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Sample records for british gas corporation process

  1. British Gas business opportunities overseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings of the joint British Gas Department of Trade and Industry Seminar cover overseas exploration and production and development projects; an overview of gas transmission, distribution and supply; and power generation. Details of the Oil and Gas Projects and Supplies Office, Projects Export Promotion Division, the Export Credits Guarantee Department, and British Gas Offices Worldwide are given in the Appendix. (UK)

  2. British Columbia Petroleum Corporation annual report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Petroleum Corporation is a provincial Crown agency whose principal mandate is to facilitate and monitor the sale of natural gas, and to act as a central source of information specific to the natural gas industry for the benefit of all industry participants. The Corporation's activities for the year ending March 31, 1993 are summarized. With the devolution of the Corporation's marketing functions in 1990 to CanWest Gas Supply Inc. and the deregulation of the natural gas market, the Corporation no longer markets natural gas and byproducts, but performs a number of administrative functions on behalf of the province. These include issuing acquisition orders and determining the respective netback prices for the purpose of calculating royalties; collection of a production-related levy; collection of data regarding all sale transactions; monitoring of all production, sales and marketing costs; and information gathering for all sectors of the industry. In 1992/93, a total of 27 companies remained with the Corporation, representing 111 individual gas purchase agreements for a combined deliverability of 1,769,300 m3/d. At fiscal year end, a total of 713 acquisition orders were being monitored and 20 findings of producer support were issued in response to netback sales applications. Industry volume throughputs increased 8.7% over the previous year and the average netback price rose to $44.87 per 1,000 m3. Financial statements are included. 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. British advice for the Dutch natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief impression is given of the Netherlands Energy Congress, which was held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in December 1999. Many speakers were British which compared the liberalization process of the Dutch natural gas market with the British experiences

  4. Insurance revolution within British gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooke, R.W.

    1976-07-01

    With the transformation of the British gas industry from a manufacturing to a distribution role, British Gas Corp. questioned the whole function of insurance within the industry and arrived at a new approach of extended self-insurance. The basic questions posed were whether British Gas really needed insurance protection, what size of loss it could absorb within its own financial resources, and what catastrophic losses might occur that should be covered by insurance. In the past, each area board determined its own insurance requirements and obtained the best coverage available for its needs. With the formation of British Gas, however, insurance was investigated on an industry-wide basis by an insurance committee in which each region was represented by its insurance officer. This enabled the industry to negotiate from a position of strength in what would be a bulk purchase and permit the most flexible coverage to be obtained at the most economic cost. The committee proposed a system that made the figure of $3.6 million (pounds 2 million) the main criterion for self-insurance; risks not considered as having a real potential for a loss exceeding this figure would be borne uninsured. Where such potential existed, only amounts above this figure would be insured. The actual program that was eventually adopted cancelled the employer's liability insurance, retained third-party insurance for claims over $3.6 million, retained full-coverage fire insurance, reduced engineering coverage to an inspection service only, retained motor and personal accident insurance for further consideration, and cancelled all other forms of insurance. To implement this program of greater self-insurance, British Gas strengthened the claims-handling expertise within the regions and has incorporated greater risk management techniques to reduce or eliminate risks with loss-making potential.

  5. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  6. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  7. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  8. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  9. British Gas marks progress in drive for global operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that British Gas plc, London, is driving to boost the share of its business that comes form outside the U.K. Non-U.K. activities accounted for about 10% of the company's business last year. By the turn of the century earnings form British Gas's non-U.K. exploration and production activities are expected to be about in line with those form the U.K. core business. In addition, the company's global gas business unit-acquisitions, sales, of British Gas technology worldwide, and power generation form gas-will contribute significantly to overseas earnings

  10. Corporate communications in practice: the profile of pr directors in the british companies

    OpenAIRE

    Dolphin, R; Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of being seen as an increasingly important function of management, public relations (PR) or corporate communications (as is called in this paper) remains a subject which is seriously under-researched. This paper reports an empirical study conducted in 20 British organisations with a focus on the director of corporate communications. It examines the origin and role of corporate communication executives and identifies those essential characteristics that constitute the most successful ...

  11. The outlook for the natural gas industry in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During most of the 1980s, the natural gas industry in British Columbia languished. In 1980, a total of 218 natural gas wells were drilled in the portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin lying in northeastern British Columbia. By 1983, this number had fallen to only 19. In fact, the average number of gas wells drilled in British Columbia in the nine years following 1980 was only 48 per year. Yearly production during most of the 1980s was also far below levels seen in the previous decade. The outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry was developed making use of the analytical framework provided in the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model. Using the NARG model enables one to investigate flows of British Columbia natural gas to various markets as a component of the overall North American natural gas market. This paper reviews the appropriate background necessary to familiarize the reader with the natural gas industry in British Columbia and, following a brief description of the NARG model, provides preliminary results from the current research effort

  12. British Columbia Power Export Corporation: Operational review for operating year, October 1989 to September 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Power Export Corporation (POWEREX) is a wholly owned subsidiary of British Columbia Hydro, established in 1988 as the single agency responsible for implementing the provincial policy of international electricity trade. POWEREX objectives are to conduct long term firm electricity trade utilizing private sector financing, operating capabilities, and generating sources. Short term electricity transactions are handled by the part of POWEREX called the Powerex Pool Operation. An operational review of POWEREX for 1989-90 is presented, giving information on export contracts, license approvals, export sales negotiations, pool operation revenues and sales, British Columbia Hydro generation and integrated system performance, and operational planning. 15 figs

  13. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  14. Exploring and comparing corporate culture and communication in British and Italian business environmen

    OpenAIRE

    Gevorkyan, Satenik

    2016-01-01

    As businesses are going global, it is inevitable to enter new markets. That means that the companies should be ready to perform business in different counties, which can bring misunderstanding due to diverse specifics of cultures. Hence, it will bring more understanding if one starts to analyze and compare corporate cultures and communication. The main goals of this thesis are to explore Italian and British corporate cultures and to compare types of their societies in order to recognize ...

  15. Bankruptcy Law, Corporate Finance, and Corporate Revival Process in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Sumio Hirose; Fumio Akiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate revival processes in Japan. In recent years, corporate revival processes are drastically changing in Japan. For example, important bankruptcy laws have been revised and Industrial Revitalization Corporation was established. Moreover, many corporate revival funds are actively investing. This paper explains those new movements and examines how those new activities will change the Japanese economy.

  16. Corporate renewal in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes occurring at the gas-related operating companies of Nova Corporation of Alberta are reviewed. These companies include Nova Gas Transmission, Alberta's major gas pipeline company, which moved 3.8 trillion ft3 of gas in 1993; Nova Gas Services, a provider of gas management services to customers in Canada, USA, and Mexico; and Novacorp International, a joint venture investor in gas pipeline developments and consulting. The changes were made in response to increased competition in the gas transport industry following the deregulation process that started in the mid-1980s. A strategic direction based on growth rather than cost-cutting was chosen in order to make the Nova companies dominant players in North American gas supply. Nova's confidence in being able to implement such a strategy is based on four factors: abundant supply of gas and high potential for growth in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin; steadily growing demand for gas; the development of a market-responsive industry; and the emergence of a truly North American market that includes Mexico. Business transformation teams were established with the task of finding out the right business design to meet customer needs and to provide exceptional service. Detailed plans for implementing the transformation are being completed, and a performance measurement system with clear targets has been developed to measure the success of the transformation

  17. Overview of the British Columbia oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and financial highlights from British Columbia's oil and gas sector are presented. British Columbia accounts for 12 per cent of total natural gas production in Canada, making it the second largest producer of natural gas in the country. Energy consumption in Canada and the United States increased by 22 percent and 26 per cent respectively between 1986 and 1996, with a marked shift in energy source patterns away from petroleum and coal toward natural gas and non-fossil fuels. Trends in B.C. over the past decade indicate marked increases in both exploration and production in the natural gas industry, contributing a total of $1.27 billion to the provincial GDP in 1996. The combined upstream and downstream petroleum industry employs about 37,500 people - 14,500 directly, and another 23,00 indirectly. Annual capital expenditures in the industry are about $1.7 billion. tabs., figs

  18. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  19. The Increasing British Climate Ambitiousness: A Mere Reflection of ''The Dash for Gas''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors ask three main questions: First, why were the initial British climate positions more on the reluctant side? Second, why did the British climate positions become more ambitious towards the mid-1990s? And third, why the rapid, seemingly doubling of reduction ambitiousness in the spring of 1997? These questions are addressed in turn: First, with regard to the initial British climate reluctance, although ''malign'' emissions projections and related high potential reduction costs played a significant role, political and cultural factors must clearly be drawn into the picture. Secondly, increasing ambitiousness from the mid-1990s was largely a reflection of the dash-for-gas factor. Thirdly, although the stepped-up ambitiousness in 1997 was, of course, underpinned by the dash-for-gas process, other factors, such as the new Labour Government coming into office, need also to be taken into account here. (author)

  20. Upstream regulatory reform, positioning British Columbia natural gas for the future : a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the upstream gas regulation in British Columbia was reviewed. Most of the natural gas gathering and processing facilities in the province are owned by Westcoast Energy Inc., which is regulated by the federal National Energy Board using what the provincial government considers an outdated and inappropriate approach. Recently, the upstream natural gas sector in British Columbia has shown signs of weakness which is an indication that there is an urgent need to reform the method of economic regulation of federally regulated upstream facilities in the province. It is the view of the BC government that the split regulatory jurisdiction between the provincial and federal governments as regards pipeline toll methodology, risk sharing by gas shippers, and effects on gas resource development, must be harmonized. Various recommendations for reform were presented

  1. Internal Process of Corporate Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Daniel A.

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the preliminary process of corporate advocacy, which provides direction for issues management. Provides insights into: (1) the degree to which organizational spokespersons are willing to express a position on a variety of issues; (2) how such positions come to be advocated through organizational communication; and (3) how organizational…

  2. Invisible wounds: corporal punishment in British schools as a form of ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, J

    1991-01-01

    This article examines a presumed historical association between corporal punishment and the British "ruling class," taking as data the elaborate forms of beating practiced at a well-known English fee-paying boarding school in the 1950s and here documented in detail. Analogies with other forms of ritual studied by anthropologists are considered, as well as the psychosexual dynamics of beating for both officiants and victims. The paper argues that ritual corporal punishment must be seen in retrospect as a clear case of child abuse that is both physical and sexual. Such rituals of authority, though virtually abolished in Britain, may well exist in a different form in present day residential institutions for children in some Third World countries that have borrowed from now outdated European practices. PMID:1959071

  3. British Columbia oil and gas handbook, section 3 : planning framework. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelines and requirements regarding the planning aspects of oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia are presented. Land use planning, including compliance with land use management plans, the forest practices code, protected areas strategy, access management, federal and provincial environmental assessment, heritage conservation, First Nations considerations, public consultation, and petroleum and natural gas tenure system are some of the topics covered. A summary of the Environmental Assessment Act and an overview of the federal environmental assessment process are also included. 1 fig

  4. Mantra or Gimmick - Political Framing of Corporate Social Responsibility in British Newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Mosonyi, Szilvia

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to add to the existing research on the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and media by considering news outlets that are studied by a broader public, hence have a greater impact on the public opinion. Furthermore, the purpose is to examine how the meaning of Corporate Social Responsibility is constructed through them. The paper hypothesises that this construction process is influenced partly by the political ideologies of the newspap...

  5. British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission 2. annual report (1999/2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) is a regulatory agency which was created in 1998 to oversee oil and gas industry operations in the province including exploration, development, reclamation and pipeline transportation systems. In addition, the OGC resolves industry land use and economic issues related to Aboriginal Lands on behalf of the province. This annual report highlights the operational performance and outlines business priorities and initiatives. Environmental Fund and Advisory Committee activity were also presented along with financial data for fiscal 1999-2000. Given that the OGC is a young agency, it took the year to stabilize its organization and finalize primary recruitment. Its business processes were also reorganized and streamlined. The year also saw an increase in oil and gas activity in Northeast British Columbia. The process to improve relationships with First Nations was initiated. All of the operations and application functions in Fort St. John were consolidated. Applications received during 1999-2000 were 63 per cent higher than the previous year. The OGC also conducted more than 2500 consultations with Treaty 8 First Nations on various applications. The future will focus on innovation and the effective use of technology with a leading edge workforce. 1999/2000 saw record rig activity for the province. In January 2000 there were more than 120 rigs operating in the province. tabs

  6. 76 FR 18213 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 23, 2011, Corning Natural Gas Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978...

  7. Analysis of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Corporation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弋亚群; 李垣

    2003-01-01

    Except for reanalysis of the business process reengineering, this paper also discusses the relation of BPR and corporation strategy. We connect the processes, staffs and customers, through corporate strategy, and provide a processes triangle of corporate strategy.

  8. Regulating the access and use of the British gas network; Le modalita` di accesso alla rete britannica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Alessandro [RIE Srl, Bologna (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    In the UK the Network Code, regulating the access and use of the British gas network and stating gas transportation companies` rights and duties, has fully come into effect since September 1996: in practice, it comprises all rules applying to BG TransCo, the proper British Gas unit transporting and storing gas on third parties` account.

  9. 75 FR 80486 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation resubmitted marked and clean...

  10. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised. PMID:18304713

  11. THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS IN TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Œlusarczyk; Robert Golnik

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to recruitment and human resources approach to transnational corporations. Factors like: employee ability, education, skills, experience, behaviours, personality traits and motivations influencing the company’s prosperity. That’s why recruiting process is so important to pick appropriate candidate from the market and bring to company some extra value through this actions. The theoretical approach to this problem has been complemented by a case study of corporations that...

  12. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  13. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nekhoda, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Kolbysheva, Yuliya Vladimirovna; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-01-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  14. Fuel gas conditioning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  15. Reducing produced water leaks and spills by improving industry compliance in British Columbia's natural gas sector

    OpenAIRE

    Notte, Chelsea Althea

    2014-01-01

    The International Energy Association asserts that natural gas is poised to enter a golden age. This is particularly true for British Columbia, which possesses world-class shale gas reserves. Produced water – the water emanating from fracturing shale - is the largest waste stream associated with oil and gas activities. Wastewater associated with natural gas extraction is highly toxic and has serious implications for environmental and human health if spilled or leaked. Because of the corrosive ...

  16. Corporate strategies for European gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1992, the Commission of the European Economic Community issued a proposal for accelerating the process of building up a single market for natural gas. After the first step, already taken, to introduce price transparency, the Commission is willing to introduce progressively Third Party Access (T.P.A.) and the freedom of establishment in all segments of the natural gas industry: L.N.G. terminals, storage facilities, transmission lines and public distribution. 1 tab

  17. "Bankruptcy Law, Corporate Finance, and Corporate Revival Process in Japan"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Noriyuki Yanagawa; Sumio Hirose; Fumio Akiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate revival processes in Japan. In recent years, corporate revival processes are drastically changing in Japan. For example, important bankruptcy laws have been revised and Industrial Revitalization Corporation was established. Moreover, many corporate revival funds are actively investing. This paper explains those new movements and examines how those new activities will change the Japanese economy.

  18. Prospects for Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from British Columbia: An Application of Monte Carlo Cost-Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matt Zahynacz

    2013-01-01

    British Columbia’s natural gas industry is currently facing competitive pressures from other gas-producing jurisdictions in North America. The emergence of shale gas developments has resulted in natural gas prices falling dramatically. Nonetheless, British Columbia is positioned to take advantage of growing markets in Asia that have considerably higher prices than in North America through the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in carrier ships. This paper aims to assess the economic viabil...

  19. The British Columbia natural gas market overview and assessment : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report provides an assessment of the natural gas market in British Columbia (BC) and discusses several issues facing the market. The main challenges facing the market in recent years have been rising prices, price spikes and increased price volatility. New exploration and development projects have been announced along with new gas pipeline projects that move gas to eastern markets. Industrial consumers are exploring fuel alternatives to reduce natural gas consumption. Despite these challenges, the Board believes the natural gas market in British Columbia is working well. Natural gas prices are integrated with the North American market, consumers have responded to higher prices by reducing demand, and producers have increased exploration and production. Price discovery has improved due to better pricing reporting standards and access to electronic gas trading at pricing points for BC gas. The small market size in British Columbia and the lack of storage in the Lower Mainland limit market liquidity in comparison with other major market centres. 20 figs

  20. Strategic Marketing Management Process of Amway Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was analyzing case company- Amway Corporation‟s stra-tegic marketing management process focusing on Chinese market. Amway Corpora-tion is the largest direct selling company around the world. An important part of this study is trying to find and give recommendations to the case company on how to im-prove their marketing management strategy. The theoretical part is focusing on analyzing strategic marketing management proc-ess. Six important parts are under it incl...

  1. Business strategy and firm performance: the British corporate economy, 1949-1984

    OpenAIRE

    Antcliff, V.; Higgins, D.; Toms, S.; Wilson, J. F.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable and ongoing debate about the performance of the British economy since 1945. Empirical studies have concentrated on aggregate or industry level indicators. Few have examined individual firms’ financial performance. This study takes a sample of c.3000 firms in 19 industries and identifies Britain’s best performing companies over a period of 35 years. Successful companies are defined as a) those that survive as independent entities, b) that outperform peer group avera...

  2. Shareholder Voting Power and Corporate Governance: A Study of Large British Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Leech

    2001-01-01

    The pattern of ownership and control of British industry is unusual compared with most other countries in that ownership is relatively dispersed. Majority ownership by a single shareholder is unusual. It is not uncommon for the largest shareholding to be under 20 percent and in many cases much less than that. A similar pattern occurs in the USA. The question of voting power is the focus of this paper. Conventional analyses of control through voting use a 20% rule to identify a controlling blo...

  3. Corporate entrepreneurship in a dispersed setting : actors, behaviors, and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belousova, Olga; Gailly, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Although conceptual models of the corporate entrepreneurship process are numerous, our current empirical knowledge regarding it remains fragmented, especially concerning the contributions of individual employees to corporate entrepreneurship. Thus, two important questions remain unanswered: How do e

  4. Corporate takeovers in the US oil and gas sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine corporate takeovers in the U.S. oil and gas sector from 1990 to 2008. We test the hypotheses that energy prices and reserves influence takeovers in the energy market for corporate control. We employ these methods: 1. capital asset pricing model, 2. regression analysis, and 3. Granger causality test. Our results show that oil reserves cause takeover deals and affect the value of the merger. High oil prices propel management to acquire oil firms as well as affect the target value. However, the reverse cause-effect mechanism occurs for natural gas prices. That is, takeover activity causes gas prices to decrease. Acquirers are motivated to purchase reserves; whereas, targets are disposed to sell based on energy prices. Hence, our findings imply that countries can consider policies, which address the motivations of the oil and gas industries to facilitate well-functioning takeover markets.

  5. Institutions and processes for scaling up renewables: Run-of-river hydropower in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dramatic scale-up of renewable energy over the coming decades is likely to pose significant challenges for coordinating land use allocation, environmental assessment, energy system planning and the design of greenhouse gas abatement policy. Of particular concern is the establishment of institutions and processes that enable consideration of multiple objectives and attributes, with adequate representation of affected interests, and without resulting in excessive delays in the development of renewable energy as part of a greenhouse gas abatement strategy. This paper uses the Canadian province of British Columbia as a case study for describing these challenges and the responses of policy makers seeking to rapidly scale-up renewables. Using evaluative criteria to assess this experience, we identify lessons that may be applicable to other jurisdictions seeking to quickly expand the production of renewable energy. These lessons include the design of institutions and processes that would likely be required in almost any jurisdiction with similar aims. - Research highlights: → Tension exists between mitigating climate change through substantial renewable energy development and the local environmental impacts associated with this development. → The deployment of renewable energy technologies required for climate change mitigation is likely to lead to intensifying conflicts over land-use. → For this deployment to be successful, institutions and processes must be able to integrate and consider trade-offs related to goals and interests at different scales of decision making.

  6. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-12-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear methods to derive consistent corporate target setting that keeps cumulative corporate GHG emissions within a specific carbon budget (for example, 550-1,300 GtCO2 between 2011 and 2050 for the 2 °C target). Here we propose a method for corporate emissions target setting that derives carbon intensity pathways for companies based on sectoral pathways from existing mitigation scenarios: the Sectoral Decarbonization Approach (SDA). These company targets take activity growth and initial performance into account. Next to target setting on company level, the SDA can be used by companies, policymakers, investors or other stakeholders as a benchmark for tracking corporate climate performance and actions, providing a mechanism for corporate accountability.

  7. Sparing the rod: reflections on the aboliton of corporal punishment in the UK and the increase in violence in British schools

    OpenAIRE

    Parker-Jenkins, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Britain was the last state in Western Europe to give-up the practice of using corporal punishment in 1986, and behind other regions, such as Scandinavian countries, most of Australia, and South Africa in its reluctance to officially end this sanction. The impetus for change came from the necessity to reconcile British custom and practice with articles contained in the European Convention on Human Rights. A decade has now passed since the abolition of physical chastisement as a disciplinary me...

  8. BC Hydro - IPC review : report on the creation of IPC International Power Corporation and its joint venture with the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the Raiwind power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BC Hydro is one of the sponsors involved in the construction of a thermal electric power plant in Raiwind, Pakistan. As a Crown corporation, BC Hydro and its participation in the project is subject to the policies and priorities of the provincial government. This document describes the circumstances surrounding the creation of the International Power Corporation (IPC) and its joint venture with BC Hydro for the development of international power projects including the Raiwind project. The project has provoked much public discussion in British Columbia because of the involvement of Cayman Island companies in the project structure. There is concern with the intermingling of public and private interests in the project, including allegations that an IPC share offering benefited insiders of government and BC Hydro. A description of the history and structure of the Raiwind project and detailed information on the British Columbia participants is provided. Directors and shareholders of the principal corporate participants are listed. The development process in Pakistan, the key features of the project and the underlying agreements among the participants are described. An assessment of potential conflicts of interest and a review of public sector standards and guidelines regarding conflicts of interest is presented. 60 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Corporate Sustainability and Shareholder Wealth—Evidence from British Companies and Lessons from the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Bezares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of corporate sustainability (CS on stock market returns for FTSE 350 companies over the period 2006–2012. We find that an investment strategy that bought shares in companies with balanced financial, social, and environmental activities would have earned an annual four-factor alpha for a value-weighted portfolio of 3.54% per year during the sample period and 2.98% above industry benchmarks. In addition, we find that CS is negatively correlated with stock return volatility, and investing in companies with CS not only generates higher returns during peak phases, but also diminishes shareholders’ losses during bear phases. We have also carried out an additional, out-of-the-sample analysis for the years 2013–2015 which confirmed our results.

  10. Exploring the rationale of the process behind corporate sponsorships

    OpenAIRE

    Ystad, Sunniva G. Marchioro; Nygaard, Kaja Gjersem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine and identify the process behind the delegation of corporate sponsorships in a Norwegian context. Corporate sponsorships are presently the third largest corporate communication channel in Norway. However, there is limited research on sponsorship management. The thesis seeks to identify the process and investigate the rationale behind it. To be able to research this, an explorative study was conducted, by means of a grounded theory design. First, a m...

  11. Recent developments in blast furnace process control within British Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, P.W. [British Steel Technical, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom). Teesside Labs.

    1995-12-01

    British Steel generally operates seven blast furnaces on four integrated works. All furnaces have been equipped with comprehensive instrumentation and data logging computers over the past eight years. The four Scunthorpe furnaces practice coal injection up to 170 kg/tHM (340 lb/THM), the remainder injecting oil at up to 100 kg/tHM (200 lb/THM). Distribution control is effected by Paul Wurth Bell-Less Tops on six of the seven furnaces, and Movable Throat Armour with bells on the remaining one. All have at least one sub burden probe. The blast furnace operator has a vast quantity of data and signals to consider and evaluate when attempting to achieve the objective of providing a consistent supply of hot metal. Techniques have been, and are being, developed to assist the operator to interpret large numbers of signals. A simple operator guidance system has been developed to provide advice, based on current operating procedures and interpreted data. Further development will involve the use of a sophisticated Expert System software shell.

  12. British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Exploring the economics of a Montney Shale gas development on both sides of the border : British Columbia versus Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Montney tight gas formation occurs in both British Columbia and Alberta. Both provinces have developed revised fiscal regimes that have a direct impact on the economic feasibility of a shale gas project, particularly given the soft prices in the gas market. This presentation examined the economic performance of the Montney development on both sides of the border and drew conclusions on the competitiveness of each of the regimes. Specifically, the presentation discussed well modelling parameters for the Montney formation and provided a fiscal analysis of regimes in Alberta and British Columbia. This analysis identified the impact of royalty incentive programs on the Montney well using constant price assumptions and regional costs without escalations and also examined effective royalty rates over time. An investment analysis of the Montney well in Alberta and British Columbia was also presented in which economic indicators of the regimes were compared using market price forecasting and regional costs and standardized costs with escalations. It was concluded that British Columbia has a more attractive royalty regime once the Alberta natural gas deep drilling program expires, but the cost of drilling is typically higher. British Columbia West Montney is the most attractive region for comparable production profiles. tabs., figs.

  14. Geological controls and regional shale gas potential of the Lower Cretaceous shales of NE British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmers, G.; Bustin, R.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Geological controls on gas capacity and reservoir evaluation of lower Cretaceous shales in northeastern British Colombia were discussed. The location of the study area and a gas shale model were first introduced. The methodology was described with reference to rock evaluation analysis, high pressure methane sorption analysis, porosity, surface area of pores and x-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy. Data on total organic carbon (TOC) content was provided along with other types of geological controls such as kerogen type, maturity, mineralogy, surface area of pores, and moisture content. Clay mineralogy and data on pure clay sorption capacities were also presented. TOC content was found to be the primary control on sorption capacity. The presentation also discussed a regional reservoir evaluation of the organic-rich basal layer on the Garbutt-Moosebar-Wilrich-Buckinghorse formations. Isopach maps provided data on distribution of TOC and maturity; distribution of kerogen types and the oil/gas windows; and reservoir conditions of temperature and hydrostatic pressure. The effects of temperature on sorption capacity and porosity and total gas capacity were also presented in graphical format. Last, the presentation addressed exploration considerations for lower-K shales. tabs., figs.

  15. Financial structure of Korea Gas Corporation's LNG projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an Indonesian LNG tanker arrived in Korea for the first time in October 1986, Korea became the seventh LNG-consuming nation in the world. The imported LNG has contributed greatly to solving pollution problems and ensuring a stable supply of energy to Korea through the diversification of energy sources. So far, the LNG supply has been confined to the Metropolitan area. The Korea Gas Corporation now plans to expand the LNG supply to cover the entire nation. This paper introduces the experience and future plan of Korea's LNG projects with a special reference to their financial structure

  16. Emergency gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides an emergency gas processing device which discharged contaminated air in a reactor building to the outside. Namely, a suction port of an emergency gas processing pipeline is disposed in the inside of the reactor building. The exit of the pipeline is connected to an exhaustion pipe of the building. On the side of the inlet of the pipeline, there are disposed an inlet valve, an air dryer, a blower, a filter unit and an exit valve from the suction port to the downstream. A heater is disposed to the air dryer. A recycling pipeline equipped with an automatic closing valve for connecting the inlet side of the inlet valve and the inlet side of the exit valve is disposed. Then, the moisture in an emergency gas flown from the inlet valve is removed, heated by the heater, and the temperature of the emergency gas is elevated. Impurities are removed by the filter unit. The automatic closing valve of the recycling pipeline is opened and the blower and the heater are operated to keep the temperature and humidity in the filter unit to a predetermined value during stand-by time. Upon occurrence of an accident, the automatic closing valve is closed, and the aimed system operation is preformed. (I.S.)

  17. Process gas solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for withdrawing gaseous UF6 from a first system and directing same into a second system for converting the gas to liquid UF6 at an elevated temperature, additionally including the step of withdrawing the resulting liquid UF6 from the second system, subjecting it to a specified sequence of flash-evaporation, cooling and solidification operations, and storing it as a solid in a plurality of storage vessels. (author)

  18. Trade policy, health, and corporate influence: British American tobacco and China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley; Gilmore, Anna; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco market liberalization can have a profound impact on health. This article analyzes internal documents of British American Tobacco (BAT), released as a result of litigation in the United States, in order to examine the company's attempts to influence negotiations over China's accession to the World Trade Organization. The documents demonstrate that BAT attempted to influence these negotiations through a range of mechanisms, including personal access of BAT employees and lobbyists to policymakers; employment of former civil servants from key U.K. government departments; use of organized business groups such as the Multinational Chairmen's Group and the European Round Table; and participation and leadership in forums organized by Chatham House. These processes contributed to significant concessions on the liberalization of the tobacco market in China, although the failure to break the Chinese state monopoly over the manufacture and distribution of cigarettes has ensured that foreign tobacco companies' share of the Chinese market has remained small. World Trade Organization accession has nevertheless led to a profound restructuring of the Chinese tobacco industry in anticipation of foreign competition, which may result in more market-based and internationally oriented Chinese tobacco firms. PMID:20799669

  19. Market Discipline, Information Processing, and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Hellwig, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The paper reviews and assesses our understanding of the notion of “market discipline†in corporate governance. It questions the wholesale appeal to this notion in policy discussion, which fails to provide an account of the underlying mechanisms in terms of theory and empirical analysis. Discipline that is provided by the “market†must be compared to discipline that is provided by other institutions, e.g., intermediaries acting as “delegated monitors†. The comparative assessment depe...

  20. Paradigmatic Transformation of Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilina Galina V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper compares traditional and modern paradigms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and reveals the challenge of their transformation. The influence of global processes is discovered from the point of view of J. Habermas’ concept of “postnational constellation”. Another reason of new paradigm development is a globalization of ecological problems. The consequence of these factors lead the integration of corporate social responsibility into the organizational structure of the companies...

  1. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its...

  2. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected...

  3. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  4. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its...

  5. 75 FR 27772 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation, (Corning) filed its Statement...

  6. 75 FR 28602 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing May 17, 2010. Take notice that on May 10, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation, (Corning) filed a corrected...

  7. Build corporate online reputation by a monitoring process. Facilitators-agents process applied to La Poste

    OpenAIRE

    Alloing, Camille

    2013-01-01

    This research within La Poste's DSIC is focused on corporate reputation and on e-reputation through the prism of information and communication sciences. It proposes the development of a web monitoring and a social search process enabling to assess, manage and build online reputation. At first, we present a theoretical framework for corporate reputation as an info-communicational object. Then we discuss corporate e-reputation such as a strategic information made up of all commensuration indica...

  8. Essays on corporate default process: UK and France

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam, Nirjhar

    2011-01-01

    The thesis has been conducted upon a unique and primary database manually collected through courts and various reliable sources (governmental and non-governmental offices). This is the major strength of this thesis. With such a database, we built individual statistics on the corporate bankruptcies process in for two major European countries (France and United Kingdom). The collected data deals with the causes of financial default, the recovery rates of creditors, the process of decision makin...

  9. Gas recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to decontaminate a gas stream containing radioactive krypton, a preliminary step of removing oxygen and oxides of nitrogen by catalytic reaction with hydrogen is performed. The gas stream is then passed serially through a drier, a carbon dioxide adsorber and a xenon adsorber to remove sequentially water, CO2 and xenon therefrom. The gas exiting the xenon adsorber is passed to a krypton recovery plant wherein krypton is concentrated to a first level in a primary distillation column by contact with a reflux liquid in a packed section of the column. The liquid and vapour collecting at the bottom of the column is passed to a separator in which the liquid is separated from the vapour. The liquid is partially evaporated in a vessel to increase concentration thereof and is brought to a concentration of approximately 90 mole % or greater in a second distillation column thereby enabling efficient storage of a radioactive krypton product. (author)

  10. How can the British motorway services industry integrate corporate social responsibility strategies into business practice: A case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Stakeholder theory is considered within a corporate social responsibility context and applied to the motorway service industry. The application is focused on a specific case study site; Hopwood Park. Stakeholder salience model is considered within the identification of stakeholders of the site. A range of methodologies are then used and tested to engage within four specific stakeholder groups; employees, customers, community and the environment. Engagements allow understanding of co...

  11. RISK MANAGEMENT IN UK CORPORATIONS: COMPARING FINANCIAL SERVICE INDUSTRY, OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY AND OTHER NON-FINANACIAL INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Olaseinde, Olumide, K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The focus of this research is to determine whether UK corporations (comparing firms in the financial service industry, oil and gas industry and other non-financial industries) have a more formal developed risk management process. Despite regulations and recommendations (such as the Walker review (2009), the Turner review (2009), the Financial Reporting Council (2011) etc.) there are only limited information on how firms manage risk and how they report risk management processes to...

  12. Processing of exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon carbide is an important component in exhaust gas filters for diesel engines. Norway produces and refines SiC, which is used in fireproof and ceramic industry and as an abrasive. It is also increasingly used in electronic industry. The emission from diesel engines consists of small spherical soot particles with an appendage of fuel, lubricating oil, water and sulphur compounds. These particles are intercepted by silicon carbide filters. There is a world-wide demand for environmentally friendly diesel engines and a growing demand for silicon carbide. From 2002, the EU permits a maximum emission of 0.025 grams per km of driving

  13. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  14. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  15. Enterprise Systems Implementations: Organizational Influence Processes for Corporate User Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nordheim, Stig

    2008-01-01

    -depth, interpretive study from the oil industry, where we analyze a case of innovative integration of an ECM system with collaboration technologies. The data collection has been longitudinal. The data analysis has been performed through the perspective of organizational influence processes. The main finding concerns...... an organizational role as corporate user representative to deal with the scale and complexities of implementation. A single person was particularly influential in the role. At the outset a user representative had to perform upward influence processes from a lower formal position. This is impeding the...

  16. Radioactive gas processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To safely and surely process water containing radioactive materials removed by a demister disposed to the upstream of a radioactive material capturing filter device and prevent them from leaking to the outside of the system. Constitution: Upon occurrence of LOCA, water content in processed gases sent from a blower started by an automatic start signal are removed by a demister, flown downwardly and then stored in a communication pipe. The stored drain water is evaporated by heating from a water evaporating heater and, after circulated to the downstream pipeline of the filter, released by way of a draining pipe into the atmosphere. Water soluble radioactive materials are contained in the drain water removed by the demister and flown into the communication pipe. Accordingly, after the accident has been cleared a small amount of drain water remained after the heater evaporation may be contained within the drain container by opening a drain valve, by which transportation or re-processing of the drain water is facilitated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu; Mustafa Şahin Gülaboğlu

    2013-01-01

    The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue g...

  18. Capturing value from gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that if you are looking for a way to create value, you may not have to look any further than your gas processing assets. Capturing value from gas processing may seem impossible, given the tough times the industry has been experiencing. But gas processing is moving into a new era and some early movers are already capitalizing on the opportunities being created. They are making real cuts in operating costs. They are not afraid of the R word (rationalization). And they are creating or strengthening attributes that give them a unique competitive advantage. What are these efforts worth? The authors estimate that they can increase the value of gas processing assets by up to 150 percent. For a typical 100 MMcfd processing facility, that could mean $100 million. If you want to make more from your gas processing assets, it is important to understand the forces that have been pushing the industry into a new era. You also need to take a closer look at what early movers are doing and the value creation opportunities for companies and the industry as a whole. All of that will provide a context for thinking about how your company can capture those opportunities

  19. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OF RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Orazalin, Nurlan; Makarov, Rashid; Ospanova, Madina

    2015-01-01

    This study explores corporate governance practices in Russian oil and gas companies over the 2009-2012 periods and examines the relationship between accounting performance measures and corporate governance mechanisms. Our findings suggest that managerial ownership and foreign ownership are positively associated with firm performance. Similarly, the results on government ownership also support our initial hypothesis and indicate that government ownership positively affects accounting performan...

  20. Corporeal blood gas changes according to duration of drug-induced prolonged erection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.C.; Seo, K. K.; Oh, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    The corporeal blood gas changes in accordance with the duration of the prolonged erection which developed after intracorporeal pharmacotherapy with papaverine and phentolamine were investigated in 62 impotence patients. The picture of the corporeal blood taken from 15 psychogenic impotence patients (a control group) at 10 minutes after intracavernous injection when they showed full erections was arterial but there was pCO2 rise and pH drop compared to femoral artery blood taken simultaneously...

  1. Two British Columbia University Colleges and the Process of Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative investigation identified a condition of frenetic change experienced by two colleges in British Columbia, Canada, accompanying their change from community colleges to university colleges. Explored how economic globalization influenced the formation and functioning of these institutions. (EV)

  2. Processes of forming, accumulation and exchange of intellectual capital by multinational corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Евеліна Олександрівна Панченко

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with scientific approaches to intellectual capital structure of multinational corporations. The main approaches to the management, creation, storage and sharing of intellectual capital MNCs are investigated. The author determine the structure of intellectual capital businesses (including transnational corporations is given. The main processes of intellectual capital management of transnational corporations are systematizies and described.

  3. Gas purification using membrane gas absorption processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dindore, Vishwas Yashwant

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the increasing energy demand and the abundance of low quality natural gas reservoirs containing high percentages of CO2, considerable attention is given to the bulk removal of CO2 and upgrading of low quality natural gas. The main goal in doing so is to increase the heating value of natural gas and to reduce the transportation cost.

  4. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  5. "From ad hoc to a planned way of working": Use of processes and process models in corporate communication

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Objectives of the Study This study focuses on the use of communication processes in corporate communication and aims to show how international business communication as a discipline could benefit from process thinking. The main research question is: How can process thinking be utilized in corporate communication? Therefore, the study had two objectives. The first objective was to find out how corporate communication function can benefit from process thinking, and identification, and do...

  6. Use of graphics in the design office at the Military Aircraft Division of the British Aircraft Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The CAD/CAM interactive computer graphics system was described; uses to which it has been put were shown, and current developments of the system were outlined. The system supports batch, time sharing, and fully interactive graphic processing. Engineers using the system may switch between these methods of data processing and problem solving to make the best use of the available resources. It is concluded that the introduction of on-line computing in the form of teletypes, storage tubes, and fully interactive graphics has resulted in large increases in productivity and reduced timescales in the geometric computing, numerical lofting and part programming areas, together with a greater utilization of the system in the technical departments.

  7. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and

  8. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  9. Data quality and processing for decision making: divergence between corporate strategy and manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ronald D.; Miele, Renato; Shaul, Dennis

    2000-10-01

    Information technology is driving improvements in manufacturing systems. Results are higher productivity and quality. However, corporate strategy is driven by a number of factors and includes data and pressure from multiple stakeholders, which includes employees, managers, executives, stockholders, boards, suppliers and customers. It is also driven by information about competitors and emerging technology. Much information is based on processing of data and the resulting biases of the processors. Thus, stakeholders can base inputs on faulty perceptions, which are not reality based. Prior to processing, data used may be inaccurate. Sources of data and information may include demographic reports, statistical analyses, intelligence reports (e.g., marketing data), technology and primary data collection. The reliability and validity of data as well as the management of sources and information is critical element to strategy formulation. The paper explores data collection, processing and analyses from secondary and primary sources, information generation and report presentation for strategy formulation and contrast this with data and information utilized to drive internal process such as manufacturing. The hypothesis is that internal process, such as manufacturing, are subordinate to corporate strategies. The impact of possible divergence in quality of decisions at the corporate level on IT driven, quality-manufacturing processes based on measurable outcomes is significant. Recommendations for IT improvements at the corporate strategy level are given.

  10. The Role of Internal Audit in the Corporate Governance Process

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Oana Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The recent years brought a recognition on the importance of corporate governance in ensuring a quality of the financial statements and detecting fraud. The internal audit is a monitoring tool for the management thus is an important piece of the corporate governance mechanism. The objective of this paper is to examine on how the internal audit function can ensure a good corporate governance. Detailing we try to establish to what extent the internal audit serve as resource for the three parties...

  11. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    . The company started with a venturous search for oil in Iran in the early 1900s to eventually become a multinational oil and gas conglomerate among the world’s largest energy companies. The company grew by developing oil fields around the world including demanding locations like Alaska, the North Sea...... management, leadership development and corporate governance that all grapple with issues of responsible ethical behaviour. This case is part of the CBS free case collection (visit www.thecasecentre.org/CBSfreecases for more information on the collection). This case can be downloaded by educators as a clean...

  12. The pollutants removal and bacterial community dynamics relationship within a full-scale British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater treatment using a novel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    The novel system of EBA (based on external circulation anaerobic (EC) process-biological enhanced (BE) process-anoxic/oxic (A/O) process) was applied to treat the British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in Erdos, China. After a long time of commissioning, the EBA system represented a stable and highly efficient performance, particularly, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile phenols in the final effluent reached 53, 0.3, 18, 106mg/L and not detected, respectively. Both the GC-MS and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses revealed significant variations of organic compositions in the effluent of different process. The results of high-throughput sequencing represented the EBA system composed 34 main bacteria which were affiliated to 7 phyla. In addition, the canonical correspondence analysis indicated high coherence among community composition, wastewater characteristics and environmental variables, in which the pH, mixed liquid suspended solids and total phenols loading were the most three significant variables. PMID:26476170

  13. Assessing the Assessment Process: An Institutional Analysis of the Corporate Bond Rating Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Apkarian, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This research draws on neo-institutional theories to examine how the power of major bond rating agencies affects the corporate credit rating process. Specifically, it analyzes the extent to which major corporate bond rating agencies encourage engagement in normative practices by corporate firms through the bond rating process. Contrary to initial hypotheses, bond rating agencies discourage firm emphasis on core competencies, shareholder value, and financialization, despite the popularity of t...

  14. Transformation processes of the corporate development in Russia: corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Sergeyevna Belyayeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial and economic crises made the level of readiness to changes in the different types of organizations throughout the world and Russia visible. Variation of social and economic programmes implemented by governmental and corporate sectors is widely seen; not all of them work positively for the population, especially in the countries with emerging markets. At the same time, twenty years of the market economy in Russia, for instance, have definitely built a new social and economic system, but whether it has changed fundamentally in the management techniques? This research generalizes some trends of the corporate development in Russia in the context of social responsibility and socio-economic transformation. The author attempts to define Russia's place on the world map of corporate social responsibility. The opportunities for Russia to learn from foreign experience are also examined.

  15. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  16. Critical Spaces: Processes of Othering in British Institutions of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretha Phiri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Global recession and the economic crisis have affected contemporary British society in predictable ways. But this age of austerity has also unveiled the continued sinister machinations of whiteness. While not necessarily homogeneous, austerity rhetoric, as it is currently conventionally deployed, works to perpetuate white masculinist privilege and further entrenches the normative value of whiteness, while simultaneously masking and marginalizing those ethnic minority populations traditionally othered from mainstream sociopolitical discourse. More specifically, recent austerity measures adversely affect the situation of women and the future of feminist theory and practice in British higher education. This paper investigates and problematizes the deployment of austerity discourse within higher learning for its perpetuation of the normativity and hegemony of a masculinist whiteness, which further disadvantages (white women and disrupts the practice of feminism(s in academia.

  17. THE SPECIFICITY OF EDUCATIONAL PROCESS WHILE TRAINING SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Kremnyova, T.

    2006-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of teaching masters of the highest quality for social work. It is noted that in the countries of the British Commonwealth curricula acquire the status of international orientation in educational matter. The role of the international expert standards, promoting the development of teaching programmes for social work, is underlined. The definition of the concept 'standardas something common, reflecting the model of social work is given. It is marked that the...

  18. Correlation Analysis between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance of Chinese Food-processing Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-jin Fu; Ju-qin Shen

    2015-01-01

    This study is to clarify the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the enterprise financial performance. On the basis of the stakeholder theory and social contract theory which explain the connotation of corporate social responsibility, this study uses the panel data from 63 listed Chinese food-processing companies to empirically test whether corporate social responsibility can significantly affect the financial performance. After putting forth the research hypothesis and q...

  19. REVIEW OF NATURAL GAS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    High pressure pipelines are the most common way of natural gas transport from a gas field to a processing plant and further to consumers. In case when the distance between natural gas production and consumption regions is more than 4000 kilometers, and due to necessity of natural gas supply diversification, gas liquefaction and its transport by ships is being applied. The final choice of liquefaction process depends on the project variables, the development level of new or upgrading of alread...

  20. Report of the public review panel on the Government of Canada moratorium on offshore oil and gas activities in the Queen Charlotte Region, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddle, R.; Scott, D.; Valiela, D.

    2004-10-29

    The Public Review Panel was established to solicit the opinions of British Columbians on the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas activities in the Queen Charlotte Region, British Columbia. The issues are essentially whether or not the economic benefits outweigh the environmental risks. The consensus was that there were gaps in the knowledge of what the effects of oil and gas activity would have on the environment. What was not in agreement, however, was whether the moratorium should be kept in place until such knowledge is obtained, or whether the lifting of the moratorium is a prerequisite for obtaining this information. Many respondents considered that the Queen Charlotte Region is a priceless natural possession that should be kept pristine. Native and environmental groups were overwhelmingly opposed to the lifting of the moratorium, whereas most local governments in coastal areas were in favour. Business respondents were in favour by a fairly large, but not overwhelming, margin.

  1. A Shock to the Conscience: The Due Process Clause and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving an injured football player, an 11th Circuit judge viewed a coach's refusal to stop a fight as corporal punishment. Federal courts in five circuits have ruled that excessive corporal punishment violates the Due Process Clause if it is so brutal and harmful that it shocks the court's conscience. (MLH)

  2. THE INTERESTS CORPORATE ENTITIES IN THE PROCESS OF ECONOMIC SECURITY ASSOCIATED GOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л.М. СОЛОДОВНИК

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  Models directive influences on the activities of mining companies are considered. Effect of corporate structure vertically integrated business portfolio on economic security associated mining companies is investigated. The nature of the process of corporatization mining company is justified. Classification of signs of economic security within the corporation has evolved.

  3. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... will not jeopardize service to the local markets into which this natural gas might otherwise be sold... critical back-up natural gas supply service for the local market in times of peak needs on the coldest days...Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket Authorization...

  4. Corporate rebranding processes in small companies:a multiple case study from the B2B software industry

    OpenAIRE

    Juntunen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study is to build a theoretically based and empirically grounded framework that enables a better understanding of corporate rebranding processes among small companies. Corporate rebranding is addressed from a visual viewpoint concentrating on changes to corporate name and logo. The theoretical background is based on corporate branding, corporate rebranding and organisational change literature. The research setting is small software companies that op...

  5. Correlation Analysis between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance of Chinese Food-processing Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-jin Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is to clarify the relationship between corporate social responsibility and the enterprise financial performance. On the basis of the stakeholder theory and social contract theory which explain the connotation of corporate social responsibility, this study uses the panel data from 63 listed Chinese food-processing companies to empirically test whether corporate social responsibility can significantly affect the financial performance. After putting forth the research hypothesis and quantifying the research index in the perspective that corporate social responsibility is the contract followed by various stakeholders, correlation analysis and multiple regression are commenced in the research process. The regression result shows that partly of the variables reflecting corporate social responsibility, such as the ratio of net cash flow from operating to liabilities and the ratio of business taxes and surcharges to main business income, are positively correlated with variables describing financial performance, while others, such as the ratio of social donation expenditure to main business income, are not.

  6. Discharge Processes in Gas Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the contemporary knowledge of some important discharge processes occurring in gas discharge lasers. The classification of gas lasers in terms of gaseous species, pumping mechanisms and discharge geometries allows convenient discussion of their general properties. With emphasis on the associated discharge properties, the different methods to obtain population inversion are considered. Included are the discharge processes involved in (1) direct excitation, (2) resonant energy transfer, (3) optical pumping, (4) adiabatic expansion and (5) chemical pumping. The last grouping includes the achievement of a population inversion by way of dissociation or photodissociation, oxidation and recombination or charge transfer. The diagnostic techniques applied to the present three principal lasers: the helium-neon, the argon ion and the CO2-N2 lasers, are considered in some detail. For the He-Ne laser the diagnostic techniques of spontaneous sidelight observations and of ''laser perturbation spectroscopy'' are described. The sidelight observations give data on relative population changes of excited states. Metastable atom densities are obtained by means of absorption measurements. An external spoiling or modulation of the lasering action may be used as a defined perturbation of the laser levels. Using phase-sensitive detection, these population perturbations may be followed as they are distributed by radiative cascade to allowed lower levels. The modulations of higher level excited state populations and of the discharge current allows estimations of cumulative ionization and excitation, while the degree of applicability of any radiative-collisional decay model can be checked by detailed balancing of the distribution of the modulated populations. These data, together with a knowledge of the properties of the optical cavity, allows an estimation of the excitation rates and cross-sections involved, including collisions with excited atoms (information which is

  7. An overview of steps and tools for the corporate real estate strategy alignment process

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Strategic thinking is a continuous process, alternating between thinking, planning and evaluating. Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) needs to align their strategy and activities to corporate strategy during this entire process that the organisation goes through. Along the way, many different issues need to be considered and tools used to help make the right decisions. This paper aims to provide an overview of the strategic thinking process, and identify important steps to take...

  8. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  9. Corporate Governance Induces Best Performance and Inhibits Leverage: Brazilian Industry Evidence of Oil & Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vládia Geane Moura Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study analyzes the oil industry, gas and biofuels in order to identify associations between corporate governance practices with capital structure, risk and performance.Methodology. These data were verified through 3SLS models (Three-Stage Least Squares. For this, we used a data set composed of 19 companies, for a panel data analysis in the period 2005-2009.Findings. The results suggest a negative association between leverage and corporate governance company level, supporting the substitution hypothesis, according to which the leverage works as a governance substitute. Also they did not reject the hypothesis that the greater the governance practices, greater market performances and accounting of these companies, as well as reduces the market risk.Limitations. The main limitation of this research is the sample size, 19 companies, with particular focus on an industry, reducing the generalizability of the results.Originality/Value. This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between corporate governance, capital structure, performance and risk; specifically for the oil, gas and biofuels in Brazil, an important and understudied emerging market.

  10. Gas explosions in process pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffersen, Kjetil

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, gas explosions inside pipes are considered. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are the basis of the thesis. The target of the work was to study gas explosions in pipes and to develop numer- ical models that could predict accidental gas explosions inside pipes. Experiments were performed in circular steel and plexiglass pipes. The steel pipes have an inner diameter of 22.3 mm and lengths of 1, 2, 5 and 11 m. The plexiglass pipe has an inner diame...

  11. 45 CFR 2522.400 - What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.400 What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees... staff review, and approval by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors, or their designee....

  12. Building a corporate brand : The internal brand building process in Swedish service firms

    OpenAIRE

    Åsa, Wallström; Karlsson, Ted; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2008-01-01

    There is consensus that every organisation needs to develop a strong brand as part of its business strategy. It is, however, unclear how corporate brands can be effectively developed. The aim of this study is to empirically explore the internal corporate brand-building process in Swedish service firms. This process refers to activities that occur before the implementation of the brand. This is a qualitative study in which three case studies are presented and in which purposive sampling was ap...

  13. Corporate Grouping, Resource Allocation Processes, and Protection of Minority Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Marseguerra Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of ownership structure on investment allocation decisions in a hierarchical corporate group. Such a group is characterized by an inbuilt conflict of interests since the controlling shareholder's objectives do not necessarily coincide with those of minority shareholders, the latter being only interested in the maximization of the value of the firm in which they have invested. The purpose of this paper is to derive a formal theoretical model to explain the intu...

  14. The Role of Chief Executive Officer Leadership in Institutionalizing Corporate Social Responsibility in Twenty Sustainability-Driven British and American Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Prashanth, Manoj Appuswamy

    2008-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is fundamentally a vision about the relationship of business and society that requires leadership to inspire, implement and sustain it over a period of time (World Business Council for Sustainable Development, 2008). This study identified all the contemporarily evolving styles of CSR leadership in the field of management today, both from the length of corporate information and from the breath of academic literature, and has finally settled down with seven...

  15. CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF MIXED ORGANIC AND METAL COMPOUNDS - EPA SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In November 1990, the Silicate Technology Corporation`s (STC) proprietary process for treating soil contaminated with toxic semivolatile organic and inorganic contaminants was evaluated in a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) field demonstration at the Selma Pressu...

  16. Radioactive waste gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively separate and remove only hydrogen from hydrogen gas-containing radioactive waste gases produced from nuclear power plants without using large scaled facilities. Constitution: From hydrogen gas-enriched waste gases which contain radioactive rare gases (Kr, Xe) sent from the volume control tank of a chemical volume control system, only the hydrogen is separated in a hydrogen separator using palladium alloy membrane and rare gases are concentrated, volume-decreased and then stored. In this case, an activated carbon adsorption device is connected at its inlet to the radioactive gas outlet of the hydrogen separator and opened at its outlet to external atmosphere. In this system, while only the hydrogen gas permeates through the palladium alloy membrane, other gases are introduced, without permeation, into the activated carbon adsorption device. Then, the radioactive rare gases are decayed by the adsorption on the activated carbon and then released to the external atmosphere. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. British Standard method for determination of ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/process combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the direction of the Cinematography and Photography Standards Committee, a British Standard method has been prepared for determining ISO speed and average gradient of direct-exposure medical and dental radiographic film/film-process combinations. The method determines the speed and gradient, i.e. contrast, of the X-ray films processed according to their manufacturer's recommendations. (U.K.)

  18. Trends in coal gas purification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latysheva, L.A.; Emel' yanova, L.P.; Popova, N.S.; Fritsler, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Comparatively evaluates processes for coal gas purification developed and used in the GDR, FRG, France, Italy, Japan, USA, UK and other countries. The following processes are discussed: a combined process for hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal using the USS-FOSAM process, combined removal of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia with ammonia elimination, the Stretford process, the Holmes-Stretford process, the Takahax process, the Fumaks process, the Sulfiban process, the Dimox process, The Otto-Sulfammon and the Phosam process. The following processes of coal tar purification are characterized: absorption-desorption process, oxidation, hydrogen cyanide removal, purification of gases in the Claus process, removal of nitrogen oxides, coal gas cooling and removal of dusts, tar and naphthalene, removal of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides using absorbents, regeneration processes. The most efficient and economic processes and the companies that developed these processes are characterized. 25 refs.

  19. Structure of Corporate Governance in Oil and Gas Industry-Post Corporate Scandals Will Regulatory Reforms Prevent Future Scandals?

    OpenAIRE

    Adenrele, Adebayo Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In the past two decades corporate governance traditionally had been an internal affair between the principal (shareholders) and the agent (Managers) with some boundaries set by the state laws. Some economists, led by Milton Friedman argued that the main objective of business is to earn maximum profit for the shareholders. Imbalance and shift in power has resulted in increasing strain in the relationship between the principal. This has resulted in numerous corporate scandals aross the globe. T...

  20. The process of defining and developing Corporate Social Responsibility: A case study of Indiska Magasinet

    OpenAIRE

    Grotkowski, Lisa; Thammakun, Ekarit

    2008-01-01

    This study uses Actor – Network Theory as a lens to present a case study of the process by which Indiska Magasinet, a large Swedish retailer, has defined and developed its conceptualization of Corporate Social Responsibility. Actor – Network Theory offers a valuable tool to examine the inter-actor negotiations that precede a conceptualization of Corporate Social Responsibility. The study results are primarily based on interviews with two prominent Indiska personnel in decision-making position...

  1. Corporate actions for the climate - Greenhouse gas reduction practices at EpE member companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporate awareness of the reality of climate change and the impact of human activity on global warming goes back some twenty years. It was at this time that EpE members decided to take voluntary action towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions. EpE member companies started out by measuring their emissions (see EpE publication entitled 'Measuring and Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions'), then worked to identify initiatives easiest to implement and those that would have the best reduction potential. This booklet is prepared to contribute to other businesses improving their knowledge and understanding of the best practices identified and implemented by EpE members, in order to speed up the reduction of global emissions, without hampering their competitiveness. The practices showcased here have intentionally been detailed so that they can be easier to adopt. (authors)

  2. Making sense of corporate social responsibility : exploring organizational processes and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.J.W. van der; Driessen, P.P.J.; Cramer, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes how company members make sense of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The research question focuses on organizational processes of structuring CSR in practice: How do CSR sensemaking processes in companies work and is it possible to discern process strategies?

  3. Selling the family silver : oil and gas royalties, corporate profits, and the disregarded public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This broad study of the oil and gas industry focused on Saskatchewan in particular. It covered the history and geopolitics of the oil industry, rising prices and super profits. It described Canada's unique position as a wealthy country whose oil and gas industry is dominated by US companies. In response to public opinion about foreign control in this sector, Alberta and Saskatchewan governments raised royalties in the 1970s. The proceeds of the royalties were placed in Heritage Funds. Saskatchewan created Sask Oil and Sask Power, while the federal government created Petro-Canada. Recently, governments have undone these reforms and privatized publicly-owned energy companies, thereby re-establishing the era of foreign, private-sector domination. The outcome has been rapid depletion of non-renewable resources and increased greenhouse gas emissions. This study also addressed the issue of peak oil and gas, and the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. It was cautioned that the increasing exploitation of unconventional replacements such as tar sands and coalbed methane, bears a heavy social, economic and environmental cost. Special attention was given to the integration of the oil and gas industry on a North American basis and the implications for future Canadian needs. The study revealed that royalties and taxes on the oil and gas industry in Canada are among the lowest in the world. As a result, the high profit from the extraction of these non-renewable resources is going almost exclusively to the owners of the oil corporations, most of whom do not even live in Canada. It was noted that peak production of conventional oil and natural gas has come to the Canadian prairies. Saskatchewan is facing a shortage of supply and will face much higher prices within a few years. It was argued that federal and provincial governments have failed to produce a viable energy plan. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Growing worldwide gas processing market improving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International LPG markets will be relatively tight for the remainder of the 1990s. Demand growth in developing countries, particularly Asia, remains strong. In North America, despite continued strengths in natural-gas markets, Purvin ampersand Gertz inc., Dallas, believes NGL pricing will improve gradually, gas pricing will moderate, and gas-processing economics will begin recovering. The paper discusses worldwide LPG and NGL supplies and margins; supply outlook; European and Asian production; world demand; US gas supply; processing economics; US NGL supply; butane supply; increases in US NGL demand; and plant feedstocks

  5. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  6. Analytic hierarchy process analysis for choosing a corporate social entrepreneurship strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After conducting an extensive analysis of both the specialised literature and practice and identifying three types of corporate social entrepreneurship in my PhD thesis titled “Corporate social entrepreneurship - the new paradigm of reshaping and rethinking business”, I decided to determine which of the three approaches is mostly suited for the Romanian market. The three types of corporate social entrepreneurship: corporate social entrepreneurship as local development tool, corporate social entrepreneurship as market development tool, and corporate social entrepreneurship as transformational innovation tool were organised as the alternatives of a carefully constructed hierarchy having as criteria: return on investment (which does not necessarily refer to the money that the company invests in the strategy; the term is derived from sustainability and scalability, degree of novelty, pre-entry knowledge and interest in solving the communities’ social problems. The questionnaire constructed based on the hierarchy using analytic hierarchy processes was distributed to experts (business developers coming from the following industries or sectors: beverages, IT, banking, furniture, and automotive. The research reveals which is the approach most likely to be employed by Romanian business developers. The results may be inferred to the sum of businesses represented by the expert business developers who were part of the research.

  7. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  8. A comparative study of gas-gas miscibility processes in underground gas storage reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Intermixture of gases in underground gas reservoirs have had great weight for natural gas storage in UGS projects with substitution of cushion gas by inert gases or changing the stored gas quality or origin, as for the replacement of town gas by natural gas. It was also investigated during the last years for Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects. The actual importance of its mechanisms is discussed for the H{sub 2} storage in Power to Gas to Power projects (PGP). In these approaches miscibility of the injected gas with the gas in place in the reservoir plays an important role in the displacement process. The conditions and parameters for the gas-gas displacement and mixing have been investigated in previous projects, as e.g. the miscibility of CO{sub 2} with natural gas (CLEAN). Furthermore the miscibility process of town gas with natural gas and sauer gas with sweet gas were also previously measured and compared in laboratory. The objective of this work is to investigate the miscibility of H{sub 2} injection into natural gas reservoirs using a compositional and a black oil reservoir simulator. Three processes of convection, dispersion and diffusion are considered precisely. The effect of gas miscibility is studied for both simulators and the results are compared to find optimum miscibility parameters. The findings of this work could be helpful for further pilot and field case studies to predict and monitor the changes in gas composition and quality. In future this monitoring might become more important when PGP together with H{sub 2}-UGS, as storage technology, will help to successfully implement the change to an energy supply from more renewable sources. Similarly the method confirms the use of the black oil simulator as an alternative for gas-gas displacement and sequestration reservoir simulation in comparison to the compositional simulator. (orig.)

  9. Capital asset management process: the case of Hose & Fittings Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Sung C. Bae; Bell J.C. Park; Tracy Wagner

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To develop a more effective, long-term-oriented capital asset management process for capital project evaluation Design/methodology/approach – Relying on a cash study format, the weaknesses of the traditional capital budgeting process are examined. The proposed capital asset management process is contrasted with the traditional process with respect to several aspects of long-term resource management. Flow-charts and evaluation matrices are presented. Findings – The capital asset mana...

  10. Rate processes in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies of the reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to the reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved

  11. EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF GIRL CHILD: A CASE STUDY OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis Salim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all the creations of God, human life is the most sacred. It has two aspects- the biological and the sociological. While the biological aspects of human life is maintained and transmitted by nutrition and reproduction, the social aspect of human life is maintained and transmitted by education. In the primitive society, the primary needs of man comprised food, shelter and clothing. With the progress of society and civilization, however, these primary needs have been multiplied into six viz, food, shelter, clothing, education, recreation and health. Man is primarily distinguishable from the lower animals because of his education ability. In human life the value of education is immeasurable. The present research paper is an attempt to analyze the crucial role for educational development for female child from the poor urban, remote rural, tribal, dalit and conflict afflicted communities of India by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC.

  12. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the commercial and industrial sectors in British Columbia: Technical/economic potential, market barriers, and strategies for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to current forecasts, greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption by the commercial and industrial sector will increase from 11,000 kilotonnes to 16,000 kilotons between 1990 and 2015. During the same period electricity generated in British Columbia from fossil fuel combustion will have increased from five per cent to 26 per cent. Therefore, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it will be imperative to find ways of significantly reducing the consumption of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products in both the commercial and industrial sectors. Increased application of energy conservation practices, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching and the increased use of renewable energy sources come to mind as the most appropriate strategies to be considered, despite formidable barriers to implementation. Despite the existence of barriers, some progress is being made as indicated by codes and standards, financial incentives, educational and public awareness campaigns, and research and development programs. This report examines the barriers, the measures that have already been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions and the economic and environmental benefits that will accrue from these and other measures currently under development. The beneficial impact of increased investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies on employment is emphasized. 24 refs., tabs., figs

  13. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN-PROCESS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS QUALITY CONTROL TESTS OF INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA, BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA & UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA FOR CAPSULES AND LIQUID ORALS

    OpenAIRE

    Teja CH; Balamuralidhara V; Vinay S; Sudeendra Bhat R; Pramod Kumar T.M

    2011-01-01

    Present study deals with a brief overview of the comparative study of quality requirements for in-process and finished products quality control Tests of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP), British Pharmacopeia (BP) & United States Pharmacopeia (USP) for some conventional dosage forms. The concept of total quality control test refers to the process of striving to produce a quality product by a series of measures, requiring an organized effort in order to eliminate errors at every stage in the production...

  14. 75 FR 16455 - Whiting Oil and Gas Corporation; Notice of Request for Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whiting Oil and Gas Corporation; Notice of Request for Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements March 26, 2010. Take notice that on February 23, 2010,...

  15. 77 FR 62623 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Fuel Economy Standards AGENCIES: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic... October 15, 2012 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85, 86, and 600 Department of... Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy...

  16. Off-gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To remove volatile ruthenium in off-gases at high efficiency. Constitution: In a pre-processing tower, off-gases are at first washed by a scrubber thereby removing most of impurity ingredients such as NOx having strong affinity with scrubbing water to increase the relative ratio of volatile ruthenium relative to the impurity ingredients in the off-gases. Then, the off-gases are once cooled to condensate to about 20 deg C by a cooler and mist components are removed by a demister and, further, heated by a heater to 70 - 80 deg C to reduce the water concentration in the off-gases to less than about 4 %. Since most of noxious materials to silica gel such NOx or water content are eliminated by way of the adsorption tower after applying such a pre-treatment, adsorption can be conducted in the adsorption tower mainly for volatile ruthenium. (Seki, T.)

  17. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO2 and NOx removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  18. A Conceptual Framework of Corporate and Business Ethics across Organizations: Structures, Processes and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Goran; Wood, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance. Design/methodology/approach: A framework is outlined and positioned incorporating an ethical frame of reference in the field of…

  19. New technological developments in gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes that the natural gas industry has undergone over the last few years was discussed. Low natural gas prices forced companies to react to their high reserves replacements costs. They were forced to downsize and undergo major restructuring because they were losing money due to high operating costs; the future for natural gas prices looked pessimistic. The changes have led to a new kind of business practice, namely 'partnering with third party processor', mid-stream companies known as aggregators, to build and operate facilities as part of a move towards cost effective improvements for gas producers. Besides reducing capital and operating costs, the producer under this arrangements can dedicate his capital to finding new gas which is the basis of growth. Recent technological changes in the gas processing industry were also touched upon. These included enhanced technologies such as increased liquid hydrocarbon recovery, segregation of C3+ and C5+, installation of gas separation membrane systems, small sulphur plants, acid gas injection and selective or mixed solvents. Details of some of these technologies were described. 2 refs., 2 figs

  20. Two-Phase Phenomena In Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce sulfur oxides discharge, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is building a wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) facility at Rutenberg B power station. The primary objective of IEC is to minimize the occurrence of stack liquid discharge and avoid the discharge of large droplets, in order to prevent acid rain around the stack. Liquid discharge from the stack is the integrated outcome of two-phase processes, which are discussed in this work. In order to estimate droplets discharge the present investigation employs analytical models, empirical tests, and numerical calculations of two-phase phenomena. The two-phase phenomena are coupled and therefore cannot be investigated separately. The present work concerns the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) as an engineering complementary tool in the IEC investigation

  1. Corporate corruption of the environment: sustainability as a process of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Daniel; Wright, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    A key response to environmental degradation, climate change and declining biodiversity has been the growing adoption of market principles in an effort to better value the social good of nature. Through concepts such as 'natural capitalism' and 'corporate environmentalism', nature is increasingly viewed as a domain of capitalist endeavour. In this article, we use convention theory and a pluralist understanding of social goods to investigate how the social good of the environment is usurped by the alternate social good of the market. Through analysis of interviews with sustainability managers and corporate documentation, we highlight how organizational actors employ compromise to temporally settle disputes between competing claims about environmental activities. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the processes of empirically grounded critique and the under-theorized concept of compromise between social goods. Rather than protecting the environment, the corporate promotion of sustainability facilitates the corruption of the social good of the environment and its conversion into a market commodity. PMID:23998318

  2. Guide to the small power project review process in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A guide is provided to assist proponents of small power projects through the review process for small hydro and thermal electricity generation projects. The process applies to all projects which generate less than 20 MW of power for sale, and all projects which generate between 500 kW and 20 MW of power for the producer's own use. The guide consists of three sections which cover the purpose, the procedures, and the requirements of the review process. Four appendices provide guidance on screening a project for potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts, provincial and federal government agencies that may be consulted, public consultation and other provincial approvals which may be applicable to energy projects. Main areas of concern that have been documented for previous reviews include, for hydro projects, fish and fish habitats, water quality, quantity and flow regime, transmission line and access road routing, wildlife and wildife habitat, native resource use, archaeological sites, resource and land use conflict, environmental hazards (seismic), and downstream and transboundary effects. For thermal projects concerns include air pollutants, ambient air quality, waste disposal, water use, transmission line and access road routing, archaeological sites, and land use conflicts

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of value added (“GEVA”) — A corporate guide to voluntary climate action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the global economy continues to grow at its historical rate of 3.5% per year. The suggested 5% per year decline can be translated into a corporate resolution to reduce corporate “GHG emissions per unit of value added” (GEVA) by 5% per year. If all corporations cut their GEVA by 5% per year, the same global result will be achieved. The suggested 5% per year decline can be used as a guideline for responsible action on a voluntary basis. The guideline is unlikely to be made mandatory soon, but compulsory publication of the necessary emissions and productivity data by nations and corporations could help civil society highlight top performers. - Highlights: ► The world needs to reduce GHG emissions by 50% by 2050. ► Is achievable if nations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5%/year. ► Or if corporations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of value added” by 5 %/year. ► Corporations that reduce GEVA by 5%/year can be said to do their fair share. ► Mandatory reporting of corporate GEVA could motivate such reductions.

  4. Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management: Insights from a Process Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Burgelman

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the strategic process concerning entrepreneurial activity in large, complex organizations. Previous empirical and theoretical findings can be integrated in this new conceptual framework. The paper makes the following key points. First, firms need both diversity and order in their strategic activities to maintain their viability. Diversity results primarily from autonomous strategic initiatives of participants at the operational level. Order results from imposing...

  5. Organizing knowledge processes in the multinational corporation: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai Juul Foss; Torben Pedersen

    2004-01-01

    This Introduction discusses the contrast between, on the one hand, the current popularity of addressing MNC organization in knowledge terms and, on the other, the lack of adequate understanding of many of the causal mechanisms and contextual factors in relations between knowledge processes and organizational factors. A number of the relevant research challenges are identified, and it is clarified how the five articles in this Focused Issue addresses some of these. Journal of International Bus...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING PROCESS - PART OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING

    OpenAIRE

    IVAN Oana Raluca; Alina PUTAN

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 1960s organization world wide became aware of the disclosures necessity of social and environmental information about their activity. So in the beginning of 1970s companies provided the first publication of their environmental and social reporting and along come the need to audit this reporting process, although much later chronologically speaking. After an introduction to the concept, this paper focuses on the similarities and differences between different forms of environm...

  7. IFPEXOL for environmentally sound gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas and gas associated with crude oil must be treated to remove undesirable impurities and condensable hydrocarbons in order to meet pipeline and consumer specifications. The treatment steps normally used are expensive to install and require large amounts of energy to operate, energy which could otherwise be sold to the customer. Energy efficient processes costing less to build that respect all environmental standards continue to hold top priority, and the IFPEXOL process goes far in meeting these needs. IFPEXOL integrates the classic gas treatment steps into a two-part process, IFPEX-1 and IFPEX-2 to be successively described in this paper. The same inexpensive solvent is used in both processes. Either process can be used alone if need be. IFPEX-1 is used for dew point control, dehydration, and hydrate protection while IFPEX-2 is used for acid gas removal. The first start-up and operating experience using the IFPEX-1 part of IFPEXOL process for dehydration will be discussed in this paper

  8. International oil and gas strategies: corporate planning in the new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corporate planning process at Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc. was totally revamped 5 years ago. The company's international exploration and production activities have forced them to recognize that business objectives and strategic plans must be aligned. The planning process described here involves staff groups from the departmental level up to the top of the organization, each providing input to goals and objectives. New venture planning, project approval, the role of technology transfer, and most importantly, the changing role of managing people resources, were discussed. With regard to 'people management' the need for team players, a variety of technical, linguistic, entrepreneurial, and technology transfer skills, adaptability, cultural awareness, and mobility, have been identified as the key ingredients for all successful players in the international arena

  9. Corporate social responsibility communication in social networking sites: unfinalisable and dialogical processes of legitimation

    OpenAIRE

    Glozer, Sarah Alice

    2015-01-01

    Building upon constitutive models of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication, which appreciate the role of both organisations and stakeholders in constructing CSR, this thesis suggests that understanding of CSR is on-going and emergent through unfinalisable legitimation processes in social networking sites (SNSs). Constructed upon management research that has examined discursive legitimation processes, this thesis shifts away from CSR communications research into websites, CSR rep...

  10. Screening process : oil and gas industry projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updated version of the screening process used by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management (SERM) under the Environmental Assessment Act is presented. Improvements have been made to increase the effectiveness and timeliness of oil and gas project proposal reviews. Each year, SERM reviews hundreds of proposals for oil and gas projects which vary from small geophysical exploration programs to intensive production programs involving wells and related facilities. As of February 1, 1999 companies must contact the Oil and Gas Coordinator in the ecoregion where an exploration or production project is planned. This paper also describes other changes under SERM's review process including regulated pipelines, hydrostatic tests, exploration and production. There have been no changes for waste treatment and National Energy Board (NEB) projects. These will continue to be handled by the Environmental Assessment Branch in Regina. 1 fig

  11. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  12. Process for production of industrial gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslennikov, V.M.; Gordin, K.A.; Krivokon, A.A.; Nosach, V.G.; Shpil' rain, E.E.; Zholudov, Y.S.

    1981-08-23

    A method for producing gas containing H/sub 2/ and CO from solid fuel in the presence of steam and a high-temperature heat transfer agent at 1500-2500 K with repeated oxidative gasification of the solid residue. The ash-enriched fuel from the 2nd stage is burned in O/sub 2/-containing gas in the 3rd stage. The ash and CO/sub 2/-containing gas are separated, and the gas is returned to the 2nd stage. In the 1st stage the solid fuel is takenin stoichiometric excess for the reaction with steam, and the oxidizing agent in the 2nd stage - in insufficiency; in the 3rd stage the fuel is burned with gas containing excess O/sub 2/ and at a temperature below the melting point of the ash. As the high-temperature heat transfer agent, a portion of the industrial gas preheated to the initial process temperature is used.

  13. An Exploatory Investigation of the Sales Forecasting Process in the Casual Theme and Family Dining Segments of Commercial Restaurant Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Yvette Nicole Julia

    2001-01-01

    An Exploratory Investigation of the Sales Forecasting Process in the Casual Theme and Family Dining Segments of Commercial Restaurant Corporations Yvette Nicole Julia Green Committee Chair: Pamela A. Weaver Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management (Abstract) Sales forecasting is an essential tool for the planning function of corporate restaurant management. Accurate sales forecasts allow functional areas, such as marketing, advertising, human resources, and financ...

  14. 45 CFR 2522.410 - What is the role of the Corporation's Board of Directors in the selection process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the role of the Corporation's Board of... APPLICANTS Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.410 What is the role of the Corporation's Board of Directors in the selection process? The Board of Directors has general authority to determine the...

  15. Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

  16. Corporate realignments in the natural gas industry: does the North American experience foretell the future for the European Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, I.; Wright, Ph. [Sheffield Univ., Energy Studies Programme (United Kingdom); Wright, Ph. [Montpellier-1 Univ., CREDEN-LASER, 34 (France)

    2000-09-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent to which the corporate realignments which have occurred in the North American Natural Gas Industry during a now relatively lengthy experience with liberalization involving a large number of players, will be imitated in the future by European Union countries other than the UK (which is of course already long-embarked along the path of Anglo-Saxon liberalization). The paper first of all catalogues the North American experience, drawing on company performance data assembled by the authors over the last decade (Rutledge and Wright, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000). Secondly, this empirical exploration gives way to theoretical speculation: are there elements of the North American experience for which explanatory generalizations are possible? Thirdly, these empirical and theoretical insights are employed to identify and explore actual and potential differences in the corporate evolution of the European Union natural gas industry. (authors)

  17. Selective attention and the initiation of the global knowledge-sourcing process in multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    L Felipe Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations (MNCs) frequently use their foreign subsidiaries to identify new opportunities to access external knowledge. This article builds on the attention-based view to examine how selective attention – the focus on certain issues or answers at the exclusion of others – works in the global knowledge-sourcing process in MNCs. The results reveal an intriguing paradox: while MNCs may establish foreign subsidiaries far from headquarters to identify diverse, novel knowledge, and ...

  18. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouming Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available With increasing social awareness on the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR, the measurement of CSR has received considerable attention in both academic literature and managerial practice. Following a review of CSR theory development and the literature on measures of CSR, this paper proposes a systematic approach to measure CSR using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP. In addition, a preliminary investigation is presented to explain how the approach can help in evaluating CSR in practice.

  19. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Shouming Chen; Jiasi Fan

    2011-01-01

    With increasing social awareness on the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR), the measurement of CSR has received considerable attention in both academic literature and managerial practice. Following a review of CSR theory development and the literature on measures of CSR, this paper proposes a systematic approach to measure CSR using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). In addition, a preliminary investigation is presented to explain how the approach can help in evaluating CS...

  20. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Introduction to gas lasers with emphasis on selective excitation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Colin S

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Gas Lasers: Population Inversion Mechanisms focuses on important processes in gas discharge lasers and basic atomic collision processes that operate in a gas laser. Organized into six chapters, this book first discusses the historical development and basic principles of gas lasers. Subsequent chapters describe the selective excitation processes in gas discharges and the specific neutral, ionized and molecular laser systems. This book will be a valuable reference on the behavior of gas-discharge lasers to anyone already in the field.

  2. Relaxation processes in mixed gas dynamic lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloukhin, R.I.; Fomin, N.A.

    1978-12-01

    With the solution of gasdynamic and CO/sub 2/--N/sub 2/ vibrational relaxation equations, analysis was made of vibrational energy losses associated with relaxation processes in an inverted molecular system with selective thermal excitation and supersonic flow mixing of the pumping and radiative gas components. Optimum operation conditions were determined, and a possibility of regimes with low vibrational losses was found to be feasible at available specific energies up to 200 J/g.

  3. Advanced solidification processing of an industrial gas turbine engine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Mei Ling; Price, Allen; Bellows, Richard S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper will describe the efforts of the Advanced Turbine Airfoil Manufacturing Technology Program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Howmet Research Corporation. The purpose of the program is to develop single-crystal and directionally solidified casting technologies to benefit Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) industrial and utility gas turbine engines. The focus is on defining and implementing advanced Vacuum Induction Melting (VIM) furnace enhancements that provide precise control of mold temperatures during solidification. Emphasis was placed on increasing the total magnitude of thermal gradients while minimizing the difference in maximum and minimum gradients produced during the solidification process. Advanced VIM casting techniques were applied to Solar Turbines Incorporated’s Titan 130 First Stage High Pressure Turbine Blade under the ATS program. A comparison of the advanced VIM casting process to the conventional Bridgeman casting process will be presented as it pertains to the thermal gradients achieved during solidification, microstructure, elemental partitioning characterization, and solution heat treat response.

  4. Who runs the place? : the evolving role of corporate centre in the strategy-making process : an empirical investigation of a major Russian multi-business corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Laptev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    This research was inspired by a particular business problem – the search for an optimal model of strategy-making process in Severstal, a major Russian metals and mining company going through a period of rapid growth and transformation. The research reports on the results of a longitudinal explorative case study based on two distinct empirical projects. The first project addressed strategy process nature, participants, roles of corporate centre, time perspective and impact of the external ...

  5. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  6. Emerging environmental issues for gas processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of emerging environmental issues of interest to the construction and ongoing management of gas processing plants was provided. Recent responses by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to certain environmental concerns, initiatives of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP), and evolving developments by the federal government with respect to air quality issues are emphasized. AEUB''s specific responsibilities for air quality, incinerator stack emissions, flaring, fugitive emissions, sulphur recovery, soil and groundwater contamination, noise and emergency response support for upstream petroleum industry incidents and associated hazards are reviewed. A case study of Shell Oil''s Caroline application for increased throughput at its Caroline sour gas plant was discussed to illustrate the AEUB''s application of its on environmental protection mandate

  7. Results from an initial re-processing of the British Isles continuous GNSS Facility (BIGF) archive of CGPS data for 1997 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, R.; Hansen, D. N.; Leighton, J.; Teferle, F. N.; David, B.

    2010-12-01

    The IESSG (Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy) at the University of Nottingham operates and manages the NERC-funded British Isles continuous GNSS Facility (BIGF). BIGF provides a unique and secure repository for quality assured raw data, and derived products, from a network of continuous GNSS stations throughout the British Isles, and the interface with the scientific community, in serving demand for data and derived products to carry out research. The fundamental value of BIGF is encapsulated in the secure archive of 30 second GNSS RINEX data, supplied to it from currently 155 CGNSS stations. The archive comprises 1,000 station-years of 30 second, primarily GPS data, with some stations operating since 1996/7. Since 2009, BIGF has started to develop derived products, in the form of homogenous time series of parameters including station velocities, tropospheric integrated water vapour and ionospheric activity, to facilitate scientific users who are interested in these parameters but do not want to carry out their own high-level processing of GNSS data. This poster provides details of BIGF and presents the coordinate time series for the period from 1997 to 2010 obtained from an initial re-processing using an in-house modified version of the Bernese GPS software and the GIPSY/OASIS II software, along with re-processed IGS products. Details of how the derived station velocities have been used to form a map of vertical land movements and to study changes in sea levels around the British Isles are provided.

  8. Analytic hierarchy process analysis for choosing a corporate social entrepreneurship strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2015-01-01

    After conducting an extensive analysis of both the specialised literature and practice and identifying three types of corporate social entrepreneurship in my PhD thesis titled “Corporate social entrepreneurship - the new paradigm of reshaping and rethinking business”, I decided to determine which of the three approaches is mostly suited for the Romanian market. The three types of corporate social entrepreneurship: corporate social entrepreneurship as local development tool, corporate social e...

  9. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  10. Gas mixing processes in nuclear AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure the safe operation and control of Nuclear (A.G.R.) boilers, 2-D computational models are currently under development. The aim of these models is to predict the flow and temperature distribution of the gas and water side under different operational conditions. These models are based on numerical solutions of the 2-D flow and heat transfer equations for turbulent flow in boilers. Measurements on a closely pitched tube bank with water cooling have demonstrated considerable discrepancies between experimental results and computer predictions. This investigation is therefore being carried out to study theoretically and experimentally the flow and heat transfer process under such a boiler condition. A two dimensional computer model has been developed which incorporates the effects of gas mixing and the interactions between the gas and water side. To cover the complete heat exchanger the governing equations are written in the lumped parameter form. The governing equations have been solved by a computer code written in FORTRAN-77. To test the validity of this model, the computer predictions have been compared with experimental results. Results to date indicate reasonable agreement with experiment and a further refinement of the computer model is indicated. (author)

  11. Technology-evaluation report: The Carver-Greenfield Process, Dehydro-Tech Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report evaluated the ability of Dehydro-Tech Corporation's (DTC) Carver-Greenfield Process to separate oil contaminated waste drilling muds to their constituent solids, oil and water fractions. The Carver-Greenfield Process (C-G) was developed by DTC in the late 1950's and is licensed in over 80 plants worldwide. The technology is designed to separate solid-liquid mixtures into three product streams: a clean, dry solid; a water product substantially free of solids and organics; and a concentrated mixture of extracted organics. A mobile pilot plant was used for the demonstration. The C-G Process demonstration was conducted at EPA's Edison, New Jersey facility in August, 1991. Waste drilling muds from the PAB Oil and Chemical Services, Inc. (PAB Oil) site in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana were processed in the demonstration. PAB Oil, which ceased operation in 1983, operated three oil drilling mud separation pits from which the waste material used in the demonstration was collected

  12. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  13. Recent developments in by-product plant processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herpers, E.T.; Barber, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving and pollution control in by-product coke plant processes are considered. An example of a very cost-effective plant modification for energy saving is the retrofitting of heat exchangers to a benzole and naphthalene plant of the British Steel Corporation at Port Talbot. Energy savings are also possible in the carbonisation process, where there are sources of low grade heat which can be recovered. Recent developments in by-product plant pollution control include those in catalytic ammonia destruction for reduction of ammonia; the Sulfammon Process, high pressure gas treatment Sulfiban Process, and the Claus Process for reduction of H/sub 2/S; and the tower effluent treatment process for liquid effluents. Odorous emission control and noise abatement are also mentioned. 2 references.

  14. Draft environmental statement related to the Union Carbide Corporation, Gas Hills Uranium Project (Natrona County, Wyoming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed action is the renewal of Source Material License SUA-648 issued for the operation of the Gas Hills Uranium Project in Wyoming, near Moneta. The project is an acid leach, ion-exchange, and solvent-extraction uranium ore processing mill at an increased capacity of 500,000 tons per year and the construction of two heap leach facilities in Natrona and Fremont Counties for initial processing of low-grade ore. After analysis of environmental impacts and adverse effects, it is the proposed position of NRC that the license be renewed subject to conditions relating to stabilization of the tailings, reclamation, environmental monitoring, evaluation of any future activity not evaluated by NRC, archeological survey, analysis of unexpected harmful effects, and decommissioning

  15. Study on the Choice of Knowledge Management Tactics in the Process of Corporation Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Peishan Sun; Zhiping Fan; Xinbo Sun

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge management is a completely new viewpoint to assay the internal mechanism and external regulation of the corporation growth. It is an innovation and a deepening for the existing corporation growth theory. In the theory model of the relation between knowledge management evolution and corporation growth, knowledge storage becomes an essential condition for corporation growth. And the real mechanism lies in the reciprocity of knowledge structure both interior and exterior of the corpora...

  16. Process for catalytic flue gas denoxing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing concern for the environment, stringency of legislation and industry's awareness of its own environmental responsibility, the demand for the reduction of emission levels of nitrogen oxides is becoming increasingly urgent. This paper reports that Shell has developed a low temperature catalytic deNOx system for deep removal of nitrogen oxides, which includes a low-pressure-drop reactor. This process is able to achieve over 90% removal of nitrogen oxides and therefore can be expected to meet legislation requirements for the coming years. The development of a low-temperature catalyst makes it possible to operate at temperatures as low as 120 degrees C, compared to 300-400 degrees C for the conventional honeycomb and plate-type catalysts. This allows an add-on construction, which is most often a more economical solution than the retrofits in the hot section required with conventional deNOx catalysts. The Lateral Flow Reactor (LFR), which is used for dust-free flue gas applications, and the Parallel Passage Reactor (PPR) for dust-containing flue gas applications, have been developed to work with pressure drops below 10 mbar

  17. Price trends of oil and gas. Influence from the development on the British gas market; Prisutsikter for olje og gass. Vil utviklingen paa det britiske gassmarked smitte?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the future prospects of oil and gas prices in Europe being influenced by the liberalized market in the United Kingdom. With reference to the Norwegian continental shelf, the market price of oil determines the price of gas because the oil production will be much higher than the production of gas for a long time. From 1998 onwards, a new natural gas pipeline will be operating between the United Kingdom and the Continent having a capacity of 20 billion Sm{sup 3} in both directions. The author gives at first a brief description of the continental market of to day, secondly, a discussion on how to liberalize such a market together with experience obtained in the United Kingdom, and thirdly, the risk of falling prices being similar to the existing bargain prices in the United Kingdom. 11 figs.

  18. Gas purification facilities at Purex: Process study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, L.R.; Gerhart, J.M.

    1958-12-31

    This report provides a summary of the results of a process study, requested by the Atomic Energy Commission an the recovery of krypton and xenon from irradiated uranium at the Hanford Purex Plant. This request was prompted by original Commission forecasts of the expanded requirements for Krypton-85 for commercial phosphorescent signal lights and markers and for xenon isotopes of low neutron cross-section for use in liquid xenon scintillation counters, in connection with D.M.A., government and university-sponsored work. It was requested that both Hanford and Savannah River submit order of magnitude cost estimates for recovery facilities at the respective sites for three separate design cases. The cost information developed, along with market survey information obtained-through the A. D. Little Company and Department of Defense market surveys, would serve as the basis for scheduling of the Hanford and Savannah River participation in the Commission`s overall fission rare gas recovery program.

  19. Impact of a reduced red and processed meat dietary pattern on disease risks and greenhouse gas emissions in the UK: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Aston, Louise M; Smith, James N.; Powles, John W

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Consumption of red and processed meat (RPM) is a leading contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and high intakes of these foods increase the risks of several leading chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to use newly derived estimates of habitual meat intakes in UK adults to assess potential co-benefits to health and the environment from reduced RPM consumption. Design Modelling study using dietary intake data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of British Adu...

  20. Duval Corporation application study: nuclear process energy from PE-CNSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economic studies were performed to examine the possible installation of a small, integral pressurized water reactor as an industrial energy source in the Duval Corporation's Frasch Process sulfur mining operation located in Culberson County, Texas. Since this is the first industrial application study attempted for this type of reactor, it has been a learning process on the nuclear plant side as well as the industrial side, particularly in the area of economic analysis. The importance of considering inflationary effects, the significance of plant financing form, and the annualized, after-tax cash flow and incremental rate-of-return methods of comparison in determing energy costs have all been recognized during the course of the study

  1. The Process of Constructing a Corporate Taxonomy——The Example of EDB Corporate Taxonomy%Corporate Taxonomy的编制方法和原则——以EDB Corporate Taxonomy的编制为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠红

    2006-01-01

    文章以EDB Corporate Taxonomy的编制为例,从实践角度论述了Corporate Taxonomy的编制方法与原则,同时对编制过程中涉及到的如传统知识组织工具的利用、设计角度的考虑、支持软件和后期维护等问题进行了探讨.

  2. Use of oxygen dosing to prevent flow accelerated corrosion in British Energy's Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) was recognized as major threat to the carbon steel feed and economizer tubing of the once-through boilers of the UK's Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs) following the observation of FAC damage of the boiler inlet orifice assemblies at two plants in 1977, and subsequent review of the likelihood of further damage elsewhere within the boilers of all AGRs. In most cases, replacement of susceptible tubing was not feasible; due to the inaccessibility of the boiler components within the reactor concrete pressure vessel. Preventing further FAC damage within the boilers therefore had to rely largely on changes to the boiler feedwater chemistry. Following extensive research programs carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s two main feedwater chemistry regimes were adopted to suppress FAC in different AGRs. The four units found to be at greatest risk of FAC damage adopted an oxygen dosed All Volatile Treatment (AVT) regime during commissioning, while four other units retained the original deoxygenated ammonia dosed AVT regime, but with an increased feedwater pH. The deoxygenated ammonia dosed chemistry regime was also adopted in four AGR units subsequently built, which used 1%Cr0.5%Mo feed and economizer tubing in their once-through boilers. The oxygen dosed AVT chemistry regime adopted in four units having helical once-through boilers has proved highly effective in preventing FAC, with no evidence of damage after around 150,000 hours of operation. However, FAC damage was eventually found in some of the other units operating with a deoxygenated feedwater chemistry regime, in spite of having adopted an elevated feedwater pH. These units have now successfully converted to an oxygen dosed AVT feedwater chemistry regime to prevent further FAC damage, with the result that all 14 AGR reactors now operate with variants of the original oxygen dosed feedwater chemistry regime developed during the 1980s. The paper outlines the development of

  3. Membrane separation processes for argon plasma gas recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Harlacher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A mixture of argon and hydrogen is used as plasma gas in a thermal plasma synthesis for the production of silicon carbide. Next to argon and hydrogen, the exhaust gas of the ceramic synthesis contains carbon monoxide. Since argon is an expensive gas, the plasma gas needs to be recycled. For this purpose, the carbon monoxide has to be removed from the exhaust gas. The applicability of a membrane based gas separation process for this separation task was investigated in this study. A process rou...

  4. TECHNICAL AND OPERATING SUPPORT FOR PILOT DEMONSTRATION OF MORPHYSORB ACID GAS REMOVAL PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraju Palla; Dennis Leppin

    2004-02-01

    Over the past 14 years, the Gas Technology Institute and jointly with Uhde since 1997 developing Morphysorb{reg_sign} a new physical solvent-based acid gas removal process. Based on extensive laboratory, bench, pilot-plant scale experiments and computer simulations, DEGT Gas Transmission Company, Canada (DEGT) has chosen the process for use at its Kwoen processing facility near Chetwynd, British Columbia, Canada as the first commercial application for the Morphysorb process. DOE co-funded the development of the Morphysorb process in various stages of development. DOE funded the production of this report to ensure that the results of the work would be readily available to potential users of the process in the United States. The Kwoen Plant is designed to process 300 MMscfd of raw natural gas at 1,080-psia pressure. The sour natural gas contains 20 to 25 percent H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}. The plant reduces the acid gas content by about 50% and injects the removed H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} into an injection well. The Kwoen plant has been operating since August 2002. Morphysorb{reg_sign} is a physical solvent-based process used for the bulk removal of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S from natural gas and other gaseous streams. The solvent consists of N-Formyl morpholine and other morpholine derivatives. This process is particularly effective for high-pressure and high acid-gas applications and offers substantial savings in investment and operating cost compared to competitive physical solvent-based processes. GTI and DEGT first entered into an agreement in 2002 to test the Morphysorb process at their Kwoen Gas Treating Plant in northern BC. The process is operating successfully without any solvent related problems and has between DEGTC and GTI. As of December 2003, about 90 Bcf of sour gas was processed. Of this about 8 Bcf of acid gas containing mainly H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} was injected back into the depleted reservoir and 82 Bcf sent for further processing at DEGTC

  5. Assessing the fate of diisopropanolamine and sulfolane in the subsurface at sour gas processing plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemicals used to remove hydrogen sulfide from raw gas in the sour gas sweetening processes have been found as contaminants in soil and groundwater at several sites. The chemicals are a mixture of sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and have high water solubility. The environmental fate of these chemicals depends greatly on their biodegradability and their transport through the soil. Sediment samples from aquifers contaminated with sulfolane and DIPA were obtained from two sour gas plants in Alberta and one in British Columbia. The samples were used as sources of microorganisms for biodegradation studies. The rate and extent of biodegradation of these chemicals under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined. Their sorption characteristics were measured and the soil components which influence these processes were determined. Some of the major conclusions were: (1) biodegradation of DIPA and sulfolane would likely occur in aquifers where dissolved oxygen is present, (2) this activity would produce anoxic conditions, (3) sulfolane biodegradation would not be significant in anaerobic aquifers, and (4), sulfolane would migrate further than DIPA in groundwater. 41 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidal, H.

    1992-06-01

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO{sub 2} in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140{sup o}C, for CO{sub 2} loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO{sub 2} into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO{sub 2}/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO{sub 2} partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Carbon dioxide removal in gas treating processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main contribution of this work is the development of a simple and reliable modelling technique on carbon dioxide removal describing the vapor-liquid equilibria of CO2 in aqueous alkanolamine solutions. By making use of measured pH data, the author has circumvented the problem of estimating interaction parameters, activity coefficients, and equilibrium constants in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria. The applicability of the model is best demonstrated on the tertiary amine system using MDEA. For this system, the VLE is accurately represented for temperatures in the range 25 to 140oC, for CO2 loadings from 0.001 to 1 mol/mol, and for amine molarities usually encountered in acid gas treating processes. The absorption of CO2 into solutions containing the sterically hindered amine AMP, is also well described by the model. The equilibrium of CO2 in mixed solvents containing a glycol (TEG,DEG) and an alkonolamine (MEA,DEA) has been measured at temperatures encountered in the absorption units. An equilibrium model has been developed for the CO2/TEG/MEA system for estimation of CO2 partial pressures, covering loadings and temperatures for both absorption and desorption conditions. An important spin-off of the work described is that two new experimental set-ups have been designed and built. 154 refs., 38 figs., 22 tabs

  8. Introduction to the Special Issue on Strategic Planning, Autonomy, and Control Processes in Multinational Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Edström; Peter Lorange

    1984-01-01

    The multinational corporation has always presented challenging management tasks. Operating in a larger number of business settings than most other corporations, the managements of such firms encounter an unusually complex set of opportunities and threats. The multinational corporation faces considerable challenges at the so-called business level of strategic management, involving competition with many other national and multinational firms to reach a wide variety of customers within a corresp...

  9. Corporate Media Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate media management. This is primarily due to the complexity of the corporate media process and corporate media management and the scope of a possible media impact. This thesis argues that corporate ...

  10. Gas benefits from Middle East peace processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for building a pipeline to bring Egyptian gas to Israel are described. Topics covered include the level of gas reserves, potential markets in Israel and Palestine and financial backers for the pipeline project. The investment risk associated with the project is discussed. (UK)

  11. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility: Safety, Health and Enviromental Issues in The Kenyan Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Makone, Francis O.

    2009-01-01

    As the oil industry in Kenya continues to grow, increased pressure is being placed on these companies to contribute in Corporate Social activities. The concept of CSR in the Kenyan Oil companies has been a topic of great interest. These oil companies have however been found to have a narrow perspective of what CSR entails as they do not identify all their stakeholders in their efforts to be socially responsible. Oil companies in Kenya also have various reasons as to why they come up with CSR ...

  13. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  14. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of “cooling down” liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  15. Distribution of Hydrate Inhibitors in Processing of Gas-Condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Jonassen, Anette Hartveit

    2013-01-01

    The formation of gas hydrates have been known to cause serious problems with blockages in natural gas pipelines, wellbore and natural gas processing units. The offshore sector of the North Sea comes into focus owing to factors such as low temperature, high pressure because of deep water fields, great depth of the subsea environment and remote locations that are factors underlying the increased hydrate formation. Hydrates are formed in multiphase transport comprising gas, condensate and water....

  16. RISE AND ACQUISITIONS FINANCIAL POTENTIAL IN THE RESTRUCTURING PROCESS OF CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alekseienko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic conceptual foundations of financial potential mergers and acquisitions, as factors of corporations external growth are investigated, existing approaches to the concept of restructuring are generalized, necessary components of the absorption capacity of the corporation are defined.

  17. The Student Evaluation Process of the Finnish Corporate Responsibility Reporting Awards

    OpenAIRE

    Reuhkala, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Corporate responsibility is not merely a trend but also a method for gaining competitive advantage through responsible actions. Society and individual consumers are demanding responsibility from all members of society, businesses included. Corporations have established a means to respond by releasing responsibility reports about all responsible operations and improvements thereof. FIBS, Finnish Business and Society, coordinates the annual Finnish Responsibility Reporting Awards. The objec...

  18. Floating island for extracting or processing gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppel, F.O.

    1979-09-25

    The described floating island for the extraction of gas from the sea a plurality of buoyancy units positioned on a base plate with columns extending upward therefrom at a height approximately the wave height expected. A platform containing gas liquefaction apparatus is positioned on the top of the columns. The buoyancy units are selected so that when the island is free floating, the columns project more than half way from the water.

  19. Evaluation of the technological feasibility, and cost of selected control alternatives necessary to meet the proposed Ohio SO/sub 2/ regulations for industrial boilers and processes. volume iii. Republic Steel Corporation, Cleveland district plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.R.; Klemm, H.A.; Stanley, W.T.

    1976-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation by the GCA Corporation, GCA/Technology Division, of technological feasibility and cost of complying with the proposed Ohio sulfur dioxide regulation (40 FR 52410, November 10, 1975) at the Republic Steel Corporation's Cleveland District Plant. The Final USEPA Sulfur Dioxide Control Strategy for the State of Ohio Technical Support Documents, Vol. I and II (EPA 905/2-76-002) may be obtained from NTIS. After collecting necessary site and process specific data by means of a plant visit, it was concluded that emissions from Boiler D would have to be reduced, and coke oven gas desulfurization would be required. The technical feasibility and cost of the Sulfiban, Holmes-Stretford, and Dravo-Stills processes for coke oven gas desulfurization were evaluated. These and other control options such as using low sulfur coal were evaluated for Boiler D.

  20. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  1. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Togo

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ROSC assessment of corporate governance in Togo is to help improve corporate governance in the country by assessing law and practice, suggesting reforms, and supporting the country in its effort to implement changes for better corporate governance. Corporate governance refers to the structures and processes for the direction and control of companies. Corporate governanc...

  2. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  3. Gas processing at DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term open-quotes Gas Processingclose quotes has many possible meanings and understandings. In this paper, and panel, we will be using it to generally mean the treatment of gas by methods other than those common to HVAC and Nuclear Air Treatment. This is only a working guideline not a rigorous definition. Whether a rigorous definition is desirable, or even possible is a question for some other forum. Here we will be discussing the practical aspects of what open-quotes Gas Processingclose quotes includes and how existing Codes, Standards and industry experience can, and should, apply to DOE and NRC Licensed facilities. A major impediment to use of the best engineering and technology in many nuclear facilities is the administrative mandate that only systems and equipment that meet specified open-quotes nuclearclose quotes documents are permissible. This paper will highlight some of the limitations created by this approach

  4. Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddock, Sandra; Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We define and discuss the concept of corporate responsibility. We suggest that corporate responsibility has some unique characteristics, which makes it different from earlier conceptions of corporate social responsibility. Our discussion further shows commonalities and differences between corporate...... responsibility and related concepts, such as corporate citizenship and business ethics. We also outline some ways in which corporations have implemented corporate responsibility in practice....

  5. The emerging role of corporate information systems: An example from the area of business process-oriented learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging business requirements, stemming from a holistic view over an organisation’s activities, place additional pressure on technical infrastructures and call for operational agility and a better alignment between business and technology. Business process oriented learning unites corporate training and business process management. Given the importance of an organisation’s human capital to business success, aligning individual training with business priorities, becomes a key challenge. The implementation of this new business service entails integrating learning into daily working tasks and putting in place mechanisms for the effective management of business processes, organisational roles, competencies and learning processes, to reduce the time to fill competency gaps and to build proficiency according to evolving business needs. In this paper we outline the main characteristics of this approach and provide insights regarding the changing role of the involved corporate information systems and the multiple aspects of the integration work.

  6. A Common Language: British and American English, Conversations Between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph

    This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…

  7. Corporate Venturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintergaard, Christian

    involved in recognition and discovery. Consequently thepaper offers insight to a diversified group of actors who mix and match technological and marketcapabilities in a constant process of recognition and discovery.Key words: Corporate venturing, entrepreneurship, discovery, networks, opportunities,recognition.......From the perspective of Austrian economics, this paper develops a conceptual understanding ofhow corporate venture managers recognize and discover opportunities in a network environment.In an effort to create a better understanding of who is involved in process, this paper reports onthe development...... path of an entrepreneurial opportunity of the Danish corporate venture capitalist,Danfoss A/S. This paper distinguishes itself from previous research done on entrepreneurialopportunities by creating a holistic and conceptual framework, which broadens and expands theperception of the market participants...

  8. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  9. ROK Corporation Won Bidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)completed the bidding for the platform project of Pinghu Oilfield in East China Sea on July 2, 1996. The Pinghu project was started at the beginning of this year. Among the nine firms from seven countries participating in the competitive bidding, Korean Heavy Industrial Corporation, with its good credit and technical strength, won the bid for construction of the drilling and oil-producing platform. It is a fixed offshore platform in a steel and iron structure with a total weight of 15 000 tons. It is also the largest production and processing platform in the offshore oilfields being operated by China itself. The platform is designed to produce 800 000 tons of crude and 530million cubic meters of natural gas each year.

  10. Entrepreneurial orientation and corporate governance structures at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent B. Molokwu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate governance systems (CGS have been observed as one of the most important structures and mechanisms that regulate the relationships between executives and shareholders. By having well-defined and established CGS, company board members and executives are able to shape company vision and increase managerial commitment towards formulating strategies that espouse an entrepreneurial orientation (EO. Firms with high levels of EO tend to be innovative and encourage creative initiatives in new products and technology developments.Research purpose: In an emerging economy such as South Africa, one of the primary goals of an organisation is growth and good governance, which can be achieved through wellgoverned structures and continuous innovation in the face of challenges. This study identified potential links between the multidimensional constructs of CGS and EO at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry.Motivation for the study: One of the greatest challenges faced by organisations when implementing CGS is to ensure compliance.Research design, approach and method: Board members and senior decision-makers were surveyed in the South African oil and gas industry, using a structured questionnaire. A series of correlational analyses were used to determine the strength of relationships between the dimensions of EO and CGS.Main findings: By drawing extensively on existing theory on EO, this study found that the different dimensions of CGS have a significant and positive relationship with each of the EO dimensions – innovation, risk-taking and proactiveness.Practical/managerial implications: Corporate boards supportive of entrepreneurship must provide appropriate reward systems, top management support, explicit goals and appropriate organisational values which signal to employees that entrepreneurial behaviour action is desirable. Practitioners should scrutinise their governance structures in their organisations to ensure

  11. Project Safe. Gas related processes in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide release from the SFR repository caused by gas generation was calculated for different scenarios for three repository parts (Silo, BMA and 1BTF). The calculation cases are based on the way the gas escapes from the concrete structures. In the basic cases the gas escapes through the evacuation pipes in the concrete lid of the Silo, through existing gaps between the concrete walls and the lid in BMA, and through the concrete backfill surrounding the waste packages in 1BTF. These cases correspond to the situation that we expect to occur. Another category of cases corresponds to the situation where an initial fracture exists in the concrete structures. The fracture is assumed to exist at the bottom of the respective concrete structure in the Silo and BMA. For 1BTF the initial defect is represented by a fracture transversely crossing the section containing the steel drums with ashes. Other cases were also calculated with the purpose of studying some special situations. For example, the consequences of a silo repository without evacuation pipes and backfill in the interior of BMA. The radionuclide release, for some radionuclides, may be increased by several orders of magnitude when contaminated water is expelled by gas from the interior of the concrete structures. However, the impact on the total doses during the first thousands years after closure of the repository is limited. The total dose is dominated by the release of organic 14C. Since the radionuclides are released to the coastal area during the first thousand years the dilution is considerable, which results in a very low dose

  12. Project Safe. Gas related processes in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, L. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Skagius, K.; Soedergren, S.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    The radionuclide release from the SFR repository caused by gas generation was calculated for different scenarios for three repository parts (Silo, BMA and 1BTF). The calculation cases are based on the way the gas escapes from the concrete structures. In the basic cases the gas escapes through the evacuation pipes in the concrete lid of the Silo, through existing gaps between the concrete walls and the lid in BMA, and through the concrete backfill surrounding the waste packages in 1BTF. These cases correspond to the situation that we expect to occur. Another category of cases corresponds to the situation where an initial fracture exists in the concrete structures. The fracture is assumed to exist at the bottom of the respective concrete structure in the Silo and BMA. For 1BTF the initial defect is represented by a fracture transversely crossing the section containing the steel drums with ashes. Other cases were also calculated with the purpose of studying some special situations. For example, the consequences of a silo repository without evacuation pipes and backfill in the interior of BMA. The radionuclide release, for some radionuclides, may be increased by several orders of magnitude when contaminated water is expelled by gas from the interior of the concrete structures. However, the impact on the total doses during the first thousands years after closure of the repository is limited. The total dose is dominated by the release of organic {sup 14}C. Since the radionuclides are released to the coastal area during the first thousand years the dilution is considerable, which results in a very low dose.

  13. Process and system for removing impurities from a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henningsen, Gunnar; Knowlton, Teddy Merrill; Findlay, John George; Schlather, Jerry Neal; Turk, Brian S

    2014-04-15

    A fluidized reactor system for removing impurities from a gas and an associated process are provided. The system includes a fluidized absorber for contacting a feed gas with a sorbent stream to reduce the impurity content of the feed gas; a fluidized solids regenerator for contacting an impurity loaded sorbent stream with a regeneration gas to reduce the impurity content of the sorbent stream; a first non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive an impurity loaded sorbent stream from the absorber and transport the impurity loaded sorbent stream to the regenerator at a controllable flow rate in response to an aeration gas; and a second non-mechanical gas seal forming solids transfer device adapted to receive a sorbent stream of reduced impurity content from the regenerator and transfer the sorbent stream of reduced impurity content to the absorber without changing the flow rate of the sorbent stream.

  14. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  15. Radon-222 and gamma ray levels associated with the collection, processing, transmission, and utilization of natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, C; Kan, K; Anderson, J; Morley, D

    1998-09-01

    The natural gas industry in British Columbia was investigated for exposure to radioactive contaminants such as radon-222 and lead-210. Radon activity associated with the gathering system ranged from 7-921 Bq/m3. The pipelines to the processing facility contained sludge that had a mean lead-210 activity of 0.494 Bq/g (0.379 standard deviation [SD]) and a mean radium-226 activity of 0.417 (0.398 SD). Within the processing facility the highest levels of radon were associated with propane production streams, and activities as high as 4958 Bq/m3 were found. Equipment handling these streams was also found to have a buildup of scale with lead-210, radium-224, and radium-226 activity. The transmission of salable gas to the consumer indicated a decrease in radon activity that was slightly lower than the estimated radon activity based on the half-life of radon, the distance from the production facility, and the speed of gas transmission. The risk of radon exposure to the worker was deemed well below the guidelines and would be controlled more than adequately by means of the occupational standards for the natural gas components. Gamma ray exposure was also well below the occupational standards. Radon exposure to the consumer was virtually nonexistent in the Vancouver region from both natural gas and propane. Although this might not be the case for consumers of propane closer to the production facilities, its contribution is likely to be minimal. PMID:9778822

  16. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs

  17. Is Corporate Communications A Strategic Function?

    OpenAIRE

    Dolphin, R; Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Corporate communications, or public relations (PR) as hitherto it has largely been known, has become an increasingly important function in business organisations. Yet little has been published on the role and function of communication executives. This paper reports an empirical study conducted in 20 British organisations with a focus on the director of corporate communications. It examines the role and tasks of corporate communication executives and discusses their status within organisationa...

  18. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. These crises that have started to alarm governments, supervisory authorities, companies, investors and even the general public because of the fragility of the corporate governance’s system, highlight the need to rethink its structures. The process of adapting the corporate governance provisions in order to ensure transparency, responsibility and fair treatment of shareholders has resulted in the development of Corporate Governance Principles by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. In order to asses these principles, it has started to identify the common elements of codes, one the most effective practice models of governance. Once the benefits of corporate governance practices have been understood and assimilated by the developed country, the developing countries (also Romania have begun to adopt "the best practices" in corporate governance, especially because this need is acutely felt in the changes required by the transition to a market economy. Our article describes the origins of the corporate governance, the concept and evolution of the corporate governance code at an international level, European level and also at a Romanian level.

  19. Opportunities in the United States' gas processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To keep up with the increasing amount of natural gas that will be required by the market and with the decreasing quality of the gas at the well-head, the gas processing industry must look to new technologies to stay competitive. The Gas Research Institute (GR); is managing a research, development, design and deployment program that is projected to save the industry US dollar 230 million/year in operating and capital costs from gas processing related activities in NGL extraction and recovery, dehydration, acid gas removal/sulfur recovery, and nitrogen rejection. Three technologies are addressed here. Multivariable Control (MVC) technology for predictive process control and optimization is installed or in design at fourteen facilities treating a combined total of over 30x109 normal cubic meter per year (BN m3/y) [1.1x1012 standard cubic feet per year (Tcf/y)]. Simple pay backs are typically under 6 months. A new acid gas removal process based on n-formyl morpholine (NFM) is being field tested that offers 40-50% savings in operating costs and 15-30% savings in capital costs relative to a commercially available physical solvent. The GRI-MemCalcTM Computer Program for Membrane Separations and the GRI-Scavenger CalcBaseTM Computer Program for Scavenging Technologies are screening tools that engineers can use to determine the best practice for treating their gas. (au) 19 refs

  20. Data Processing Model of Coalmine Gas Early-Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jian-sheng; YIN Hong-sheng; LIU Xiu-rong; HUA Gang; XU Yong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The data processing mode is vital to the performance of an entire coalmine gas early-warning system, especially in real-time performance. Our objective was to present the structural features of coalmine gas data, so that the data could be processed at different priority levels in C language. Two different data processing models, one with priority and the other without priority, were built based on queuing theory. Their theoretical formulas were determined via a M/M/1 model in order to calculate average occupation time of each measuring point in an early-warning program. We validated the model with the gas early-warning system of the Huaibei Coalmine Group Corp. The results indicate that the average occupation time for gas data processing by using the queuing system model with priority is nearly 1/30 of that of the model without priority..

  1. Contracting out gas processing : the pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of competition within the energy industry on the midstream infrastructure was discussed. It was demonstrated that it is no longer necessary to own all or a portion of a processing facility to be a successful exploration company. It is now possible for midstream operators to manage the transmission business, the gas storage sector and the gas processing segment of the industry. Contract options and issues that should be addressed by natural gas producers in determining risks involved in contracting out were summarized. Changes in the industry has greatly expanded the options and opportunities for companies, both upstream and midstream. The industry has been contracting out gas processing for many years. However, the entry into the business of the specialized midstream player should further enhance the producer's options. The ultimate goal for the producer should be to benefit from lower costs, long term offerings, and a reduced need to invest potential exploration capital into non-core processing facilities

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN-PROCESS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS QUALITY CONTROL TESTS OF INDIAN PHARMACOPOEIA, BRITISH PHARMACOPOEIA & UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA FOR CAPSULES AND LIQUID ORALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja CH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals with a brief overview of the comparative study of quality requirements for in-process and finished products quality control Tests of Indian Pharmacopeia (IP, British Pharmacopeia (BP & United States Pharmacopeia (USP for some conventional dosage forms. The concept of total quality control test refers to the process of striving to produce a quality product by a series of measures, requiring an organized effort in order to eliminate errors at every stage in the production. In process product testing is done in order to check the conformance of the final product with the compendial standards as specified in the pharmacopoeias. As the final sample taken for the finished product testing is only a representative of a large batch, a significant difference still remains. The pharmacopoeias have laid down the specified limits within which the value should fall in order to be compliant as per the standards. The official pharmacopoeias in different parts of the world specify the quality requirements for pharmaceutical products. However the parameters and standards differ to some extent from each other. Hence an attempt is being made to compare and bring out the harmonized limits within which a product should fall in order to meet the pharmacopoeial specifications that satisfy quality requirements for many regions. The main aim is to study the quality control tests for capsules and liquid orals and to list down the similarities and differences as per various Pharmacopoeias. The parameters examined for capsules and liquid orals dosage forms as per the Pharmacopoeias were compared and certain similarities and differences were observed. It was noted that except for a few parameters, the quality control tests were broadly similar.

  3. Rethinking the Harmonious Family: Processes of social organization in a Korean Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2006-01-01

      Social harmony and stability have been described as almost inborn aspects of Korean corporations dating far back in history. After the East Asian economic crisis in 1997 most Korean organizations, however faced new demands for productivity and competitiveness. The fragile balance between social...... harmony and individual competition, in some Korean corporations led to social negotiation and struggles to define the aim and character of the collective effort. By describing the subsequent social dynamics of a Korean bank corporation, the purpose of this paper is to show how the perception of group...... harmony as a stabile entity in East Asian organizations is too static for analyzing the social organization. Rather, the dynamics of the continuous production and reproduction of social structures have to be taken into account in order to understand working life in Korean organizations....

  4. Nitrogen Availability Of Nitriding Atmosphere In Controlled Gas Nitriding Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski J; Burdyński K.; Wach P.; Łataś Z.

    2015-01-01

    Parameters which characterize the nitriding atmosphere in the gas nitriding process of steel are: the nitriding potential KN, ammonia dissociation rate α and nitrogen availabilitymN2. The article discusses the possibilities of utilization of the nitriding atmosphere’s nitrogen availability in the design of gas nitriding processes of alloyed steels in atmospheres derived from raw ammonia, raw ammonia diluted with pre-dissociated ammonia, with nitrogen, as well as with both nitrogen and pre-dis...

  5. Evaluation of Chilled Methanol Processes for Acid Gas Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Piña Dreyer, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    As the main goal achieved with this master thesis, a plant design was constructed for an acid gas removal process with methanol operating at low temperatures. First, a bibliographical research was made in terms of sour gas treatment; with special focus of physical absorption processes involving methanol as the solvent to achieve separation; such as Rectisol and Ifpexsol. The literature research was extended to thermodynamic data; compiling equilibrium values for binary systems between methano...

  6. Natural gas operations: considerations on process transients, design, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Flavio

    2012-03-01

    This manuscript highlights tangible benefits deriving from the dynamic simulation and control of operational transients of natural gas processing plants. Relevant improvements in safety, controllability, operability, and flexibility are obtained not only within the traditional applications, i.e. plant start-up and shutdown, but also in certain fields apparently time-independent such as the feasibility studies of gas processing plant layout and the process design of processes. Specifically, this paper enhances the myopic steady-state approach and its main shortcomings with respect to the more detailed studies that take into consideration the non-steady state behaviors. A portion of a gas processing facility is considered as case study. Process transients, design, and control solutions apparently more appealing from a steady-state approach are compared to the corresponding dynamic simulation solutions. PMID:22056010

  7. Corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, the next steps: the case of gas in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European energy sector will undergo a wave of restructuring and reorganization in the next 12 to 36 months. Deregulation at both the EU and national levels provides a catalyst, creating a range of new commercial forces that will require actors fundamentally to reappraise their business strategies. Companies will look for efficiency gains, economies of scale and scope, new approaches to risk management and a strategic positioning in the pan-European market. This will result in far-reaching structural changes in the industry, leading to a small number of large, vertically integrated energy companies with a wide spread of geographical interests. In this paper, we analyse these trends with reference to the European gas industry. (orig.)

  8. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  9. Decision Making and Behavioral Strategy: The role of regulatory focus in corporate innovation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Tunçdoğan (Aybars)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation makes use of the behavioral strategy perspective in order to examine a number of constructs pertaining to innovation in corporate settings. In particular, the dissertation consists of four studies; one conceptual and three empirical. The conceptual pap

  10. Implementation of corporate social responsibility in the process of strategic management

    OpenAIRE

    Korenyev, Е.

    2013-01-01

    In the article modern approaches to the definition of the place of corporate social responsibility in the system of strategic management of an enterprise are analyzed. The conclusion about the priority role of the integrated approach to formation of business strategy as a tool of realization of the interests of stakeholders is drawn.

  11. Diagnostics of metal inert gas and metal active gas welding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrlandt, D.

    2016-08-01

    The paper gives a review on studies on metal inert gas (MIG) and metal active gas (MAG) welding processes with the focus on diagnostics of the arc, the material transfer, and the temporal process behaviour in welding experiments. Recent findings with respect to an improved understanding of the main mechanisms in the welding arc and the welding process are summarized. This is linked to actual developments in welding arc and welding process modelling where measurements are indispensable for validation. Challenges of forthcoming studies are illustrated by means of methods under development for welding process control as well as remaining open questions with respect to arc-surface interaction and arc power balance.

  12. Analysis of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant: Process integration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogeneration is defined as generation of two forms of energy viz. heat and work using single primary fuel. Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is important in improving energy efficiency of the overall plant and in reducing environmental pollution. A methodology, based on pinch analysis, is proposed in this paper to integrate gas turbine and regenerator with a process plant to minimize fuel consumption. Thermodynamic analysis of gas turbine integrated CHP plant is presented on gas turbine pressure ratio versus power to heat ratio diagram. On this novel diagram, limits of integration are identified and various regions of integration are represented. Additionally, contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios are represented on this diagram for optimal integration of gas turbine with a process plant. It is interesting to note that though the contour plots of energy utilization factors and fuel energy saving ratios differ significantly, loci of the maximal energy utilization factor and the maximal fuel energy saving ratio are identical. Optimum sizing of gas turbine integrated cogeneration plant for grassroots design and retrofitting are performed based on these diagrams. - Highlights: • Methodology for direct integration of gas turbine, regenerator, and process plant. • Integrated system analysis plotted on turbine pressure ratio vs. power to heat ratio. • Regions of integration are identified on this new diagram. • Variations of energy utilization factor and fuel energy saving ratio are indicated. • Optimal sizing of integrated gas turbine for retrofitting and grassroots design

  13. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Ratajski; Roman Olik; Tomasz Suszko; Jerzy Dobrodziej; Jerzy Michalski

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of tim...

  14. Gas Turbine Ontology for the Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Z. Laallam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of supervision and control of the industrial processes is a very complex spot and require a great experiment because of the dynamic characteristics of the process. This experiment was acquired with the passing of years. What makes departure of an expert in retirement a great loss of the know-how. The problem thus consists to capture this know-how and allows experiment to be cumulate with an aim of construction of an enterprise memory. We propose an approach based on ontology to capture this know-how. In the dynamic situations are distinguished three classes from situations: situations of normal walk, situations of degraded walk and situations of incidental walk. The work presented in this article, was developed in the division of production at SONATRACH. It relates to the supervision and the control of the industrial process of a compressor station witch constitutes a typical case of dynamic situation. Among the three classes of quoted dynamic situations, we concentrate on the situations of degraded walk. These situations of nature different compared to the usual situations from normal walk, subject the operator to a workload at the same time complex and stressing. The work presented in this article enters within the framework of a doctoral project whose the principal objective was the development of an intelligent system of expertise and of decision-making aid in the domain of the industrial maintenance for the compression stations. It relates to ontological engineering and more particularly the use of ontologies in the knowledge-based systems. We try in this work to build an ontology concerning the domain of the industrial maintenance. This ontology was not operational yet because it does not included mechanisms of reasoning. It was independent of any context of use.

  15. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation has been made for the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results have shown that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09 - 0.1 μSvhr-1) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 μSvhr-1 was recorded. Radon concentration in syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bqm-3 and 1141 Bqm-3, natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentration than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was found to be in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur, a value of 80 Bqm-3 was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay products concentrations in workplace air environment were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bqm-3 was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bqm-3. (author)

  16. Radon gas distribution in natural gas processing facilities and workplace air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation was made of the distribution of radon gas and radiation exposure rates in the four main natural gas treatment facilities in Syria. The results showed that radiation exposure rates at contact of all equipment were within the natural levels (0.09-0.1 μSv h-1) except for the reflex pumps where a dose rate value of 3 μSv h-1 was recorded. Radon concentrations in Syrian natural gas varied between 15.4 Bq m-3 and 1141 Bq m-3; natural gas associated with oil production was found to contain higher concentrations than the non-associated natural gas. In addition, radon concentrations were higher in the central processing facilities than the wellheads; these high levels are due to pressurizing and concentrating processes that enhance radon gas and its decay products. Moreover, the lowest 222Rn concentration was in the natural gas fraction used for producing sulfur; a value of 80 Bq m-3 was observed. On the other hand, maximum radon gas and its decay product concentrations in workplace air environments were found to be relatively high in the gas analysis laboratories; a value of 458 Bq m-3 was observed. However, all reported levels in the workplaces in the four main stations were below the action level set by IAEA for chronic exposure situations involving radon, which is 1000 Bq m-3

  17. Geochemical characteristics and formation process of natural gas in Kela 2 gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of a large amount of natural gas components and the carbon isotope as well as some other analysis data in Kela 2 gas field, the geochemical characteristics, source, origin, and formation process of natural gas have been discussed. The components of gas in the field tend to be "dry", and the drying coefficient is close to 1.0. The carbon isotope tends to be heavier, for instance, the average of 13C1 is 27.36‰ and that of 13C2 is 18.5‰. Comprehensive analysis shows that humic natural gas in the Kuqa petroleum system comes mainly from Triassic and Jurassic source rocks, and the contribution of Jurassic source rocks to the pool maybe is more than that of Triassic rocks. The main cause that the gas tends to be dry and bears heavier isotope composition lies in the fact that Kela 2 natural gas is the accumulation of late production of humic source rocks, and it is affected by the abnormal high pressure as well. Considering the hydrocarbon generating and structural history, we can regard the gas pool formation processes as twice filling and twice adjusting (destroying), that is, the filling and destroying process in the early Himalayan movement and the filling and adjusting in the late Himalayan movement.

  18. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  19. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. In addition, it participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. This report notes that the most significant development in 2000 was the sharp increase in the continental market price for natural gas, and in the winter spot price spikes in the west from southern British Columbia to California. As a result, the Commission had to approve large rate increases for BC gas customers. These high prices had a marked impact on cost of living and operating costs. In British Columbia, electricity rates are based on the cost of generation, transmission and distribution. Electricity rates have been, and will continue to be frozen for B.C. Hydro customers until October 2001. The Commission has instituted transmission access principles and tariffs for B.C. Hydro and West Kootenay Power to make it possible for these utilities to participate in regional electricity markets. The report also noted that the movement toward increased competition and deregulation of electricity markets in British Columbia has lost momentum, given the experiences in California and Alberta. tabs., figs

  20. Process Investigation of Tube Expansion by Gas Detonation

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, F.-W.; Beerwald, C.; Brosius, A.; Gershteyn, G.; Hermes, M.; Kleiner, M.; Olivier, H.; M. Weber

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with the expansion of tubes by direct application of gas detonation waves, i.e. the gas is both pressure medium and energy source. After an introduction to gas detonation forming, measurements of the motion process and the internal pressures are presented. Results of free expansion and of forming into a die are thoroughly studied and compared to the results of quasi-static burst tests and hydroforming. Using pure aluminum Al99.5 and a medium strength alloy AlMgSi1, ...

  1. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. The method involves a sequence of adsorption and desorption steps which are specified. Particular reference is made to the separation of xenon and krypton from the off-gas stream, and to the use of silver-exchanged mordenite as the adsorbent. (U.K.)

  2. Electrolytic trapping of iodine from process gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for removing molecular, inorganic, and organic forms of iodine from process gas streams comprises the electrolytic oxidation of iodine in the presence of cobalt-III ions. The gas stream is passed through the anode compartment of a partitioned electrolytic cell having a nitric acid anolyte containing a catalytic amount of cobalt to cause the oxidation of effluent iodine species to aqueous soluble species

  3. [Sir Humphry Davy, the discoverer of anesthetic action of nitrous oxide--Davy and poets of British Romanticism and inhalation of laughing gas by his friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1998-01-01

    In "Dove Cottage", the old house of the poet laureate William Wordsworth (1770-1850) in Grasmere, England, there is a portrait of Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). In 1804, Wordsworth invited his young friend to his home. Davy's works in the field of chemistry are well known. Interestingly enough, once he wished he could be a poet. His future seemed to be prosperous and delightful. He was highly evaluated by Robert Southey, poet laureate. But he has chosen the way of chemist. The author found some facts from literatures and received some information by courtesy of the Wordsworth Trust, Centre for British Romanticism. Davy's life and his works were introduced chronologically. PMID:9492511

  4. Nitrogen Availability Of Nitriding Atmosphere In Controlled Gas Nitriding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameters which characterize the nitriding atmosphere in the gas nitriding process of steel are: the nitriding potential KN, ammonia dissociation rate α and nitrogen availabilitymN2. The article discusses the possibilities of utilization of the nitriding atmosphere’s nitrogen availability in the design of gas nitriding processes of alloyed steels in atmospheres derived from raw ammonia, raw ammonia diluted with pre-dissociated ammonia, with nitrogen, as well as with both nitrogen and pre-dissociated ammonia. The nitriding processes were accomplished in four series. The parameters selected in the particular processes were: process temperature (T, time (t, value of nitriding potential (KN, corresponding to known dissociation rate of the ammonia which dissociates during the nitriding process (α. Variable parameters were: nitrogen availability (mN2, composition of the ingoing atmosphere and flow rate of the ingoing atmosphere (FIn.

  5. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  6. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  7. The corporate brand and strategic direction: Senior business school managers’ cognitions of corporate brand building and management

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, JMT; Wang, W-Y

    2016-01-01

    This revelatory study focuses on top Financial Times (FT) ranked British business school managers cognitions of corporate brand building and management. The study insinuates there is a prima facie bilateral link between corporate branding and strategic direction. Among this genus of business school, the data revealed corporate brand building entailed an on-going concern with strategic management, stakeholder management, corporate communications, service focus, leadership, and commitment. Thes...

  8. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  9. Prevent and "British Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  10. Overview of gas processing fee practices in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negotiation of gas processing fees from the perspective of the natural gas producer are summarized. Some of the topics discussed are: evaluation of fee proposals, capital cost estimates, pipeline capital fees, compressor capital fees, plant capital fees, upper and lower limits on fees, (JP-90 and JP-95), negotiation options, operating costs, production allocation, and processing agreements. Several case studies involving one or more of these items were reviewed by way of illustration. The importance of documentation of all agreements, changes to agreements, commitments, etc., was stressed

  11. Processing device for volatile ruthenium in off-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile ruthenium has a nature of forming stable non-volatile ruthenium dioxide solids upon contact with an organic solvent. In view of the above, in a volatile ruthenium processing device comprising an off-gas inlet pipeway, a cooler, a demister and a heater connected to each other, a gas scrubbing tower having an organic solvent as a cleaning solution is disposed between the off-gas inlet pipeway and tahe cooler and the organic solvent and the off-gases are brought into contact in a counter-current manner in the gas scrubging tower. This enables to convert the volatile ruthenium in the gases into stabale ruthenium dioxide solids and deposit them into the organic solvent. Further, since the deposited ruthenium dioxide solides can easily be separated by filters, the organic solvent as the cleaning solution can always be kept clean and the adsorption performance for volatile ruthenium is not reduced even after repeating use. (T.M.)

  12. Involving private persons and corporations in the planning process according to paragraph 9b German nuclear law - practicability and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4th Amendment to the German Nuclear Law has procured the legal base for the disposal of radioactive waste in the German Federal Republic. The Nuclear Law states that the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig is responsible for the disposal of radioactive waste. The PTB can be assisted in its responsibilities by persons and institutions of private character. Involving private persons and corporations in the licensing process figures a legal problem, and there has been a seminar in the PTB discussing such problems. The present contribution gives a brief summary of the opinions stated by the various legal experts taking part in this seminar. (orig./HP)

  13. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations. PMID:26867100

  14. Off-gas behavior in the Harvest pot vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of highly radioactive waste liquor into glass by the pot vitrification process has been studied at Harwell using a full-scale inactive pilot plant. A summary of the off-gas behavior and its interpretation is presented. Experimental runs were carried out on 3 representative wastes (MAGNOX - thermal reactor, metal fuel, THORP - thermal oxide fuel and PFR - fast reactor oxide fuel) using 2 methods of feeding the glass-formers (slurry and crizzle). Materials were carried over from the vitrification vessel into the off-gas system by entrainment supplemented by volatilization. The overall behavior of the off-gas was consistent with the presence in it of 5 separate aerosols of particulate matter. Sources of entrainment gave rise to 3 aerosols, and a further 2 aerosols were formed as a result of chemical reaction (Ru) and condensation (Cs) processes involving the volatile species. Entrainment was enhanced when the feed contained free alkali nitrate. The Ru volatility correlated directly with the amount of salt nitrates in the feed. The off-gas equipment consisted of a condenser followed by two packed tower scrubbers. The variation in equipment performance between different sets of experiments could be attributed entirely to changes in the proportion of air present in the off-gas. The entrainment aerosols were the easiest to remove from the off-gas, whilst the Cs aerosol proved to the most difficult. The overall process decontamination factors of the pilot was about 2x104 for vapor-Ru, 2.5-5x103 for particulate-Ru, and 5x103-1x104 for Cs. Non-volatile fission products were about 103 better. These results emphasize the need for a high efficiency filter and a Ru vapor absorber in an off-gas system. (Auth.)

  15. Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmark, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through o...... for corporate brands and corporate communication.......Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through...... organizational culture and identity, and how, although characterized by parallel developments, new ideas and models from a “third” wave of corporate branding challenge prevailing assumptions of corporate reputation particularly in terms of the assumptions that reputations emerge from authentic and transparent...

  16. The liberalization of the European gas sector and the strategic positioning of firms: A dynamic approach for corporate competence building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework to explain how competitive changes occurring in one sector can affect both the dynamics of required competencies and the frontiers with adjacent sectors is proposed. When applied to the natural gas sector, the results provide a better understanding of how competencies in the sector evolve according to the new market structure and the strategic movements engaged in by the different players. The proposed framework combines the two approaches -- evolution and strategy -- to show that a firm's competencies define both membership in a specific sector and its distinctiveness from its competitors. To define the strategic positioning process the concept of core competencies is introduced, i.e. competencies developed by firms through their specific history which, when combined in a specific manner with new competencies could give them sustainable competitive advantage. Finally, the authors explain the concept of dynamic capabilities, which rely on a set of organizational and strategic processes needed to integrate, develop and create new competencies in order to initiate, or to adapt to market changes. The final conclusion is that the recent liberalization of the European gas and power sectors weakened institutional entry barriers, a phenomenon which compelled operators traditionally protected by regional or national monopolies to compete with other potential actors. With specific reference to the gas, power and oil industries it is stated that if they had relatively clear frontiers in the past, these frontiers have now become increasingly permeable. However, this weakening of institutional barriers has a beneficial consequence: it allows companies to deploy strategies to take advantage of new growth and rent appropriation opportunities. Examples of adaptation by European oil companies, power companies and natural gas firms are used to illustrate the principles embodied in the proposed framework. 18 refs., 1 fig

  17. Exergy Analysis of Overspray Process in Gas Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Hoon Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine power can be augmented by overspray process which consists of inlet fogging and wet compression. In this study exergy analysis of the overspray process in gas turbine system is carried out with a non-equilibrium analytical modeling based on droplet evaporation and the second law of thermodynamics. This work focuses on the effects of system parameters such as pressure ratio, water injection ratio, and initial droplet diameter on exergetical performances including irreversibility and exergy efficiency of the process. The process performances are also estimated under the condition of saturated water injection ratio above which complete evaporation of injected water droplets within a compressor is not possible. The results show that the irreversibility increases but the saturated irreversibility decreases with increasing initial droplet diameter for a specified pressure ratio.

  18. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders; Hamma-Cugny, Hind; Rogez, Jacquez; Winnick, J.; Wassserscheid, Peter; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...

  19. 30 CFR 206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to 30 CFR 218.54. If the lessee is entitled to a credit, MMS will provide instructions for the taking... the Freedom of Information Act regulation of the Department of the Interior, 43 CFR part 2. ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation standards-processed gas....

  20. Gas discharge processes in the standard and metal channel PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the potential difference at the focusing chamber electrodes of the XP2020, FEU-85, FEU-87, and FEU-93 photomultipliers on the intensity of afterpulses resulting from gas discharge processes is investigated. The time distribution of the afterpulses in the metal channel PMTs - H6780 and R7600U-200 - is studied as well

  1. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  2. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  3. Design, Control and in Situ Visualization of Gas Nitriding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Ratajski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor, with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process.

  4. Design, control and in situ visualization of gas nitriding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajski, Jerzy; Olik, Roman; Suszko, Tomasz; Dobrodziej, Jerzy; Michalski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a complex system of design, in situ visualization and control of the commonly used surface treatment process: the gas nitriding process. In the computer design conception, analytical mathematical models and artificial intelligence methods were used. As a result, possibilities were obtained of the poly-optimization and poly-parametric simulations of the course of the process combined with a visualization of the value changes of the process parameters in the function of time, as well as possibilities to predict the properties of nitrided layers. For in situ visualization of the growth of the nitrided layer, computer procedures were developed which make use of the results of the correlations of direct and differential voltage and time runs of the process result sensor (magnetic sensor), with the proper layer growth stage. Computer procedures make it possible to combine, in the duration of the process, the registered voltage and time runs with the models of the process. PMID:22315536

  5. The current investment climate for midstream gas processing assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouwer, R.J. [ATCO Midstream, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    Topics discussed in this paper dealing with the current investment climate for midstream gas processing assets include: (1) strategic reasons to retain or divest midstream assets, (2) available options for midstream asset divestment, (3) midstream market fundamentals, and (4) financial performance of midstream companies. There are some 700 gas plants in Alberta at present, of which about 20 per cent are owned by midstream companies . About one half of the plants are smaller than 12.5 MMCFD which represent inefficient use of resources; a clear indication that there are substantial opportunities for consolidation. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  7. The current investment climate for midstream gas processing assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics discussed in this paper dealing with the current investment climate for midstream gas processing assets include: (1) strategic reasons to retain or divest midstream assets, (2) available options for midstream asset divestment, (3) midstream market fundamentals, and (4) financial performance of midstream companies. There are some 700 gas plants in Alberta at present, of which about 20 per cent are owned by midstream companies . About one half of the plants are smaller than 12.5 MMCFD which represent inefficient use of resources; a clear indication that there are substantial opportunities for consolidation. 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. U.S. gas processing consolidates while world tempo increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolidation characterized US gas processing in 1995, while plants in Canada, Western Europe, Middle East, and Asia displayed growth in capacities and NGL production. The US and Canada continued to lead the rest of the world in capacity, throughput, and NGL production, although by smaller margins. A rash of consolidations underway in the US among gatherers and processors, shrunk capacity by more than 1.8 bcfd (-2.6%) and production by nearly 950,000 gpd (-1.3%). US capacity stood at slightly more than 69 bcfd as of Jan. 1, 1996; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 48.4 bcfd; and NGL production exceeded 74,550 gpd. Canada saw its gas-processing capacity increase last year by more than 2.3 bcfd (6.3%) led by a handful of major expansions at large Alberta scavenger plants that straddle major gas export pipelines to the US. Gas-processing capacity in Canada as of Jan. 1 was nearly 39 bcfd; throughput for 1995 averaged nearly 30.5 bcfd; NGL production fell to slightly more than 43,000 gpd. This paper discusses these trends in the US and Canada, and briefly world wide

  9. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  10. Solid and hazardous waste management issues for gas processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on common solid and hazardous waste related concerns associated with gas processing which include proper management and storage of hazardous material and hazardous waste, proper handling of controlled non-hazardous material such as petroleum hydrocarbons, and assessment, remediation and control of special contaminants such as PCB and asbestos. The Federal state, and local regulations governing management of these materials continues to change, typically trending toward more stringent control of waste handling and disposal, and sometimes affecting waste materials that were previously disposed of as non-hazardous solid waste. More recent, regulatory changes affecting gas processing facilities include proper waste characterization and record keeping, underground tank removal and leak management, on-site waste disposal options and remedial alternatives for chemical spills, PCB contamination assessments for processing equipment and facilities and used oil management

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation, and Moral Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Conditions and notions of corporate reputation underwent in the last years a fundamental change. Economic and technological processes of globalization, modernization, and rationalization enforced the institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the corporate world. It is often...

  12. Female board members and corporate performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nasonenko, Angelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the relationship between female representation on boards of British FTSE 100 companies and their corporate performance. The theoretical section sets the foundation for the initial hypotheses that there is a positive relationship between the percentage of women on corporate boards and a firm's profitability, measured as ROE and ROIC. The methodological part establishes an analytical framework to test these hypotheses utilizing the so-called 'quartil...

  13. Corporate social responsibility: a stages framework

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, Ysanne M.; Faulkner, David O.

    2004-01-01

    This article speculates whether British companies evolved more effective systems, practices, and procedures for implementing corporate social responsibility (CSR) and environmental policies within the period 1994-2004. It is found out that CSR and environmental issues have become increasingly significant in large companies. This is because corporate image and reputation are often factors in the equation leading to competitive success. Benefits may not always be readily quantifiable, but the c...

  14. Strategic alliances in the corporate environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sambhi, Devinder S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper concentrates on research regarding the various types of strategic alliances that are employed within the corporate environment. A strategic alliance defined is the sharing of resources between two or more companies in order to provide shared benefits that otherwise individually would be more difficult to realise. This paper applies the findings to the Engineering Line of Business (ELoB) of BC Hydro, a Crown corporation in British Columbia. ELoB is entering a transition phase where ...

  15. Corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Brodská, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the concept of corporate culture. The theoretical part is focused on the explanation of the concept of corporate culture, its material and immaterial components, characteristics and typologies of selected authors. The practical part of my work is devoted to research the statement of corporate culture in the selected Belarusian corporation and to create recommendations for the improvements of corporate culture, which is the contribution of my thesis. During the ...

  16. Palladium coated porous anodic alumina membranes for gas reforming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeremy P.; Brown, Ian W. M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kemmitt, Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Nanostructured ceramic membranes with ultrathin coatings of palladium metal have been demonstrated to separate hydrogen gas from a gas mixture containing nitrogen with 10% carbon dioxide and 10% hydrogen at temperatures up to 550 °C. The mechanically robust and thermally durable membranes were fabricated using a combination of conventional and high-efficiency anodisation processes on high purity aluminium foils. A pH-neutral plating solution has also been developed to enable electroless deposition of palladium metal on templates which were normally prone to chemical corrosion in strong acid or base environment. Activation and thus seeding of palladium nuclei on the surface of the template were essential to ensure uniform and fast deposition, and the thickness of the metal film was controlled by time of deposition. The palladium coated membranes showed improved hydrogen selectivity with increased temperature as well as after prolonged exposure to hydrogen, demonstrating excellent potential for gas separation technologies.

  17. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  18. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution. PMID:14660122

  19. Grand design : British Columbia sets out to become an energy powerhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia is eager for petroleum companies to build on the conventional drilling successes that took place in the northeastern section of the province to explore unconventional natural gas reserves, such as coalbed methane, shale, and tight rock formations elsewhere in the province. The province hopes to attract 24 billion dollars in investment along with 8,000 new jobs in energy and mining sectors. During the first year of this century, 850 wells were drilled, with production reaching one trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 17 million barrels of oil. It has been acknowledged that the transportation infrastructure needs work to improve access to the northeastern region, as well as other regions of the province hoping to increase resource development. The British Columbia (BC) government is planning more involvement in land use planning and better access to information on oil and gas potential. Road building partnerships are being developed, and an expansion phase is beginning for the gas pipeline and processing network. Offshore resources show promise, with an estimated 9.8 billion barrels of oil and 43.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in four basins, according to the Geological Survey of Canada. Work on coalbed methane is beginning in the province, after a favorable royalty regime was implemented, with nine experimental projects under way. The government will consider reduced royalties for other unconventional resources like shale and tight gas

  20. Thomas Hopley and Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the trial of Thomas Hopley, accused of killing his pupil Reginald Cancellor in 1860 during an act of corporal punishment. The case provoked immediate sensational interest and became an important defining point in how corporal punishment is treated in British law. Established by this trial was the test that any corporal…

  1. Physical processes in low-temperature gas-dynamic lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konyukhov, V.K. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The book focuses on the coupled mode CO[sub 2] gasdynamic laser (16-22 [mu]m) and the feasibility of an H[sub 2]O or D[sub 2]O gasdynamic laser (in the submilimeter region) that could operate at exceptionally low stagnation temperatures. The text contains two major parts with eight chapters. In the first part, this text covers an overview of gas dynamic lasers in terms of vibrationally nonequilibrium processes for a homogeneous gas system and also for a gas-aerosol system with heterogeneous water condensation. The latter part is an excellent resource of a spectroscopic data base, which is useful in predicting performance characteristics of gasdynamic lasers. The last five chapters contain a detailed theoretical analysis and experimental results on rotationally nonequilibrium processes of both H[sub 2]O and D[sub 2]O in biphase (vapor liquid) supersonic flow. The role of rotational nonequilibrium has not received attention in gas dynamic lasers in the case of water-free condensation. The experimental measurements using high resolution spectroscopic studies in this text, however, indicate that a theoretical analysis of gasdynamic laser should take account the presence of effects of rotational non-equilibrium, particularly in rarefied supersonic jet streams with high water vapor concentration at low temperature. Similar rotational nonequilibrium effects were previously treated for HF or DF molecules when studying high energy chemical lasers.

  2. Corporate Law and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Romano

    1998-01-01

    We have seen a revival in interest in corporate law and corporate governance since the 1980s, as researchers applied the tools of the new institutional economics and modern corporate finance to analyze the new transactions emerging in the 1980s takeover wave. This article focuses on three mechanisms of corporate governance to illustrate the analytical usefulness of transaction cost economics for corporate law. They are the board of directors; relational investing, a form of block ownership in...

  3. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...

  4. Realizing Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girschik, Verena

    pharmaceutical company Novo Nordisk, a company known for its remarkable investments in integrating societal objectives into its business model and promoting new ways of thinking about and doing business. The case inspired the overarching theoretical question how actors construct and legitimize new ideas and......This doctoral dissertation aims to understand how companies realize corporate responsibility - both how they perform corporate responsibility in particular local contexts and how they negotiate understandings of what corporate responsibility means. It builds on an inductive case study of the Danish...... in this dissertation unfold distinct yet interdependent processes of positioning and framing that constitute new ways of performing and understanding corporate responsibility....

  5. Ceramics in gas turbines - Powder and process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of powder and process characterization in producing high quality silicon nitride and silicon carbide components, for gas turbine applications, is described. Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability have been pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder have been discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. It is inevitable that significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  6. Chemical sensors and gas sensors for process control in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the possibilities for chemical measurement of the progress of biotechnological processes which are offered by devices already developed for other demanding applications. It considers the potential use of ultrasonic instrumentation originally developed for the nuclear industry, gas measurement methods from the fields of environmental monitoring and combustion control, nuclear instruments developed for the oil, mining and chemical industries, robotic systems and advanced control techniques. (author)

  7. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  8. Advanta Financial Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Services provided by Advanta Financial Corporation to the oil and gas industry are described. These services include industrial equipment leasing, and sale and lease back of new or used equipment in the $ 250,000 to $ 2 million range. Office equipment is provided on a 12 to 60 month capital lease with 100 per cent financing on new equipment. Service equipment is also available on 12 to 60 month capital lease and 0 to 25 per cent equity is required. Production equipment is leased on 12 to 84 month capital and operating lease agreement and requires 0 to 25 per cent equity. The process of concluding a lease in each category is described, including documentation requirements, equipment description, engineering summary, equipment schedule and acceptance, evidence of insurance and fiscal arrangements. In general, flexibility in the arrangements is the key to success in an aggressive and highly competitive industry

  9. Toolkit for community energy planning in British Columbia. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This toolkit presents the basic concepts and issues regarding the implementation of community energy planning in British Columbia. It is intended primarily for local elected officials, municipal and regional planners and engineers, real estate developers and those interested in community sustainability and energy opportunities. The objectives are to: (1) describe how energy is used in communities and how its use impacts the community, (2) show that designing for energy supports community livability objectives, (3) describe how energy considerations can be incorporated in existing community planning processes, (4) communicate the idea that community energy planning can play an important role in reducing Canada's greenhouse gas emissions, thereby slowing down climate change, and (5) provide practical advice that will help communities move toward sustainable energy development. Community energy planning encompasses land use planning and transportation, infrastructure efficiency, and alternative energy supply. This toolkit described the strategies that are related to each of these components. In addition, 6 case studies of specific initiative programs dealing with community energy planning in British Columbia were presented. These included the challenges facing developers of energy efficient sustainable buildings and municipalities, the Lillooet solar municipal pool, the community energy planning in Kamloops, improving the transportation system a small urban centre called Quesnel, BC's energy aware award winners, and the Shoal Point development on Victoria Island's Fisherman's Wharf. The efforts of each of these projects provide an opportunity to build a community that is more socially, environmentally and fiscally responsible and sustainable.

  10. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize

  11. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  12. Building the competitive intelligence knowledge: processes and activities in a corporate organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of building and developing comprehensive tools, techniques, support systems, and better methods of harnessing the competitive intelligence knowledge processes. The author stresses the need for building sophisticated methodological competitive intelligence knowledge acquisition, systematic collection of competitive intelligence knowledge from various sources for critical analysis, process, organization, synthesis, assessment, screening, filtering and interpreta...

  13. Examining the building selection decision-making process within corporate relocations : to design and evaluate a client focused tool to support objective decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnington, Nick; Haynes, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to consider the complex decision-making process involved in corporate relocation and the validity of a tool designed to improve the objectivity and strategic management of this process and to change the focus of the decision upon the strategic management objectives rather than the real estate deal. Design/methodology/approach – The authors identify the progression of the decision-making process; disaggregate components of that process; and evaluate a tool...

  14. Oil and gas fiscal regimes of the western Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares the fiscal regimes in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. During 1985-1988, federal and provincial governments have made numerous fiscal changes, many in response to the drop in world oil prices. The new fiscal policies generally have reflected governments' willingness to forego revenues in an effort to aid the oil and gas industry, with certain exemptions. Since 1988, changes have reflected trends of consolidation and less government willingness to forego revenues. A federal large corporations capital tax has been introduced, the natural gas exploration holiday in Alberta expired, new oil royalties were introduced, and changes were made in fiscal regimes to accomodate horizontal drilling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In this document, the existing corporate tax regime is described. A comparison of fiscal regimes must recognize the differing scale and nature of oil and gas operations among the 4 provinces, with Alberta accounting for 80-90% of Canada's oil and gas productions, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are much smaller producers. The document describes Crown royalties and incentives and freehold taxes for each type of fuel (crude oil, natural gas, natural gas byproducts, nonconventional oil). 8 figs

  15. Corporate governance and firm performance: the case of UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The subject of corporate governance and corporate performance has been widely discussed and examined over the last two decades. A great deal of change has developed within British Boardrooms since the emergence of the Cadbury Committee Report in 1992. UK Corporate Governance reforms over the years have been consistently developed where an increase in the number of non-executive directors on board, their roles and their effectiveness, was evident throughout the development of these reports. Fo...

  16. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  17. Corporate culture

    OpenAIRE

    Stoklasa, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor's thesis is corporate culture, that is currently becoming a very important part of every company. In the theoretical part provides views of the individual authors on this issue. Here are also explained important concepts related to this topic. In particular, the elements of corporate culture, corporate culture change and determinants, that affect it. Furthermore, the theoretical part describes the most famous typology of corporate cultures international authors. The ...

  18. [Process orientation as a tool of strategic approaches to corporate governance and integrated management systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    The concept of general process orientation as an instrument of organisation development is the core principle of quality management philosophy, i.e. the learning organisation. Accordingly, prestigious quality awards and certification systems focus on process configuration and continual improvement. In German health care organisations, particularly in hospitals, this general process orientation has not been widely implemented yet - despite enormous change dynamics and the requirements of both quality and economic efficiency of health care processes. But based on a consistent process architecture that considers key processes as well as management and support processes, the strategy of excellent health service provision including quality, safety and transparency can be realised in daily operative work. The core elements of quality (e.g., evidence-based medicine), patient safety and risk management, environmental management, health and safety at work can be embedded in daily health care processes as an integrated management system (the "all in one system" principle). Sustainable advantages and benefits for patients, staff, and the organisation will result: stable, high-quality, efficient, and indicator-based health care processes. Hospitals with their broad variety of complex health care procedures should now exploit the full potential of total process orientation. PMID:20951952

  19. Exergoeconomic evaluation of single mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergoeconomic analysis is performed for single mixed refrigerant process. • Cost of exergy destruction and exergoeconomic factor are calculated. • Sensitivity of exergoeconomic factor is investigated. - Abstract: Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis is performed for single mixed refrigerant Linde and Air Products and Chemicals Inc, processes, which are among the most important and popular natural gas liquefaction processes. Cost of exergy destruction, exergoeconomic factor, exergy destruction and exergy efficiency are calculated. Results of exergy analysis demonstrates that exergy efficiency of Linde process is around 40.2%, and its total exergy destruction rate is 93,229 kW. The exergy efficiency and exergy destruction rate for Air Products and Chemicals Inc, process are 45.0% and 72,245 kW respectively. Results of exergoeconomic analysis suggests that maximum exergy destruction cost for Linde process is related to E-2 heat exchanger which is 34,072 $/h and for Air Products and Chemicals Inc, process maximum exergy destruction cost is related to E-2 heat exchanger with the value of 4125 kW. Sensitivity of cost of exergy destruction and exergoeconomic factor to operating variables of the processes are studied and analyzed

  20. Offshore oil and gas : a community development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A community perspective on offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia was presented. It was noted that local benefits depend greatly on the level of regulation and government intervention in the industry. Community preparedness, jurisdictional certainty and corporate ethics also play a vital role. It is also necessary to clearly understand legal, economic, environmental, social and industrial aspects of offshore development. Jurisdictional concerns include the International Free Trade Agreement, ambiguities over mineral rights, and claims by First Nations to seabed and ocean resources. It was emphasized that the impact of offshore development on ecotourism and fisheries should not be underestimated. Community-based planning is critical. Economic imperatives include international prices, recovery costs, distribution of royalties, and alternative opportunities. It was also noted that communities in British Columbia have much to learn from other gas dependent regions

  1. Entrepreneurial orientation and corporate governance structures at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent B. Molokwu; Jose Barreria; Boris Urban

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Corporate governance systems (CGS) have been observed as one of the most important structures and mechanisms that regulate the relationships between executives and shareholders. By having well-defined and established CGS, company board members and executives are able to shape company vision and increase managerial commitment towards formulating strategies that espouse an entrepreneurial orientation (EO). Firms with high levels of EO tend to be innovative and encourage creati...

  2. The Role of Corporate Communication and Perception of Justice during Organizational Change Process

    OpenAIRE

    Saruhan, Neşe

    2014-01-01

    Today, researchers have been exploring employee’s resistance to change and how to foresee these aversive behaviors during organizational change process (Armenakis & Harris, 2002, Dent & Goldberg, 1999, Oreg & Sverdlik, 2011). Some employees view organizational change in a negative way even if change efforts will results in favorable consequences for them. At this point, communication process has a crucial effect on the perception of employees towards change process. In addition, several studi...

  3. Indians Repulse British With Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  4. Corporate planning in the new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning process at IPL Energy Inc. was discussed. IPL Energy is the largest natural gas distribution company which has the world's longest and most complex liquid pipeline. The three business units at IPL Energy are: gas distribution, pipelines, and international investment. Each uses different strategies for growth opportunities. The process wherein the plans from the various business units are formulated, leavened with corporate level vision, enriched by the addition of an international dimension, and merged into a complex strategic plan for the company as a whole has been described. The need for flexibility, and the importance of constant attention to the three Cs -competencies, culture and communications - were emphasized

  5. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  6. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  7. The intelligent control of an inert-gas atomization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, S. A.; Ridder, S. D.; Biancaniello, F. S.; Espina, P. I.

    1991-01-01

    Intelligent control is an attempt to specify the function of a controller in ways which mimic the decision-making capabilities of humans. Traditionally, issues relating to the emulation of human-like capabilities have fallen in the domain of artificial intelligence. Intelligent processing is a specific form of intelligent control in which the system to be controlled is a process rather than the more conventional mechanical or electrical system. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's program on intelligent processing of metal powders is a multi-disciplinary research initiative investigating the application of intelligent control technologies to improve the state of the art of metal powder manufacturing. This paper reviews the design of the institute's supersonic inert-gas metal-atomizer control system.

  8. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  9. A Green Method for Processing Polymers using Dense Gas Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan B. Yoganathan; Raffaella Mammucari; Foster, Neil R.

    2010-01-01

    Dense CO2 can be used as an environmentally-benign polymer processing medium because of its liquid-like densities and gas-like mass transfer properties.In this work, polymer bio-blends of polycarbonate (PC), a biocompatible polymer, and polycaprolactone (PCL), a biodegradable polymer were prepared. Dense CO2 was used as a reaction medium for the melt-phase PC polymerization in the presence of dense CO2-swollen PCL particles and this method was used to prepare porous PC/PCL blends. To extend t...

  10. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on the responsible nature of their business practices. The corporate awakening towards a broader role of business in society and the trend of corporations embracing partnerships has led many to question the driving...... factors that motivate corporations to pursue partnerships. In this paper, the authors examine the underlying drivers of corporate organisational behaviour from the theoretical perspectives of both legitimacy and stakeholder needs, and discuss the challenges of gaining insight into why corporations embrace...... public-private partnerships. These theoretical perspectives are used to gain a deeper understanding of the corporate drivers that motivated TOTAL S.A. to approach UNESCO for cooperation on community development programs in Myanmar....

  11. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  12. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and process economics of the fluid milk process

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-farm activities associated with fluid milk production contribute approximately 70% of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while off-farm activities arising from milk processing, packaging, and refrigeration, contribute the remainder in the form of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. W...

  13. EFFECT OF CORPORATE INNOVATION ABILITY ON THE CHOICE BETWEEN PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With the method of duopoly game theory, the effect of firms’ innovation ability on the choice between product and process innovation is studied. The concept of cost coefficient of product innovation is introduced, and the criterion equation for the innovation type is derived. The following conclusions are made: the more the product innovation ability, the more the possibility for the firms to carry out the product innovation in both the Bertrand and the Cournot competitions. With the decrease of the product innovation ability, for the high-quality firms, Cournot competitor turns to select the process innovation earlier than the Bertrand competitor. But for the low-quality firms, the Bertrand competitor would select the process innovation firstly.

  14. Humidification - Dehumidification Desalination Process Using Waste Heat from A Gas Turbine By

    OpenAIRE

    El Dessouky, H. T. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a hutnidification-dehumidification desalination process using waste heat from a gas turbine power plant. In this process, the air is used as the operating fluid instead of water. The process has many advantages over many desalination processes which use waste heat from gas turbines. The amount of fresh water produced and the mass of air-gas mixture leaving the desalination plant were found to decrease with decreasing gas turbine load and with increasing mixing temperatu...

  15. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  16. A Green Method for Processing Polymers using Dense Gas Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan B. Yoganathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense CO2 can be used as an environmentally-benign polymer processing medium because of its liquid-like densities and gas-like mass transfer properties.In this work, polymer bio-blends of polycarbonate (PC, a biocompatible polymer, and polycaprolactone (PCL, a biodegradable polymer were prepared. Dense CO2 was used as a reaction medium for the melt-phase PC polymerization in the presence of dense CO2-swollen PCL particles and this method was used to prepare porous PC/PCL blends. To extend the applicability of dense CO2 to the biomedical industry and polymer blend processing, the impregnation of ibuprofen into the blend was conducted and subsequent dissolution characteristics were observed.

  17. Qualitative Information in Annual Reports & the Detection of Corporate Fraud: A Natural Language Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sunita

    2009-01-01

    High profile cases of fraudulent financial reporting such as those that occurred at Enron and WorldCom have shaken public confidence in the U.S. financial reporting process and have raised serious concerns about the roles of auditors, regulators, and analysts in financial reporting. In order to address these concerns and restore public confidence,…

  18. Labour Adjustment Costs and British Footwear Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, L. Alan

    1990-01-01

    Import protection is frequently advocated as a means of preserving jobs and avoiding labour adjustment costs. Defining adjustment costs in terms of output forgone during the process of adjustment and ignoring any general equilibrium repercussions, we estimate that quantitative restrictions on British footwear imports during 1979 protected about 1,000 jobs and avoided once-and-for-all adjustment costs of only around 1 million pounds sterling. The result is based on new data which reveal high r...

  19. Corporate Governance in China

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yan

    2011-01-01

    China has become the world's second largest economic entity following its economic reform process begun over 30 years ago. Corporate governance plays an important role in China economic success, but it also has many problems. These include the concentration of state ownership, management accountability and shareholder rights. Economic reform has made the problems more apparent. This thesis studies the evolution of corporate governance with the China's economic reform process, and explores i...

  20. EFFECT OF CORPORATE INNOVATION ABILITY ON THE CHOICE BETWEEN PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Wu; Tian Zhilong

    2010-01-01

    With the method of duopoly game theory, the effect of firms’ innovation ability on the choice between product and process innovation is studied. The concept of cost coefficient of product innovation is introduced, and the criterion equation for the innovation type is derived. The following conclusions are made: the more the product innovation ability, the more the possibility for the firms to carry out the product innovation in both the Bertrand and the Cournot competitions. Wi...

  1. Anomalous Diffusion Approximation of Risk Processes in Operational Risk of Non-Financial Corporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce an approximation of the risk processes by anomalous diffusion. In the paper we consider the case, where the waiting times between successive occurrences of the claims belong to the domain of attraction of α -stable distribution. The relationship between the obtained approximation and the celebrated fractional diffusion equation is emphasised. We also establish upper bounds for the ruin probability in the considered model and give some numerical examples. (author)

  2. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  3. Corporate Fictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Søndergaard, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a particular strategy of communication called a social science fiction. The strategy was taken up following an empirical research project on gender and management, in order to communicate results to the company's managers and Human Resource Staff. The research results showed...... fiction was the kind of narrative therapy, which aims to reconfigure the problem in focus by a process of externalisation that allows a reconstruction and retelling of the issue. The article describes how three cultural mechanisms in the company were condensed into three imaginary figures: Mr. Corporate...... Masculinity, Mr. Malebonding and Saint (Hetero)Sexualising. The three figures were exposed to reflection and retelling among central actors of the company....

  4. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  5. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    the responsible nature of their business practices. The accountability of corporations has moved beyond the traditional obligations of addressing shareholder demands and today, corporations must be accountable to society and all stakeholders affected by global development. The corporate awakening......Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Both the business community and public organisations...... are recognizing the potential benefits of public-private partnerships for furthering the Millennium Development Goals while having a positive impact on business. Partnerships have become more common as corporations react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on...

  6. Corporate Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross......-sector partnerships. The results of this paper are based on interviews, participant observations, and organizational documents from a 19-month empirical study of a Danish corporate foundation. Findings suggest that corporate foundations have potential to act as boundary organizations and facilitate collaborative...... action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...

  7. Forensic analysis of failed heat exchanger tubes of NGL cooler of gas processing installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, S.S.; Kapoor, I.R.; Katarki, M.V. [Materials and Corrosion Section, Institute of Engineering and Ocean Technology, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited, Panvel, Navi Mumbai, 410221 (India)

    2004-07-01

    Regular failures of heat exchangers in NGL cooler of gas processing installation of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation have been observed during the last few years. These heat exchangers are of shell and tube type. The failures were reported to be on tubes side only and none of the shell failed. Detailed laboratory investigations to examine the objective evidence presented by the failed components to determine the corrosion mechanism leading to failure, were carried out and the results of the said forensic analysis is reported in this paper. The corrosion morphology suggests that it is primarily a concentration cell corrosion type by under deposit attack and pinholes were found below the deposit in the internal surface of the exchanger tube. The corrosion product is magnetic in nature and the dominant peaks in the X-ray diffraction spectra are of Iron oxide in the form of magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The exchanger tube material was found to be highly susceptible to severe crevice corrosion under deposits in the electrochemical Tafel plot and cyclic polarisation studies under simulated test conditions using high pressure high temperature autoclave. During the last 3 to 4 years, maximum values recorded for the inorganic phosphate and total hardness in the quality control tests of cooling water were found to be higher than the acceptable limit while the zinc content was found to be falling below the acceptable limit. The decomposition of organic component of phosphate has led to insufficiency in the required dose of phosphate. Higher inorganic component of phosphates along with higher hardness led to precipitation and as such inorganic phosphate was found in the deposits. Therefore protective film formation was insufficient to mitigate under deposit pitting corrosion. Dose of 15 ppm total phosphate (having 40 to 60% organic phosphate form) and a minimum of 2 to 3 ppm zinc concentration were recommended to avoid recurrence of under deposit pitting corrosion. (authors)

  8. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Zingales, Luigi

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes my own personal view of what corporate governance is about. I argue that it makes sense to discuss corporate governance only in an incomplete contract world. In this world, the notion of corporate governance is intrinsically related to the definition of the firm. In this respect, the shortcomings of the existing definitions of the firm are reviewed and the possible applications of the idea that the firm is a ‘nexus of specific investments’ introduced by Rajan and Zingale...

  9. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Zingales

    1997-01-01

    This essay summarizes my own personal view of what corporate governance is about. I" argue that it makes sense to discuss corporate governance only in an incomplete contract world. " In this world, the notion of corporate governance is intrinsically related to the definition of the" firm. In this respect, I review the shortcomings of the existing definitions of the firm and the" possible applications of the idea that the firm is a specific investments" introduced by" Rajan and Zingales (1997a...

  10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-01-01

    The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second sect...

  11. Fort Nelson electrical generation project : British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and TransAlta Energy Corporation Fort Nelson Electrical Generation Project : Report and recommendations of the Fort Nelson Electrical Generation Project Committee with respect to a decision on a project approval certificate application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) and TransAlta Energy Corp. (TransAlta) have applied for a certificate of approval for the proposed construction of the Fort Nelson Energy Generation Project (FNEGP). The project will involve the design, construction, operation, dismantling and abandonment of a 45 MW combustion turbine power plant about 20 km south of Fort Nelson near Westcoast Energy`s gas plant. The proposed project will provide base load power to the town of Fort Nelson which now receives its electricity from Rainbow Lake, Alberta. Once FNEGP is operational, the standby diesel power plant in Fort Nelson will be decommissioned. The main issues raised during the review of the project were the potential impacts on air quality, water supply and waste management. It was determined that it is unlikely that the project will result in any significant negative impacts on terrestrial ecology, wildlife or aquatic life. The project would likely provide greenhouse gas offsets, since it would replace electricity from the Alberta Power Pool which is derived mostly from coal-fired thermal sources. Wastewater discharges from the project will be accommodated by Westcoast Energy`s wastewater treatment system. The proposed disposal of solid wastes and handling of special wastes was also found to be acceptable. Although there will be few opportunities for spills, the proponents have agreed to prepare an emergency response plan for use in the event of reportable spills. The socio-economic implications of the project are mostly positive with any negative impacts being minor in nature. Based on its review of the application the Project Committee recommended issuance of an approval certificate.

  12. Evaluation of Process Capability in Gas Carburizing Process to Achieve Quality through Limit Design Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Palaniradja; N. Alagumurthi; V. Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Steel is the most important metallic material used in industry. This is because of the versatility of its engineering properties under different conditions. In one condition it can be very mild, soft and suitable for any forming operation. In another condition the same steel can be very hard and strong. This versatility is made possible by the different heat treatments that the steel can be subject to. One such treatment is Gas carburizing. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of low carbon steels. In this method the surface composition of the steel changes by diffusion of carbon and or nitrogen and result in hard outer surface with good wear resistance properties. A striking feature of Gas Carburizing process is that in this process the original toughness and ductility remains unaffected even after heat treatment. 3% nickel chromium case hardened low carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications such as rack and pinion, gears, camshaft, valve rocker shafts and axles which requires high fatigue resistance. Fatigue behaviour of case carburized parts depends to a great extent on the correct combination of Hardness Penetration Depth (HPD) and the magnitude of hardness at the surface and beneath the surface with low size and shape distortion. In order to reduce the manufacturing costs in terms of material consumption and elimination of the number of processing steps, the effect of Gas carburizing parameters on the fatigue behaviour should already be considered in the parameter design stage. Therefore it is of importance to optimize the gas carburizing process variables to attain quality products with respect to hardness and case depth. In the present paper, the evaluation of process capability was carried out through a Limit Design Concept called orthogonal array design of experiment. To optimize the process variables the influence of several parameters (Holding time,Carbon potential, Furnace temperature and Quench

  13. Evaluation of Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility Using an Analytical Hierarchy Process under a Fuzzy Environment—A Textile Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Shen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ventilating crisis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR issues in the textiles industry resulted in the engagement of many researchers in the analysis of CSR and its related factors throughout the globe. Some researchers in developed nations extend their policies beyond the boundary of CSR in the textiles industry, but some developing contexts are still limited to this boundary, including India, due to facts that have not yet been revealed. Hence, to fill this gap, this study reveals the factors that are resisting the implementation of CSR in the textiles industry with the assistance of a proposed model, and this model is validated with a case industry situated in southern India. Common barriers are collected through various reliable means, and among those common barriers, the essential barrier was identified with the assistance of the case industrial manager through an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP under a fuzzy environment. The results show that financial constraints comprise the main barrier to the implementation of CSR in the Indian textiles industry, which is then further validated with feedback from case industry managers. This study offers both societal and scientific insights, identifies limitations, and provides an approach that may be extended in the future once additional factors are implemented.

  14. Examining corporate governance and corporate tax management

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Surya Mulyadi; Yunita Anwar; Erminus Bobby Ardo Dwi Krisma

    2014-01-01

    Taxation play an essential role both in a country and in a corporation. For a country it is one of the primary income source, while for the corporation taxes will reduce corporate net income. To minimize the tax payment, corporation conduct a corporate tax management. According to some of previous research, there is a correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. While there are many corporate governance proxies could be used in corporate governance research, in this ...

  15. A Descriptive Case Study of the Human Rights Due-Diligence Process of a Mining and Exploration Multinational Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Jon R M

    2010-01-01

    The success of the contemporary human rights movement is such that the rights they espouse are increasingly relevant to multinational corporations (MNCs), who, commensurate with their influence within the current world order, potentially impact upon all such rights for a wide variety of stakeholders. A recent focus of this contentious field within the global public domain, has been the adoption by the United Nations Human Rights Council, of a framework that confers upon corporations a respon...

  16. Process development of dry reforming of natural gas hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Solange Maria de; Souza, Aleksandros El Aurens Meira de; Lima Filho, Nelson Medeiros de; Abreu, Cesar Augusto Moraes de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering], Emails: solange.vasconcelos@gmail.com, aleksandros.souza@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Experimental evaluation was performed by processing the natural gas hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, and propane), with a nickel catalyst (3.92 wt %)/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Operations in a fixed-bed reactor at 1023 K, under atmospheric pressure, provided hydrocarbon transformations into syngas products (H2, CO), steam, ethylene, propylene, and carbon. Hydrocarbons conversions, representing 51,1% for methane, 43,8% for ethane, and 50,1% for propane, promoted hydrogen yields of 43,8%, 22,9%, and 34,3%, respectively. Hydrogen selectivities were highlighted through the H2/CO molar ratio, where 0.8, 14.0, and 5.8 values were obtained from methane, ethane, and propane, respectively. (author)

  17. Simulated calculation for diffusion process of gas in multilayer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration distribution expression of hydrogen diffusion process in multilayer polymer shells, that is the relationship among hydrogen concentration, diffusion time and diffusion distance was derived based on the second Fick's law. In each layer, in a certain diffusion time, the relationship between hydrogen concentration and diffusion depth is parabolic for a certain quality gas, which indicates in the direction of penetrant diffusion the polymer systems are swelled and the penetrant diffuses along the direction of polymer swelling. In different diffusion time, the concentration of ration hydrogen was increased with time delay at the same place. Because polymer free volume was largened owing to polymer systems being swelled, and the hydrogen's diffusion path was increased and the diffusion coefficient was improved with the increase of concentration in spherical shells. On the whole, the result is in accordance with the experimental results and calculation conclusion of correlative literature. (authors)

  18. Off-gas processing method of thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a method of processing off-gases from a thermonuclear reactor by several steps of processing, which comprises (1) separating elemental deuterium and tritium in a palladium-silver permeation device at a temperature lower than 450degC and decomposing ammonia into respective constituent elements, (2) adding carbon monoxide to impurities such as residual gases and setting the carbon monoxide/steam ratio to greater than 1.5, (3) reacting steams with carbon monoxide by using a CuO/Cr2O3/ZnO catalyst into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, (4) passing a gas comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide through a palladium-silver permeation device filled with a nickel/aluminum oxide catalyst and joining hydrogen isotope formed by the decomposition of hydrocarbon with hydrogen isotope in (1) above and separating carbon as element, and (5) releasing the remaining gases into atmospheric air since it does not contain the hydrogen isotope in the form of element or compound, or recycling them on the catalyst in (3). The process yields no solid wastes and with no oxygen addition. (I.S.)

  19. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, PI; Jerry Meldon, Co-PI; Xiaomei Qi

    2002-12-01

    Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperatures to improve reaction kinetics and permeation. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. The first-year screening studies of WGS catalysts identified Cu-ceria as the most promising high-temperature shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and were thus eliminated from further consideration. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. Several catalyst formulations were prepared, characterized and tested in the first year of study. Details from the catalyst development and testing work were given in our first annual technical report. Hydrogen permeation through Pd and Pd-alloy foils was investigated in a small membrane reactor constructed during the first year of the project. The effect of temperature on the hydrogen flux through pure Pd, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25} alloy membranes, each 25 {micro}m thick, was evaluated in the temperature range from 250 C to 500 C at upstream pressure of 4.4 atm and permeate

  20. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  1. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO

  2. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...... interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced if the...... corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  3. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the a href="http://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/series/?sn=200001" UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  4. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  5. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  6. ENERGY EFFICENCY INCREASE OF PROCESSES ON GAS – REGULATING STATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidkov M.A.; Zhidkov D.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are presented results of the thermodynamic analysis of vortex tubes in recuperative technological schemes and examples of practical implementation of findings in the chemical, oil and gas industry, in particular for the vortex heating of the natural gas on the gas - regulating station.

  7. Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Žilková, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Definition and basic theoretic information about Corporate Governance of big industry company Description and Analyse of corporate Management, the functions of Top Management Members, their role in relationship to owners / shareholders (describtion of used tools for internal control of government, investment and tools for financial analyses)

  8. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  9. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  10. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities......, and thereby moving the organization to a new state of being. In spite of a general consensus on a strong interlinkage between the concepts of innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, the nature of this linkage is rarely addressed directly. This has made further research in the two areas problematic, mainly...... nature of corporate entrepreneurship and innovation by exploring the role played by innovation in corporate entrepreneurship. - Develop a framework of corporate entrepreneurial innovation which facilitates an understanding of challenges related hereto and practices applied to overcome these challenges...

  11. Corporate plan 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define PPARC's primary long-term objective at the corporate level as being to maintain the UK as a world player in particle physics, astronomy and planetary science, which British scientists helped to pioneer and are enjoying a rich period of discovery. As a significant bonus, an international reputation for excellence in advanced science and technology enhances the perception of Britain in the world. Secondly, we set the broad corporate objective of maximising the national benefits of all our programmes in terms of their contribution to the country's skilled workforce, the industrial and commercial uses of our advanced technology, and the enhanced interest in science and technology which the fundamental nature of our research inspires in the public, particularly young people. Thirdly, we set the overarching objective of getting the best value for money from our programmes, by exposing every element to competition against the highest standards of quality. Experience shows the benefit of competition to increasing cost-effectiveness, and we shall continue to apply this to all parts of the programme, particularly the operation and maintenance of facilities and support services. As a framework for developing our programme aims and strategies, within these wider objectives, we describe PPARC's mission in five parts (although in practice they are interactive and mutually supportive, and programme strategy is developed across the whole of PPARC's activities). (i) Research: We will fund only the highest quality research within the fields of particle physics, astronomy and planetary science. All proposals for funding will be assessed within areas of identified and qualified scientific priority, against the most demanding international standards. An optimal balance will be sought between, on the one hand, our commitment to fund major international collaborations (CERN and ESA) and, on the other hand, our ability to fund a domestic programme to exploit those collaborations

  12. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  13. 75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ..., impose responsibility for compliance with gas measurement rules on lessees, operators, and lessees... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Requirements for Measurement Facilities... measurement equipment at gas plants and other processing facilities. SUMMARY: This notice provides...

  14. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  15. Study on the formation mechanism of shock wave in process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-ling; MIAO Fa-tian; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    According to the research results of motion parameters of coal-gas flow, ana-lyzed the formation mechanism of shock waves at different states of coal-gas flow in the process of coal and gas outburst, and briefly described the two possible cases of outburst shock wave formation and their formation conditions in the process of coal and gas out-burst, and then pointed out that a high degree of under-expanded coal-gas flow was the main reason for the formation of a highly destructive shock wave. The research results improved the shock wave theory in coal and gas outburst.

  16. Аerodynamic processes in leaking gas from the vessels through the gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Д. Доник

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Theoretical and experimental researches of the aerodynamic processes during gas outflow from the vessel via gap have been developed. For the first time were obtained an mathematical models as well as were actually researched the unsteady gas outflow processes at the positive and negative gas impact exerted on the shield. Were considered gas flow modes in the gap between vessel and shield; the calculation results were compared with experimental one.

  17. The corporate image concept: a strategic approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Following a clarification of the concept of corporate image using the available literature as a basis, the process of image-formation and the nature of the influence of corporate image on behaviour are explored. The relationship with corporate identity is then discussed. This exploration leads us to considerations on corporate image policy and recommendations relating to methods of measurement.The core of the publication consists of the Corporate Image Concept, developed to provide a framewor...

  18. Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process in an automobile manufacturing factory was investigated using a combination of multiple metrics and a comparison with background particles. The number concentration (NC), lung-deposited surface area concentration (SAC), estimated SAC and mass concentration (MC) of nanoparticles produced from the GMAW process were significantly higher than those of background particles before welding (P < 0.01). A bimodal size distribution by mass for welding particles with two peak values (i.e., 10,000–18,000 and 560–320 nm) and a unimodal size distribution by number with 190.7-nm mode size or 154.9-nm geometric size were observed. Nanoparticles by number comprised 60.7 % of particles, whereas nanoparticles by mass only accounted for 18.2 % of the total particles. The morphology of welding particles was dominated by the formation of chain-like agglomerates of primary particles. The metal composition of these welding particles consisted primarily of Fe, Mn, and Zn. The size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of welding particles were significantly different from background particles. Working activities, sampling distances from the source, air velocity, engineering control measures, and background particles in working places had significant influences on concentrations of airborne nanoparticle. In addition, SAC showed a high correlation with NC and a relatively low correlation with MC. These findings indicate that the GMAW process is able to generate significant levels of nanoparticles. It is recommended that a combination of multiple metrics is measured as part of a well-designed sampling strategy for airborne nanoparticles. Key exposure factors, such as particle agglomeration/aggregation, background particles, working activities, temporal and spatial distributions of the particles, air velocity, engineering control measures, should be investigated when measuring workplace

  19. Globalisation and the contested process of international corporate restructuring: employment reorganisation and the issue of labour consent in the international oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Cumbers; Jane Atterton

    2000-01-01

    Labour is typically treated as a passive victim of corporate restructuring processes in discourses on globalisation, rendered helpless by rationalisation and downsizing, and structurally place-bound and defenceless against increasingly mobile and footloose capital. This paper forms part of a growing body of work in the geographical literature that seeks to contest this view, reinserting labour as an actor in the context of globalisation. Specifically, we consider labour as an autonomous agent...

  20. Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process to Determine Consumers¡¯ Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Strategy for Organizations in the Nigerian Global System for Mobile Telecommunication Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bolajoko Nkemdinim Dixon-Ogbechi; Sikuade Oladimeji Jagun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research has revealed the importance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and its significant impact on organizational performance. Also, scholars have recognized that consumers¡¯ attitudes and behaviors towards products and organizations are greatly influenced by organizational CSR programs and strategies. Consumers are generally recognized as one of the primary stakeholders of organizations in the marketing exchange process hence their perceptions of CSR are important s...

  1. The use of corporate entrepreneurship by Gefeba Elektro GmbH : The case study of a German medium-sized company in the highly competitive process automation sector

    OpenAIRE

    Alami, Tarik; Montier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship has gained renewed interested in research since global markets are evolving and industries become more and more competitive. Information is transferred across the globe rapidly so that products and processes can be copied quickly. In order to be competitive, companies need to enhance creativity, their technological knowledge and market know-how. This high competitiveness leads to a dilemma where innovation is a key to survive whilst the size and administration may s...

  2. Measuring Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nicolăescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the evolving character of sustainability management in corporations, the significance of environmental protection and sustainability, and barriers to carrying out an incorporated and strategic firm-wide advance of social responsibility. In the present paper, we focus on the contribution of sustainability undertakings towards enhancing corporate performance, the financial involvements of sustainability position and operation, and the chief function of values in corporate policy. Our paper contributes to the literature by supplying proof of elements that lead to the triumph of business patterns for sustainable development, processes through which stakeholders are affecting corporate sustainability conduct, and the link between economic growth and the environment.

  3. Hydrocarbon and by-product reserves in British Columbia, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data on oil, gas and by-product reserves in British Columbia as of 31 December 2000, as estimated by the Oil and Gas Commission was presented along with a summary of year-end remaining established reserves, estimates of the reserves of oil, gas and by-products, and detailed reserve and pool parameters. British Columbia set a record in 2000 with 753 wells drilled, of which 59 were classed as oil. Most of the oil drilling took place in the Hay River area. 449 gas wells were drilled in 2000, mostly in the Fort St. John area. An additional 120 wells were cased. Raw gas reserves in 2000 increased to 294.8 109m3, up slightly from the previous year. Remaining oil reserves at December 31, 2000 were 27,357 103m3, an increase of about 4 per cent over 1999. This report also included a historical review of oil and raw gas reserves by geological period and unconnected gas reserves by plant area. Established hydrocarbon reserves, summaries and a project/unit cross-reference listing was included. Oil pools under waterflood or gas injection were also highlighted. Four appendices were also included, one each for reserve and pool parameter listings for crude oil reserves, gas reserves, raw gas analysis, and remaining hydrocarbon products. tabs

  4. Gas Permeation Processes in Biogas Upgrading: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kárászová, M. (Magda); Sedláková, Z.; Izák, P. (Pavel)

    2015-01-01

    Biogas upgrading is a widely studied and discussed topic. Many different technologies have been employed to obtain biomethane from biogas. Methods like water scrubbing or pressure swing adsorption are commonly used and can be declared as well established. Membrane gas permeation found its place among the biogas upgrading methods some years ago. Here, we try to summarize the progress in the implementation of gas permeation in biogas upgrading. Gas permeation has been already accepted as a comm...

  5. Energy saving in the process of gas pipeline overhaul

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrokhin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The problem of energy saving during overhaul of a linear part of gas trunkline is regarded in this paper. This issue has been analyzed from different perspectives. Thermodynamic analysis of gas evacuation from a string that is off operation for the overhaul to a parallel or adjacent string with the use of mobile compressor systems was made. Economical attractiveness of mobile compressor systems applications was proved. Various methods of gas trunklines linear parts overhaul have been consider...

  6. The influence of sorption processes on gas stresses leading to the coal and gas outburst in the laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacek Sobczyk [Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The seepage of gas through coal and in particular through coal briquettes has already been a quite well known phenomenon. This also refers to its influence on certain initial conditions of coal and gas outbursts such as threshold values of so called gas stresses. In turn a detailed research on the influence of sorption processes on these conditions has been neglected until now. There is, however, an opinion that (fast) desorption is crucial for rock and gas outburst initiation and continuance, although many examples contradict such a thesis. The goal of the studies described here was to investigate a part of this ambiguity, namely the influence of sorption processes on gas stresses leading to coal and gas outbursts carried out in laboratory conditions. A series of laboratory experiments concerning provoking coal and gas outbursts was conducted. Coal briquettes and two gases: nitrogen and carbon dioxide were used. The experimental data was computed out into the gas stresses and the most important information was extracted. The obtained results showed that in experiments with nitrogen slightly higher gas stresses and thus more intensive provoking were needed in order to initiate outburst than in experiments with carbon dioxide. It indicates that sorption may be the factor that promotes outbursts. Comparative analysis implied also that for a given level of gas stresses the more sorptive the gas was, the longer it took to initiate an outburst. Moreover, in the experiments with nitrogen the global maximum of gas stresses occurred deeper inside of the briquette for any given time than in experiments with carbon dioxide. All the found differences were weak, though easily noticeable. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Conventional oil and gas, geophysical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 13 per cent of the natural gas production in Canada originates from British Columbia. A capital-intensive process, exploration and development of oil and gas entails a host of activities including: wide area geological assessments, acquisition of oil and gas rights (proposals and decisions), geophysical exploration, drilling, gathering and processing systems and facilities, abandonment and reclamation criteria, a midstream sector, and a downstream sector. This paper focusses on geophysical exploration, and contains concise business information on the sector in British Columbia. The overview of the sector was followed by discussion of the following issues: land resource requirements and sensitivities; investment requirements; infrastructure; the market; the labour force; capacity; the regulatory regime; government revenues; and, regional cost variations. An input-output table was also provided. 13 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Thermodynamic and Process Modelling of Gas Hydrate Systems in CO2 Capture Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen

    formation may be performed at pressures of approximately 20 MPa and temperatures below 280 K. Thermodynamic promoters are needed, to reduce the pressure requirement of the process, thereby making it competitive to existing capture technologies. A literature study is presented focusing mainly...... pressures are reduced by approximately 20 percent compared to the cyclopentane promoted system. The mixed promoter system thereby represents a new state-ofthe-art within thermodynamic promotion of gas hydrates in the framework of the classical hydrate structures. A thermodynamic model based on the Cubic...... simplified carbon dioxide capture processes are simulated by use of the model. Three to four capture stages are needed in all processes to obtain a product stream richer than 95 mole percent in terms of carbon dioxide. The modeling results presented here are discouraging for the post-combustion carbon...

  9. Dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, dissipation process of binary gas mixtures in thermally relativistic flows is discussed with focus on characteristics of diffusion flux. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer around a triangular prism. Numerical results for the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier–Stokes–Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox et al (1976 Physica A 84 165–74). In the case of uniform flow with small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of a wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is similar to that of the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, unlike the pressure deviator, dynamic pressure and heat flux, even when the Lorentz contraction in the uniform flow becomes large, because the diffusion flux does not depend on the generic Knudsen number from its definition in Eckart’s frame. Finally, the author concludes that for accuracy diffusion flux must be calculated using the particle four-flow and averaged four velocity, which are formulated using the four velocity defined by each species of hard spherical particles.

  10. Dissipation process of binary mixture gas in thermally relativistic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss dissipation process of the binary mixture gas in the thermally relativistic flow \\textcolor{red}{by focusing on the characteristics of the diffusion flux}. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer problem around the triangle prism. Numerical results of the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox \\textit{et al}. [Physica A, 84, 1, pp.165-174 (1976)]. In the case of the uniform flow with the small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of the wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is simil...

  11. Global gas processing will strengthen to meet expanding markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide LPG industry continues to expand faster than the petroleum industry -- 4%/year for LPG vs. 2%/year for petroleum in 1995 and less than 1%/year in the early 1990s. This rapid expansion of LPG markets is occurring in virtually every region of the world, including such developing countries as China. The Far East is the focus of much of the LPG industry's attention, but many opportunities exist in other regions such as the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. The investment climate is improving in all phases of downstream LPG marketing, including terminaling, storage, and wholesale and retail distribution. The world LPG supply/demand balance has been relatively tight since the Gulf War and should remain so. Base demand (the portion of demand that is not highly price-sensitive) is expanding more rapidly than supplies. As a result, the proportion of total LPG supplies available for price-sensitive petrochemical feedstock markets is declining, at least in the short term. The paper discusses importers, price patterns, world LPG demand, world LPG supply, US NGL supply, US gas processing, ethane and propane supply, butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline supply, and US NGL demand

  12. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly us...

  13. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.

    1997-12-31

    Various techniques for NO removal in Membrane Contactor were considered. However the NO absorption in a liquid adsorbent with chemical enhancement and its ease for regeneration, was selected as the most practicable choice. Various different compounds for chemical enhancement were studied and Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent was selected for further studies. The technical feasibility of Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent for obtaining greater than 80% NO removal have been successfully established. Even though the membrane area required for greater than 80% NO removal has been found to be about 500 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c} (compared to 50 - 150 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c}, for 95% SO{sub 2} removal, depending on the membrane characteristics), suitable Membrane Contactor design has been proposed for carrying out the process at an acceptable gas side pressure drop. The electro-membrane processes for the regeneration of adsorbents have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical studies have concerned the study of basic functions of both the bipolar membranes and charge laden (anion/cation) membranes. Suitable experimental techniques have been devised for studying of these basic parameters (e.g. charge transport number, salt diffusion through membranes, current-voltage characteristics of bipolar membranes and electrical resistance of charge laden membranes). These parameters have further been utilized in the mechanistic model of combined membranes in an ED cell (electrodialysis). Based on these fundamental studies and analysis of process requirements, suitable configuration of ED cell has been developed and verified by experimental studies. The effect of both the stack design parameters (e.g. number of cells, membrane type and spacer design) and the operational parameters (e.g. temperature, electrolyte concentration, liquid velocity and current density) have been studied for optimization of energy consumption for regeneration of loaded adsorbents. As a result

  14. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-07-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  15. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  16. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  17. Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Joan

    1989-01-01

    The National PTA opposes the use of corporal punishment in schools. Several states and foreign countries have banned this form of discipline, and studies show it to be ineffective. Alternative methods of controlling student behaviors are suggested. (IAH)

  18. Neither Corporal Punishment Cruel nor Due Process Due: The United States Supreme Court's Decision in "Ingraham v. Wright."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    This paper examines some of the historical and contemporary assumptions regarding the social and educational context of the use of corporal punishment on children, assumptions that are implicit in the Supreme Court's decision in the Ingraham v. Wright case. Beginning with a summary of the Florida case, the author outlines the Court's majority…

  19. Corporate Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Appeals to corporate responsibility often simply take for granted that businesses have ethical responsibilities that go beyond just respecting the law. This paper addresses arguments to the effect that businesses have no such responsibilities. The interesting claim is not that businesses have no ethical responsibility at all but that their primal responsibility is to increase their profits. The extent to which there is reason to take such arguments seriously delineates the limits of corporate...

  20. INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT IMPERATIVES GLOBAL CORPORATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ЛУК’ЯНЕНКО, О.Д; ДВНЗ «Київський національний економічний університет ім. В. Гетьмана»

    2011-01-01

     Some urgent questions of the establishment of global corporations management system have been reflected. The experience of the world leading corporations in gaining and maintaining the leading positions in the highly technological segments of the global market has been generalized. The constituents of the knowledge management process in the corporations of innovative type has been identified. The importance of creative personal qualities of managers to generate and implement effective innova...

  1. Corporate Responsibility and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Ricotti

    2003-01-01

    Corporate responsibility marks a historical turnaround in corporate culture because it attributes to it a role in which many costs externalised by the company to society and to the planet, but in fact produced directly or indirectly by it. A correct cultural approach and greater familiarity, particularly with the issues of manufacturing processes and products that have no impact on the environment, can make companies truly responsible and conscious of their role. Corporate Responsibility diff...

  2. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - SPRAY DRYER PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry [Ca(OH)2]. he hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur d...

  3. Auditing the British Medical Journal.

    OpenAIRE

    Channer, K S

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the outcome in terms of change in practice of the published research from one volume of the British Medical Journal. All original papers and short reports from one Volume 296 of the British Medical Journal (BMJ) 1988 were read and classified into theoretical only, practical and theoretical and practical. Those papers with any practical message were reviewed by one of a panel of specialists in the subject of the paper to assess if the recommendation made ...

  4. How to add value to a generic product on the natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of the deregulated gas market continues to stir the blood. It's the 'leitmotif' of lecturers, discussions and professional journals. And of the Circle Day for members of the Royal Dutch Gas Association (KVGN). A representative of a supermarket chain discussed with the participants of the meeting the possibility of selling gas at the supermarket. The Head of Corporate marketing of British Gas warned the Dutch gas distributors against switching customer. The general manager of EnTrade strongly advocated a really deregulated gas market. During the morning session featuring 'Millennium and marketing' a marketing consultant already pointed at the new attitude that is necessary in the free market: 'Use the turn of the millennium to practice cuddling your customers. Take away your customer's fears that they will be without heating on 1 January 2000'

  5. Examining corporate governance and corporate tax management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation play an essential role both in a country and in a corporation. For a country it is one of the primary income source, while for the corporation taxes will reduce corporate net income. To minimize the tax payment, corporation conduct a corporate tax management. According to some of previous research, there is a correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. While there are many corporate governance proxies could be used in corporate governance research, in this research we are focusing on three: number of board, number of independent board and board compensation. We measure corporate tax management by using effective tax rate (GAAP ETR and current ETR are used in this research. By using several other control variables, we run the regression and conduct the statistical analysis to examine the correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. Our result show that corporate governance have a significant correlation to corporate tax management.

  6. Downstream gas processing opportunities arising from the 1990's quest for a quality environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last several years the former wart on your favorite daughter's nose (gas liquids processing) has become a most cherished body part, to paraphrase 1991 remarks of a U.S. gas processing leader. The dramatic recent spreads between liquids prices and the cost of feedstock natural gas have provided spectacular performance for processors. However, market prices for liquids will probably track petroleum. One day soon natural gas's inherent value will rise to parity with petroleum on a heating value basis. As petroleum demands will probably be flat in the foreseeable term, and natural gas prices will rise, something must be done to preserve gas processors' margins. Radical change in the formulation of U.S. gasoline presents many opportunities for gas processor to diversify into synthesis of upgraded derivatives of natural gas and liquids, which derivatives have high value-added characteristics. Issues relating to the selection of derivatives, the required technology, and capital project considerations are discussed in this paper

  7. New process for producing methanol from coke oven gas by means of CO2 reforming. Comparison with conventional process

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Ferrera Lorenzo, Nuria; Luque, S.; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel

    2013-01-01

    [EN] A novel method of producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG), involving the CO2 reforming of COG to obtain an appropriate syngas for the synthesis of methanol is proposed. This method is compared with a conventional process of methanol synthesis from natural gas, in terms of energy consumption, CO2 emissions, raw material exploitation and methanol purity. Whereas this new process requires the consumption of less energy, the conventional process allows a higher energy recovery. CO2 emiss...

  8. On the Process of Gas Liberation in Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhelezny, Petr; Shapiro, Alexander; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work is an experimental and computational analysis of the effect of gas liberation in a porous medium. The experiments are based on application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). A series of experiments on slow gas liberation was carried out. A mathematical model of the lib...... samples. The results of the calculations indicate noticeable, although not extreme, lowering of the bubble point pressure (0.12-0.18 MPa) and decreased production of gas, compared to the depletion carried out in a PVT cell....

  9. The political economy of corporate social responsibility and community development: a case study of Norway's Snoehvit natural gas complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klick, Matthew T.

    2009-07-01

    This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company's stated 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snoehvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of 'socially responsible' approaches to development to internalize negative externalisation and promote positive 'spin-offs'. Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry. (Author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Qiang; Cao, Zidong

    2004-08-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used. Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  11. Applying ACF to desulfurization process from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used. Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost. (authors)

  12. Changes in Sea Levels around the British Isles Revisited (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teferle, F. N.; Hansen, D. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Williams, S. D.; Woodworth, P. L.; Gehrels, W. R.; Bradley, S. L.; Stocchi, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recently a number of new and/or updated sources for estimates of vertical land movements for the British Isles have become available allowing the relative and average changes in sea levels for this region to be revisited. The geodetic data set stems from a combination of re-processed continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from stations in the British Isles and from a global reference frame network, and absolute gravity (AG) measurements from two stations in the British Isles. The geologic data set of late Holocene sea level indicators has recently been updated, now applying corrections for the 20th century sea level rise, syphoning effect and late Holocene global ice melt, and expanded to Northern Ireland and Ireland. Several new model predictions of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process active in this region form the modelling data set of vertical land movements for the British Isles. Correcting the updated revised local reference (RLR) trends from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) with these vertical land movement data sets, regional and averaged changes in sea levels around the British Isles have been investigated. Special focus is thereby also given to the coastal areas that have recently been identified within the UK Climate Projections 2009.

  13. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  14. The corporate brand building

    OpenAIRE

    Wisterová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The target of this master's thesis is to follow the process of corporate brand building of the company Starkl zahradník, to analyse it and to suggest possible improvements. The thesis is divided into four main sections. The first section deals with the theoretical aspects of the corporate brand building. The second section observes the process of brand building of the brand Starkl zahradník. The third section deals with the survey that was carried out and analyse its results. This survey was ...

  15. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies, a

  16. Exploring Language and Diplomatic Thinking through Process Types: A Contrastive Study on Sino-British Diplomatic Thinking Based on the China-UK Joint Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chen

    2016-01-01

    The China-UK Joint Declaration on Building a Global Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for the 21st Century is one of the fruits of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent official state visit to the Great Britain. As a typical and important diplomatic language document, the Joint Declaration deserves scientific research. In this paper, based on the six process types of Halliday’s Transitivity system, we attempt to disclose the diplomatic thinking underlying the employment of process types and...

  17. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  18. American English vs. British English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahheidaripour, Gholamabbass

    1997-01-01

    The present study, using a totally direct method, investigates, within the framework of sociolinguistics and foreign language teaching in Iran, whether teachers of English prefer British or American variety of English language, and whether their preference corresponds to their performance on a related test. Thirty Iranian English language teachers…

  19. British Industrial Libraries Before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Margaret R.

    1972-01-01

    British industrial firm libraries are traced from their beginnings till 1939, by which date they had spread to many branches of industry and had been recognized as an important part of the industrial and library worlds, thus establishing standard patterns of work. The origins and significance of Aslib are discussed. (27 references) (Author/NH)

  20. BRITISH ARMY COMMISIONS BY PURCHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Dick Usher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I have before me a copy of a letter dated 12 May, 1814, written by certain Lieutenant-Colonel William Fuller of the King's Dragoon Guards to a British Lord, in which is advised that a commission for His Lordship's son would cost £735. Further on in this article I shall state the prices as they were at the time of the' Crimean War. Only recently did I read a book by a very well-known British author who claims that the British army of the 1850's was small, and that the Crimean War was to prove that it was shockingly organised, but he speaks only well of the navy of that period. I ask that my readers please bear in mind that in earlier days there was no such rank as second-lieutenant nor sub-lieutenant in the British army. The most junior commissioned rank in the infantry was that of ensign. In the cavalry, it was cornet until 1871, when it became sub-lieutenant.

  1. Evaluation of Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility Using an Analytical Hierarchy Process under a Fuzzy Environment—A Textile Case

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Shen; Kannan Govindan; Madan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The ventilating crisis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues in the textiles industry resulted in the engagement of many researchers in the analysis of CSR and its related factors throughout the globe. Some researchers in developed nations extend their policies beyond the boundary of CSR in the textiles industry, but some developing contexts are still limited to this boundary, including India, due to facts that have not yet been revealed. Hence, to fill this gap, this study reveals ...

  2. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  4. Current state of the international movement of financial resources and the role of multinational corporations in this process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bondarchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendencies of input of direct foreign investments at the present stage of development of world economy have been researched in this article. It was figured out that after world economy passed over recession of 2007–2012 the main countries that receive foreign direct investment are developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Decline of the share of developed countries in inflow of direct foreign investments is caused by capital surplus in the markets of these countries and by reduction of profitability of direct foreign investments. It was figured out that multinational corporations carry out considerable influence on redistribution of financial resources in the world that is provided with movement of the capitals among the countries by intra corporate channels of multinational corporations. Author’s position concerning the directions of the further movement of financial resources in the world economy, according to developing countries and countries with economies in transition of East Asian and African regions, has been grounded. The reason of it is the high capacity of the markets of these countries and rapid rates of their economic development that form favorable investment climate.

  5. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  6. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  7. Measurement of fugitive emissions from gas processing plants in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new gas visualization camera created to detect leaks. An outline of the device's projected entry into the oil and gas industry was provided, and included: a demonstration of Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging (DIAL) and leak cameras to measure and reduce fugitive emissions; a comparison of DIAL measured emissions with estimated emissions; and a review of methods to measure particulate emissions. In addition, a background of gas leak visualisation technology was presented along with an an overview of DIAL and its results from sour gas plants. The results of a survey conducted in 2003 were presented, including leaks identified and repaired as well as a follow up leak survey. An analysis of pre and post-repair hydrocarbon emissions from the Deepcut area revealed a 60 per cent reduction with savings of $140,000 as well as additional savings from reduced carbon emissions. A similar survey conducted in another plant measured emissions from condensate tanks before and after cooler installation as well as from surrounding well sites, quantifying an 80 per cent reduction in methane emissions. Tasks identified for future research concerned particulate emissions and the development of Lidar methods which can currently identify particulates, but are not yet able to quantify them. Other tasks included a complete DIAL data workup and reporting; the quantification of both methane and carbon emissions reduction at a sour gas plant; a comparison of measured emissions with methods that estimate fugitives; and a complete review of particulate measurements. tabs, figs

  8. Issues, drivers and opportunities: The changing face of the gas processing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent explosive growth of the Canadian gas industry in response to export opportunities was described. About one billion dollars a year are invested in constructing gas processing plants and operating the plants pumps another billion dollars into the country's economy. The efforts of mid-stream companies to get a foothold in the gas-processing industry were examined, both in Canada and the United States. Some penetration by mid-stream companies has been reported in the United States, but in Canada gas -processing, is still done exclusively by E and P companies. Gas industry activity around the world was reviewed. About 95 per cent of gas processing plants are located in Canada and the United States, processing approximately 70 per cent of natural gas and producing about 80 per cent of the world's natural gas products. At present, there is a surplus of by-products of natural gas processing, although there is a ready market for the excess ethane, propane and butane in the United States. Market outlook for sulphur is poor, as the sulfur surplus is worldwide. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  9. The Management of Training in Multinational Corporations: Comparative Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Case studies of British and Australian multinational corporations in the food and drink industry investigated how training and development are managed. Competency-based education and industry boards are important elements in both countries. Lack of a training culture in the industry and little innovation in training were observed. (SK)

  10. The invisible hand: how British American Tobacco precluded competition in Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; McKee, Martin; Collin, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry documents provide a unique opportunity to explore the role transnational corporations (TNCs) played in shaping the poor outcomes of privatisation in the former Soviet Union (FSU). This paper examines British American Tobacco's (BAT's) business conduct in Uzbekistan where large‐scale smuggling of BAT's cigarettes, BAT's reversal of tobacco control legislation and its human rights abuses of tobacco farmers have been documented previously. This paper focuses, instead, on BAT's attitude to competition, compares BAT's conduct with international standards and assesses its influence on the privatisation process. Methods Analysis of BAT documents released through litigation. Results BAT secured sole negotiator status precluding the Uzbekistan government from initiating discussions with other parties. Recognising that a competitive tender would greatly increase the cost of investment, BAT went to great lengths to avoid one, ultimately securing President Karimov's support and negotiating a monopoly position in a closed deal. It simultaneously secured exclusion from the monopolies committee, ensuring freedom to set prices, on the basis of a spurious argument that competition would exist from imports. Other anticompetitive moves comprised including all three plants in the deal despite intending to close down two, exclusive dealing and implementing measures designed to prevent market entry by competitors. BAT also secured a large number of exemptions and privileges that further reduced the government's revenue both on a one‐off and ongoing basis. Conclusions BAT's corporate misbehaviour included a wide number of anticompetitive practices, contravened Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development's and BAT's own business standards on competition and restricted revenue arising from privatisation. This suggests that TNCs have contributed to the failure of privatisation in the FSU. Conducting open tenders and using enforceable codes to

  11. Improving processes for coal gas desulfurization in foreign countries. Sovershenstvovanie protsessov seroochistki koksovogo gaza za rubezhom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipova, V.V.; Ukhmylova, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Processes are comparatively evaluates for coal gas desulfurization developed in the FRG, the USA, United Kingdom and Japan. The following processes are described: the Vacuum-Carbonate process, the Sulfiban process, the Carl Still process, the Otto-Sulfammon process, the Takahax-Hirohax process, the Holmes-Stretford process and the Fumaks process. Flowsheets of desulfurization systems are shown. Desulfurization efficiency, content of hydrogen sulfide in coal gas after desulfurization, desulfurization cost and regeneration methods are analyzed. The Holmes-Stretford process and the Sulfiban process are characterized by the highest efficiency (hydrogen sulfide content in coal gas leaving desulfurization system is 0.115 g/m/sup 3/ and 0.15-0.16 g/m/sup 3/ respectively). The Claus sulfur recovery system is particularly economic. 21 references.

  12. Assessing the impact of current and projected climates on Douglas-fir productivity in British Columbia, Canada, using a process-based model (3-PG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drained peat soils are significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which are produced in the soil and emitted year-round. This study measured N2O and CH4 flux rates and total respiration over a 1-year period from a drained peatland with a grass field subsite and a forested subsite. Annual N2O respiration rates for the field were 660 mg per m2 for the field and 297 mg per m2 for the forest. Eighty per cent of the annual N2O emissions took place in the winter months. Higher emissions were detected during a thaw in April when accumulated N2O in the field was released. N2O emissions in the forest peaked when the top soil froze in January. Results of the study demonstrated that the timing of episodic high N2O emissions differs depending on land use. 52 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  13. Process and device for cleaning furnace exhaust gas in a vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The furnace exhaust gas produced during vitrification is cleaned of carried over dust particles in an exhaust gas cleaning stage using a washing liquid. In order to achieve a simplified process for dosing and exhaust gas cleaning, radioactive fission product solution is taken from the feed container as the washing liquid and is transported to the head of the exhaust gas cleaning stage. The fission product solution noting as washing liquid is returned to the feed container after passing through the exhaust gas cleaning stage. The furnace exhaust gas of the vitrification plant is taken through the exhaust gas cleaning stage in counterflow. The invention also concerns a device to carry out this process. (orig./HP)

  14. Surface gas-exchange processes of snow algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, William E; Gorton, Holly L; Vogelmann, Thomas C

    2003-01-21

    The red-colored chlorophyte Chlamydomonas nivalis is commonly found in summer snowfields. We used a modified Li-Cor gas-exchange system to investigate surface gas-exchange characteristics of snow colonized by this alga, finding rates of CO(2) uptake up to 0.3 micromol.m(-2).s(-1) in dense algal blooms. Experiments varying the irradiance resulted in light curves that resembled those of the leaves of higher plants. Red light was more effective than white and much more effective than green or blue, because of the red astaxanthin that surrounds and masks the algal chloroplasts. Integrating daily course measurements of gas exchange showed CO(2) uptake around 2,300 micromol.m(-2).day(-1) in heavily colonized patches, indicating that summer snowfields can be surprisingly productive. PMID:12518048

  15. Simulation on Gas Injection Refining Process with Mechanical Stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ting’an

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the new method of in-situ desulfurization with gas injection and mechanical stirring, the effect of bubble dispersion and disintegration of three type impellers are numerically simulated by commercial CFD software Ansys Fluent 12.0. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional multiphase turbulence in gas injection and mechanical stirring are performed by adopting unsteady SM method coupled with Eulerian multiphase model and two-phase turbulence model. The information of gas-liquid fluid flow, velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and the power consumption are investigated and the results show that the SSB impeller can make bubbles get best dispersion and disintegration,and its power consumption is lower than VB impeller. The disk on the impeller blades can weaken the swirl flow in the upper zone of the impeller. Therefore, the bubble residence time is extended, and the bubble dispersing zone is also increased.

  16. Corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J

    2014-10-01

    Corporal punishment is used for discipline in most homes in the United States. It is also associated with a long list of adverse developmental, behavioral, and health-related consequences. Primary care providers, as trusted sources for parenting information, have an opportunity to engage parents in discussions about discipline as early as infancy. These discussions should focus on building parents' skills in the use of other behavioral techniques, limiting (or eliminating) the use of corporal punishment and identifying additional resources as needed. PMID:25242709

  17. Exergy analysis of offshore processes on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Offshore processes are associated with significant energy consumption and large CO2 emissions. Conventional North Sea oil and gas facilities include the following operations: crude oil separation, gas compression and purification, wastewater treatment, gas lifting, seawater injection and power...... exergy losses amount to 22.3 MW. The gas lifting train and the production-separation module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil and gas processing system, consuming 8.83 MW and 8.17 MW respectively, while the power generation system alone is responsible for 46.7 MW. The exergetic...... efficiency of the oil and gas processing is about 39%, while the exergetic efficiency of the utility system is about 21-27%....

  18. Numerical analysis of gas-dynamic instabilities during the laser drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. H.; O'Neill, W.; Tunna, L.; Sutcliffe, C. J.

    2006-08-01

    The use of high-pressure gas jets in the laser-drilling process has significant influence on the melt ejection mechanism. These jets are highly unstable and this directly relates to the gas pressure and the geometry of the hole being drilled. The evolution of gas-dynamic instabilities during the laser-drilling process was investigated numerically. A minimum length nozzle (MLN) with a 300 μm throat diameter was modelled at various gas pressures, with the gas jet impinging on a range of simulated holes with different aspect ratios. The simulations predict the formation of surface pressure fluctuations that have a broad spectrum due to both the turbulent nature of the jet and the blunt shock oscillation on the surface. The surface pressure variations and the blunt shock oscillation govern the gas dynamic conditions inside the hole, which strongly influence the melt ejection phenomena during the laser-drilling process.

  19. Consumption of red or processed meat does not predict risk factors for coronary heart disease; results from a cohort of British adults in 1989 and 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemakers, J. J. M. F.; Prynne, C. J.; Stephen, A M; Wadsworth, M. E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate whether a high consumption of red or processed meat is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Subjects/Methods—The subjects were 517 men and 635 women who were members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Assessment of diet was carried out at two time-points 1989 and 1999 with outcome measures collected in 1999. Food intake data were recorded in 5 -day diaries. Meat consumption was esti...

  20. Adsorption of hydrogen gas and redox processes in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the adsorption properties of hydrogen gas and reactivity of adsorbed hydrogen, we measured H2(g) adsorption on Na synthetic montmorillonite-type clays and Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay-rock using gas chromatography. Synthetic montmorillonites with increasing structural Fe(III) substitution (0 wt %, 3.2 wt %, and 6.4 wt % Fe) were used. Fe in the synthetic montmorillonites is principally present as structural Fe(III) ions. We studied the concomitant reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clays using 57Fe Moessbauer spectrometry. The COx, which mainly contains smectite/illite and calcite minerals, is also studied together with the pure clay fraction of this clay-rock. Experiments were performed with dry clay samples which were reacted with hydrogen gas at 90 and 120 degrees C for 30 to 45 days at a hydrogen partial pressure close to 0.45 bar. Results indicate that up to 0.11 wt % of hydrogen is adsorbed on the clays at 90 degrees C under 0.45 bar of relative pressure. Fe-57 Moessbauer spectrometry shows that up to 6% of the total structural Fe(III) initially present in these synthetic clays is reduced upon adsorption of hydrogen gas. No reduction is observed with the COx sample in the present experimental conditions. (authors)

  1. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  2. Frontier flair - one good turn deserves another in northeastern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some evidence of the easing of tensions between the oil and gas industry and native host communities in northeastern British Columbia have been reported. While native communities continue to expect a high standard of corporate citizenship in terms of environmental concerns and reclamation of land to its natural state after industry activity ceases, they show greater willingness to allow exploration and drilling on native lands. In another demonstration of this 'live and let live' philosophy labour authorities and the Petroleum Services Association of Canada and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers jointly persuaded the B.C. Legislature to reserve the decision on ending the variance from the letter of overtime provisions in the B.C. Labour Code that would have made oilfield work prohibitively expensive. In yet another action, industry and local governments joined forces to demand a share of the industrial property taxes for local governments for infrastructure development, instead of all of it going to the provincial government. Progress is slow, but there is evidence of good will, or at least a recognition of interdependence and mutual concerns on both sides

  3. Natural gas industry competitiveness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national study on the competitiveness of the natural gas industry was undertaken by the BC Oil and Gas Commission in cooperation with, and with the encouragement of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). The objective of the study was to compare the cost competitiveness of natural gas exploration , production, gathering and processing in British Columbia to the costs of the same processes in Alberta. The study was carried out by building an 'expected case' for each gas producing area in British Columbia and Alberta by averaging past events in such specific areas as pool sizes, production profiles, loads, drilling success rates, gas compositions, land, drilling, exploration and production/gathering costs, third party production/gathering and processing fees and abandonment costs; by constructing a cash flow model for each case, calculating unit cost, and ranking cases. The report provides the details of the methodology, displays the results of the investigation in graphical form, comments on the results factoring in also labour costs and cost differences due to resource characteristics, identifies some trends such as an increase in the proportion of connections to smaller plants, and provides suggestions for improvements

  4. Natural gas engineering and safety challenges downstream process, analysis, utilization and safety

    CERN Document Server

    Nasr, GG

    2014-01-01

    Provides a critical and extensive compilation of the downstream processes of natural gas that involve the principle of gas processing , transmission and distribution, gas flow and network analysis, instrumentation and measurement systems and its utilisation Enriches understanding of the business and management aspects of natural gas as well as highlighting some of the recent research and innovations in the field Covers the needs of practising engineers from different disciplines, who may include project managers, planning and design engineers - the book is also suitable for the demands of u

  5. Corporate Governance and Corporate Creditworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Parnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relation between corporate governance and bankruptcy risk as an underlying force affecting a bond’s yield. The level of corporate governance is captured by the G-index, along with the explicit groups of governance provisions. We estimate bankruptcy risk by Z-score, by cash-flow-score, by O-score, through Merton structural model default probabilities, and by S&P credit ratings. After addressing endogeneity and while controlling for firm-specific factors, based on the four objective methodologies we find that corporate governance is inversely related to bankruptcy risk. Yet, rating agencies take a mixed approach towards this association likely because of the conflicting impact of different governance provisions.

  6. Corporate entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina

    2005-01-01

    Corporate entreprenørskab kan blive svaret på, hvordan Danmark fremmer en mere videnintensiv produktion. Begrebet er blevet anvendt til at forklare forskellige organisatoriske fænomener alt fra strategi over ledelse i al almindelighed til innovation, hvilket har medført en mangfoldighed af begreb...

  7. Essence of Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Singh

    2012-06-01

    not a foolproof concept as it relies heavily on data available from insiders. A key element of good corporate governance is transparency projects through a code of good governance which incorporates a system of checks and balances between key players- board of management, auditors and shareholders. Corporate governance is defined as the system by which business entities are monitored, managed and controlled. Corporate governance practices have become an essential prerequisite for the ability to acquire and retain financial resources necessary for restructuring long term investment and sustainable growth. At one end of the spectrum the shareholders are the owners of business entity as they are risk takers. At the other end the managers or the executive director of the company who are in control of its day-today affairs. It is the responsibility of entire board of directors for smooth running of the company; corporate disclosure and governance requirements though relatively low in some countries, are also changing. Awareness of the developments of accounting standards, securities regulation, globalization of financial markets, world wide effect of corporate strategic alliance has led to some alternative view of governance process. A good structure of corporate governance is that encourages balanced relationship among shareholders, executive directors and the board of directors

  8. Corporate Language and Corporate Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the case studies of two Danish based multinational companies (MNCs) which provides the an insight into the role of languages in organizational learning. It mentions that the studies focus on the sharing of the understanding and practices among their employees across the...... geographical borders by the medium of common corporate values for knowledge management, collection of data and analysis in these studies inspired by approach of ground theory and presents a usefulness of distinguishing between corporate language and talks to enable the headquarters learning. Also it concludes...... that both of the MNCs are of Danish origin but executives of both companies are proficient in English language....

  9. Application of gas hydrate equilibria prediction in process engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Vellojín, Andrés Eloyban

    2014-01-01

    Desde hace cerca de dos siglos, los hidratos de gas han ganado un rol importante en la ingeniería de procesos, debido a su impacto económico y ambiental en la industria -- Cada día, más compañías e ingenieros ganan interés en este tema, a medida que nuevos desafíos muestran a los hidratos de gas como un factor crucial, haciendo su estudio una solución para un futuro próximo -- Los gases de hidrato son estructuras similares al hielo, compuestos de moléculas huéspedes de agua conteniendo compue...

  10. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Karel; Hejtmánek, Vladimír; Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1707-1715. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7C12017 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2011-00002 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : underground coal gasification * gas transport * textural properties Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  11. Gas Permeation Processes in Biogas Upgrading: A Short Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárászová, Magda; Sedláková, Zuzana; Izák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2015), s. 1277-1283. ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LH14006; GA ČR GA14-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biogas upgrading * memranes * gas permeation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  12. Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Processes: Will They Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas D. Brown; Charles E. Taylor; Mark P. Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with in...

  13. A Medium-Scale 50 MW fuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MW fuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  14. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri; Marko Amovic; Rolf Ljunggren; Klas Engvall

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modificatio...

  15. Optimizing Location of Bulk Metallic Minerals Processing Based on Greenhouse Gas Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2011-01-01

    The bulk minerals iron ore and bauxite cause significant greenhouse emissions in their processing to steel and aluminum respectively. The level of these emissions is highly dependent on the source of electrical and thermal energy. However, they also cause significant greenhouse gas emissions from their transportation across the globe for processing. This study examines these minerals from the perspective of greenhouse gas avoidance, examining the location of processing as an option for reduci...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  17. Imaging wet gas separation process by capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Nguyen, Van T.; Betting, Marco; Chondronasios, Athanasios; Nattras, Steve; Okimoto, Fred; McCann, Hugh

    2002-03-01

    Natural gas from a well contains water and hydrocarbons. It is necessary to separate the liquid components from such gas streams before use. An innovative type of separation facility, called Twister, has been developed for this purpose, and CFD models have been developed to assist in the design of Twister. However, it is difficult to verify the mathematical models directly and experimentally. To investigate the behavior of Twister and to verify the CFD models, a simulator using air and water vapor was set up in the laboratory. This simulator was instrumented with a highly sensitive electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system based on an HP LCR meter and a purpose-designed multiplexer. Two ECT sensors, each with 8 measurement electrodes, were built taking into consideration the demanding operational conditions, such as sensitivity, temperature, pressure, geometry and location. This paper presents the first experimental results, showing that water droplets distributions in a flowing gas can be visualized using ECT, and the tomography system developed is robust and offers the possibility for further development to field operations.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H(sub 2)S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H(sub 2)S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO(sub 2) tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H(sub 2)S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO(sub 2) to produce elemental sulfur

  19. Understanding utility regulation : a participants' guide to the British Columbia Utilities Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information regarding British Columbia's regulated energy industries is presented with particular emphasis on the regulatory functions of the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The objective of providing the information is to make the regulatory process as transparent as possible and to make it easy for ratepayers to effectively and economically participate in the regulation of energy utilities. The issue of why electricity and natural gas utilities are regulated is addressed, but the greater part of the report is devoted to describing opportunities for public participation at the BCUC, explaining how to get involved in the Commission's proceedings and the nature of the hearings used by the Commission. An introduction to rate making is also presented, along with an overview of other institutions involved in energy regulation. Appendices contain the text of the Utilities Commission Act (App. A), the Negotiated Settlement Process Policy, Procedures and Guidelines (App. B), Participant Funding and Cost Awards (App. C), and the Integrated Resource Planning Guide (App. D). tabs., figs., 4 appendices

  20. How Can We Measure the Corporate Governance ?

    OpenAIRE

    SARCHIZIAN Sergiu

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Governance Scores represents Standard & Poor's approach to analyzing corporate governance both at a country and at a company level. The Country Governance Classification reflect the degree to which the macro legal, regulatory, informational and market environments provide a supportive infrastructure for effective corporate governance. The company Corporate Governance Score provides an assessment of how a company's governance process serves the interests of stakeholders. The Governac...

  1. PDPS: A pulmonary data processing system for assessment of gas exchange properties by multiple gas wash-out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.M. Huygen; B.W.A. Feenstra (B. W A); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J.R.C. Jansen (Jos); A. Zwart (A.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A data acquisition and processing system for the analysis of inert gas wash-out tests is described. The described system is in clinical use on spontaneously breathing patients as well as on mechanically ventilated Intensive Care patients. It combines several analysis te

  2. An Evaluation of the Use by Teachers of British Petroleum's Multi-Media Resource Pack, A North Sea Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jean; Lloyd, Gerald

    Presented is an evaluation of a multi-media resource pack, available from British Petroleum Corporation, which details the discovery and extraction of North Sea oil. The evaluation presented includes three thrusts: (1) a determination of the areas where the packs were distributed; (2) personal interviews with teachers who had used the packs; and…

  3. WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

    2004-02-01

    This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space

  4. Corporate information management guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

  5. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  6. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy. PMID:20078033

  7. Synthesis of carbon nanbotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guláš, M.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C. T.; Farhat, S.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.

    2008-09-01

    To support experimental investigations, a model based on Chemkin^TM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase activation sources and pressure is performed.

  8. Optimization of energy consumption for NOx removal in multistage gas irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously reported results of the tests performed on industrial pilot plant for EB flue gas treatment has proved the theoretical assumption that multistage gas irradiation leads to power consumption savings in comparison with single gas irradiation process. In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies are presented concerning optimization of the ratio of dose distribution between the particular stages. Nonuniform dose distribution causes further decrease in power consumption for NOx removal. (Author)

  9. H/sub 2/S-removal processes for low-Btu coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Process descriptions are provided for seven methods of removing H/sub 2/S from a low-Btu coal-derived gas. The processes include MDEA, Benfield, Selexol, Sulfinol, Stretford, MERC Iron Oxide, and Molecular Sieve. Each of these processes was selected as representing a particular category of gas treating (e.g., physical solvent systems). The open literature contains over 50 processes for H/sub 2/S removal, of which 35 were briefly characterized in the literature survey. Using a technical evaluation of these 35 processes, 21 were eliminated as unsuitable for the required application. The remaining 14 processes represent six categories of gas treating. A seventh category, low-temperature solid sorption, was subsequently added. The processes were qualitatively compared within their respective categories to select a representative process in each of the seven categories.

  10. Application and Development Trend of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD Process: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Jamil

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1927, the limestone desulfurization process was first applied in the Barthes and Bansside Power Plants (total 120MW beside the Thames River in UK to protect high-rise building in London. Up to now, over 10 desulfurization processes have been launched and applied. Based on the desulfurizing agent being used, there include calcium process (limestone/lime, ammonia process, magnesium process, sodium process, alkali alumina process, copper oxide/zinc process, active carbon process, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate process, etc. The calcium process is commercially available and widely used in the world, i.e. more than 90%. Flue gas desulfurization processes, survey made by the coal research institute under the International Energy Agency shows that the wet-process desulfurization accounts for 85% of total installed capacity of flue gas desulfurization units across the world. The wet-process desulfurization is mainly applied in countries, like Japan (98%, USA (92%, Germany (90%, etc. The limestone-gypsum wet desulfurization process, the most mature technology, the most applications, the most reliable operation in the world, may have rate of desulfurization of more than 90%. Currently, the flue gas desulfurization technology used at thermal power plants at home and abroad tends to be higher rate of desulfurization, bigger installed capacity, more advanced technology, lower investment, less land acquisition, lower operation cost, higher level of automation, more excellent reliability, etc. This paper briefs current situations and trends of flue gas desulfurization technology also append short descript of different type of FDG and their category.

  11. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. The effectiveness assessment of gas accumulation processes in Kuqa depression,Tarim Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas accumulation processes is controlled by several main geological factors in-cluding charging force,features of gas conduit,sealing properties of caprock,etc. Based on the analysis and statistics of the large-medium size gas accumulations in China,the main parameters,in-cluding the excess pressure difference between the source rock and reservoir bed,the area coefficient of the gas conduit,and the thickness or displacement pressure of caprock,and the criteria for the as-sessment of gas accumulation processes have been established. Using the parameters and the criteria above,the effectiveness of gas accumulation processes in the Kuqa depression was quantitatively evaluated. By integrating the parameters of the excess pressure difference between the source rock and reservoir bed,the area coefficient of fault conduit system,and the caprock thickness in gas charging period,a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of gas accumulation in the Kuqa depression has been made. The result reveals that the Tubei-Dawan area,the Central Kelasu area and the Dongqiu-Dina area are three highly-effective areas for gas accumulation in the Kuqa depression.

  13. Effects of Natural Gas Compositions on CNG Fast Filling Process for Buffer Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh-Gord M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of the fast-fill process occurring in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG fuelled vehicle storage cylinders is a complex process and should be thoroughly studied. Final in-cylinder conditions should meet appropriate cylinder safety standards. The composition of natural gas plays an important role on its thermodynamic properties and consequently, on the fast-fill process and the final conditions. Here, a theoretical analysis has been developed to study the effects of the natural gas composition on the filling process of an onboard Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV cylinder. The cylinder is assumed as a lumped system. The analysis is based on laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. Based on AGA8 Equation of State (EOS and thermodynamics relationships, the required properties of natural gas mixtures have been calculated. The results are presented for an adiabatic system. The results show that the compositions of natural gas have great effects on the filling process and final in-cylinder conditions. Furthermore, the gas with less methane percentage in its composition is more suitable for the filling process.

  14. THE INTEGRATION OF PROCESS HEAT APPLICATIONS TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    A high temperature gas reactor, HTGR, can produce industrial process steam, high-temperature heat-transfer gases, and/or electricity. In conventional industrial processes, these products are generated by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas, resulting in significant emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. Heat or electricity produced in an HTGR could be used to supply process heat or electricity to conventional processes without generating any greenhouse gases. Process heat from a reactor needs to be transported by a gas to the industrial process. Two such gases were considered in this study: helium and steam. For this analysis, it was assumed that steam was delivered at 17 MPa and 540 C and helium was delivered at 7 MPa and at a variety of temperatures. The temperature of the gas returning from the industrial process and going to the HTGR must be within certain temperature ranges to maintain the correct reactor inlet temperature for a particular reactor outlet temperature. The returning gas may be below the reactor inlet temperature, ROT, but not above. The optimal return temperature produces the maximum process heat gas flow rate. For steam, the delivered pressure sets an optimal reactor outlet temperature based on the condensation temperature of the steam. ROTs greater than 769.7 C produce no additional advantage for the production of steam.

  15. Ceramics in gas turbine: Powder and process characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the intrinsic properties of various forms of Si3N4 and SiC are listed and limitations of such materials' availability are pointed out. The essential features/parameters to characterize a batch of powder are discussed including the standard techniques for such characterization. In process characterization, parameters in sintering, reaction sintering, and hot pressing processes are discussed including the factors responsible for strength limitations in ceramic bodies. Significant improvements in material properties can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the strength limiting factors with consistent powder and process characterization along with process control.

  16. ECO LOGIC INTERNATIONAL GAS-PHASE CHEMICAL REDUCTION PROCESS - THE REACTOR SYSTEM - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ELI Eco Logic International Inc. (Eco Logic) process thermally separates organics, then chemically reduces them in a hydrogen atmosphere, converting them to a reformed gas that consists of light hydrocarbons and water. A scrubber treats the reformed gas to remove hydrogen chl...

  17. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...

  18. Dynamic processes in active medium of small diameter gas discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schishov, S. I.

    2008-03-01

    Review of electrodynamics properties for gas discharge lasers of small diameter has been completed with consideration of inertia typical for ionisation processes and transient nature of electron diffusion from unipolar to ambipolar. Procedure for calculation of transfer function and elements of equivalent electrical circuit for substitution of gas discharge laser discharge space.

  19. Corporate responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    a private business; but then again, a private business would appear to be exempted from ethical responsibility. This is what Kenneth Goodpaster has called the stakeholder paradox: either we have ethics without business or we have business without ethics. Through a different route, I reach the same......Is it legitimate for a business to concentrate on profits under respect for the law and ethical custom? On the one hand, there seems to be good reasons for claiming that a corporation has a duty to act for the benefit of all its stakeholders. On the other hand, this seems to dissolve the notion of...... solution to this paradox as Goodpaster, namely that a corporation is the instrument of the shareholders only, but that shareholders still have an obligation to act ethically responsibly. To this, I add discussion of Friedman's claim that this responsibility consists in increasing profits. I show that most...

  20. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts : British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of British Columbia's petroleum industry is presented. The industry injects more than one billion dollars annually into the BC economy. The province is the second largest natural gas producer in Canada. Seven thousand people are engaged in upstream activities such as exploration, production and development, while the downstream sector of the industry employs about 25,000 people in refining, pipeline transportation, natural gas distribution and retail gasoline operations. There is an extensive pipeline network with nearly 24,000 kilometres of pipeline serving local, national and international markets. From 1993 to 1997, the number of oil and gas wells drilled in BC nearly doubled from 324 wells to 616 wells. More than half of the natural gas produced in BC is exported, mostly to the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Some gas also goes to eastern Canada, the U.S. midwest and California. 3 figs

  1. Corporate Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Slapper, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the new guidelines on how to punish corporations for manslaughter. It is a widely shared principle that the worse the crime, the worse should be the punishment.In general, a serious crime entails a serious sentence. In light of the principle that the worse the crime, the worse the punishment, one might expect that unlawfully killing people would be among the most seriously punished offences. It certainly is where individuals commit murder or manslaughter, but ...

  2. Trigeneration scheme for energy efficiency enhancement in a natural gas processing plant through turbine exhaust gas waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Efficiency enhancement of Natural Gas (NG) processing plants in hot/humid climates. ► Gas turbine waste heat powered trigeneration scheme using absorption refrigeration. ► Annual NG savings of 1879 MSCM and operating cost savings of US$ 20.9 million realized. ► Trigeneration scheme payback period estimated at approximately 1 year. ► Significant economical and environmental benefits for NG processing plants. - Abstract: The performance of Natural Gas Processing Plants (NGPPs) can be enhanced with the integration of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) generation schemes. This paper analyzes the integration of a trigeneration scheme within a NGPP, that utilizes waste heat from gas turbine exhaust gases to generate process steam in a Waste Heat Recovery Steam Generator (WHRSG). Part of the steam generated is used to power double-effect water–lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) absorption chillers that provide gas turbine compressor inlet air-cooling. Another portion of the steam is utilized to meet part furnace heating load, and supplement plant electrical power in a combined regenerative Rankine cycle. A detailed techno-economic analysis of scheme performance is presented based on thermodynamic predictions obtained using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The results indicate that the trigeneration system could recover 79.7 MW of gas turbine waste heat, 37.1 MW of which could be utilized by three steam-fired H2O–LiBr absorption chillers to provide 45 MW of cooling at 5 °C. This could save approximately 9 MW of electric energy required by a typical compression chiller, while providing the same amount of cooling. In addition, the combined cycle generates 22.6 MW of additional electrical energy for the plant, while process heating reduces furnace oil consumption by 0.23 MSCM per annum. Overall, the trigeneration scheme would result in annual natural gas fuel savings of approximately 1879 MSCM, and annual operating cost savings of

  3. An analog integrated signal processing circuit for on-chip diffusion-based gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diffusion-based gas analysis, the transient of gas diffusion process is recorded by a generic gas sensor to serve as a fingerprint for qualitative and quantitative analysis of gaseous samples. Following the acquisition of these specific signals, any standalone gas analyzer requires a pattern recognition system for pattern classification. The classic digital pattern recognition methods require computing hardware of adequate computational throughput. In this paper, we have followed a straightforward mathematical procedure to relate the signals to their associated target gases. We have shown that the procedure can be implemented by a set of analog functions. Based on the results, we have designed an analog integrated circuit, in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process, for processing the diffusion-based transient signals. The main circuit components are a low-pass filter, the differentiator, the feature extractor and an artificial neural network. The output of the circuit is a 2-bit binary code that specifies the target gas. The circuit successfully classified four alcoholic vapors by processing the experimentally obtained response patterns. The proposed signal processing circuit, the semiconductor gas sensor and the diffusion channel can all be implemented on a single substrate to fabricate an integrated micro gas analyzer. (paper)

  4. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  5. The Corporate Assault on Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Beder

    2008-01-01

    , and the growth of corporate propaganda as a means of protecting corporate power against democracy.’[2] However, viewed from a more recent perspective, it is clear that democratic power was progressively eclipsed by corporate power during the 20th Century. This was as the result of several factors: the growth of corporate influence; the public-relations orchestrated spread of free market ideology; and the proliferation of business networks and coalitions aimed at exerting political pressure (see Figure 1 below. As a consequence corporations now completely dominate the political process.Figure 1 Corporate Power Equationcorporate resources / influence + market ideology + public relations + political mobilisation = corporate political power

  6. Engineering Economic Analysis for Feed Gas Cooler (Cold box: a Case of a Gas Processing Complex in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Zulkipli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examine the economic feasibility of a proposal to replace an existing Feed Gas Cooler (Cold Box with a new unit in a gas processing complex in Malaysia. Economic justification is essential to make the decision on the feasibility of this undertaking because of the high capital investment. The mathematical model presented in the paper includes net present worth, payback period, rate of return, investment balance analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Critical analyses on four factors of the estimates were done to assess their influence on the overall economic justification of the proposal. The results indicate an acceptable return on investment. However, the proposal is susceptible to the variation in demand of the Feed Gas Load.

  7. The Impacts of well Planned Recruitment and Selection Process on Corporate Performance in Nigerian Banking Industry (A Case Study of First Bank Plc 2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Mudashiru Mustapha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A sound recruitment programme logically follows a well drawn-up manpower plan. In fact, the quality of the present manpower plan as indeed of every present decision of the organization depends upon the quality of recruitment policies and practices. This paper examines recruitment and selection process. It identifies a typical source by separating recruitment into internal and external and discussed the advantages of each method. The analytical tools used in this study were regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the relationship between a well planned recruitment and selection process on corporate performance. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between recruitment and selection based on merit and organizational performance; that effective recruitment and selection is a key to organizational commitment; that a well planned recruitment and selection contributes to organizational performance. The paper concludes by drawing the danger potends by poor recruitment and selection as poor recruitment could lead to selection of poor applicants.

  8. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  9. Multi-step chemical and radiation process for the production of gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is a process of producing hydrogen, which process includes reacting a hydrolyzable alkaline earth salt with water at a temperature to form an alkaline earth hydroxide and the hydrogen halide, removing the hydrogen halide, subjecting the hydrogen halide to radiation from a fusion reaction process to produce hydrogen gas and halide molecules, and separating the hydrogen

  10. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian; H. Bruun, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles, which can be subdivided into: the cascade, mixed refrigerant and expansion-based processes. They differ by their design configurations, components and working fluids, and thus have various operating conditions and equipment inven...... thermodynamic models leads to relative deviations of up to 1% for the power consumption and 20% for the network conductance. Particular caution should thus be exercised when extrapolating the results of process models to the design of actual gas liquefaction systems....

  11. Underground Coal Gasification: Rates of Post Processing Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Soukup, K.; Hejtmánek, V. (Vladimír); Stanczyk, K.; Šolcová, O.

    2014-01-01

    Two ex-situ and one in-situ semi-pilot plant UCG experiments in the experimental mine Barbara were performed with hard coal and lignite samples. To evaluate the influence of the UCG process on the textural properties of surrounding strata and coals, samples from various locations of the coal seam and the stratum samples before and after the UCG process were collected. Mercury porosimetry, helium pycnometry, and physical adsorption of nitrogen were used for the determination of textural proper...

  12. Ceramic component processing development for advanced gas-turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, B. J.; Hengst, R. R.; Collins, W. T.; Taglialavore, A. P.; Yeckley, R. L.; Bright, E.; Bingham, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A review of ceramic component advancements directed at developing manufacturing technologies for rotors, stators, vane-seat platforms and scrolls is presented. The first three components are being produced from HIPed Si3N4, while scrolls were prepared from a series of siliconized silicon-carbide materials. Developmental work has been conducted on all aspects of the fabrication process utilizing Taguchi experimental design methods. An assessment of material properties for various components from each process and material are made.

  13. Gas generation in deep radioactive waste repositories: a review of processes, controls and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas generation within radioactive waste repositories may produce two general problems: 1) breaching of engineered and natural barriers due to high gas pressures; 2) enhanced radiological risk due to reduced groundwater travel times and/or greater aqueous or gaseous activities reaching the biosphere. As a result of these concerns, HMIP must be aware of the current status of relevant research, together with any associated deficiencies. This report addresses the current status of published research on near-field gas generation from worldwide sources and documents the important gas generating processes, the factors controlling them and models available to simulate them. In the absence of suitable models, outline technical specifications for corrosion and microbial degradation gas generation models are defined and the deficiencies in the current understanding of gas generation are highlighted; a conceptual research programme to correct these deficiencies is presented. (author)

  14. A biological process effective for the conversion of CO-containing industrial waste gas to acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bae, Seung Seob; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Acetogens have often been observed to be inhibited by CO above an inhibition threshold concentration. In this study, a two-stage culture consisting of carboxydotrophic archaea and homoacetogenic bacteria is found to be effective in converting industrial waste gas derived from a steel mill process. In the first stage, Thermococcus onnurineus could grow on the Linz-Donawitz converter gas (LDG) containing ca. 56% CO as a sole energy source, converting the CO into H2 and CO2. Then, in the second stage, Thermoanaerobacter kivui could grow on the off-gas from the first stage culture, consuming the H2 and CO in the off-gas completely and producing acetate as a main product. T. kivui alone could not grow on the LDG gas. This work represents the first demonstration of acetate production using steel mill waste gas by a two-stage culture of carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbes and homoacetogenic bacteria. PMID:27106591

  15. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  16. A Hybrid Gas Cleaning Process for Production of Ultraclean Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.C.; Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.; Cicero, D.C.; Jain, S.C.

    2002-09-20

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning IGCC generated syngas to meet contaminant tolerance limits for fuel cell and chemical production applications. The specific goals are to develop processes for (1) removal of reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removal of hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface-area material; and (3) removal of NH3 with acidic adsorbents followed by conversion of this NH3 into nitrogen and water. Existing gasification technologies can effectively and efficiently convert a wide variety of carbonaceous feedstocks (coal, petcoke, resids, biomass, etc.) into syngas, which predominantly contains carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Unfortunately, the impurities present in these carbonaceous feedstocks are converted to gaseous contaminants such as H2S, COS, HCl, NH3, alkali macromolecules and heavy metal compounds (such as Hg) during the gasification process. Removal of these contaminants using conventional processes is thermally inefficient and capital intensive. This research and development effort is focused on investigation of modular processes for removal of sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen and mercury compounds from syngas at elevated temperature and pressures at significantly lower costs than conventional technologies.

  17. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU

    2009-01-01

    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  18. Mixing process of a binary gas in a density stratified layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to investigate the effect of natural convection on the mixing process by molecular diffusion in a vertical stratified layer of a binary fluid. There are many experimental and analytical studies on natural convection in the vertical fluid layer. However, there are few studies on natural convection with molecular diffusion in the vertical stratified layer of a binary gas. Experimental study has been performed on the combined phenomena of molecular diffusion and natural convection in a binary gas system to investigate the mixing process of the binary gas in a vertical slot consisting of one side heated and the other side cooled. The range of Rayleigh number based on the slot width was about 0 d 4. The density change of the gas mixture and the temperature distribution in the slot was obtained and the mixing process when the heavier gas ingress into the vertical slot filled with the lighter gas from the bottom side of the slot was discussed. The experimental results showed that the mixing process due to molecular diffusion was affected significantly by the natural convection induced by the slightly temperature difference between both vertical walls even if a density difference by the binary gas is larger than that by the temperature difference. (author). 81 refs

  19. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  20. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  1. Fuel and control modifications to fire oil and gas individually or simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacksonville Electric Authority's (JEA's) Northside station Unit 1 (NS-1) is now modified to fire natural gas as well as the original No. 6 fuel oil. Hardware and control modifications accommodate oil, gas. or simultaneous oil and gas firing in the boiler. Working with Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation, this flexibility derives from control modifications not previously used in North American power plants. This paper reports that the modifications not only reduce fuel costs, but also increase flexibility in meeting air emissions requirements. Emission levels for particulate and nitrous oxides (NOx) on oil were demonstrated prior to the modification. No emission increases are allowed as a result of the modification in any firing mode. Particulate emission limits in pounds per million British thermal units (lb/mmBtu) are 0.1/mm Btu and NOx limits are 0.45 lb/mmBtu. Nox emissions from gas firing are also stipulated to be below oil emission limits

  2. Landfill gas generation assessment procedure guidance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    Landfill gas (LFG) at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills is generated as a result of physical, chemical, and microbial processes occurring within the waste. The purpose of this guidelines document was to provide a procedure for the assessment of LFG generation at MSW landfills in British Columbia and to provide guidelines for landfill owners and operators to comply with the 2008 British Columbia landfill gas management regulation. The study used a regulatory-based model. This paper outlined the requirement to complete a landfill gas generation assessment. It included previous landfill gas generation assessments as well as information on historical waste tonnage, projected waste tonnage, waste characteristics, meteorological data, and water addition. Landfill gas generation parameter selection was also discussed in terms of waste categorization; methane generation potential; landfill gas generation rate; and water addition factor. Other topics that were addressed included landfill gas and methane generation estimate; landfill gas generation assessment reporting; and a solid waste composition study. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig., 6 appendices.

  3. Corporate Leaders in Britain and America: A Cross-National Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    David Norburn

    1987-01-01

    This study tested for the extent of similarity between 1708 American senior vice-presidents and those 418 British counterparts. The sample was drawn from the Fortune 500 and the Times 500, being representative of the top management teams of the largest national companies dominating domestic economies.Results show substantial differences between American and British top management in terms of corporate “grooming,” educational and domestic experiences, and in self-concept with regard to aspirat...

  4. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2016-09-06

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  5. Simulation of a Wet Sulfuric Acid Process (WSA for Utilization of Acid Gas Separated from Omani Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jawad Ali Al-Dallal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a proposed process for the utilization of hydrogen sulphide separated with other gases from omani natural gas for the production of sulphuric acid by wet sulphuric acid process (WSA was studied. The processwas simulated at an acid gas feed flow of 5000 m3/hr using Aspen ONE- V7.1-HYSYS software. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the operation of plant. This included primarily the threepacked bed reactors connected in series for the production of sulphur trioxidewhich represented the bottleneck of the process. The optimum feed temperature and catalyst bed volume for each reactor were estimated and then used in the simulation of the whole process for two cases namely 4 and 6 mole% SO2 stream fed to the first catalytic reactor. The 4mole% SO2 gaves the highest conversion (98% compared with 6 mole% SO2 (94.7%. A valuable quantity of heat was generated from the process. This excess heat could also be transformed into power in a turbine or used as a heating media in neighbouring process units.

  6. Going Corporate

    CERN Document Server

    Kadre, Shailendra

    2011-01-01

    Going Corporate: A Geek's Guide shows technology workers how to gain the understanding and skills necessary for becoming an effective, promotable manager or sought-after consultant or freelancer. Technology professionals typically dive deeply into small pieces of technology - like lines of code or the design of a circuit. As a result, they may have trouble seeing the bigger picture and how their work supports an organization's goals. But ignoring or dismissing the business or operational aspects of projects and products can lead to career stagnation. In fact, understanding the larger business

  7. Corporate Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Gemünden, Hans Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although in the last three decades much knowledge has been produced on how best to conduct foresight exercises, but little is known on how foresight should be integrated with the innovation effort of a company. Drawing on empirical evidence from 19 case studies and 107 interviews, we identify three...... roles that corporate foresight should play to maximize the innovation capacity of a firm: (1) the strategist role, which explores new business fields; (2) the initiator role, which increases the number of innovation concepts and ideas; and (3) the opponent role, which challenges innovation projects to...

  8. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of survival. From this understanding......, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) has arisen, arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to explore the SE construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance...

  9. Principles of processes used for coal gas cleaning and recovery of chemical products of coking. Part II. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulatowski, R.

    1983-02-01

    This paper discusses removal of tars, ammonia, benzene and desulfurization of coal gas from black coal coking. About 30% of coal gas produced by coking plants in Poland is desulfurized. The average content of hydrogen sulfide in coal gas ranges from 6 to 8 g/m/sup 3/. After desulfurization hydrogen sulfur content does not exceed 0.2 g/m/sup 3/. Two processes are used in Poland for coal gas desulfurization: the vacuum carbonate process and the Thylox process. Chemical reactions during gas desulfurization with the two processes are discussed. Regeneration systems, productivity and efficiency of gas desulfurization using the two processes are compared. The following processes used in other countries are comparatively evaluated: the Fumaks-Rodax process in Japan, the Perox process, the Stretford process, the Sulfiban process in the USA and the Claus process.

  10. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. Uncanny natural gas advances change the game for EnCana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of new technologies is now leading Canada's EnCana Corporation to increase its investment in natural gas production. The corporation recently split itself into 2 companies, with Cenovus Energy taking the heavy oil assets, while the new EnCana is keeping its unconventional gas operations in northeast British Columbia (BC), Alberta, Wyoming, Colorado, Texas, and Louisiana. The division will allow EnCana to focus on becoming the best and lowest-cost producers of natural gas in North America. EnCana believes that long-term gas prices will increase over time. Four of its 8 natural gas key resources are located in Canada. The company is now producing gas from coalbed methane resources in south central Alberta, as well as from the Montney, Cadomin, and Doig geological formations. New hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies have enabled the company to provide an estimated 100 years of gas supply in North America. EnCana has also adopted the use of various new technologies that reduce the surface disturbances and environmental impacts associated with drilling. It is hoped that EnCana's production methods will help to reduce imports of natural gas from other countries. 4 figs.

  12. Application of exergy analysis for improving energy efficiency of natural gas liquids recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic analysis and optimization method is applied to provide design guidelines for improving energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness of natural gas liquids recovery processes. Exergy analysis is adopted in this study as a thermodynamic tool to evaluate the loss of exergy associated with irreversibility in natural gas liquids recovery processes, with which conceptual understanding on inefficient design feature or equipment can be obtained. Natural gas liquids processes are modeled and simulated within UniSim® simulator, with which detailed thermodynamic information are obtained for calculating exergy loss. The optimization framework is developed by minimizing overall exergy loss, as an objective function, subject to product specifications and engineering constraints. The optimization is carried out within MATLAB® with the aid of a stochastic solver based on genetic algorithms. The process simulator is linked and interacted with the optimization solver, in which optimal operating conditions can be determined. A case study is presented to illustrate the benefit of using exergy analysis for the design and optimization of natural gas liquids processes and to demonstrate the applicability of design method proposed in this paper. - Highlights: • Application of exergy analysis for natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery processes. • Minimization of exergy loss for improving energy efficiency. • A systematic optimization framework for the design of NGL recovery processes

  13. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Roscioli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4 emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc. results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20–47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  14. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission, and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual-tracer flux measurements and on-site observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with on-site tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  15. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-09-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  16. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R; Torczynski, John R; Brady, Patrick V; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F

    2013-11-19

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  17. Process and apparatus for separation of components of a gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Torczynski, John R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Gallis, Michail; Brooks, Carlton F.

    2014-06-17

    A process and apparatus for separating a gas mixture comprising providing a slot in a gas separation channel (conceptualized as a laterally elongated Clusius-Dickel column), having a length through which a net cross-flow of the gas mixture may be established; applying a higher temperature to one side of the channel and a lower temperature on an opposite side of the channel thereby causing thermal-diffusion and buoyant-convection flow to occur in the slot; and establishing a net cross-flow of a gas mixture comprising at least one higher density gas component and at least one lower density gas component along the length of the slot, wherein the cross-flow causes, in combination with the convection flow, a spiraling flow in the slot; and wherein the spiral flow causes an increasing amount of separation of the higher density gas from the lower density gas along the length of the channel. The process may use one or more slots and/or channels.

  18. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., generated at ASAB1, approximately 173 MW are recovered by waste heat recovery steam generators (WHRSGs), leaving 116 MW unutilized. The following strategies were developed to recover the above waste heat. At ASAB0, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all five gas turbines be used to power a WHRSG. The steam generated by the WHRSG would both i) drive an absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling

  19. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON CORPORATE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana DOBRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the correlation between Corporate Social Responsability actions and companies’ value. For this purpose a data base was created for 101 important companies in Romania, for years 2011 and 2012. The data was processed using Eviews 7 and SAS 9.2 softwares and the econometric variables specific determinations were interpreted in an econometric approach. A new index for the Corporate Social Responsabilitiy hierarchy levels was proposed and its applicability was demonstrated.

  20. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON CORPORATE VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Diana DOBRESCU

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the correlation between Corporate Social Responsability actions and companies’ value. For this purpose a data base was created for 101 important companies in Romania, for years 2011 and 2012. The data was processed using Eviews 7 and SAS 9.2 softwares and the econometric variables specific determinations were interpreted in an econometric approach. A new index for the Corporate Social Responsabilitiy hierarchy levels was proposed and its applicability was demonstrated.