and was a determinant factor in shaping the nature of the relationship between the colonizers and colonized before and after independence. Therefore, this paper seeks to juxtapose the colonial behaviour of two colonial powers, French and British, in two major colonies, Algeria and India.

  13. Expanding School Choice through Open Enrolment: Lessons from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Friesen; Benjamin Cerf Harris; Simon Woodcock

    2015-01-01

    Is expanding the scope for parents to choose among competing schools an effective policy lever for improving the quality of education? What lessons can we take from British Columbia’s experience with greater school choice? In 2002, British Columbia implemented a new policy that makes it easier for parents to opt out of their neighbourhood school. Along with the province’s rich administrative and test score data, the introduction of this “open enrolment” policy provides a rare opportunity to e...

  14. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  15. Britannia still rules the waves. Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes to British English and American English

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Hilde Fossan

    2015-01-01

    This MA thesis investigates Norwegian teachers' and students' attitudes toward British English and American English. To the best of my knowledge no previous language studies have been conducted on both of these groups in Norway. British English had traditionally been the variety taught at European schools (Trudgill & Hannah 2008). On the other hand, Norwegians are arguably exposed to more American English than British English in their daily lives. The results show that British English still h...

  16. An Evaluation of Structured Abstracts in Journals Published by the British Psychological Society

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, James; Benjamin, Michele

    1998-01-01

    Background. In 1997 four journals published by the British Psychological Society - the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, the British Journal of Educational Psychology, the British Journal of Health Psychology, and Legal and Criminological Psychology - began publishing structured abstracts. Aims. The aim of the studies reported here was to assess the effectiveness of these structured abstracts by comparing them with original versions written in a traditional, unstructured, format. Meth...

  17. The origins of formal education in sub-Saharan Africa: was British rule more benign?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 194

  18. Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.

    2012-01-01

    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until 194

  19. Beetles that live with ants (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pseudomorphini): A remarkable new genus and species from Guyane (French Guiana), Guyanemorpha spectabilis gen. n., sp. n.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    Among the extensive collections currently being made in Guyane (French Guiana), adults of a large and colorful species of pseudomorphine were encountered. The adults present, for the first time in the Western Hemisphere, elytra with a marked color pattern, and in addition a size considerably beyond that of the rest of the members of all other known genera in the Western Hemisphere. Both of these attributes, however, are well known in the Australian pseudomorphine fauna. This new species is described and illustrated and a revised key to the Western Hemisphere genera is included. The type locality of Guyanemorpha spectabilis gen. n., sp. n. is Guyane,Risquetout, PK20, 4.916°N, 52.516°W, 12m altitude.

  20. Guiana francesa, um território europeu e caribenho em via de “sul-americanização” ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Ganger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos efeitos do fenômeno de globalização que afeta atualmente o mundo é ele que pode condenar, a curto ou longo prazo, os países isolados e afastados dos grandes eixos de intercâmbios econômicos, provocando assim recomposições territoriais como as integrações continentais, do tipo ALCAN, União Européia ou Mercosul.Um caso interessante é o da Guiana francesa, território francês – e portanto parte da União européia- encravado na América do sul, entre países com os quais sempre teve poucos laç...

  1. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailson-Brito, J; Dorneles, P R; Azevedo-Silva, C E; Azevedo, A F; Vidal, L G; Zanelatto, R C; Lozinski, C P C; Azeredo, A; Fragoso, A B L; Cunha, H A; Torres, J P M; Malm, O

    2010-05-01

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranaguá Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SigmaDDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SigmaPCB; and from dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. PMID:19932538

  2. A Study of Linguistic Humor Translation of British Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟瑾

    2015-01-01

    The translatability of humor is gradually accepted and linguistic humor based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages is considered to be the most difficult to translate. This paper is to study the linguistic humor translation of British sitcoms in the light of Skopos theory and explore practical ways of E-C translation of linguistic hu⁃mor.

  3. The British Library Initiatives for Access Seminar: Digital Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the British Library's Initiatives for Access program which uses digital imaging. Highlights include digitization of microfilm, the electronic "Beowulf", electronic photographic viewing system, computer software that uses neural networks and fuzzy matching to provide links to search terms, and international projects. (LRW)

  4. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  5. Oversea Education and British Colonial Education 1929-63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on an early twentieth century journal called "Oversea Education," designed to increase communication among British colonies, particularly for education, based on William Ormsby Gore's travels among the colonies. Describes Frank Ward's editorial work that championed the rights of colonial subjects to have better educational policy. (KDR)

  6. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  7. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  8. Youth, Heroin, Crack: A Review of Recent British Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…

  9. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  10. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  11. Differences Between British and Americans’ Cultures in Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍巍; 戴立黎

    2008-01-01

    <正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.

  12. Hobby Farms and the Protection of Farmland in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land protection near the urban-rural fringe is a goal of many jurisdictions, and none more so than British Columbia, Canada, which uses a provincial-wide zoning scheme to prevent subdivisions and non-agricultural uses of the land. A preferential tax regulation scheme for farmers is also

  13. The Pricing of British Journals for the North American Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1986-01-01

    Presents an informal report of seminar entitled "Learned Journals: The Problem of Pricing and Buying Round," held in London on March 22, 1985, in attempt to answer charges of discriminatory pricing. Price differential of British scholarly journals, costs, marketing, and role of subscription agent are discussed. Seven sources are given. (EJS)

  14. Labelling And Alienation In A British Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L.

    1974-01-01

    The article reports the construction and testing of a short scale of alienation. The scale is used in a British secondary school to explore associations between the criterion measure and children's self concept of academic ability, self esteem, extraversion, and placement in high/low ability groupings. (Editor)

  15. The Historical Story of Fighting British Invadersat Zong Hill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Around the beginning of the 17th century, the British established in India the supreme headquarters of itsaggression in the east-the East IndiaCompany. In the late 18th century, theybegan their aggression by means of"doing missionary work", "traveling forpleasure", and "seeking trade relations",and started invading Tibet.

  16. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part I: India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Colonial education has been controversial and widely divergent interpretations have been offered from contrasting ideological perspectives. British imperial education policy was highly contended during the colonial era and remains a contentious issue amongst many contemporary historians and a critical review of the historiography of the subject is…

  17. Famous Chinese Porcelain and British Queen’s Wedding Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 China Jingdezhen International Ceramics Fair in October drew a large crowd of visitors from around the world to the capital of porcelain to admire the beautiful displays from various countries.Among them,a 12-member British delegation from the Bath & North East Somerset Council headed by Councilor Francine Haeberling had an additional special reason for their visit.

  18. Organising for Continuing Vocational Education in British Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A study of continuing vocational education in British universities found a variety of organizational approaches and assumptions that continuing education should be mainstreamed and self-financing. Essential elements include leader commitment, specialized units, clear academic identity, and continuous reflective review. (SK)

  19. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  20. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  1. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous sign

  2. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F H

    1981-10-01

    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  4. [British Columbia Hydro] annual report 1997--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third largest electric utility in Canada, B.C. Hydro services over 1.3 million customers in a area containing over 92 per cent of British Columbia's population. B.C. Hydro's mission is to generate, transmit and distribute electricity. This annual report covers the business and financial performance of B.C. Hydro, and financial statistics

  5. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial data and…

  6. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  7. Essays on the economics of British Columbian timber policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niquidet, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the process of institutional change in British Columbia’s timber sector. It is composed of a series of essays which highlight the underlying political and economic factors that have shaped past and current reforms. Taking center stage in the analysis, are the resource rents avai

  8. Are the British Really Bad at Learning Foreign Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, James; Meara, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Examined the foreign-language-learning abilities of 14- to 15-year olds in Britain, Germany, and Greece. Comparison of results from tests of students' foreign vocabulary knowledge indicated that British students had only one-third to one-half of the foreign language vocabulary knowledge of Greek and German students. They also spent less time…

  9. The Cuts in British Higher Education: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ivan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discussed are (1) how public sector higher education poses threats and opportunities for sociology; (2) the effects of budget cuts on various British universities; (3) the retention of courses in a public sector college in spite of the budget cuts; and (4) problems and potentials of strategies for dealing with retrenchment. (RM)

  10. Individual risk. A compilation of recent British data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of data is presented on individual risk obtained from recent British population and mortality statistics. Risk data presented include: risk of death, as a function of age, due to several important natural causes and due to accidents and violence; risk of death as a function of location of accident; and risk of death from various accidental causes. (author)

  11. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Chad O.

    2012-01-01

    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  12. The Application of 'British Contextualism' to Foreign Language Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Annamaria

    1981-01-01

    Describes linguistic model known as British Contextualism in the Federal Republic of Germany as a basis for the practical language component in second language teacher training programs. Concept goes beyond orthodox structuralism by adding a level of context. (Author/BK)

  13. Soldier Education in the British Army, 1920-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…

  14. Tweets as a news source in British and Dutch dailies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Marcel; Graham, Todd

    2011-01-01

    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for news gathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. This paper investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elec

  15. Nieuws uit het westen : meerouderschap en draagmoederschap in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 is in de Canadese provincie British Columbia nieuwe familierechtwetgeving in werking getreden: de Family Law Act, met daarin een regeling voor draagmoederschap, meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Gezien de discussie in Nederland over deze onderwerpen en de instelling van de Staatscommissie He

  16. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  17. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so t

  18. Mission Groups and the New Politics of British Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…

  19. Modernised Learning: An Emerging Lifelong Agenda by British Trade Unions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Keith P.

    2001-01-01

    British trade unions' engagement in workplace learning is currently shaped by discourses of globalization and the learning society. Unions' workplace learning representatives appear more focused on uncritical acceptance of learning for employability and less on learning for active citizenship and workplace democracy. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  20. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  1. Cryptic diversity in the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group (Amphibia, Anura) with the description of a new species from the eastern Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Zeidler, Lauren; Courtois, Elodie A; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Souza, Sergio Marques; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    We used molecular and morphological data to investigate the hidden diversity within the Hypsiboas semilineatus species group, and more specifically within H. geographicus, an allegedly widespread species in northern South America. As a result, the identity of H. geographicus was clarified, several candidate species were detected and one of them, from the eastern Guiana Shield, is described herein as a preliminary step to resolve the taxonomy of the group. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is mainly distinguished from closely-related species by an acuminate snout in lateral view, well-developed webbing between fingers and toes, and unspotted carmine/crimson colouration on the concealed surfaces of legs, feet and hands in life. The tadpole of the new species is described and is characterized by a large A-2 gap, a mostly single row of large marginal papillae, and a dark brown to black colouration. We also describe the advertisement call of the new species, which is defined as a soft call consisting of short clusters of 2-3 chuckles with a dominant frequency ranging between 1.11-1.19 kHz. Hypsiboas diabolicus sp. nov. is currently known only from the eastern Guiana Shield, and is probably endemic to that region. The new species' range overlaps broadly with another candidate species referred to as H. aff. semilineatus 1. Our preliminary results stress out a high cryptic diversity in that species group and the need for a formal redescription of Hypsiboas geographicus based on more topotypic material than what is currently available  to properly sort out the taxonomic status of several lineages in that clade. PMID:27394251

  2. Sources and transfers of particulate organic matter in a tropical reservoir (Petit Saut, French Guiana): a multi-tracers analysis using δ13C, C/N ratio and pigments

    OpenAIRE

    De Wit, R.; Billy, I.; Guérin, F.; Abril, G.; De Junet, A.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon cycling and organic matter transfers in the tropical Sinnamary river system (French Guiana), including a mid-stream reservoir (Petit Saut) and its estuary on the Atlantic coast, were studied during the dry season by analyzing the organic carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C-OC), C/N ratios and pigments contents of suspended matter, sediments, sediments traps and epiphytic and epilithic biofilms. In the River upstream as well as in surface sediments at the entrance of the reservoir and at...

  3. Sources and transfers of particulate organic matter in a tropical reservoir (Petit Saut, French Guiana): a multi-tracers analysis using δ13C, C/N ratio and pigments

    OpenAIRE

    De Junet, A.; Abril, G.; Guérin, F.; Billy, I.; De Wit, R.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon cycling and organic matter transfers in the tropical Sinnamary river system (French Guiana), including a mid-stream reservoir (Petit Saut) and its estuary on the Atlantic coast, were studied during the dry season by analyzing the organic carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C-OC), C/N ratios and pigments contents of suspended matter, sediments, sediments traps and epiphytic and epilithic biofilms. In the River upstream as well as in surface sediments at the entrance of th...

  4. Notes on Guiana Sapotaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyma, P.J.

    1936-01-01

    Notwithstanding the large amount of work spent by several botanists on this family, taxonomy does not appear very satisfactory, and a general agreement on generic limits has not yet been reached. The result has been a perplexing number of generic and sectional names. The present author apologizes fo

  5. Notes on Guiana Droseraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummer-Dinger, C.H.

    1955-01-01

    A study of the Suriname species of the genus Drosera revealed the existence of a few problems and led to some new points of view with regard to the taxonomy of the tropical American species of this genus. A discussion of these problems (and an exposition of my views) including the description of a n

  6. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  7. High seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood donors in Guyana and molecular and phylogenetic analysis of new strains in the Guyana shelf (Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliquen, Jean-François; Hardy, Lynette; Lavergne, Anne; Kafiludine, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2004-05-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 in blood donors in Guyana has never been estimated. We evaluated the prevalence of these viruses in blood donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting and showed a prevalence of HTLV-1 of 1.3%; no HTLV-2 was detected. Female donors had a much higher HTLV-1 seroprevalence (3.6%) than male donors (0.7%). HTLV-1-seropositive donors tended to be slightly older than the average age for the total pool of donors. We also investigated the phylogenetic and molecular characteristics of HTLV-1 strains in Guyana and compared them with those identified in Suriname and French Guiana. Analysis of portions of the env and long terminal repeat nucleotide sequences showed that all the strains in Guyana and Suriname, like those in French Guiana, belonged to the transcontinental group of cosmopolitan subtype A. The similarities were greater between strains from Suriname and Guyana than between strains from Suriname and Guyana and those from French Guiana. Nevertheless, our results confirm that the HTLV-1 strains in all three countries have a common African origin.

  8. History of British infrared astronomy since the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, the author describes the development of British infrared astronomy, from its beginnings around 1960 to the present time. The paper outlines the various techniques available and the different wavelength ranges which can be covered by these techniques e.g. balloons, mountain-based telescopes, the AAT in Australia, the 60-inch flux-collector on Tenerife, and the UKIRT telescope on Hawaii, and finally the IRAS satellite. The main groups involved in the British infrared work are UCL, Imperial College, and QMC, together with cooperative programmes with the Netherlands and the USA. The scientific results which have been obtained with these installations include studies of the relict radiation, HII regions, thermal radiation from dust and grains, and a dust shell around the star Vega, to mention but a few, interferometry, photometry and spectroscopy are also discussed, as in the long awaited development of infrared detector arrays. (UK)

  9. British Gas HICOM methanation process for SNG production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensell, R.L.; Stroud, H.J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The British Gas HICOM methanation process (formerly the HCM process) is an efficient, cost-effective way to make SNG from coal-derived gases. Using it with the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier, for example, can yield coal-to-SNG thermal efficiencies of about 70%. In the HICOM process, a methane-rich gas is made directly from the purified gasifier product gas by reaction with steam over a catalyst; the temperature rise is controlled by hot-gas recycling and split-stream operation. The main attributes of this route are that it eliminates the CO-shift stage, has a high thermal efficiency, requires no selective sulfur removal system, minimizes waste liquor treatment, and has a low capital cost.

  10. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs.

  11. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  12. Radical Neoliberalism in British Columbia: Remaking Rural Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Young

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that rural regions of British Columbia, Canada, are currently the subject of a radical political-economic experiment dismantling traditional Fordist and Keynesian approaches to economic development and replacing them with neoliberal strategies. This experiment targets both corporate resource economies and local or community-based economies. The paper argues that current reforms aim to enhance flexibility in major resource sectors (particularly in forestry by "liberating" corporate actors from traditional obligations to environment, labour, and communities. This strategy is buttressed by concurrent reforms to community development policies to promote "entrepreneurial" forms of development that (it is assumed can be achieved independently of the dominant resource economy. Using field research from several case communities in coastal British Columbia, the paper argues that these developments are having a strong impact on traditional economic structures and practices, as neoliberal reforms seek to disaggregate corporate and community-level economies.

  13. Britishness, asylum-seekers and the northern working class: 1851.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchem, John

    2002-01-01

    The arrival of a small group of Polish-Hungarian refugees in Liverpool in 1851 reveals a lot about contemporary political views in the United Kingdom. The refugees were members of General Wysocki's Polish legion, which had fought Russia and Austria during the Hungarian revolution in 1848-49. While British liberals had hailed the nationalist cause from a distance, they were made uneasy by the presence of the refugee republicans with radical ideas. For that reason, British liberals worked with the government to try to send the Hungarian refugees to the United States. On the other hand, tradesmen and artisans in Liverpool - who were drawn to the social democratic ideas of liberty expressed by the revolutionaries of 1848 - organized a successful campaign to grant the refugees asylum.

  14. British Society for Immunology: vaccines and mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M E

    2001-03-01

    The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384

  15. Social Characteristics of British Businessmen, c1800-1960

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a first full-scale investigation of social characteristics of 381 leading British businessmen included in Dictionary of Scottish Business Biography through the creation of a systematic database. Two sets of characteristics are explored. One relates to personal circumstances of the businessman such as family tradition, place of birth and of business, social origins, formal education, apprenticeship, and occupational career; the other non-business aspects such as wealth and public...

  16. The British 'Personal Capitalism': Some Evidence on Ownership and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Woon Kim

    1998-01-01

    By analysing the ownership and control structures of 23 Scottish textile companies of national importance this article suggests some hard evidence on the extent to )holm family influence did persist, well into the second half of the twentieth century, in both ownership and control in the British economy. The majority of the companies remained priwite• even in the companies which went public, characteristics of the private company status continued to be dominant Within these organisational f...

  17. British Policies regarding the European Union's emerging defense dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Kevin Karl.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the evolution and prospects of post-1945 British policies regarding multinational European security institutions, particularly the European Union (EU), the Western European Union (WEU), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Specifically, this thesis analyses the factors behind the Blair government's 1998 proposal to strengthen the European pillar of NATO and endow the EU with a defense dimension. This policy offers certain advantages for Britai...

  18. The perilous state of seagrass in the British Isles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    Seagrass ecosystems face widespread threat from reduced water quality, coastal development and poor land use. In recent decades, their distribution has declined rapidly, and in the British Isles, this loss is thought to have been extensive. Given increasing knowledge of how these ecosystems support fisheries production, the understanding of their potential rapid loss, and the difficulty in restoring them, it is vital we develop an understanding of the risks they are under, so that management actions can be developed accordingly. Developing an understanding of their environmental status and condition is therefore critical to their long-term management. This study provided, to our knowledge, the first examination of the environmental health of seagrass meadows around the British Isles. This study used a bioindicator approach and involved collecting data on seagrass density and morphology alongside analysis of leaf biochemistry. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first strong quantitative evidence that seagrass meadows of the British Isles are mostly in poor condition in comparison with global averages, with tissue nitrogen levels 75% higher than global values. Such poor status places their long-term resilience in doubt. Elemental nutrient concentrations and morphological change suggest conditions of excess nitrogen and probable low light, placing many of the meadows sampled in a perilous state, although others, situated away from human populations were perceived to be healthy. Although some sites were of a high environmental health, all sites were considered at risk from anthropogenic impacts, particularly poor water quality and boating-based disturbances. The findings of this study provide a warning of the need to take action, with respect to water quality and disturbance, to prevent the further loss and degradation of these systems across the British Isles. PMID:26909188

  19. How British Columbia school district superintendents manage data

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Gerald Edward

    2009-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Education has been collecting demographic and academic performance information on every student in grades Kindergarten-12 since 1992. The amount of data held by the Ministry and now available for use is considerable: between 50 and 500 data elements have been collected from each of more than 500,000 students annually for the last 15 years. Most school districts also collect additional data on the performance of their students. School District Superintendents, ...

  20. Civilising offensives and ambivalence : the case of British Gypsies

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This paper utilises Norbert Elias’s theory of the civilizing process to examine British society’s response to Gypsies and explore the perception of this group as in ‘need of corrective treatment’. It demonstrates how state policies towards Gypsies are presented as improving their welfare but are in fact characterised by ambivalence. It is argued that mechanisms employed with the expressed goal of ‘civilising’ behaviour actually exhibitdecivilising elements in terms of their effect upon Gyps...

  1. The blended accountability regime of British Columbia land trusts

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, John Gardner

    2015-01-01

    Scholars maintain that public service activities of non-profit organizations require carefully constructed accountability mechanisms to ensure the public interest is upheld. I interviewed decision makers at public-service-oriented non-profit land trusts in British Columbia, and examined the constitutions and missions of these organizations, to investigate accountability experiences and attitudes in practice; I compared this practical perspective with accountability theory in the literature on...

  2. James Mill's 'History of British India' in its intellectual context

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeng-Guo

    2000-01-01

    This thesis argues that James Mill's History of British India is, on the one hand, intellectually linked to the Scottish Enlightenment, while, on the other hand, moves beyond that intellectual tradition in the post-French Revolution age. This thesis makes three central claims. First, it argues that in reacting to Montesqueiu's idea of oriental society, the contributors to the Scottish Enlightenment used ideas of moral philosophy, philosophical history and political economy in o...

  3. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  4. British perceptions of the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1908

    OpenAIRE

    Odams, H. J. R. (Helen Jean Rachel)

    1996-01-01

    The title of this thesis is 'British Perceptions of the Ottoman Empire (1876-1908). The thesis explores the 'cultural dimension1 of relations between the Ottoman Empire and Britain in this period, involving an examination of ideas about and representations of Ottoman society and its peoples. The overall aim is to stress the importance of these representations in in influencing and affecting relations between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. Nineteenth-century writings about the...

  5. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Jean

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  6. Management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Kader, MG; Luther, R

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates and reports on the management accounting practices in the British food and drinks industry. Design/methodology/approach – The data is generated by a large-scale postal questionnaire which was informed by preliminary interviews. Further interviews were carried out to aid interpretation of the responses. Descriptive statistics on the importance and frequency of use of individual practices provide the basis for discussion. Findings – Direct costing is wi...

  7. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  8. Screening of newborn infants for galactosemia in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Lorne T.; Norman, Margaret G.; Applegarth, Derek A.; Hardwick, David F.

    1985-01-01

    With simple microbiologic and fluorescent tests, we detected two cases of classic galactosemia, confirmed by specific enzyme assays, in the first 25 000 newborn infants in British Columbia screened for this disorder. The results were equivocally abnormal for another 31 infants, and a second blood sample was requested from each, either for repeat screening or for enzyme assays. The two infants with galactosemia were in hospital with an undiagnosed acute illness and had only a trace of nongluco...

  9. Glorification of violence in British films depicting football hooliganism

    OpenAIRE

    Żyśko, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I tried to demonstrate that the British films depicting football hooliganism could be viewed as glorifying violence. A considerably great number of scenes and a great amount of time devoted to the presentation of violence, together with the unpunished, painless and heroic aspects of such presentations are just one side of the glorifying coin. The other side is occupied with the deeper meaning of particular scenes or the general overtones of the films which seem to develop a tend...

  10. Play now, pay later: legalized internet gambling in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Sihota, Bharminder Singh

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the provincial government’s decision to expand online gambling services. In particular, the research identifies ways to decrease the problem gambling prevalence rate in British Columbia. Currently, BC has one of the highest problem gambling prevalence rates in Canada. With the increase in online gambling options, and a rise in the weekly deposit limit, the problem gambling prevalence rate could worsen. Using a case study analysis, this capstone looks at the best practices ...

  11. British Literature in Portuguese Literary Education during the Estado Novo

    OpenAIRE

    Gombár, Zsófia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the position of British literature versus national literature in literary education during the Estado Novo through the analysis of literature textbooks published at the time. The scope of the investigation, however, also includes a limited number of textbooks which may not have been officially authorised as a livro único (single textbook), but were used by schoolteachers in Salazar’s Portugal. Based on the corpus of these books, it seems that the vast majori...

  12. Very recent African immigrants and unemployment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshni, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    Despite the provincial and federal governments focus on improving employment services through the Canada-British Columbia Immigration agreement, the unemployment rate among very recent African immigrants continues to remain the highest among other ethnic groups in Canada (StatCan, 2010). As such, this study looks into the various barriers faced by very recent African immigrants in finding employment in B.C., and addresses the problem through interviews with settlement agencies and a governmen...

  13. 'Hysteria', 'functional' or 'psychogenic'? A survey of British neurologists' preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, C J; Trimble, M R

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic preferences of British neurologists for patients who lack a physical explanation for their symptoms were assessed by means of a postal questionnaire. Analysis of 168 completed replies showed 'functional', 'psychogenic' and 'hysteria' to be the most popular terms in use. The number of different terms a clinician would use rose in line with the volume of such patients they encountered, but was unrelated to clinician factors such as the extent of their clinical experience in psych...

  14. INNOVATION, TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE AND THE BRITISH AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Ang; Rajabrata Banerjee; Madsen, Jakob B.

    2010-01-01

    Theory, historiography and empirical evidence suggest that agriculture is the key to economic development. This paper examines the extent to which productivity advances in British agriculture in the period 1620-1850 were driven by technological progress. Measuring technology by patents and new book titles on agricultural methods, the results indicate that technological progress has played a significant part in productivity advances. Furthermore, the results show that research effort has perma...

  15. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Corder, K.; van Sluijs, E M F; Steele, R. M.; Stephen, A M; Dunn, V.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Griffin, S. J.; Ekelund, U.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual b...

  16. ENCYCLOPEDIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY TYPE "THE BRITISH QUEEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  17. Perceptual categorization of handling handshapes in British Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Sehyr, Z. S.; Cormier, K.

    2015-01-01

    Sign languages like British Sign Language (BSL) include a type of partially lexicalized construction which depicts handling or manipulation of objects. Object sizes gradiently vary, yet it is unclear if handling handshapes depict object handling in a categorical or gradient manner. The study examines whether deaf BSL signers perceive handling handshapes continuously or categorically, compared with hearing non-signers, and how sign language experience affects perception of handshapes in these ...

  18. Restorative justice in British Columbia's youth probation service

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Christine Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has brought with it new youth criminal justice legislation: the Youth Criminal Justice Act. This federal legislation created more options for practitioners (e.g., police, courts and probation) but, more importantly, a much more definitive stance on the use of restorative justice measures when dealing with youth in conflict with the law. This paper examines the ways in which youth probation and restorative justice are conceptualized and put into practice by the British Columb...

  19. Nutrition claims in British women's magazines from 1940 to 1955

    OpenAIRE

    Burridge, Joseph David; Barker, Margo

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study examined dietary messages conveyed in articles and advertising in two popular British women's magazines, Woman and Home and Woman's Own, between 1940 and 1954. Methods A qualitative analysis of written content was performed, focusing on regularities evident in content, and addressing the construction of the role of women in relation to food provision, as well as assertions for nutritional health. The setting comprised a desk-based study. The study sample encompass...

  20. Rebel alliances: the means and ends of contemporary British anarchisms

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    This thesis examines, classifies and evaluates the tactics and organisational methods of British and Irish anarchist groups, which operated in the period 1984-1999 (although reference is made to groupings and events outside of this period). The thesis explains how class struggle anarchism, which was a minority trend even within the libertarian milieu, has developed into a significant and lively (anti-)political movement. This thesis examines recent groups through their own publications and th...

  1. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, H.; Shafi, S; Booy, R; Bashir, H El; K Ali; Zambon, MC; Memish, ZA; Ellis, J; Coen, PG; Haworth, E

    2011-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care test...

  2. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims

    OpenAIRE

    Booy, R; K Ali; El Bashir, H; MC Zambon; Ellis, J; Memish ZA; PG Coen; Haworth, E; Shafi, S; Rashid, H.

    2008-01-01

    Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care test...

  3. Tweeting Tsunami: Early Warning Networks in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oldring, Amanda Olivia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Influential Twitter users can enhance disaster warning by diffusing risk awareness through networks. While Twitter networks are frequently active during disaster warning, little work in social network analysis has been applied to the Pacific Northwest Coast, encapsulating British Columbia in Canada, and Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California in the United States. This region is vulnerable to tsunamis, and Twitter’s speed, reach, and volume could enhance early warning. This thesis locates ...

  4. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 5th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Sixsmith, Andrew; Adams, Raymond G.; Sinden, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This fifth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2006 census and supplemental sources. Like the first four editions of the Fact Book, this edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; the mari...

  5. Fact book on aging in British Columbia, 4th Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Wister, Andrew V; Gutman, Gloria M.; Adams, Raymond G.; Chou, Pak Hei Benedito

    2006-01-01

    This fourth edition of the Fact Book updates the figures with data from the 2001 census and supplemental sources. Like the first three editions of the Fact Book, the fourth edition references all source documents and presents data primarily in numeric tabular form. Topics covered in this document are listed in the Table of Contents and include: the size and historical rate of growth of the elderly population of British Columbia; trends in life expectancy, mortality rates and causes of death; ...

  6. Exploring social and cultural diversity within 'Black British Jazz' audiences

    OpenAIRE

    Wilks, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a recent study which explores the social, economic and cultural characteristics of audiences for performances by black British jazz musicians. It draws on Bourdieu’s theoretical concept of cultural capital, which links social class and educational qualification level to cultural consumption, as well as on Hall’s exploration of ‘new ethnicities’, demonstrating how the two theories are interrelated. The study uses a mixed method approach of observation, quest...

  7. Immigration Status and Victimization: Evidence from the British Crime Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Papadopoulos

    2013-01-01

    This study, using data from the British Crime Survey (BCS), examines the microrelationship between immigration and victimization. We first find that, although immigrants are more likely to suffer property crimes than natives, this is well explained by the fact that immigrants exhibit demographic characteristics associated with higher victimization. Contrary to the above, immigrants are of lower risk of violent victimization. As violence is an expressive type of crime, where interactions betwe...

  8. Social media guidance for British Geological Survey staff

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Noakes, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Social media guidance for British Geological Survey staff Social media is a great way to communicate BGS science, activities, achievements and services. This guidance is for BGS staff using social media as a way to communicate BGS science and technology. It is based on the Social Media Guidance for Civil Servants (Cabinet Office, 2012) the NERC Electronic Communications Policy (NERC, 2013) and the NERC Code of Conduct. This guidance was first published in Broadcasting the science sto...

  9. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee.

  10. Resource variation and the structure of British bird communities

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, Bradford C.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the foraging microhabitats of British birds are reanalyzed with the aim of understanding how fluctuations in resource abundance affect niche relationships and community structure. At Marley Wood, overlap in the foraging sites of resident bird species increased during the late spring and summer and decreased during the fall and winter. Among bird species coexisting in the pine forests at Thetford Chase, spatial overlap and spatial niche widths were positively correlated with food abund...

  11. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  12. Negotiating Chinese modernity: British imperialism and the late Qing reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dongqing; 王冬青

    2013-01-01

     This thesis offers a critical analysis of the intellectual and institutional transformations in late Qing China. The Western invasion of China in the second half of the nineteenth century contributed to the making of modern China. Focusing on the late Qing reforms in the fields of law, public rituals, education, and economy, this thesis investigates China’s efforts and strategies to negotiate with British imperialism in its search for modernity. Situating the late Qing reforms in a semi...

  13. Dance in the British South Asian diaspora: redefining classicism

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez y Royo, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses South Asian dance forms and genres in Britain, one of the major locations of the South Asian diaspora. It addresses issues of "classicism," "neoclassicism" and "contemporaneity" in South Asian dancing, particularly important as in the British context availability of public funding depends on the artists demonstrating an innovative engagement with their own practice. The author focuses, as a specific case study, on the work, Moham, choreographed and danced as a solo by bha...

  14. Ecological Niche Modeling of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Sunny; Klinkenberg, Brian; Bartlett, Karen; Fyfe, Murray

    2009-01-01

    Background Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 1999, causing human and animal illness. Environmental sampling for C. gattii in southwestern BC has isolated the fungal organism from native vegetation, soil, air, and water. Objectives Our aim was to help public health officials in BC delineate where C. gattii is currently established and forecast areas that could support C. gattii in the future. We also examined the utility of ecological niche mode...

  15. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    ZAHN, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  16. The Evolution of British Monetarism: 1968-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Aled Davies

    2012-01-01

    How far were monetary targets imposed on the post-1974 Labour Government by international and domestic financial markets enthused with the doctrines of ‘monetarism’? The following paper attempts to answer this question by demonstrating the complex and contingent nature of the ascent of British ‘monetarism’ after 1968. It describes the post-devaluation valorisation of the ‘money supply’ which led investors to realign their expectations with the behaviour of the monetary aggregates. The collaps...

  17. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  18. Trust and British Gas partner in EPC scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    In late August last year the St George's Healthcare NHS Trust in south-west London signed what the Trust's Estates and Facilities team described as 'a historic partnership' with British Gas for a £12 m Energy Performance Contract energy reduction scheme--via which the energy company has guaranteed to deliver £1.1 m in annual savings over the next 15 years. The agreement will see British Gas replace four 35-year-old gas-powered steam boilers and an ageing CHP plant in the boiler house at the Trust's main acute facility, the StGeorge's Hospital in Tooting, and upgrade some of the associated infrastructure. British Gas will also maintain the new plant to ensure that the projected savings are achieved while the Trust owns the new assets. The Trust should gain financially--via lower energy costs and carbon emissions, while estates personnel will be better able to complete the many other estate maintenance issues that would otherwise be contracted out at one of London's biggest acute hospitals. PMID:26268017

  19. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  20. The rationality and reliability of expectations reported by British households: micro evidence from the British household panel survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, James; Martin R. Weale

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy of individuals' expectations of their financial circumstances, as reported in the British Household Panel Survey, as predictors of outcomes and identifies what factors influence their reliability. As the data are qualitative bivariate ordered probit models, appropriately identified, are estimated to draw out the differential effect of information on expectations and realisations. Rationality is then tested and we seek to explain deviations of realisations from...

  1. Phenotypic plasticity in fish life-history traits in two neotropical reservoirs: Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana and Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard de Mérona

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species are known for their large phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental characteristics. Plasticity allows species to increase their fitness in a given environment. Here we examined the life-history response of fish species after an abrupt change in their environment caused by the damming of rivers. Two reservoirs of different age, both situated on the Guiana Shield, were investigated: the young Petit-Saut Reservoir in French Guiana (14 years and the much older Brokopondo Reservoir in Suriname (44 years. Six life-history traits in 14 fish species were studied and compared to their value in the Sinnamary River prior to the completion of Petit-Saut Reservoir. The traits analyzed were maximum length, absolute and relative length at first maturation, proportion of mature oocytes in ripe gonad, batch fecundity and mean size of mature oocytes. The results revealed a general increase of reproductive effort. All species showed a decrease in maximum length. Compared to the values observed before the dam constructions, eight species had larger oocytes and three species showed an increased batch fecundity. These observed changes suggest a trend towards a pioneer strategy. The changes observed in Petit-Saut Reservoir also seemed to apply to the 30 years older Brokopondo Reservoir suggesting that these reservoirs remain in a state of immaturity for a long time.Peixes são conhecidos pela grande plasticidade fenotípica com que respondem às características do meio, o que lhes permite aumentar as chances de sucesso frente a variações ambientais. No presente trabalho foram examinadas as respostas biológicas de teleósteos após uma abrupta modificação no ambiente provocada pelo represamento dos rios. Dois reservatórios de diferentes idades, situados no norte da América do Sul, foram investigados: um mais jovem (14 anos, Petit-Saut, na Guiana Francesa, e outro mais antigo (44 anos, Brokopondo, no Suriname. Em 14

  2. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Rodrigue

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g. To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination.

  3. Canopy Height Estimation in French Guiana with LiDAR ICESat/GLAS Data Using Principal Component Analysis and Random Forest Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fayad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimating forest canopy height from large-footprint satellite LiDAR waveforms is challenging given the complex interaction between LiDAR waveforms, terrain, and vegetation, especially in dense tropical and equatorial forests. In this study, canopy height in French Guiana was estimated using multiple linear regression models and the Random Forest technique (RF. This analysis was either based on LiDAR waveform metrics extracted from the GLAS (Geoscience Laser Altimeter System spaceborne LiDAR data and terrain information derived from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM (Digital Elevation Model or on Principal Component Analysis (PCA of GLAS waveforms. Results show that the best statistical model for estimating forest height based on waveform metrics and digital elevation data is a linear regression of waveform extent, trailing edge extent, and terrain index (RMSE of 3.7 m. For the PCA based models, better canopy height estimation results were observed using a regression model that incorporated both the first 13 principal components (PCs and the waveform extent (RMSE = 3.8 m. Random Forest regressions revealed that the best configuration for canopy height estimation used all the following metrics: waveform extent, leading edge, trailing edge, and terrain index (RMSE = 3.4 m. Waveform extent was the variable that best explained canopy height, with an importance factor almost three times higher than those for the other three metrics (leading edge, trailing edge, and terrain index. Furthermore, the Random Forest regression incorporating the first 13 PCs and the waveform extent had a slightly-improved canopy height estimation in comparison to the linear model, with an RMSE of 3.6 m. In conclusion, multiple linear regressions and RF regressions provided canopy height estimations with similar precision using either LiDAR metrics or PCs. However, a regression model (linear regression or RF based on the PCA of waveform samples with waveform

  4. High performance of histidine-rich protein 2 based rapid diagnostic tests in French Guiana are explained by the absence of pfhrp2 gene deletion in P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Trouvay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Care for malaria patients in endemic areas has been improved through the increasing use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs. Most RDTs target the histidine-rich protein-2 antigen (PfHRP2 to detect P. falciparum, as it is abundant and shows great heat stability. However, their use in South America has been widely questioned following a recent publication that pinpoints the high prevalence of Peruvian field isolates lacking the gene encoding this protein. In the remote rural health centers of French Guiana, RDTs are the main diagnosis tools. Therefore, a study of PfHRP2 RDT performances and pfhrp2 genotyping was conducted to determine whether a replacement of the current pLDH-based kit could be considered. METHODS: The performance study compared the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit with the current gold standard diagnosis by microscopy. The prevalence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions were evaluated from 221 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 in French Guiana. RESULTS: Between January 2010 and August 2011, 960 suspected cases of malaria were analyzed using microscopy and RDTs. The sensitivity of the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® for detection of P. falciparum was 96.8% (95% CI: 90.9-99.3, and 86.0% (95% CI: 78.9-91.5 for the detection of P. vivax. No isolates (95% CI: 0-4.5 lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene were identified among the 221 P. falciparum isolates analyzed, but 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-15.4 lacked the exon 2 part of the pfhrp3 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Field isolates lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene are absent in this western part of South America. Despite its sensibility to detect P. vivax, the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit is a satisfying alternative to microscopy in remote health centers, where it is difficult to provide highly skilled microscopists and to maintain the necessary equipment.

  5. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p winter (chi2 = 12.46; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05). Within these events, 44.7% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), with same patterns observed in the CE. Interactions were more frequent in inner waters of the Laranjeiras bay, PEC (chi2 = 11.65; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05). Within these events, 74.2% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird abundance and distribution, cetacean group size, and the life cycle of prey and seabirds are listed as the main factors addressing multi-species feeding associations in the Lagamar estuary. PMID:20231955

  6. From Glyndebourne to Glastonbury:The Impact of British Music Festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Mckay, George; Webster, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Festivals are at the heart of British music and at the heart of the British music industry. They form an essential part of the worlds of rock, classical, folk and jazz, forming regularly occurring pivot points around which musicians, audiences, and festival organisers plan their lives. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, the purpose of this report is to chart and critically examine available writing about the impact of British music festivals, drawing on both academic and ‘gre...

  7. Pop art redefined British pop arts of the 1960s: towards a social and institutional history

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson Gilbert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This thesis uses new histories of exhibitions, cultural institutions, individuals and artworks to problematize and reconfigure current conceptions of British Pop art, arguing for the deployment of the term ‘British Pop arts’, as opposed to ‘British Pop Art’, to reflect the varied usage of the artistic practice across Britain during the 1960s. The central conclusion of this historical account is the recognition of a wider Pop arts network, albeit formed of disparate and often conflictual subje...

  8. Comprehensive Monitoring of Wildlife Mortality on British Columbia Highways Using the WARS System (1978 to 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been operating its Wildlife Accident Reporting System (WARS) for almost three decades. Detailed information on motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality is systematically collected on a daily basis on major highways throughout British Columbia. Since its inception, WARS has become an increasingly valuable tool for highway planning and operational purposes. With WARS, BCMoT is able to support the British Columbia Government’s commitmen...

  9. Landscape, race and memory : biographical mapping of the routes of British Asian landscape values.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya P Tolia-Kelly

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the migration routes of British Asian women living in London are examined. It is shown that British Asians connect with a myriad of landscapes abroad, including East Africa, India and Pakistan. These connections to past landscapes are mapped and considered here as valued environments of British Asian women in Britain. Through the mapping of their biographies, it is apparent that memories of other landscapes are embedded in environmental practices in Britain, therefore contributi...

  10. British Travel Writing about the Americas, 1820-1840: Different and Differentiating Views

    OpenAIRE

    Lauterbach, Frank

    2001-01-01

    In his article, "British Travel Writing about the Americas, 1820-1840: Different and Differentiating Views," Frank Lauterbach analyzes representations of the United States and South America in British travel writing of the post-Monroe years. His analysis rests on examples from two travelogues by Basil Hall, written in 1824 and 1829, respectively. Lauterbach discusses three related points: 1) Intent on overcoming the colonial affiliation with Anglo-American culture, British travelers try to es...

  11. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research. PMID:17474836

  12. ‘Drawing comic traditions': British television animation from 1997 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Norris,, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the shifts within mainstream British television animation between 1997 and 2010 and it discusses how British animation’s close relationship with live-action television comedy reveals a map of contemporary attitudes and tastes. The British animated texts in this period reacted to their shifting industrial and broadcasting landscape. The historical moment of the late 1990s was determined by the successes of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons, which profoundly affecte...

  13. Channel 4 and British film: an assessment of industrial and cultural impact, 1982-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an historical investigation of Channel 4’s influence on the British film industry and on British film culture between 1982 and 1998. Combining archival research with interview testimony and secondary literature, this thesis presents the history of a broadcaster’s involvement in British film production, while also examining the cultural and industrial impact of this involvement over time. This study of the interdependence of film and television will aim to bring together aspects...

  14. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  15. High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezenegho, Samuel B; Adde, Antoine; de Santi, Vincent Pommier; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities. PMID:27653361

  16. Dynamical Mapping of Anopheles darlingi Densities in a Residual Malaria Transmission Area of French Guiana by Using Remote Sensing and Meteorological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adde, Antoine; Roux, Emmanuel; Mangeas, Morgan; Dessay, Nadine; Nacher, Mathieu; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Local variation in the density of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of exposure to bites are essential to explain the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the transmission of malaria. Vector distribution is driven by environmental factors. Based on variables derived from satellite imagery and meteorological observations, this study aimed to dynamically model and map the densities of Anopheles darlingi in the municipality of Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock (French Guiana). Longitudinal sampling sessions of An. darlingi densities were conducted between September 2012 and October 2014. Landscape and meteorological data were collected and processed to extract a panel of variables that were potentially related to An. darlingi ecology. Based on these data, a robust methodology was formed to estimate a statistical predictive model of the spatial-temporal variations in the densities of An. darlingi in Saint-Georges de l’Oyapock. The final cross-validated model integrated two landscape variables—dense forest surface and built surface—together with four meteorological variables related to rainfall, evapotranspiration, and the minimal and maximal temperatures. Extrapolation of the model allowed the generation of predictive weekly maps of An. darlingi densities at a resolution of 10-m. Our results supported the use of satellite imagery and meteorological data to predict malaria vector densities. Such fine-scale modeling approach might be a useful tool for health authorities to plan control strategies and social communication in a cost-effective, targeted, and timely manner. PMID:27749938

  17. Cecropia as a food resource for bats in French Guiana and the significance of fruit structure in seed dispersal and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobova, Tatyana A; Mori, Scott A; Blanchard, Frédéric; Peckham, Heather; Charles-Dominique, Pierre

    2003-03-01

    Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) is a Neotropical genus of pioneer plants. A review of bat/plant dispersal interactions revealed that 15 species of Cecropia are consumed by 32 species of bats. In French Guiana, bats were captured in primary and secondary forests, yielding 936 fecal samples with diaspores, among which 162 contained fruits of C. obtusa, C. palmata, and C. sciadophylla. A comparative morphological and anatomical study of fruits and seeds taken directly from herbarium specimens, bat feces, and an experimental soil seed bank was made. Contrary to previous reports, the dispersal unit of Cecropia is the fruit not the seed. Bats consume the infructescence, digest pulp derived from the enlarged, fleshy perianth, and defecate the fruits. The mucilaginous pericarp of Cecropia is described. The external mucilage production of Cecropia may facilitate endozoochory. The exocarp and part of the mesocarp may be lost after passage through the digestive tract of bats, but fruits buried for a year in the soil seed bank remain structurally unchanged. Fruit characters were found to be useful for identifying species of bat-dispersed Cecropia. Bat dispersal is not necessary for seed germination but it increases seed survival and subsequent germination. Fruit structure plays a significant role in seed longevity. PMID:21659132

  18. Structural knowledge learning from maps for supervised land cover/use classification: Application to the monitoring of land cover/use maps in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoudh, Meriam; Roux, Emmanuel; Richard, Gilles; Nock, Richard

    2015-03-01

    The number of satellites and sensors devoted to Earth observation has become increasingly elevated, delivering extensive data, especially images. At the same time, the access to such data and the tools needed to process them has considerably improved. In the presence of such data flow, we need automatic image interpretation methods, especially when it comes to the monitoring and prediction of environmental and societal changes in highly dynamic socio-environmental contexts. This could be accomplished via artificial intelligence. The concept described here relies on the induction of classification rules that explicitly take into account structural knowledge, using Aleph, an Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) system, combined with a multi-class classification procedure. This methodology was used to monitor changes in land cover/use of the French Guiana coastline. One hundred and fifty-eight classification rules were induced from 3 diachronic land cover/use maps including 38 classes. These rules were expressed in first order logic language, which makes them easily understandable by non-experts. A 10-fold cross-validation gave significant average values of 84.62%, 99.57% and 77.22% for classification accuracy, specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Our methodology could be beneficial to automatically classify new objects and to facilitate object-based classification procedures.

  19. High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezenegho, Samuel B; Adde, Antoine; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-09-01

    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of early onset of sexual intercourse in a random sample of a multiethnic adolescent population in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Gülen; Martin, Loic; Levy-Loeb, Mathieu; Thomas, Stéphanie; Euzet, Géneviève; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana, a French overseas department in South America, has been classified epidemic for HIV. This territory is consisting of a very young population with almost 45% of them being younger than 20 years of age. Delaying the onset of first sexual intercourse (SI) is one of the major objectives to fight HIV infection in adolescents. The objective of this study is to identify the age of first SI and the risk factors of early onset. A behavioural surveillance survey among students living on the coastline and alongside the Maroni River was conducted in 2011/2012. A total of 1603 students filled out the survey. While 60% had already SI, the mean age of first intercourse was 12.1 years for boys and 13.9 years for girls. Accordingly, over 90% had a premature onset of SI. Risk factors are age, male gender, living alongside the Maroni River, another language than the French being mother tongue, not being religious, alcohol and cannabis consumption and a bad attitude towards condom use. Risk factors for girls are an older first sexual partner, having more than three lifetime sexual partners and condom rupture. Evidence-based implementation with respect of local and socio-demographic aspects is necessary to improve youths' appreciation of SI and related risk of sexual transmitted diseases. PMID:25782704

  1. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  2. British business in Brazil: maturity and demise (1850-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paiva Abreu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the long-term trends of ''British business'' in Brazil since 1850. It covers investment and other manifestations of the British presence such as those related to trade as well as financial intermediation. Primary interest is in British involvement in Brazilian private sector activities, whether by direct investment or by the flotation of sterling securities for firms operating in Brazil. The article also considers the role of London as a financial market where Brazilian public loans were floated, the relevance of Britain as a market for Brazilian commodities and as a supplier to Brazil, and British intermediation in Brazilian trade with third countries. It is divided in chronological sections: imperial years (1850-1889; stagnation and boom (1889-1914; first signs of decline (1914-1930, and the divestment period (1930 to the mid-1950's. The final section presents the conclusions and mentions post-1950 trends.Este artigo considera as tendências de longo prazo das relações econômicas e financeiras britânicas com o Brasil desde 1850. Abrange investimentos e outas manifestações da presença britânica no Brasil, tais como as relacionadas a comércio e intermediação financeira. O interesse fundamental é no envolvimento britânico com as atividades do setor privado no Brasil, seja através de investimento direto, seja na intermediação financeira em benefício de firmas privadas que operavam no Brasil. O artigo também menciona o papel de Londres como centro financeiro no qual eram lançados empréstimos públicos brasileiros, a relevância do Reino Unido como mercado para as exportações brasileiras e como supridor de importações para o Brasil, e a intermediação britânica no comércio brasileiro com terceiros países. O artigo é dividido em seções cronológicas: os anos imperiais (1850-1889; estagnação e boom (1889-1914; primeiros sinais de declínio (1914-1930; os anos de redução de investimentos (1930

  3. Sizewell B - analysis of British application of US PWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides information on the staff's evaluation of major design differences and issues developed by the British in their application (Sizewell B) of US PWR technology. One design change, the addition of steam-driven charging pumps, was assessed to have a relatively high value compared to the other changes. However, the assessment is based on a number of assumptions for which inadequate data exist to make an unqualified judgment. Other changes to the US design (as typified by the SNUPPS design) were found to have relatively low or moderate safety benefits for US application

  4. The Media, Public Opinion and British Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Akor, Ambrose

    2011-01-01

    The Media, Public Opinion and British Foreign PolicyBy Ambrose AkorDoctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2011The University of ManchesterAbstractAre foreign policy officials responsive to policy preferences of the mass media and the public in making their decisions? That question has dogged scholars for decades but there has been little agreement among them on what is the true nature of mass media- and public opinion-foreign policy link. In terms of mass media impact, there are two media theories which ...

  5. Contracts for small hydro development : British Columbia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of small hydroelectric projects in British Columbia during the past decade was discussed. During that time, at least 10 small hydroelectric projects have been completed by non-utility independent power producers. This paper discusses how proponents of small hydro can become off-grid communities, or how mining/forestry companies can reduce their dependence on costly diesel generation. The paper also outlines alternative contractual arrangements for energy sales, engineering services, equipment supply, and plant construction, and describes their applicability, advantages, disadvantages and costs

  6. Factor prices and productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Antras, Pol; Voth, Hans-Joachim

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of total factor productivity growth in Britain for the period 1770–1860. We use the dual technique and argue that the estimates we derive from factor prices are of similar quality to quantity-based calculations. Our results provide further evidence, calculated on the basis of an independent set of sources, that productivity growth during the British Industrial Revolution was relatively slow. The Crafts–Harley view of the Industrial Revolution is thus rein...

  7. Reconstruction of British Nuclear Fuel's Drigg marine outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985 the House of Commons Environment Committee expressed reservations over some of the waste-management procedures followed by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd at their Drigg low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sellafield in Cumbria. These reservations prompted the company to implement a Pound 20 million programme of improvements aimed at maximizing site usage, reducing trench leachate arisings and redirecting to the Irish Sea. This paper provides information and test results associated with design considerations and initial dilution testing, respectively, of a computer-controlled long sea outfall system designed to discharge leachate to the Irish Sea. Information is also provided on difficulties experienced during construction of the outfall. (Author)

  8. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity a...

  9. British Columbia's provincial nursing workload project: evidence to empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Maura; Jewell, Karen; Wardrop, Andrea; Ahmed, Ashifa; Mildon, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This case study describes an ongoing demonstration project that engages nurses and nurse leaders in decision-making with respect to workload management issues at eight practice sites within British Columbia (two per healthcare sector: acute care, long-term care, community health and community mental health). The primary goal of this project is to promote high-quality practice environments by empowering front-line nurses and their leaders: giving them the means to systematically examine and act upon factors that influence their workloads. Examples from practice sites illustrate tangible benefits from the project.

  10. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Laraine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  11. GATEWAY FOR PRIVATE HOME HEALTH CARE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Altejos

    2015-01-01

    This feasibility study assesses the private home health care market in British Columbia for a business concept called Gateway to Home Health Care, or simply “Gateway.” Gateway is a new business concept recommended by the author to solve the increasing incongruence between growing health care demands and the limited care options in B.C. To conduct a feasibility study, the report examines the long-term care (LTC) industry and focuses on the role of the privatehome health care market in B.C. It ...

  12. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, S.; Nardone, A.; Field, N.; Mercer, CH; Tanton, C; Macdowall, W.; Johnson, AM; Sonnenberg, P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4%...

  13. "Signs of the times": Medicine and nationhood in British India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Medical practice and research in colonial India historically had been an imperial preserve, dominated by the elite members of the Indian Medical Service. This was contested from the 1900s on by the emerging Indian nationalism. This essay studies debates about the establishment of a medical research institution and how actors imposed the political identities of nationalism on British colonial practices of medical science. At the same time, Indian nationalism was also drawing from other emerging ideas around health and social welfare. The Indian nationalists and doctors sought to build the identities of the new nation and its medicine around their own ideas of its geography, people, and welfare. PMID:20027771

  14. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  15. Subtitle Translation of Humour in British TV Sitcoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Jun-fei

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the translation of three categories of British humour-universal, cultural and linguistic humour in the light of GTVH(General Theory of Verbal Humour) and Relevance Theory. GTVH benefits the study of humour translation by providing an analytical framework of six Knowledge Resources which include Language (LA), Narrative Strategy(NS), Target (TA), Situation(SI), Logical Mechanism(LM) and Script Opposition (SO). The hierarchy of Knowledge Resources is used to make an analysis of the internal structure of humour and Relevance theory functions as a translation theory to check whether the translation is appropriate to achieve optimal relevance. Taking the translation examples from British TV sitcoms“Yes, Prime Minis-ter”and“Little Britain”,the thesis probes into the most important Knowledge Resources in these three kinds of humour respec-tively, analyzes the loss and gain of humour reproduction in fansubbers’translation and makes a few adjustments to some inappro-priate translation versions to“achieve the maximization of relevance”.

  16. Toolkit for community energy planning in British Columbia. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This toolkit presents the basic concepts and issues regarding the implementation of community energy planning in British Columbia. It is intended primarily for local elected officials, municipal and regional planners and engineers, real estate developers and those interested in community sustainability and energy opportunities. The objectives are to: (1) describe how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community, (2) show that designing for energy supports community livability objectives, (3) describe how energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, (4) communicate the idea that community energy planning can play an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions, thereby slowing down climate change, and (5) provide practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. This toolkit described the strategies that are related to each of these components. In addition, 6 case studies of specific initiative programs dealing with community energy planning in British Columbia were presented. These included the challenges facing developers of energy efficient sustainable buildings and municipalities, the Lillooet solar municipal pool, the community energy planning in Kamloops, improving the transportation system a small urban centre called Quesnel, BC's energy aware award winners, and the Shoal Point development on Victoria Island's Fisherman's Wharf. The efforts of each of these projects provide an opportunity to build a community that is more socially, environmentally and fiscally responsible and sustainable.

  17. Norms of care in British and American neurologic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menken, M; Hopkins, A; DeFriese, G H

    1988-01-01

    At a Consensus Development Conference on the Scope of Neurological Practice in the United Kingdom, 26 British specialists in the field of neurology constructed norms of care for patients with 11 neurologic disorders. For each disorder, these specialists specified the percentage of all patients who should see a physician, as well as the percentage who should see a consultant neurologist, the appropriate duration of the initial patient encounter, and the appropriate frequency of follow-up visits per annum. When compared with American estimates used in health manpower planning, British neurologists generally make a far greater allowance for patient self-care, as well as care by nonphysician health care providers, allow less time for patient encounters, and see a need for follow-up care less frequently. These marked differences in the perceptions of specialists of a normative character may determine, in part, the different "practice styles" of physicians in different regions that cannot be explained in economic terms. Results suggest that the practice style concept should be broadened to include the use of health personnel of many types, the scope of specialty medicine, and the role definition of primary care.

  18. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, P R

    2000-12-01

    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism. PMID:11147093

  19. The Role of the British Crown on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United Kingdom is a limited parliamentary monarchy, in which state sovereignty is exercised jointly by two basic political institutions: Royal Crown and Parliament. The credit for a successful political co-governance of these institutions, which are simultaneously bearers of popular sovereignty, are usually addressed to the Queen's lack of executive power to exercise power alone and hence all the restraint in the race for primate of governance. It goes even further considering that the Queen is quite weak and has only ceremonial functions, which do not disturb the Parliament. However, a careful researcher may notice that the Queen continues to affect the British Government in general and in particular on defence issues. Declassification of communication between Prince Charles and the Government in 2013, pointed out a continuing impact of the Queen and her son on many political issues, including those of defence and security. Since Britain has no codified constitution in a single document, it is not easy to determine the real power and competences of the Queen. It is even more difficult, because customary law and precedent prevail. Therefore, the real definition of the role of the Queen in general in the British Government, can be done by studying the culture, structure and constitutional practice. On their basis I will try to determine the real impact of the Queen in matters of defence and security, whether through her prerogatives in relation to the Government and Parliament, or through moral and informal influence in relation to the Prime Minister and particular ministers.

  20. Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae: A new British allopolyploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vallejo-Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae, which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92 that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800’s. M. peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between M. guttatus and M. luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. M. peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of M. peregrinus between M. guttatus (2n = 2x = 28 and M. luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62, and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45 hybrid taxon M. × robertsii (M. guttatus × M. luteus, suggests that M. peregrinus may constitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.

  1. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Booy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18% were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3 accounted for 54% (20/37 of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37, influenza B 19% (7/37, and influenza A (H1 3% (1/37. Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28 had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%. The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202. This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic.

  2. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Where are we now in British health economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaug, M

    1998-08-01

    Health economics took off in 1970 or thereabouts, just after the take-off date for the economics of education. Although early health economics made use of human capital theory as did the economics of education, it soon took a different route inspired by Arrow's work on medical insurance. The economics of education failed to live up to its promising start in the 1960s and gradually ran out of steam. The economics of health, however, has made steady theoretical and empirical progress since 1970, principally in coming to grips with the implications of supplier-induced demand and the difficulties of evaluating health care outcomes. Some of the best work on British health economics has been in the area of normative welfare economics, defining more precisely what is meant by equity in the delivery of health care and measuring the degree of success in achieving equity. Recent efforts to reform the NHS by the introduction of 'quasi markets' have improved the quantity and quality of health care in Britain. In short, British health economics has been characterised by the use of Pigovian piecemeal rather than Paretian global welfare economics, retaining a distinctive style that sets it apart from American health economics.

  4. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  5. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  6. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies, a

  7. "I dumped my husband for a Turkish toyboy": romance tourism and intersectionality in British tabloid newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hamid-Turksoy; L. van Zoonen; G.M.M. Kuipers

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we analyse how British tabloid newspapers represent relationships between mature British women and the younger Turkish toyboy lovers they meet (and sometimes look for) on their holiday; a practice that is often considered as the female counterpart to male sex tourism, albeit labelle

  8. Benjamin Franklin's Pictorial Representations of the British Colonies in America: A Study in Rhetorical Iconology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lester C.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the underlying reasons for the fundamental shift in Benjamin Franklin's portrayals of the British colonies in America. Explores the hypothesis that "Magna Britannia" was both a deliberative work directed toward the British Parliament and an apologetic work directed toward conservatives in the colonial public. Also discusses Franklin's…

  9. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  10. Going for Gold in 2010: An Analysis of British Columbia's Literacy Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a recent government initiative aimed at raising adult literacy levels across the Canadian province of British Columbia by 2010. Through analysis of policy documents and interviews conducted with policymakers, analysts, researchers and practitioners, the author argues that the current focus on adult literacy in British Columbia…

  11. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas employment…

  12. British Balance of Competence Reviews, Part I: 'Competences about right, so far'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Emerson; S. Blockmans

    2013-01-01

    The first in a series for a CEPS-EPIN project entitled "The British Question and the Search for a Fresh European Narrative" this paper is pegged on an ambitious ongoing exercise by the British government to review all the competences of the European Union. The intention is that this should provide a

  13. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly qu

  14. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi

    2010-01-01

    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British higher…

  15. Educating Africans for Inferiority under British Rule: Bo School in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Sierra Leone's Bo School was established in 1906 by British colonial officials to educate chiefs' sons for subordinate positions. Nevertheless, the school contributed to creation of the postindependence ruling class. Enrollment, curriculum, student life, responsibilities of British and African teachers, and alumni networks are examined. Contains…

  16. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  17. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999 (a

  18. Are depressive symptoms more common among British South Asian patients compared with British White patients with cancer? A cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Karen; Ibrahim, Kausher; Kumar, Sawan; Mitchell, Alex J; Rudd, Nicky; Symonds, R Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This cross-sectional survey investigated whether there were ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among British South Asian (BSA) patients with cancer compared with British White (BW) patients during 9 months following presentation at a UK Cancer Centre. We examined associations between depressed mood, coping strategies and the burden of symptoms. Design Questionnaires were administered to 94 BSA and 185 BW recently diagnosed patients with cancer at baseline and at 3 and 9 mont...

  19. Exploring Brand Associations and the Impact it has on Generation Y British-Indians and Non-British Indians: A Study of Luxury Fashion Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Sashidharan, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the Project The main aim of the project is to explore the role of brand associations and conduct a comparative study to see the impact it has on the generation Y British Indian and Non-British Indian consumers purchasing luxury fashion brands. The three type of brand associations that would be tested are: product attributes, brand personality and country of origin. Methodology The methodology consisted of qualitative research, by which data was collected using semi-structur...

  20. Geophysical images of basement rocks. Geophysical images in the Guianese basement. Airborne geophysical campaign in French Guiana - 1996; Images geophysiques de socles. Images geophysiques dans le socle guyanais. Campagne de geophysique aeroportee en Guyane francaise - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delor, C.; Perrin, J.; Truffert, C.; Asfirane, F.; Rossi, Ph.; Bonjoly, D.; Dubreuihl, J. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Chardon, D

    1998-08-01

    The French Office for Geological and Mining Research (BRGM) has carried out a high sensitivity airborne geophysical survey of northern French Guiana during the second half of 1996. The aim was to realize a high resolution magnetic and gamma spectrometric mapping for future prospecting, land use and environment management. This paper describes in details the geophysical campaign, the material used, the navigation techniques, the processing of magnetic data, the gamma radiation sources used, the spectrometric calibrations and the geologic interpretation of the results. (J.S.)

  1. Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, Brasil / Guiana Francesa Projet de tourisme à base communautaire Tartaruga Imbricata, Brésil /Guyane Tartaruga Imbricata community-based tourism project, Brazil / Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Nádia Bandeira Sacenco Kornijezuk

    2012-01-01

    Em novembro de 2009, participei, durante nove dias, de uma experimentação de turismo chamada Projeto de Turismo de Base Comunitária Tartaruga Imbricata, numa rota de integração do Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange, no Brasil, com a Guiana Francesa. Essa viagem foi o primeiro trabalho de campo para a minha tese em Geografia e Gestão Ambiental (em andamento). Essa edição da experimentação visava propiciar a um grupo de gestores franceses, participantes de um seminário de cunho terapêutico chamado ...

  2. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  3. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. (British Gas plc, London (United Kingdom)); Turna, O. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  4. Mapping a Knowledge-Based Malaria Hazard Index Related to Landscape Using Remote Sensing: Application to the Cross-Border Area between French Guiana and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains one of the most common vector-borne diseases in the world and the definition of novel control strategies can benefit from the modeling of transmission processes. However, data-driven models are often difficult to build, as data are very often incomplete, heterogeneous in nature and in quality, and/or biased. In this context, a knowledge-based approach is proposed to build a robust and general landscape-based hazard index for malaria transmission that is tailored to the Amazonian region. A partial knowledge-based model of the risk of malaria transmission in the Amazonian region, based on landscape features and extracted from a systematic literature review, was used. Spatialization of the model was obtained by generating land use and land cover maps of the cross-border area between French Guiana and Brazil, followed by computing and combining landscape metrics to build a set of normalized landscape-based hazard indices. An empirical selection of the best index was performed by comparing the indices in terms of adequacy with the knowledge-based model, intelligibility and correlation with P. falciparum incidence rates. The selected index is easy to interpret and successfully represents the current knowledge about the role played by landscape patterns in malaria transmission within the study area. It was significantly associated with P. falciparum incidence rates, using the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (up to 0.79 and 0.75, respectively; p-value < 0.001, and the linear regression coefficient of determination (reaching 0.63; p-values < 0.001. This study establishes a spatial knowledge-driven, landscape-based hazard malaria index using remote sensing that can be easily produced on a regular basis and might be useful for malaria prediction, surveillance, and control.

  5. The imprint of the Slave Trade in an African American population: mitochondrial DNA, Y chromosome and HTLV-1 analysis in the Noir Marron of French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrouy Georges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retracing the genetic histories of the descendant populations of the Slave Trade (16th-19th centuries is particularly challenging due to the diversity of African ethnic groups involved and the different hybridisation processes with Europeans and Amerindians, which have blurred their original genetic inheritances. The Noir Marron in French Guiana are the direct descendants of maroons who escaped from Dutch plantations in the current day Surinam. They represent an original ethnic group with a highly blended culture. Uniparental markers (mtDNA and NRY coupled with HTLV-1 sequences (env and LTR were studied to establish the genetic relationships linking them to African American and African populations. Results All genetic systems presented a high conservation of the African gene pool (African ancestry: mtDNA = 99.3%; NRY = 97.6%; HTLV-1 env = 20/23; HTLV-1 LTR = 6/8. Neither founder effect nor genetic drift was detected and the genetic diversity is within a range commonly observed in Africa. Higher genetic similarities were observed with the populations inhabiting the Bight of Benin (from Ivory Coast to Benin. Other ancestries were identified but they presented an interesting sex-bias. Whilst male origins spread throughout the north of the bight (from Benin to Senegal, female origins were spread throughout the south (from the Ivory Coast to Angola. Conclusions The Noir Marron are unique in having conserved their African genetic ancestry, despite major cultural exchanges with Amerindians and Europeans through inhabiting the same region for four centuries. Their maroon identity and the important number of slaves deported in this region have maintained the original African diversity. All these characteristics permit to identify a major origin located in the former region of the Gold Coast and the Bight of Benin; regions highly impacted by slavery, from which goes a sex-biased longitudinal gradient of ancestry.

  6. Universal health care: lessons from the British experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Donald W

    2003-01-01

    Britain's National Health Service (NHS) was established in the wake of World War II amid a broad consensus that health care should be made available to all. Yet the British only barely succeeded in overcoming professional opposition to form the NHS out of the prewar mixture of limited national insurance, various voluntary insurance schemes, charity care, and public health services. Success stemmed from extraordinary leadership, a parliamentary system of government that gives the winning party great control, and a willingness to make major concessions to key stakeholders. As one of the basic models emulated worldwide, the NHS-in both its original form and its current restructuring-offers a number of relevant lessons for health reform in the United States. PMID:12511379

  7. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British Household Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  8. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves of the......Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations for...... British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  9. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  10. British Nuclear Fuels PLC: report and accounts 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This item covers a meeting held between members of the United Kingdom government's energy committee and representatives of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to discuss their Annual Report and Accounts for the year 1988-89. The committee explored the reasons for escalating predictions of the costs of nuclear power and why decommissioning costs are so difficult to estimate accurately so as to include them in cost per kilowatt hour of generated electricity. The relationship between BNFL and the Ministry of Defence (MoD) was explored, as was the MoD's relationship with the United States Department of Defense. BNFL's financial position should improve when the thermal oxide reprocessing plant at Sellafield becomes operational, and the Chapelcross and Calder Hall reactors may contribute income from electricity generation. (UK)

  11. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  12. The Differences of Chinese and British Culture in the Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包晨辰

    2015-01-01

    Culture is the kernel and connotation of the country and it is also the irreplaceable soul for the country. The modern Olympic Games is the comprehensive and international sport competition which is with a long history, a large scope and the top level all over the world. It is expressed the culture of the country in the every aspect of the preparation and holding of the Olympic Games. In this paper, it is explored the difference of Chinese and British culture in the oral command, theme, design concepts of the main stadium, emblem and sport events of the Olympic Games through the introduction and comparison of the 4th, 14th London Olympic Games, 29th Beijing Olympic Games and the 30th London Olympic Games.

  13. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required.

  14. THE EMBODIMENT OF BRITISH WITCHCRAFT CULTURE IN HARRY POTTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于阅

    2015-01-01

    The series novel Harry Potter was created by English woman writer J.K.Rowling. It contains the rich mythical factor, the witchcraft fantasy component and the folk cultural factor. It has inherited England traditional culture, fantastic novel and children literature. This essay mainly discuss the reason of Harry Potter regarded with great favor in the west from the perspective of traditional culture of British and Europe. It started from the witchcraft culture and Christian Culture. These two points are expounded the western culture details by means of the analyzing on culture background. Both of them layed the culture foundations for the success of the series. At last,the depiction of the heroism of nobody is in sharp contrast with the traditional heroism, thereby reflected the commendable, which makes people realised to carish the worth of peaceful life.

  15. The future of bereavement care in British general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, W R

    1997-06-01

    This paper discusses the future of bereavement care in British general practice by providing an insight into existing practice and then speculating on influences that may shape developments. There have been calls for the specialty to build on this traditional role and expand its bereavement service. Specific suggestions for the content of such a service are summarised. This emphasis reflects the increasing awareness in bereavement by other health organisations. This image of an expanding service needs to be contextualised within a primary care system that is feeling more pressurised due to increasing workload. This will continue to inhibit extensive service development. In addition it is important for the profession to consider the appropriateness of this activity. This complex debate has received little attention and research is required to inform and provide the necessary direction. PMID:9233164

  16. Genetic Testing for Minors: Comparison between Italian and British Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Tozzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing in children raises many important ethical, legal, and social issues. One of the main concerns is the ethically inappropriate genetic testing of minors. Various European countries established professional guidelines which reflect the different countries perspectives regarding the main ethical issues involved. In this paper, we analyze the Italian and the British guidelines by highlighting differences and similarities. We discuss presymptomatic, predictive, and carrier testing because we consider them to be the more ethically problematic types of genetic testing in minors. In our opinion, national guidelines should take into account the different needs in clinical practice. At the same time, in the case of genetic testing the national and supranational protection of minors could be strengthened by approving guidelines based on a common framework of principles and values. We suggest that the Oviedo Convention could represent an example of such a common framework or, at least, it could lead to articulate it.

  17. Hodgkin's disease in childhood: the British National Lymphoma Investigation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of the British National Lymphoma Investigation in the treatment of 68 children with Hodgkin's disease is reported over a 14 year period from 1970. The presenting histology was reviewed by a single histopathologist; 87% of the cases were classified as nodular sclerosis (NS) and further subdivided into NSI (53%) and NSII (35%). Primary treatment consisted of local (involved field) or prophylactic (extended field) irradiation, combination chemotherapy alone or low dose irradiation and chemotherapy. An overall 5 year survival of 87% was achieved and a 5 year relapse-free survival of 64%. Eight deaths were reported during the study, all of which occurred in children who presented with NSII histology. Each child was in relapse and undergoing chemotherapy at the time of death. This histological subtype was also associated with both a lower complete remission rate and a reduced response to second line chemotherapy. (author)

  18. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  19. British Missionary Timothy Richard and Chinese Modern Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    British missionary Timothy Richard came to China, actuated by preaching the Gospel andexpanding the sphere of Christian influence. Considering some complex reasons for history, civilization,ideology and custom etc, he paid attention to secular education as well as doing missionary work to attainhis Christian goal. He laid much stress on the function of education, so he proposed Chinese governmentshould set up Educational Department. In the late Qing Dynasty, he participated in the organization andmanagement of Shanxi Imperial University. Under the circumstances of modern times of China, when it wasin the grip of national crisis, and the contradictory between China and foreign countries was acute andcomplicated, all the work he had done exerted objective influences in many aspects. While it reflected thestrong semi-colonial character in modernization of Chinese education, it had some positive effect as well.

  20. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.