WorldWideScience

Sample records for british gas corporation process

  1. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits). ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC) residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn.) in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraple...

  2. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  3. Corporate Culture and the Use of Written English Within British Subsidiaries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated communication patterns in written English and the prevalent corporate culture, the relationship between a British corporate office and its subsidiary in the Netherlands. Survey respondents were senior-level employees at 107 companies. Results indicate corporate culture plays an important role in the level of English skills…

  4. Multinational Corporations and British Labour: A Review of Attitudes and Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennard, John

    Multinational corporations operating in Great Britain, specifically American industry, are arousing fears on the part of British labor, which can be grouped into these categories: (1) a threat to the job security of union members, (2) a change in the balance of power at the collective bargaining table in favor of the employers, (3) a clash of…

  5. The British gas market; Le marche gazier britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    The tension observed on the British gas market has raised many worries and questions. The last meeting of the French gas association (AFG) aimed at shading light and at supplying some elements of analysis necessary for the correct understanding of the British gas market problem. The volatility of the spot market, its capacity to adjust the supply and demand and the role of long-term contracts in ensuring the security of supplies were explained and debated by a various panel of high level orators: P.W. Wright (Sheffield univ.), J. Harvard (deputy director, Gas Markets, Dept. of trade and industry), S. Caudron (manager business development, Statoil) and P. Vedrenne (managing director, Gaselys). They also examined the trends chosen by the British government to supply corrective measures. (J.S.)

  6. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  7. Invisible wounds: corporal punishment in British schools as a form of ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, J

    1991-01-01

    This article examines a presumed historical association between corporal punishment and the British "ruling class," taking as data the elaborate forms of beating practiced at a well-known English fee-paying boarding school in the 1950s and here documented in detail. Analogies with other forms of ritual studied by anthropologists are considered, as well as the psychosexual dynamics of beating for both officiants and victims. The paper argues that ritual corporal punishment must be seen in retrospect as a clear case of child abuse that is both physical and sexual. Such rituals of authority, though virtually abolished in Britain, may well exist in a different form in present day residential institutions for children in some Third World countries that have borrowed from now outdated European practices.

  8. Key issues in relation to local human and technical resources in developing exploration and production in oil and gas, offshore British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayne, J.M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Jacques Whitford has been involved in nearly all of the geotechnical work associated with offshore development on the eastern coast of Canada from its early beginnings in 1972. It has built a national presence from an Atlantic corporate office. The company employs 900 people and operates from coast to coast in Canada, the northeast US and in several other countries around the world. The success of Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited in offshore Atlantic Canada can be attributed to strategic partnerships, international positioning, and multi-sectoral opportunities. The author describes how the same business philosophy can be applied to the offshore exploration and development in British Columbia. The operator's requirements before commencing offshore exploration in British Columbia are also examined with emphasis on the following 3 key issues: (1) a clear integrated federal-provincial framework governing the activity, (2) all related First Nations land claims must be resolved, and (3) all ecologically sensitive areas must be identified in advance and set aside. The following marine protected areas have been identified for British Columbia: 4 marine ecological reserves, 14 Class A parks, 2 Class R parks, 5 wildlife reserves, and the Kitlope Heritage Conservatory. The author concludes that there are already companies located in British Columbia with expertise in offshore oil and gas, but a supportive regulatory framework is required to ensure that the local expertise can benefit from the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas development. He emphasized that there is a need to set up the BC equivalent of the Atlantic Petroleum Boards (the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board) to administer the approval process for offshore BC oil and gas exploration and production.

  9. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  10. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ..., 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas... capacity and GTN's related obligation to provide transportation service related to maximum...

  11. Analysis of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and Corporation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弋亚群; 李垣

    2003-01-01

    Except for reanalysis of the business process reengineering, this paper also discusses the relation of BPR and corporation strategy. We connect the processes, staffs and customers, through corporate strategy, and provide a processes triangle of corporate strategy.

  12. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  13. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.

  14. ERP processes automation in corporate environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaie Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation processes are used in organizations to speed up analyses processes and reduce manual labour. Robotic Automation of IT processes implemented in a modern corporate workspace provides an excellent tool for assisting professionals in making decisions, saving resources and serving as a know-how repository. This study presents the newest trends in process automation, its benefits such as security, ease of use, reduction of overall process duration, and provide examples of SAPERP projects where this technology was implemented and meaningful impact was obtained.

  15. Corporate takeovers in the US oil and gas sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine corporate takeovers in the U.S. oil and gas sector from 1990 to 2008. We test the hypotheses that energy prices and reserves influence takeovers in the energy market for corporate control. We employ these methods: 1. capital asset pricing model, 2. regression analysis, and 3. Granger causality test. Our results show that oil reserves cause takeover deals and affect the value of the merger. High oil prices propel management to acquire oil firms as well as affect the target value. However, the reverse cause-effect mechanism occurs for natural gas prices. That is, takeover activity causes gas prices to decrease. Acquirers are motivated to purchase reserves; whereas, targets are disposed to sell based on energy prices. Hence, our findings imply that countries can consider policies, which address the motivations of the oil and gas industries to facilitate well-functioning takeover markets.

  16. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear

  17. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of cle

  18. 75 FR 27772 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation, (Corning) filed its Statement of section 311 Operating Conditions...

  19. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company...

  20. Corporate entrepreneurship in a dispersed setting : actors, behaviors, and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belousova, Olga; Gailly, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Although conceptual models of the corporate entrepreneurship process are numerous, our current empirical knowledge regarding it remains fragmented, especially concerning the contributions of individual employees to corporate entrepreneurship. Thus, two important questions remain unanswered: How do e

  1. Lexical and sentential processing in British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Campbell, Ruth; Woll, Bencie; Brammer, Michael J; Giampietro, Vincent; David, Anthony S; Calvert, Gemma A; McGuire, Philip K

    2006-01-01

    Studies of spoken and written language suggest that the perception of sentences engages the left anterior and posterior temporal cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus to a greater extent than non-sententially structured material, such as word lists. This study sought to determine whether the same is true when the language is gestural and perceived visually. Regional neural activity was measured using functional MRI while Deaf and hearing native signers of British Sign Language (BSL) detected semantic anomalies in well-formed BSL sentences and when they detected nonsense signs in lists of unconnected BSL signs. Processing BSL sentences, when contrasted with signed lists, was reliably associated with greater activation in the posterior portions of the left middle and superior temporal gyri and in the left inferior frontal cortex, but not in the anterior temporal cortex, which was activated to a similar extent whether lists or sentences were processed. Further support for the specificity of these areas for processing the linguistic-rather than visuospatial-features of signed sentences came from a contrast of hearing native signers and hearing sign-naïve participants. Hearing signers recruited the left posterior temporal and inferior frontal regions during BSL sentence processing to a greater extent than hearing non-signers. These data suggest that these left perisylvian regions are differentially associated with sentence processing, whatever the modality of the linguistic input.

  2. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union.

  3. Offshore oil and gas and coastal British Columbia : Aboriginal rights, title and interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [First Nations Summit, West Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed the legal duty of offshore proponents in the oil and gas industry to consult with Aboriginal nations. The Crown court's support for Aboriginal title to ocean areas within proposed offshore regions was also discussed, and Aboriginal rights to manage ocean resources were outlined. Haida and Taku River Tlingit legal decisions have confirmed both a constitutional and fiduciary duty for the Crown to consult with Aboriginal nations who assert their rights or title to lands subject to development. Resource rights granted without meaningful consultation with Aboriginal nations can be challenged, which may result in legal and financial liability for resource companies. A consultative process that addresses ownership, capacity and benefit sharing must be developed so that Aboriginal governments can participate in the design and development of appropriate fiscal and regulatory regimes. The developed regime must consider benefit and revenue sharing, as well as the integration of traditional knowledge within western science for the lifetime of any project. All decision-making bodies must include participation from Aboriginal groups. Mechanisms must also be developed to mitigate the environmental and socio-economic consequences of resource development. Impact and benefit agreements must be negotiated with coastal nations. Dissatisfaction with the concept of consultation processes has led first nations to reconsider the role that they must play in ensuring that oil and gas developments in the coastal regions of British Columbia do not negatively impact on their communities. It was noted that Inuit land claims reserve special rights for the Inuit over 18,800 miles of tidal waters. Earlier attempts by Aboriginal societies to assert their right to control their own ocean resources free from governmental interference were also discussed. It was concluded that litigation of Aboriginal rights and title poses serious challenges to offshore oil and gas

  4. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person desiring to...

  5. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring...

  6. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its April... transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any...

  7. Corporate Sustainability and Shareholder Wealth—Evidence from British Companies and Lessons from the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Bezares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of corporate sustainability (CS on stock market returns for FTSE 350 companies over the period 2006–2012. We find that an investment strategy that bought shares in companies with balanced financial, social, and environmental activities would have earned an annual four-factor alpha for a value-weighted portfolio of 3.54% per year during the sample period and 2.98% above industry benchmarks. In addition, we find that CS is negatively correlated with stock return volatility, and investing in companies with CS not only generates higher returns during peak phases, but also diminishes shareholders’ losses during bear phases. We have also carried out an additional, out-of-the-sample analysis for the years 2013–2015 which confirmed our results.

  8. Processing information system for highly specialized information in corporate networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M. O.; Kovalev, I. V.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Brezitskaya, VV; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    The new structure for formation system and management system for highly specialized information in corporate systems is offered. The main distinguishing feature of this structure is that it involves the processing of multilingual information in a single user request.

  9. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  10. 75 FR 28602 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing May 17, 2010. Take notice that on May 10, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation, (Corning) filed a corrected...

  11. Natural gas conversion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  12. IMPROVING THE LOGISTICAL PROCESSES IN CORPORATE SERVICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with enhancing the reliability of freight cars by improving the corporate service system. Assessing of the quality of spare parts suppliers is discussed. An algorithm for supplier selection and an evaluation method, based on cluster analysis of indicators of supplier reliability, is proposed. Alternative developments for a service network, in view of expanding of the car fleet powered by natural gas-based fuel have been considered.

  13. Fluid/Gas Process Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sergio

    1989-01-01

    Fluid/gas controller, or "Super Burper", developed to obtain precise fill quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas in heat pipe by incorporating detachable external reservoir into system during processing stage. Heat pipe filled with precise quantities of working fluid and noncondensable gas, and procedure controlled accurately. Application of device best suited for high-quality, high performance heat pipes. Device successfully implemented with various types of heat pipes, including vapor chambers, thermal diodes, large space radiators, and sideflows.

  14. Subglacial processes, glacier dynamics, and deglacial processes and patterns associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet around Okanagan Valley, British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lesemann, Jerome-Etienne

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores subglacial processes, glacier dynamics, and deglacial processes and patterns associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in Okanagan Valley and the neighbouring Thompson Plateau in southern British Columbia. Reconstructions of subglacial processes in an area of streamlined bedforms (drumlins) on Thompson Plateau reveal that sediments within drumlins and in intervening areas record evidence of lodgement, deformation, poreflow, conduit flow, debris flows, and suspension...

  15. ENVIR IONMENTAL ISSUES OF COMPETITIVENESS OF RUSSIAN MULTINATIONAL OIL AND GAS CORPORATIONS IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Piskulova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to tough state environmental management requirements and ecological regulations, oil and gas multinational corporations (MNC make more and more attempts to mitigate negative environmental impacts resulting from their industrial activities, their competitiveness beingstrengthened therewith. The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG is associated with less environmental impact in comparison with oil and coal, particularly so far as the hotbed effect is concerned. In the field of innovative technological development, Russian MNC drag so far well behind most advanced western corporations who provide for less negative impact of their production activities upon environment.

  16. Wet flue gas desulfurization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrunnisa Çavuşoğlu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wet flue gas desulfurization process is widely used for the treatment of exhaust gases in power stations. Due to its high level of effectiveness over the already available processes, it has also been the mostly preferred method by industry. Its high SO2 removal efficiency, wide applicability of absorption chemicals and the ease of the chemical process handling which does not require comprehensive konowledge are among the main advantages of this process. In this article, various wet flue gas desulfurization processes such as lime/limestone have beendiscussed.

  17. The Relationship Between Oil and Gas Industry Investment in Alternative Energy and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyushikhin, Maxim

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasted energy consumption in the United States to increase approximately 19% between 2006 and 2030, or about 0.7% annually. The research problem addressed in this study was that the oil and gas industry's interest in alternative energy is contrary to its current business objectives and profit goals. The purpose of the quantitative study was to explore the relationship between oil and gas industry investments in alternative energy and corporate social responsibilities. Research questions addressed the relationship between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility, the role of oil and gas companies in alternative energy investment, and why these companies chose to invest in alternative energy sources. Systems theory was the conceptual framework, and data were collected from a sample of 25 companies drawn from the 28,000 companies in the oil and gas industry from 2004 to 2009. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were used to answer the research questions and test hypotheses using corporate financial data and company profiles related to alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility in terms of oil and gas industry financial support of programs that serve the greater social good. Results indicated significant relationships between alternative energy investment and corporate social responsibility. With an increasing global population with energy requirements in excess of what is available using traditional means, the industry should increase investment in alternative sources. The research results may promote positive social change by increasing public awareness regarding the degree to which oil and gas companies invest in developing alternative energy sources, which might, in turn, inspire public pressure on companies in the oil and gas industry to pursue use of alternative energy.

  18. Factor analysis of processes of corporate culture formation at industrial enterprises of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illiashenko Sergii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors have analyzed and synthesized the features of formation and development of the corporate culture at industrial enterprises of Ukraine and on this basis developed recommendations for application in the management of strategic development. During the research authors used the following general scientific methods: at research of patterns of interaction national culture, corporate culture and the culture of the individual authors used logical generalization method; for determining factors influencing corporate culture formation with the level of occurrence authors used factor analysis; for trend analysis of the corporate culture development at appropriate levels authors used comparative method. Results of the analysis showed that macro- and microfactors are external and mezofaktors (adaptability of business and corporate governance, corporate ethics, corporate social responsibility and personnel policies, corporate finance are internal for an enterprise. Authors have identified areas for each of the factors, itemized obstacles to the establishment and development of corporate culture at Ukrainian industrial enterprises and proposed recommendations for these processes management.

  19. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Gas purification using membrane gas absorption processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, Vishwas Yashwant

    2003-01-01

    Owing to the increasing energy demand and the abundance of low quality natural gas reservoirs containing high percentages of CO2, considerable attention is given to the bulk removal of CO2 and upgrading of low quality natural gas. The main goal in doing so is to increase the heating value of natural

  1. Enterprise Systems Implementations: Organizational Influence Processes for Corporate User Representatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Nordheim, Stig

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise system implementation is a complex and large undertaking. Business requirements does not necessarily fit the inherited as-is features of the software. To reach agreement on features to implement requires prudent management and astute exercise of power. In this paper we draw on an in......-depth, interpretive study from the oil industry, where we analyze a case of innovative integration of an ECM system with collaboration technologies. The data collection has been longitudinal. The data analysis has been performed through the perspective of organizational influence processes. The main finding concerns...... rational persuasion and consultation. In addition, the corporate user representative benefits from a strong reference group to give input from the organization....

  2. Elementary processes in gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Bronold, Franz X

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents, from a quantum-mechanical point of view, a tutorial discussion of elementary collision processes in the bulk of a gas discharge. Instead of merely listing kitchen-made cross section formulae and unrelated cross section data, emphasis has been given on an unified description of elementary processes based on general principles of quantum-mechanical multi-channel scattering theory. By necessity, the presentation is rather dense. Technical details left out, as well as cross section data, can be found, respectively, in the quoted original papers and the review articles, monographs, and web-sites mentioned in the introductory remarks to this chapter.

  3. 75 FR 25323 - Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 88... Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint...

  4. Transformation processes of the corporate development in Russia: corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Sergeyevna Belyayeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial and economic crises made the level of readiness to changes in the different types of organizations throughout the world and Russia visible. Variation of social and economic programmes implemented by governmental and corporate sectors is widely seen; not all of them work positively for the population, especially in the countries with emerging markets. At the same time, twenty years of the market economy in Russia, for instance, have definitely built a new social and economic system, but whether it has changed fundamentally in the management techniques? This research generalizes some trends of the corporate development in Russia in the context of social responsibility and socio-economic transformation. The author attempts to define Russia's place on the world map of corporate social responsibility. The opportunities for Russia to learn from foreign experience are also examined.

  5. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  6. Future human resources development in British Columbia's offshore oil and gas industry : preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothen, K. [Human Capital Strategies, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-06-28

    Since 2001, three major studies have concluded that there are no apparent scientific or technological impediments to lifting a longstanding moratorium on West Coast oil and gas exploration and development. Over 300 occupations are involved in offshore oil and gas activity, and should the moratorium be lifted, labour demand is projected to reach 27,000 new employment openings. This report presents a preliminary analysis of factors that may facilitate offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia (BC), with specific reference to human resources. The report also highlights the broader planning environment of BC offshore oil and gas development and the potential impacts of economic, social, demographic and political factors. Potential gaps in regional training resources were identified within the context of a general overview of education training programs currently available elsewhere. Demand pressures on the supply of skilled labour for future development were considered. Interviews with key industry and stakeholder representatives were conducted. Additionally, a comparison of labour demand from oil and gas development on the east coast revealed a significant employment multiplier impact of offshore activities, averaging 3 jobs per 1 offshore job. An outline of previous employment growth patterns were provided for future reference. It was concluded that early planning and development of educational and training programs is essential in addressing eventual skills shortages. In addition to training measures, a range of public policy options should be considered, including retention measures to remove regulatory disincentives and innovative local agreements. Steps to rectify shortages in trades workers, technicians and experienced production workers is advisable, as these shortages are already evident in current onshore oil and gas activities elsewhere in Canada. A detailed description of offshore oil and gas occupations was provided, as well as questionnaires

  7. Use of graphics in the design office at the Military Aircraft Division of the British Aircraft Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The CAD/CAM interactive computer graphics system was described; uses to which it has been put were shown, and current developments of the system were outlined. The system supports batch, time sharing, and fully interactive graphic processing. Engineers using the system may switch between these methods of data processing and problem solving to make the best use of the available resources. It is concluded that the introduction of on-line computing in the form of teletypes, storage tubes, and fully interactive graphics has resulted in large increases in productivity and reduced timescales in the geometric computing, numerical lofting and part programming areas, together with a greater utilization of the system in the technical departments.

  8. Neural correlates of British sign language comprehension: spatial processing demands of topographic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie; Campbell, Ruth; Calvert, Gemma A; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Simmons, Andrew; Brammer, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    In all signed languages used by deaf people, signs are executed in "sign space" in front of the body. Some signed sentences use this space to map detailed "real-world" spatial relationships directly. Such sentences can be considered to exploit sign space "topographically." Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the extent to which increasing the topographic processing demands of signed sentences was reflected in the differential recruitment of brain regions in deaf and hearing native signers of the British Sign Language. When BSL signers performed a sentence anomaly judgement task, the occipito-temporal junction was activated bilaterally to a greater extent for topographic than nontopographic processing. The differential role of movement in the processing of the two sentence types may account for this finding. In addition, enhanced activation was observed in the left inferior and superior parietal lobules during processing of topographic BSL sentences. We argue that the left parietal lobe is specifically involved in processing the precise configuration and location of hands in space to represent objects, agents, and actions. Importantly, no differences in these regions were observed when hearing people heard and saw English translations of these sentences. Despite the high degree of similarity in the neural systems underlying signed and spoken languages, exploring the linguistic features which are unique to each of these broadens our understanding of the systems involved in language comprehension.

  9. Corporate Governance Induces Best Performance and Inhibits Leverage: Brazilian Industry Evidence of Oil & Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vládia Geane Moura Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study analyzes the oil industry, gas and biofuels in order to identify associations between corporate governance practices with capital structure, risk and performance.Methodology. These data were verified through 3SLS models (Three-Stage Least Squares. For this, we used a data set composed of 19 companies, for a panel data analysis in the period 2005-2009.Findings. The results suggest a negative association between leverage and corporate governance company level, supporting the substitution hypothesis, according to which the leverage works as a governance substitute. Also they did not reject the hypothesis that the greater the governance practices, greater market performances and accounting of these companies, as well as reduces the market risk.Limitations. The main limitation of this research is the sample size, 19 companies, with particular focus on an industry, reducing the generalizability of the results.Originality/Value. This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between corporate governance, capital structure, performance and risk; specifically for the oil, gas and biofuels in Brazil, an important and understudied emerging market.

  10. An Evaluation of an Internal Audit on Student Feedback within a British University: A Quality Enhancement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Final year students attending British universities now complete an annual questionnaire to assess their views on their learning experiences of higher education (HE) from a variety of perspectives. They undertake this process as part of the National Student Survey (NSS). These data are then collated and an annual report with associated…

  11. Design principles for corporate venture transition processes in established technology firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van J.C.; Jager, de S.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Cloodt, M.

    2012-01-01

    Corporate venturing has become a well known approach towards new business development and strategic renewal for established technology firms. However, without an effectively designed process for aligning and integrating a corporate venture in the established business, the firm increases the risk of

  12. Investigating 2010 Northern Cascadia ETS Processes With Absolute Gravity & Deformation Measurements Near Port Renfrew, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Kao, H.; Lambert, A.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of subduction zone Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) has been carried out primarily using seismic data for tremor and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and strain- or tilt-meter observations for transient slip. The regularity of ETS episodes in the forearc of the northern Cascadia Subduction Zone has recently allowed us to schedule a series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to augment these other data and thereby help in understanding the physical processes involved in the generation of ETS. High-precision AG observations are sensitive to vertical motion of the observation site as well as mass redistribution during transient deformation. For the 2010 ETS event in the northern Cascadia, AG observations were carried out at Port Renfrew, British Columbia. The Port Renfrew region was targeted since it has typically had large (~7mm) vertical displacements measured at a nearby GPS site. Additionally this region has experienced large strains during past ETS episodes. The closest PBO borehole strainmeter to Port Renfrew, B004 (Sekiu, WA), typically experiences ETS shear strain transients exceeding 100 nanostrain. In this contribution, we focus on the analysis of the multiple epoch series of AG observations at Port Renfrew during the 2010 ETS event. The ratio of the change of surface gravity (Δg) to vertical displacement (Δh) during the ETS event will also be examined. This ratio provides unique constraints on processes involved in generating observed gravity signals and will help us explore the mechanism of ETS.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of value a corporate guide to voluntary climate action

    OpenAIRE

    Randers, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the globa...

  14. 77 FR 64051 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards... standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for vehicles manufactured for sale in... and address global climate change. Need for Correction As published, the final...

  15. The pollutants removal and bacterial community dynamics relationship within a full-scale British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater treatment using a novel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    The novel system of EBA (based on external circulation anaerobic (EC) process-biological enhanced (BE) process-anoxic/oxic (A/O) process) was applied to treat the British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in Erdos, China. After a long time of commissioning, the EBA system represented a stable and highly efficient performance, particularly, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile phenols in the final effluent reached 53, 0.3, 18, 106mg/L and not detected, respectively. Both the GC-MS and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses revealed significant variations of organic compositions in the effluent of different process. The results of high-throughput sequencing represented the EBA system composed 34 main bacteria which were affiliated to 7 phyla. In addition, the canonical correspondence analysis indicated high coherence among community composition, wastewater characteristics and environmental variables, in which the pH, mixed liquid suspended solids and total phenols loading were the most three significant variables.

  16. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  17. Hand and mouth: cortical correlates of lexical processing in British Sign Language and speechreading English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Cheryl M; Waters, Dafydd; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Brammer, Michael J; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Campbell, Ruth

    2008-07-01

    Spoken languages use one set of articulators -- the vocal tract, whereas signed languages use multiple articulators, including both manual and facial actions. How sensitive are the cortical circuits for language processing to the particular articulators that are observed? This question can only be addressed with participants who use both speech and a signed language. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the processing of speechreading and sign processing in deaf native signers of British Sign Language (BSL) who were also proficient speechreaders. The following questions were addressed: To what extent do these different language types rely on a common brain network? To what extent do the patterns of activation differ? How are these networks affected by the articulators that languages use? Common peri-sylvian regions were activated both for speechreading English words and for BSL signs. Distinctive activation was also observed reflecting the language form. Speechreading elicited greater activation in the left mid-superior temporal cortex than BSL, whereas BSL processing generated greater activation at the temporo-parieto-occipital junction in both hemispheres. We probed this distinction further within BSL, where manual signs can be accompanied by different types of mouth action. BSL signs with speech-like mouth actions showed greater superior temporal activation, whereas signs made with non-speech-like mouth actions showed more activation in posterior and inferior temporal regions. Distinct regions within the temporal cortex are not only differentially sensitive to perception of the distinctive articulators for speech and for sign but also show sensitivity to the different articulators within the (signed) language.

  18. Process Monitoring of an HIV Treatment as Prevention Program in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Lillian; Lima, Viviane D.; Heath, Kate; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gilbert, Mark; Colley, Guillaume; Consolacion, Theodora; Barrios, Rolando; Robert, Hogg; Krajden, Mel; Konrad, Stephanie; Murti, Michelle; Nelson, Joanne; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Haggerstone, James; Pick, Neora; Gustafson, Reka; Rusch, Melanie; Day, Irene; Montaner, Julio Sg

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all five regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of eight criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: one for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. PMID:25072608

  19. Neural systems underlying British Sign Language and audio-visual English processing in native users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Woll, Bencie; Campbell, Ruth; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Williams, Steven C R; Suckling, John; Calvert, Gemma A; Brammer, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    In order to understand the evolution of human language, it is necessary to explore the neural systems that support language processing in its many forms. In particular, it is informative to separate those mechanisms that may have evolved for sensory processing (hearing) from those that have evolved to represent events and actions symbolically (language). To what extent are the brain systems that support language processing shaped by auditory experience and to what extent by exposure to language, which may not necessarily be acoustically structured? In this first neuroimaging study of the perception of British Sign Language (BSL), we explored these questions by measuring brain activation using functional MRI in nine hearing and nine congenitally deaf native users of BSL while they performed a BSL sentence-acceptability task. Eight hearing, non-signing subjects performed an analogous task that involved audio-visual English sentences. The data support the argument that there are both modality-independent and modality-dependent language localization patterns in native users. In relation to modality-independent patterns, regions activated by both BSL in deaf signers and by spoken English in hearing non-signers included inferior prefrontal regions bilaterally (including Broca's area) and superior temporal regions bilaterally (including Wernicke's area). Lateralization patterns were similar for the two languages. There was no evidence of enhanced right-hemisphere recruitment for BSL processing in comparison with audio-visual English. In relation to modality-specific patterns, audio-visual speech in hearing subjects generated greater activation in the primary and secondary auditory cortices than BSL in deaf signers, whereas BSL generated enhanced activation in the posterior occipito-temporal regions (V5), reflecting the greater movement component of BSL. The influence of hearing status on the recruitment of sign language processing systems was explored by comparing deaf

  20. Climatic impacts on the runoff generation processes in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loukas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of future climate change on runoff generation processes in two southern British Columbia catchments was explored using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCMa1 to estimate future changes in precipitation, temperature and cloud cover while the U.B.C. Watershed Model was used to simulate discharges and quantify the separate runoff components, i.e. rainfall, snowmelt, glacier melt and groundwater. Changes, not only in precipitation and temperature but also in the spatial distribution of precipitation with elevation, cloud cover, glacier extension, altitude distribution of vegetation, vegetation biomass production and plant physiology were considered. The future climate of the catchments would be wetter and warmer than the present. In the maritime rain-fed catchment of the Upper Campbell, runoff from rainfall is the most significant source of flow for present and future climatic conditions in the autumn and winter whereas runoff from groundwater generates the flow in spring and summer, especially for the future climate scenario. The total runoff, under the future climatic conditions, would increase in the autumn and winter and decrease in spring and summer. In contrast, in the interior snow-covered Illecillewaet catchment, groundwater is the most significant runoff generation mechanism in the autumn and winter although, at present, significant flow is generated from snowmelt in spring and from glacier runoff in summer. In the future scenario, the contribution to flow from snowmelt would increase in winter and diminish in spring while the runoff from the glacier would remain unchanged; groundwater would then become the most significant source of runoff, which would peak earlier in the season. Keywords: climatic change, hydrological simulation, rainfall, snowmelt, runoff processes

  1. Possibilities of Utilizing the Method of Analytical Hierarchy Process Within the Strategy of Corporate Social Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieniková, Katarína; Hrdinová, Gabriela; Naňo, Tomáš; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the theory of corporate social responsibility, risk management and the exact method of analytic hierarchic process that is used in the decision-making processes. The Chapters 2 and 3 focus on presentation of the experience with the application of the method in formulating the stakeholders' strategic goals within the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and simultaneously its utilization in minimizing the environmental risks. The major benefit of this paper is the application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).

  2. Analytic hierarchy process analysis for choosing a corporate social entrepreneurship strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After conducting an extensive analysis of both the specialised literature and practice and identifying three types of corporate social entrepreneurship in my PhD thesis titled “Corporate social entrepreneurship - the new paradigm of reshaping and rethinking business”, I decided to determine which of the three approaches is mostly suited for the Romanian market. The three types of corporate social entrepreneurship: corporate social entrepreneurship as local development tool, corporate social entrepreneurship as market development tool, and corporate social entrepreneurship as transformational innovation tool were organised as the alternatives of a carefully constructed hierarchy having as criteria: return on investment (which does not necessarily refer to the money that the company invests in the strategy; the term is derived from sustainability and scalability, degree of novelty, pre-entry knowledge and interest in solving the communities’ social problems. The questionnaire constructed based on the hierarchy using analytic hierarchy processes was distributed to experts (business developers coming from the following industries or sectors: beverages, IT, banking, furniture, and automotive. The research reveals which is the approach most likely to be employed by Romanian business developers. The results may be inferred to the sum of businesses represented by the expert business developers who were part of the research.

  3. College Textbook Publishing: Patterns of Corporate Diversification and the Rationalization of the Publishing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Jacinto E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impact of publishing industry diversification on the college textbook publishing process. Topics discussed include characteristics and trends of the college publishing industry; corporate ownership and managerial practices; the rationalization of editorial and marketing processes; evaluative criteria; author selection; and suggestions…

  4. Corporate identity in wood processing and furniture manufacturing in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Bičanić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate identity was defined differently by different authors and its unique definition was not established, but it is most certainly the soul of each enterprise that is based on history, environment, previous development and recognition on the market. This paper deals with the perception of corporate identity in wood processing and furniture manufacturing companies in the Republic of Croatia. Research was conducted as a survey using questionnaires containing general information about the enterprise and 10 questions regarding the perception of corporate identity. 210 enterprises for wood processing and furniture manufacturing were surveyed and 43 (20.47 % of them answered to all the questions, of which 35 (16.67 % were taken into consideration. The given data were analyzed statistically using X2-test. The results showed that corporate identity in Croatian wood processing and furniture manufacturing companies was mostly defined by and identified with the company’s visual presentation, image and recognizability and differentiation in the market. At the same time, most surveyees thought that corporate identity is mostly made of the company’s design, company’s external communication and its philosophy.

  5. From monopoly to competition; Marketing natural gas in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, D.W. (University Coll. of Wales, Aberystwyth (UK))

    1990-10-01

    Natural gas was introduced from 1964 into an expanding UK energy market by the state-owned British Gas Corporation, a statutory monopsonists to the gas producers, and a monopoly supplier to the final users. This unified structure was the dominant influence on a marketing strategy that led to the successful introduction of this third fossil fuel. The 1988 recommendations of the Monopolies and Mergers Commission were designed to promote direct competition for a now privatized British Gas operating in a static energy market with competition between fuels. Lower gas prices are available for some, but not for all consumers. (author).

  6. UPGRADING NATURAL GAS VIA MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A.Stern; P.A. Rice; J. Hao

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the potential usefulness of membrane separation processes for removing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S from low-quality natural gas containing substantial amounts of both these ''acid'' gases, e.g., up to 40 mole-% CO{sub 2} and 10 mole-% H{sub 2}S. The membrane processes must be capable of upgrading the crude natural gas to pipeline specifications ({le} 2 mole-% CO{sub 2}, {le} 4 ppm H{sub 2}S). Moreover, these processes must also be economically competitive with the conventional separation techniques, such as gas absorption, utilized for this purpose by the gas industry.

  7. A Conceptual Framework of Corporate and Business Ethics across Organizations: Structures, Processes and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Goran; Wood, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance. Design/methodology/approach: A framework is outlined and positioned incorporating an ethical frame of reference in the field of…

  8. Corporate corruption of the environment: sustainability as a process of compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Daniel; Wright, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    A key response to environmental degradation, climate change and declining biodiversity has been the growing adoption of market principles in an effort to better value the social good of nature. Through concepts such as 'natural capitalism' and 'corporate environmentalism', nature is increasingly viewed as a domain of capitalist endeavour. In this article, we use convention theory and a pluralist understanding of social goods to investigate how the social good of the environment is usurped by the alternate social good of the market. Through analysis of interviews with sustainability managers and corporate documentation, we highlight how organizational actors employ compromise to temporally settle disputes between competing claims about environmental activities. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the processes of empirically grounded critique and the under-theorized concept of compromise between social goods. Rather than protecting the environment, the corporate promotion of sustainability facilitates the corruption of the social good of the environment and its conversion into a market commodity.

  9. Corporate realignments in the natural gas industry: does the North American experience foretell the future for the European Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, I.; Wright, Ph. [Sheffield Univ., Energy Studies Programme (United Kingdom); Wright, Ph. [Montpellier-1 Univ., CREDEN-LASER, 34 (France)

    2000-09-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent to which the corporate realignments which have occurred in the North American Natural Gas Industry during a now relatively lengthy experience with liberalization involving a large number of players, will be imitated in the future by European Union countries other than the UK (which is of course already long-embarked along the path of Anglo-Saxon liberalization). The paper first of all catalogues the North American experience, drawing on company performance data assembled by the authors over the last decade (Rutledge and Wright, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000). Secondly, this empirical exploration gives way to theoretical speculation: are there elements of the North American experience for which explanatory generalizations are possible? Thirdly, these empirical and theoretical insights are employed to identify and explore actual and potential differences in the corporate evolution of the European Union natural gas industry. (authors)

  10. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  11. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  12. A Rapid Process for Fabricating Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO is a low-toxicity and environmentally-friendly material applied on devices, sensors or actuators for “green” usage. A porous ZnO film deposited by a rapid process of aerosol deposition (AD was employed as the gas-sensitive material in a CO gas sensor to reduce both manufacturing cost and time, and to further extend the AD application for a large-scale production. The relative resistance change (△R/R of the ZnO gas sensor was used for gas measurement. The fabricated ZnO gas sensors were measured with operating temperatures ranging from 110 °C to 180 °C, and CO concentrations ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensitivity and the response time presented good performance at increasing operating temperatures and CO concentrations. AD was successfully for applied for making ZnO gas sensors with great potential for achieving high deposition rates at low deposition temperatures, large-scale production and low cost.

  13. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkonen, V.A. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab.

  14. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  15. Introduction to gas lasers with emphasis on selective excitation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Willett, Colin S

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Gas Lasers: Population Inversion Mechanisms focuses on important processes in gas discharge lasers and basic atomic collision processes that operate in a gas laser. Organized into six chapters, this book first discusses the historical development and basic principles of gas lasers. Subsequent chapters describe the selective excitation processes in gas discharges and the specific neutral, ionized and molecular laser systems. This book will be a valuable reference on the behavior of gas-discharge lasers to anyone already in the field.

  16. British Petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Andersen, Christine Bang

    2014-01-01

    The case deals with the rather tumultuous executive leadership changes of British Petroleum (BP) over the past decade from 2005 to 2014 in the wake of two dramatic incidents: The Texas City refinery explosion in 2005 and the explosion of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon in the Mexican Gulf in 2010. ...

  17. 25 CFR 226.8 - Corporation and corporate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporation and corporate information. 226.8 Section 226... RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.8 Corporation and corporate information. (a) If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it shall file evidence...

  18. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  19. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  20. The Queen Charlotte Fault, British Columbia: seafloor anatomy of a transform fault and its influence on sediment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Harris, Peter T.

    2013-08-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ) off western Canada is the northern equivalent to the San Andreas Fault Zone, the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Geomorphologic expression and surface processes associated with the QCFZ system have been revealed in unprecedented detail by recent seabed mapping surveys. Convergence of the Pacific and North American plates along northern British Columbia is well known, but how the QCFZ accommodates this convergence is still a subject of controversy. The multibeam sonar bathymetry data reveal, for the first time, evidence of a fault valley with small depressions on the upper slope, offshore central Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands). The depressions form where strike-slip right-step offsets have realigned the fault due to oblique convergence. Core stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of sediments within the fault valley and small depressions suggest that these features are recent in origin. In addition, the development of the fault valley and dislocation of submarine canyons control sediment migration from the continental shelf through to the lower slope. This interpretation of the geomorphic expression of major plate tectonic processes along the QCFZ can now be tested with new surveys subsequent to the October 2012 magnitude 7.7 earthquake.

  1. Analytic hierarchy process analysis for choosing a corporate social entrepreneurship strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hadad Shahrazad

    2015-01-01

    After conducting an extensive analysis of both the specialised literature and practice and identifying three types of corporate social entrepreneurship in my PhD thesis titled “Corporate social entrepreneurship - the new paradigm of reshaping and rethinking business”, I decided to determine which of the three approaches is mostly suited for the Romanian market. The three types of corporate social entrepreneurship: corporate social entrepreneurship as local development tool, corporate social e...

  2. Numerical simulation of gas flow process in mining-induced crack network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Hongwei; Liu; Jinfeng; Xue; Dongjie; Yi; Haiyang; Xue; Junhua

    2012-01-01

    The exploitation of coal bed methane or coal gas is one of the most effective solutions of the problem of coal gas hazard.A better understanding of gas flow in mining-induced cracks plays an important role in comprehensive development and utilization of coal gas as well as prevention of coal gas hazard.This paper presents a case study of gas flow in mining-induced crack network regarding the situation of low permeability of coal seam.A two-dimensional physical model is constructed on the basis of geological background of mining face No.1122(1) in coal seam No.11-2,Zhangji Coal Mine,Huainan Mining Group Corporation.The mining-induced stress and cracks in overburden rocks are obtained by simulating an extraction in physical model.An evolution of mining-induced cracks in the process of advancing of coal mining face is characterized and three typical crack networks are taken from digital photos by means of image analysis.Moreover,the numerical software named COMSOL Multiphysics is employed to simulate the process of gas flow in three representative crack networks.Isograms of gas pressure at various times in mining-induced crack networks are plotted,suggesting a shape and dimension of gas accumulation area.

  3. Corporate action on climate change: an independent review focusing on Canada's electric and natural gas utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This independent report on corporate action on climate change is the fourth in a series of studies undertaken by the Pembina Institute, a citizen-based organization involved in environmental education, research, policy development and consulting. The objective of the report is to identify the key elements that are required to produce a credible and effective corporate action plan to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; to create a standardized mechanism to assess the credibility and effectiveness of corporate action plans to reduce GHG emissions; and to provide Canadians with as comparative assessment of the climate change performance of individual companies, by providing the means to identify the leaders and laggards within different industry sectors. The report focuses on the quality of actions being taken to reduce GHG emissions specifically by the electric and natural gas utility companies. Future reviews will concentrate on the climate protection performers of companies in other sectors of industry. Criteria for inclusion in this report require that the company must be a participant in Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program; must have submitted a corporate climate change report to the VCR between Sept. 1998 and March 31, 1999, including the GHG inventory that presents recent emissions data, identifies at least one activity that has been taken to reduce GHG emissions, and quantifying the benefits of that activity in tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions per year. While Ontario alone has over 300 companies that fit into the electricity and natural gas utility sector, only 16 companies across the country have met all the criteria. These companies (listed in Section 2.1) must be recognized as the leaders in the country in addressing the climate change issue. Other companies that report to VCR but did not meet all the criteria and the reason for their exclusion are listed in Appendix D. The report describes the methodology

  4. Pyrolysis process for producing fuel gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A. (Inventor); Kroo, Erik (Inventor); Wojtowicz, Marek A. (Inventor); Suuberg, Eric M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH.sub.4, H.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2O, NH.sub.3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.

  5. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  6. The Process of Constructing a Corporate Taxonomy——The Example of EDB Corporate Taxonomy%Corporate Taxonomy的编制方法和原则——以EDB Corporate Taxonomy的编制为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠红

    2006-01-01

    文章以EDB Corporate Taxonomy的编制为例,从实践角度论述了Corporate Taxonomy的编制方法与原则,同时对编制过程中涉及到的如传统知识组织工具的利用、设计角度的考虑、支持软件和后期维护等问题进行了探讨.

  7. Targeting Energy Management : Analysing targets, outcomes and impacts of corporate energy and greenhouse gas management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Global greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced drastically to limit global increases in temperature to the relatively safe level of maximum 2 degrees Celsius. In the coming decades, energy efficiency improvement will be the main strategy for reducing energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. Energy

  8. 75 FR 65477 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... includes the following facilities: Construction of 20.1 miles of 20-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline... your comments in Washington, DC on or before November 18, 2010. For your convenience, there are...

  9. Price trends of oil and gas. Influence from the development on the British gas market; Prisutsikter for olje og gass. Vil utviklingen paa det britiske gassmarked smitte?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper focuses on the future prospects of oil and gas prices in Europe being influenced by the liberalized market in the United Kingdom. With reference to the Norwegian continental shelf, the market price of oil determines the price of gas because the oil production will be much higher than the production of gas for a long time. From 1998 onwards, a new natural gas pipeline will be operating between the United Kingdom and the Continent having a capacity of 20 billion Sm{sup 3} in both directions. The author gives at first a brief description of the continental market of to day, secondly, a discussion on how to liberalize such a market together with experience obtained in the United Kingdom, and thirdly, the risk of falling prices being similar to the existing bargain prices in the United Kingdom. 11 figs.

  10. Entrepreneurial orientation and corporate governance structures at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent B. Molokwu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Corporate governance systems (CGS have been observed as one of the most important structures and mechanisms that regulate the relationships between executives and shareholders. By having well-defined and established CGS, company board members and executives are able to shape company vision and increase managerial commitment towards formulating strategies that espouse an entrepreneurial orientation (EO. Firms with high levels of EO tend to be innovative and encourage creative initiatives in new products and technology developments.Research purpose: In an emerging economy such as South Africa, one of the primary goals of an organisation is growth and good governance, which can be achieved through wellgoverned structures and continuous innovation in the face of challenges. This study identified potential links between the multidimensional constructs of CGS and EO at the firm level in the South African oil and gas industry.Motivation for the study: One of the greatest challenges faced by organisations when implementing CGS is to ensure compliance.Research design, approach and method: Board members and senior decision-makers were surveyed in the South African oil and gas industry, using a structured questionnaire. A series of correlational analyses were used to determine the strength of relationships between the dimensions of EO and CGS.Main findings: By drawing extensively on existing theory on EO, this study found that the different dimensions of CGS have a significant and positive relationship with each of the EO dimensions – innovation, risk-taking and proactiveness.Practical/managerial implications: Corporate boards supportive of entrepreneurship must provide appropriate reward systems, top management support, explicit goals and appropriate organisational values which signal to employees that entrepreneurial behaviour action is desirable. Practitioners should scrutinise their governance structures in their organisations to ensure

  11. Evaluation of membrane processes for acid gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahn, J.; Bos, W.A.P. van den; Broeke, L.J.P. van den

    2012-01-01

    An overview is given of different membrane processes that are used for acid gas removal from natural gas. The main characteristics of selective membranes and membrane contactors for gas separation involving mixtures with acid gases are discussed. The removal of carbon dioxide from gaseous streams an

  12. Corporate Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddock, Sandra; Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We define and discuss the concept of corporate responsibility. We suggest that corporate responsibility has some unique characteristics, which makes it different from earlier conceptions of corporate social responsibility. Our discussion further shows commonalities and differences between corporate...... responsibility and related concepts, such as corporate citizenship and business ethics. We also outline some ways in which corporations have implemented corporate responsibility in practice....

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SMOVEN PROCESS FOR HOT GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭万旺; 步学朋; 王乃计; 戢绪国; 谢可玉

    1997-01-01

    The Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry (BRICC) is developing the SMOVEN process for hot gas desulfurization. The SMOVEN process features sulfidation in an entrained bed, regeneration in a low velocity fluid bed or a moving bed with oxygen and sorbent circulation controlled by gas stream. A series of tests on the bench scale unit and the continuous process development unit were carried out. The regenerable metal oxide sorbents were adopted for the sulfurrelated components removing from coal gas at the temperature of 550~650℃. A fluidized bed gasifier of 100mm (id) generated coal gas for tests. The principle of SMOVEN process has been positively verified.

  14. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the possibility of regulating the process of “cooling down” liquefied natural gas in terms of its partial evaporation with low cost energy.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plantation to the Proceeded Wood Products via State Timber Corporation Depots for Selected Tree Species using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DKL Senadheera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA provides a methodological framework for evaluating environmental performance over the life cycle of a product, process, or an activity. In Sri Lanka, majority of timber for wood based industries comes from homegardens and Government owned forest plantations. State Timber Corporation (STC is the authoritative body for timber harvesting in state owned forest plantations. This LCA study was carried out to calculate Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions of the STC timber movements from the plantation to the finished product. The study concentrated on teak, eucalypt and mahogany species as they represented fast moving commercial timber of high significance. Assessment boundary was from the harvesting to the product. Updated emission factors were used to calculate the CO2 eq units. When considering the emissions during the process, the highest was recorded in the sawmilling process (48% from sawing, 9% from surfacing and 9% from drying. The transportation accounted for 31.25% of emissions while harvesting contributed to 6%. Other indirect emissions accounted for 2.75%.

  16. Mathematical simulation of the process of condensing natural gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tastandieva G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Presents a two-dimensional unsteady model of heat transfer in terms of condensation of natural gas at low temperatures. Performed calculations of the process heat and mass transfer of liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks of cylindrical shape. The influence of model parameters on the nature of heat transfer. Defined temperature regimes eliminate evaporation by cooling liquefied natural gas. The obtained dependence of the mass flow rate of vapor condensation gas temperature. Identified the...

  17. RISE AND ACQUISITIONS FINANCIAL POTENTIAL IN THE RESTRUCTURING PROCESS OF CORPORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alekseienko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic conceptual foundations of financial potential mergers and acquisitions, as factors of corporations external growth are investigated, existing approaches to the concept of restructuring are generalized, necessary components of the absorption capacity of the corporation are defined.

  18. Corporate Venturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vintergaard, Christian

    From the perspective of Austrian economics, this paper develops a conceptual understanding ofhow corporate venture managers recognize and discover opportunities in a network environment.In an effort to create a better understanding of who is involved in process, this paper reports onthe development...... path of an entrepreneurial opportunity of the Danish corporate venture capitalist,Danfoss A/S. This paper distinguishes itself from previous research done on entrepreneurialopportunities by creating a holistic and conceptual framework, which broadens and expands theperception of the market participants...... involved in recognition and discovery. Consequently thepaper offers insight to a diversified group of actors who mix and match technological and marketcapabilities in a constant process of recognition and discovery.Key words: Corporate venturing, entrepreneurship, discovery, networks, opportunities,recognition....

  19. IT integration after an acquisition or a merger : how corporations could enhance their IT acquisition integration processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Riku

    2009-01-01

    This study is investigating corporations dealing with their IT integration after an acquisition or a merger. Organisations seem to be struggling with the aforementioned process due to several reasons. Firstly, user resistance often becomes evident when information systems are being changed. Integration processes are often not standardised or documented, which makes the future integration processes more difficult. In addition, organisation must focus on right solutions for outsourcing and i...

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; R. Hofmann; K.A. Lokhandwala

    2003-02-14

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions would convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system has been designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and will be installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Baker; T. Hofmann; J. Kaschemekat; K.A. Lokhandwala; Membrane Group; Module Group; Systems Group

    2001-01-11

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world conditions is required to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system will be designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and then installed and operated at British Petroleum (BP)-Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute will partially support the field demonstration and BP-Amoco will help install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dewpoint and Btu value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. Based on data from prior membrane module tests, the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. At the end of this demonstration project the process will be ready for commercialization. The route to commercialization will be developed during this project and may involve collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  2. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  3. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities, a...... entrepreneurship and innovation, and identifying management practices supportive of these particular innovation processes.......Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities......, and thereby moving the organization to a new state of being. In spite of a general consensus on a strong interlinkage between the concepts of innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, the nature of this linkage is rarely addressed directly. This has made further research in the two areas problematic, mainly...

  4. Are you turning energy supply upside down. Interview with John Wakeham, the British Minister for Energy. Auf ein Wort, Herr Minister: Stellen Sie die Energieversorgung auf den Kopf. Interview mit John Wakeham, dem britischen Energieminister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einhaus, G.

    1989-11-01

    One of the first interviews of John Wakeham, who has held the Office of Minister for Energy only for a few weeks, was given to a German magazine - ENERGIE. The British conservative politician was called on at Margaret Thatcher's, the prime minister's, cabinet reshuffle to follow Cecil Parkinson. The oil industry and British Gas having been sold, the next project is the privatization of the electricity industry. In his interview, Wakeham refers above all to the new private energy corporations, their consequences for consumers, and the future role of nuclear power, but also the Single European Market in 1992. (orig./KW).

  5. SOME RESTRUCTURING MEASURES OF THE MARKETING PROCESS IN A CORPORATE FIRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2016-12-01

    We developed this version, after multiple and extensive comparative analysis, on different companies in the corporate environment, in many countries and we have concluded that the proposed measures can meet the requirements to a good extent.

  6. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  7. Great gas plants : these five natural gas processing facilities demonstrate decades of top-flight technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-07-15

    The natural gas purification and pipeline sector is a major economic driver in Canada. Gas processing facilities are growing in number, and several large gas projects are being planned for future construction in the western provinces. This article outlined 5 gas plants in order to illustrate the sector's history and breadth in Canada. The Shell Jumping Pound gas complex was constructed in 1951 after a sulfur-rich gas discovery near Calgary in 1944. The Empress Straddle plant was built in 1971 in southeastern Alberta and is one of the largest single industrial consumers of electrical power in the province. The Fort Nelson gas processing plant is North America's largest sour gas processing facility. The Shell Caroline complex was built 1993. The Sable offshore energy project is located on the coast of Nova Scotia to handle gas produced from the Thebaud wells. A consortium is now considering the development of new gas fields in the Sable area. 5 figs.

  8. 30 CFR 206.153 - Valuation standards-processed gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 206.153 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 206.153 Valuation standards—processed gas. (a)(1) This section... shall be by letter to the MMS Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management or his/her...

  9. THE ROLE OF THE ARCTIC RESOURCE CORPORATIONS IN INNOVATION PROCESSES AND SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Selin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is particularly mining companies located in the Russian Arctic. The main results of the study include the rationale for the demand for products Arctic mineral corporations and retain their capitalization, even in conditions of «sanctions» policy of the West. The main fi eld of application of the obtained results is the formation of industrial policy resource corporations, including at the regional level. At the heart of the industrial policy of the Russian Arctic are the principles of strategic import substitution. While Arctic mineral corporations may be, including in the implementation of the Arctic mega-projects on the principles of state-private partnership, «the locomotive» the dynamics of innovation in the economy.

  10. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. These crises that have started to alarm governments, supervisory authorities, companies, investors and even the general public because of the fragility of the corporate governance’s system, highlight the need to rethink its structures. The process of adapting the corporate governance provisions in order to ensure transparency, responsibility and fair treatment of shareholders has resulted in the development of Corporate Governance Principles by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. In order to asses these principles, it has started to identify the common elements of codes, one the most effective practice models of governance. Once the benefits of corporate governance practices have been understood and assimilated by the developed country, the developing countries (also Romania have begun to adopt "the best practices" in corporate governance, especially because this need is acutely felt in the changes required by the transition to a market economy. Our article describes the origins of the corporate governance, the concept and evolution of the corporate governance code at an international level, European level and also at a Romanian level.

  11. Data Processing Model of Coalmine Gas Early-Warning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jian-sheng; YIN Hong-sheng; LIU Xiu-rong; HUA Gang; XU Yong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The data processing mode is vital to the performance of an entire coalmine gas early-warning system, especially in real-time performance. Our objective was to present the structural features of coalmine gas data, so that the data could be processed at different priority levels in C language. Two different data processing models, one with priority and the other without priority, were built based on queuing theory. Their theoretical formulas were determined via a M/M/1 model in order to calculate average occupation time of each measuring point in an early-warning program. We validated the model with the gas early-warning system of the Huaibei Coalmine Group Corp. The results indicate that the average occupation time for gas data processing by using the queuing system model with priority is nearly 1/30 of that of the model without priority..

  12. Rethinking the Harmonious Family: Processes of social organization in a Korean Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    harmony and individual competition, in some Korean corporations led to social negotiation and struggles to define the aim and character of the collective effort. By describing the subsequent social dynamics of a Korean bank corporation, the purpose of this paper is to show how the perception of group...... harmony as a stabile entity in East Asian organizations is too static for analyzing the social organization. Rather, the dynamics of the continuous production and reproduction of social structures have to be taken into account in order to understand working life in Korean organizations....

  13. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maicu, Marina, E-mail: marina.maicu@fep.fraunhofer.de; Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald [Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hecker, Dominic [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany and Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  14. Process design team report to the Northern Development Commissioner on the process to discuss the offshore oil and gas moratorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-22

    The Northern Development Commissioner of British Columbia established a Process Design Team to develop a community based consensus building consultative process to allow for public examination of the current moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration in the Hecate Strait area which has been in place since 1989. Regional conferences will be held to determine if the moratorium should be removed, and if so, under what conditions. The Process Design Team was composed mostly of volunteers from many segments of the communities, from First Nations, municipal governments, business people, environmentalists, academics and the fishing and resource industry. Their role was to provide a template for a community process to discuss the relevant issues, make decisions and report on the outcome. It was recommended that there should be about 15 meetings held in Northwestern and Coastal communities with four Main Events being held in Terrace, Prince Rupert, on the Queen Charlotte Islands/Haida Gwaii and in Port Hardy with presenters from eastern Canada, Alaska. It was recommended that communities be given 30 days after the reports are released following the meetings to present their opinions. It was suggested that the entire process be completed by March 31, 2002 with a report to government at that time. It was noted that if the government decides to open the issue of offshore oil and gas exploration, an environmental evaluation would have to be conducted. Initial geological reports suggest that the oil potential in the BC offshore is great. In addition, there have been many new experiences in offshore oil and gas operations since the moratorium went into effect. New advanced technologies such as 3-D seismic, directional drilling, multi-beam bathymetry, satellite communications and weather forecasting have benefited offshore development in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland as well as other fields around the world. Statistics regarding the input of hydrocarbons into the marine

  15. Decision Making and Behavioral Strategy: The role of regulatory focus in corporate innovation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Tunçdoğan (Aybars)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This dissertation makes use of the behavioral strategy perspective in order to examine a number of constructs pertaining to innovation in corporate settings. In particular, the dissertation consists of four studies; one conceptual and three empirical. The conceptual pap

  16. Gender and Corporal Expression Activity in Physical Education: Effect of an Intervention on Students' Motivational Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevil, Javier; Abós, Ángel; Aibar, Alberto; Julián, José Antonio; García-González, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory and Achievement Goal Theory, the objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention programme on a series of motivational variables in a corporal expression teaching unit. An analysis was also conducted in terms of whether the impact of the intervention would be effective in boys and…

  17. Thermodynamic and Process Modelling of Gas Hydrate Systems in CO2 Capture Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen

    A novel gas separation technique based on gas hydrate formation (solid precipitation) is investigated by means of thermodynamic modeling and experimental investigations. This process has previously been proposed for application in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture from power station flue gas...

  18. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  19. Description of the system planning process at Florida Power Corporation. Task I. Report No. FC-5237-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    One of the means of evaluating a new technology is to have it considered by a utility company, run through the system planning, and thus scrutinized by a potential user of the new technology in a manner directly drawn from the user's methods of decision making on new capacity additions. By having Florida Power Corporation (FPC), a company with real potential for the future use of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), exercise its system planning methods to consider this possible source of future generating capacity, a number of highly useful results will be obtained. The overall study of the application of system planning to OTEC is being carried out in four tasks. This report covers task-1 which provides a description of the existing system and the planning process of Florida Power Corporation. (WHK)

  20. Corporate Branding and Corporate Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmark, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through o...... for corporate brands and corporate communication.......Corporate branding has been seen as developing in “waves”. This chapter explores the links between corporate branding and corporate reputation as they emerge in the context of three waves of corporate branding. It highlights the way in which the two constructs have related to each other through...... organizational culture and identity, and how, although characterized by parallel developments, new ideas and models from a “third” wave of corporate branding challenge prevailing assumptions of corporate reputation particularly in terms of the assumptions that reputations emerge from authentic and transparent...

  1. Exploring Language and Diplomatic Thinking through Process Types: A Contrastive Study on Sino-British Diplomatic Thinking Based on the China-UK Joint Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The China-UK Joint Declaration on Building a Global Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for the 21st Century is one of the fruits of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent official state visit to the Great Britain. As a typical and important diplomatic language document, the Joint Declaration deserves scientific research. In this paper, based on the six process types of Halliday’s Transitivity system, we attempt to disclose the diplomatic thinking underlying the employment of process types and make a contrastive study of the diplomatic thinking of both China and the UK. The research leads to three findings. Firstly, the high frequency of material process clause in both Chinese and English versions reflects the “Action thinking”, a shared diplomatic thinking adopted by the two nations. Secondly, the Chinese version employs more relational process clauses than the English version, which is an indication of the “Relationality thinking” underlying Chinese diplomacy and it is much less emphasized or even absent in British diplomacy. Thirdly, the analysis of the mental process clauses reveals that China has an “Inclusive thinking” in its diplomatic exchange with Britain whereas the UK a “Friendship thinking”.Keywords: process types; diplomatic thinking; contrastive study; Action thinking; Relationality thinking; Inclusive thinking; Friendship thinking

  2. Numerical simulations of rarefied gas flows in thin film processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Many processes exist in which a thin film is deposited from the gas phase, e.g. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). These processes are operated at ever decreasing reactor operating pressures and with ever decreasing wafer feature dimensions, reaching into the rarefied flow regime. As numerical simulat

  3. Flue Gas Cleaning With Alternative Processes and Reaction Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Alternative methods to the traditional industrial NOX and SOXflue gas cleaning processes working at lower temperatures and/orleading to useful products are desired. In this work we presentour latest results regarding the use of molten ionic media inelectrocatalytic membrane separation, ionic liquid...... reversibleabsorption and supported ionic liquid deNOX catalysis. Furtherdevelopment of the methods will hopefully make them suitable forinstallation in different positions in the flue gas duct ascompared to the industrial methods available today....

  4. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2001-05-01

    This first quarter report of 2001 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{trademark} (service mark of Gas Research Institute) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. During this reporting periods new catalyst formulations were tested. The experiments showed that the newest catalyst has slightly better performance, but catalyst TDA No.2 is still superior overall for use with the hybrid CrystaSulf process due to lower costs. Plans for catalyst pelletization and continued testing are described.

  5. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas: Nineteenth Quarterly Progress Report (Second Quarter 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-06-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation, and is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  6. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  7. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  8. Nitrogen Availability Of Nitriding Atmosphere In Controlled Gas Nitriding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parameters which characterize the nitriding atmosphere in the gas nitriding process of steel are: the nitriding potential KN, ammonia dissociation rate α and nitrogen availabilitymN2. The article discusses the possibilities of utilization of the nitriding atmosphere’s nitrogen availability in the design of gas nitriding processes of alloyed steels in atmospheres derived from raw ammonia, raw ammonia diluted with pre-dissociated ammonia, with nitrogen, as well as with both nitrogen and pre-dissociated ammonia. The nitriding processes were accomplished in four series. The parameters selected in the particular processes were: process temperature (T, time (t, value of nitriding potential (KN, corresponding to known dissociation rate of the ammonia which dissociates during the nitriding process (α. Variable parameters were: nitrogen availability (mN2, composition of the ingoing atmosphere and flow rate of the ingoing atmosphere (FIn.

  9. SLIPPAGE SOLUTION OF GAS PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN PROCESS OF LANDFILL GAS SEEPAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Qiang; FENG Xia-ting; LIANG Bing

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of landfill gas migration was established under presumption of the effect of gas slippage. The slippage solutions to the nonlinear mathematical model were accomplished by the perturbation and integral transformation method. The distribution law of gas pressure in landfill site was presented under the conditions of considering and neglecting slippage effect. Sensitivity of the model input parameters was analyzed. The model solutions were compared to observation values.Results show that gas slippage effect has a large impact on gas pressure distribution.Landfill gas pressure and pressure gradient considering slippage effect is lower than that neglecting slippage effect, with reasonable agreement between model solution and measured data. It makes clear that the difference between considering and neglecting slippage effect is obvious and the effects of coupling cannot be ignored. The theoretical basis is provided for engineering design of security control and decision making of gas exploitation in landfill site. The solutions give scientific foundation to analyzing well test data in the process of low-permeability oil gas reservoir exploitation.

  10. The corporate brand and strategic direction: Senior business school managers’ cognitions of corporate brand building and management

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, JMT; Wang, W-Y

    2016-01-01

    This revelatory study focuses on top Financial Times (FT) ranked British business school managers cognitions of corporate brand building and management. The study insinuates there is a prima facie bilateral link between corporate branding and strategic direction. Among this genus of business school, the data revealed corporate brand building entailed an on-going concern with strategic management, stakeholder management, corporate communications, service focus, leadership, and commitment. Thes...

  11. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (<5 mol%) of CO2. A stable montmorillonite structure dominates during exposure to pure CH4 (90 bar), but expands upon titration of small fractions (1-3 mol%) of CO2. Density functional theory was used to quantify the difference in sorption behavior between CO2 and CH4 and indicates complex interactions occurring between hydrated cations, CH4, and CO2. The authors will discuss potential impacts of these experimental results on CO2-based hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  12. Evaluation of barriers of corporate social responsibility using an analytical hierarchy process under a fuzzy environment - A textile case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Lixin; Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan

    2015-01-01

    The ventilating crisis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues in the textiles industry resulted in the engagement of many researchers in the analysis of CSR and its related factors throughout the globe. Some researchers in developed nations extend their policies beyond the boundary of CSR...... Process (AHP) under a fuzzy environment. The results show that financial constraints comprise the main barrier to the implementation of CSR in the Indian textiles industry, which is then further validated with feedback from case industry managers. This study offers both societal and scientific insights...

  13. Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications

  14. [Sir Humphry Davy, the discoverer of anesthetic action of nitrous oxide--Davy and poets of British Romanticism and inhalation of laughing gas by his friends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T

    1998-01-01

    In "Dove Cottage", the old house of the poet laureate William Wordsworth (1770-1850) in Grasmere, England, there is a portrait of Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). In 1804, Wordsworth invited his young friend to his home. Davy's works in the field of chemistry are well known. Interestingly enough, once he wished he could be a poet. His future seemed to be prosperous and delightful. He was highly evaluated by Robert Southey, poet laureate. But he has chosen the way of chemist. The author found some facts from literatures and received some information by courtesy of the Wordsworth Trust, Centre for British Romanticism. Davy's life and his works were introduced chronologically.

  15. Corporate Law and Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Romano

    1998-01-01

    We have seen a revival in interest in corporate law and corporate governance since the 1980s, as researchers applied the tools of the new institutional economics and modern corporate finance to analyze the new transactions emerging in the 1980s takeover wave. This article focuses on three mechanisms of corporate governance to illustrate the analytical usefulness of transaction cost economics for corporate law. They are the board of directors; relational investing, a form of block ownership in...

  16. Simulation of adsorption processes in gas cleanup filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrdlicka, F.; Slavik, P.; Kubelka, O.

    2001-07-01

    The problem of cleaning gas obtained by coal gasification is discussed. Realisation of this process takes the form of filters with various properties. The efficiency of the gas cleaning process can be influenced by several factors. One class of factors is the physical properties of the granules used in the filter. These properties influence the way the granules move in the filter bed. Another class of problems concerns the adsorption properties of the granules. The quality of adsorption influences the efficiency of a filter and thus the costs of the gas cleaning process. The optimal combination of adsorption and physical properties of granules leads to the optimal exploitation of the filter, both from the point of view of costs and the degree of gas cleaning. While the physical properties of granules have been investigated, the adsorption properties still remain an unknown factor (or at least a factor with an unknown impact on the filter efficiency) from the point of view of filter design and exploitation. The main goal of the research was to investigate and simulate the adsorption capability of granules. The expected result was the determination of optimal counterplay between physical and adsorption processes. A simulation model with visualisation module has been developed and implemented. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  18. Corporate Fictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunæs, Dorthe; Søndergaard, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a particular strategy of communication called a social science fiction. The strategy was taken up following an empirical research project on gender and management, in order to communicate results to the company's managers and Human Resource Staff. The research results showed...... fiction was the kind of narrative therapy, which aims to reconfigure the problem in focus by a process of externalisation that allows a reconstruction and retelling of the issue. The article describes how three cultural mechanisms in the company were condensed into three imaginary figures: Mr. Corporate...

  19. Biohydrogen gas production from food processing and domestic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginkel, Steven W.; Oh, Sang-Eun; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Sackett Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2005-12-01

    The food processing industry produces highly concentrated, carbohydrate-rich wastewaters, but their potential for biological hydrogen production has not been extensively studied. Wastewaters were obtained from four different food-processing industries that had chemical oxygen demands of 9g/L (apple processing), 21g/L (potato processing), and 0.6 and 20g/L (confectioners A and B). Biogas produced from all four food processing wastewaters consistently contained 60% hydrogen, with the balance as carbon dioxide. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals as a result of hydrogen gas production were generally in the range of 5-11%. Overall hydrogen gas conversions were 0.7-0.9L-H{sub 2}/L-wastewater for the apple wastewater, 0.1L/L for Confectioner-A, 0.4-2.0L/L for Confectioner B, and 2.1-2.8L/L for the potato wastewater. When nutrients were added to samples, there was a good correlation between hydrogen production and COD removal, with an average of 0.10+/-0.01L-H{sub 2}/g-COD. However, hydrogen production could not be correlated to COD removal in the absence of nutrients or in more extensive in-plant tests at the potato processing facility. Gas produced by a domestic wastewater sample (concentrated 25x) contained only 23+/-8% hydrogen, resulting in an estimated maximum production of only 0.01L/L for the original, non-diluted wastewater. Based on an observed hydrogen production yield from the effluent of the potato processing plant of 1.0L-H{sub 2}/L, and annual flows at the potato processing plant, it was estimated that if hydrogen gas was produced at this site it could be worth as much as $65,000/year. (author)

  20. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Apostol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was focused on measuring the performance level of corporate governance in Romania. This is carried out by evaluating the importance level given to the principles of corporate governance in the Romanian economy, while the practices of transparency and dissemination of companies’ information in the selected sample were monitored. To achieve the objectives of the study, we need to examine the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Sample companies were selected and their information from the “Comply or Explain” Statements was analyzed.The research method is a non-participating observation—based on the information from the “Comply or Explain” Statement to determine whether companies are applying corporate governance and transparency elements. The research results highlight the progress of Romanian companies in the process of exercising to the principles of corporate governance, becoming internationally recognized, and integrating into the Corporate Governance Code of the Bucharest Stock Exchange.

  1. Methane gas seepage - Disregard of significant water column filter processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Schmale, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Marine methane seepage represents a potential contributor for greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and is discussed as a driver for climate change. The ultimate question is how much methane is released from the seafloor on a global scale and what fraction may reach the atmosphere? Dissolved fluxes from methane seepage sites on the seabed were found to be very efficiently reduced by benthic microbial oxidation, whereas transport of free gas bubbles from the seabed is considered to bypass the effective benthic methane filter. Numerical models are available today to predict the fate of such methane gas bubble release to the water column in regard to gas exchange with the ambient water column, respective bubble lifetime and rise height. However, the fate of rising gas bubbles and dissolved methane in the water column is not only governed by dissolution, but is also affected by lateral oceanographic currents and vertical bubble-induced upwelling, microbial oxidation, and physico-chemical processes that remain poorly understood so far. According to this gap of knowledge we present data from two study sites - the anthropogenic North Sea 22/4b Blowout and the natural Coal Oil point seeps - to shed light into two new processes gathered with hydro-acoustic multibeam water column imaging and microbial investigations. The newly discovered processes are hereafter termed Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism. Spiral Vortex describes the evolution of a complex vortical fluid motion of a bubble plume in the wake of an intense gas release site (Blowout, North Sea). It appears very likely that it dramatically changes the dissolution kinetics of the seep gas bubbles. Bubble Transport Mechanism prescribes the transport of sediment-hosted bacteria into the water column via rising gas bubbles. Both processes act as filter mechanisms in regard to vertical transport of seep related methane, but have not been considered before. Spiral Vortex and Bubble Transport Mechanism represent the

  2. An eco-friendly process for natural gas conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, S.; Nakayama, A.; Suzuki, E. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan). Catalysis Science Laboratory

    2001-07-01

    An eco-friendly process has been developed to convert methane, the major component of natural gas, to acetylene and hydrogen using a high frequency pulsed plasma. Acetylene is an important raw material in industry that is manufactured mainly by the reaction of calcium carbide with water. Acetylene is also manufactured by thermal cracking of hydrocarbons, or by partial oxidation of methane. These conventional processes require severe reaction conditions (a very high reaction temperature) and emit large amounts of greenhouse gas. The new process can convert methane to acetylene and hydrogen with a conversion efficiency of 52.8%, an acetylene selectivity of 91.8%, and a hydrogen ratio of 4.15 moles per mole acetylene at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. No environmental pollutant is emitted. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporation...... public-private partnerships. These theoretical perspectives are used to gain a deeper understanding of the corporate drivers that motivated TOTAL S.A. to approach UNESCO for cooperation on community development programs in Myanmar.......Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Partnerships have become more common as corporations...... react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government on the responsible nature of their business practices. The corporate awakening towards a broader role of business in society and the trend of corporations embracing partnerships has led many to question the driving...

  4. Rand Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle Search Site-wide Search Search RAND RAND Corporation Provides Objective Research Services and Public Policy Analysis ... on Twitter Share on LinkedIn About The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to ...

  5. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  6. THE PHENOMENON OF BRITISH-AMERICAN “SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP” AND ITS IMPACT ON INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL PROCESSES AT THE END OF XX – BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balayan A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of the special relationship in BritishAmerican politics of the second part of the XX century also received intensive development in the early XXI century. In fact, according to conditions of modern processes of globalization, cooperation between the United States and Great Britain, as within framework of NATO and in other international organizations, became increasingly close. Both States played a significant role in the international policy, working on various issues of economy, politics, environment, culture, etc. Attention is drawn to the forms of cooperation between the studied States in the implementation of military initiatives in the Balkans (1998 and Iraq (2003. These events allowed characterizing the first and final stages of the development of relations between the United States and Britain in the form of «special» in the period of late XX – early XXI centuries. In the beginning of XXI century the cooperation between the U.S. and the UK in reforming NATO, taking into account national foreign policy strategy of the USA, was an example of favorable development of bilateral “special relationship”. For London, the following external course of the US has remained a higher priority than for Washington

  7. Optimal design issues of a gas-to-liquid process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Interests in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is increasing rapidly due to the recent improvements of the technology, clean-burning fuels (low sulphur, low aromatics) derived from the FT process and the realization that the process can be used to monetize stranded natural gas resources. The economy of GTL plants depends very much on the natural gas price and there is a strong incentive to reduce the investment cost and in addition there is a need to improve energy efficiency and carbon efficiency. A model is constructed based on the available information in open literature. This model is used to simulate the GTL process with UNISIM DESIGN process simulator. In the FT reactor with cobalt based catalyst, Co2 is inert and will accumulate in the system. Five placements of Co2 removal unit in the GTL process are evaluated from an economical point of view. For each alternative, the process is optimized with respect to steam to carbon ratio, purge ratio of light ends, amount of tail gas recycled to syngas and FT units, reactor volume, and Co2 recovery. The results show that carbon and energy efficiencies and the annual net cash flow of the process with or without Co2 removal unit are not significantly different and there is not much to gain by removing Co2 from the process. It is optimal to recycle about 97 % of the light ends to the process (mainly to the FT unit) to obtain higher conversion of CO and H2 in the reactor. Different syngas configurations in a gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant are studied including auto-thermal reformer (ATR), combined reformer, and series arrangement of Gas Heated Reformer (GHR) and ATR. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactor is based on cobalt catalyst and the degrees of freedom are; steam to carbon ratio, purge ratio of light ends, amount of tail gas recycled to synthesis gas (syngas) and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis units, and reactor volume. The production rate of liquid hydrocarbons is maximized for each syngas configuration. Installing a steam

  8. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girish Srinivas; Steven C. Gebhard; David W. DeBerry

    2002-04-01

    This first quarter report of 2002 describes progress on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept represents a low cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day. This process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both on-shore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf{sup SM} (service mark of CrystaTech, Inc.) is a new nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from gas streams and converts it into elemental sulfur. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, approximately 1/3 of the total H{sub 2}S in the natural gas is first oxidized to SO{sub 2} at low temperatures over a heterogeneous catalyst. Low temperature oxidation is done so that the H{sub 2}S can be oxidized in the presence of methane and other hydrocarbons without oxidation of the hydrocarbons. The project involves the development of a catalyst using laboratory/bench-scale catalyst testing, and then demonstration of the catalyst at CrystaTech's pilot plant in west Texas. In a previous reporting period tests were done to determine the effect of hydrocarbons such as n-hexane on catalyst performance with and without H{sub 2}S present. The experiments showed that hexane oxidation is suppressed when H{sub 2}S is present. Hexane represents the most reactive of the C1 to C6 series of alkanes. Since hexane exhibits low reactivity under H{sub 2}S oxidation conditions, and more importantly, does not

  9. Radical Neoliberalism in British Columbia: Remaking Rural Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Young

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that rural regions of British Columbia, Canada, are currently the subject of a radical political-economic experiment dismantling traditional Fordist and Keynesian approaches to economic development and replacing them with neoliberal strategies. This experiment targets both corporate resource economies and local or community-based economies. The paper argues that current reforms aim to enhance flexibility in major resource sectors (particularly in forestry by "liberating" corporate actors from traditional obligations to environment, labour, and communities. This strategy is buttressed by concurrent reforms to community development policies to promote "entrepreneurial" forms of development that (it is assumed can be achieved independently of the dominant resource economy. Using field research from several case communities in coastal British Columbia, the paper argues that these developments are having a strong impact on traditional economic structures and practices, as neoliberal reforms seek to disaggregate corporate and community-level economies.

  10. Deregulation of the California electric power industry: An analysis of electric and natural gas corporate mergers and their effect on the California electric power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, James Dixon

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry in California is moving in a direction that places greater reliance on the market forces of competition. Investor owned utilities (IOU's) are using mergers and acquisitions to improve their ability to compete in this new environment. Two large mergers were proposed in 1996 that could affect the California market. The first is between Enron Corporation, a large power marketer and Portland General Corporation, owner of Portland General Electric. The second is between Pacific Enterprises Inc., owner of Southern California Gas Company, the largest natural gas utility in the U. S., and Enova Corporation, owner of San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Understanding the impact of these mergers on the California electric power market is the focus of this study. This study examines hypotheses dealing with: (1) Merger Strategy, (2) Efficiency, and (3) Market Power. Using the Miles and Snow (1978) typology, I develop a strategic orientation model for the merger participants and their competitors. The results suggest a two-stage strategic orientation: (1) regulated core business stage, where the firms follow a Defender strategy, and (2) unregulated business stage, where the firms follow a Prospector strategy. Further, the results show the mergers are consistent with the strategy of Enron and Pacific Enterprises. Event study methodology, dollar gains/losses and market value weighted returns are used to determine if the mergers support the efficiency hypothesis. The evidence suggests the mergers lead to increased competitive advantage through improved efficiency for the participants. The results also suggest the mergers do not harm the rivals. The results of structural changes made by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) in deregulation of the California market and analysis of the mergers by the CPUC and the Public Utility Commission of Oregon suggest that the exercise of market power is not a significant issue. Finally

  11. Thomas Hopley and Mid-Victorian Attitudes to Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the trial of Thomas Hopley, accused of killing his pupil Reginald Cancellor in 1860 during an act of corporal punishment. The case provoked immediate sensational interest and became an important defining point in how corporal punishment is treated in British law. Established by this trial was the test that any corporal…

  12. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  13. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRAL SEPARATOR FOR A CENTRIFUGAL GAS PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANCE HAYS

    2007-02-27

    A COMPACT GAS PROCESSING DEVICE WAS INVESTIGATED TO INCREASE GAS PRODUCTION FROM REMOTE, PREVIOUSLY UN-ECONOMIC RESOURCES. THE UNIT WAS TESTED ON AIR AND WATER AND WITH NATURAL GAS AND LIQUID. RESULTS ARE REPORTED WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.

  14. HYBRID SULFUR RECOVERY PROCESS FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Dalrymple

    2004-06-01

    This final report describes the objectives, technical approach, results and conclusions for a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to test a hybrid sulfur recovery process for natural gas upgrading. The process concept is a configuration of CrystaTech, Inc.'s CrystaSulf{reg_sign} process which utilizes a direct oxidation catalyst upstream of the absorber tower to oxidize a portion of the inlet hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and elemental sulfur. This hybrid configuration of CrystaSulf has been named CrystaSulf-DO and represents a low-cost option for direct treatment of natural gas streams to remove H{sub 2}S in quantities equivalent to 0.2-25 metric tons (LT) of sulfur per day and more. This hybrid process is projected to have lower capital and operating costs than the competing technologies, amine/aqueous iron liquid redox and amine/Claus/tail gas treating, and have a smaller plant footprint, making it well suited to both onshore and offshore applications. CrystaSulf is a nonaqueous sulfur recovery process that removes H{sub 2}S from gas streams and converts it to elemental sulfur. In CrystaSulf, H{sub 2}S in the inlet gas is reacted with SO{sub 2} to make elemental sulfur according to the liquid phase Claus reaction: 2H{sub 2}S + SO{sub 2} {yields} 2H{sub 2}O + 3S. The SO{sub 2} for the reaction can be supplied from external sources by purchasing liquid SO{sub 2} and injecting it into the CrystaSulf solution, or produced internally by converting a portion of the inlet gas H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} or by burning a portion of the sulfur produced to make SO{sub 2}. CrystaSulf features high sulfur recovery similar to aqueous-iron liquid redox sulfur recovery processes, but differs from the aqueous processes in that CrystaSulf controls the location where elemental sulfur particles are formed. In the hybrid process, the needed SO{sub 2} is produced by placing a bed of direct oxidation catalyst in the inlet gas stream to oxidize

  15. Building the competitive intelligence knowledge: processes and activities in a corporate organisation

    OpenAIRE

    V. sreenivasulu

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of building and developing comprehensive tools, techniques, support systems, and better methods of harnessing the competitive intelligence knowledge processes. The author stresses the need for building sophisticated methodological competitive intelligence knowledge acquisition, systematic collection of competitive intelligence knowledge from various sources for critical analysis, process, organization, synthesis, assessment, screening, filtering and interpreta...

  16. Landfill gas (LFG) processing via adsorption and alkanolamine absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Ankur; Park, Jin-Won; Song, Ho-Jun; Park, Jong-Jin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea); Maken, Sanjeev [Department of Chemistry, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal-131 039, Haryana (India)

    2010-06-15

    Landfill gas (LFG) was upgraded to pure methane using the adsorption and absorption processes. Different toxic compounds like aromatics and chlorinated compounds were removed using granular activated carbon. The activated carbon adsorbed toxic trace components in the following order: carbon tetrachloride > toluene > chloroform > xylene > ethylbenzene > benzene > trichloroethylene {approx} tetrachloroethylene. After removing all trace components, the gas was fed to absorption apparatus for the removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Two alkanolamines, monoethanol amine (MEA) and diethanol amine (DEA) were used for the removal of CO{sub 2} from LFG. The maximum CO{sub 2} loading is obtained for 30 wt.% MEA which is around 2.9 mol L{sup -} {sup 1} of absorbent solution whereas for same concentration of DEA it is around 1.66 mol L {sup -} {sup 1} of solution. 30 wt% MEA displayed a higher absorption rate of around 6.64 x 10{sup -} {sup 5} mol L{sup -} {sup 1} min{sup -} {sup 1}. DEA displayed a higher desorption rate and a better cyclic capacity as compared to MEA. Methane obtained from this process can be further used in the natural gas network for city. (author)

  17. [Process orientation as a tool of strategic approaches to corporate governance and integrated management systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    The concept of general process orientation as an instrument of organisation development is the core principle of quality management philosophy, i.e. the learning organisation. Accordingly, prestigious quality awards and certification systems focus on process configuration and continual improvement. In German health care organisations, particularly in hospitals, this general process orientation has not been widely implemented yet - despite enormous change dynamics and the requirements of both quality and economic efficiency of health care processes. But based on a consistent process architecture that considers key processes as well as management and support processes, the strategy of excellent health service provision including quality, safety and transparency can be realised in daily operative work. The core elements of quality (e.g., evidence-based medicine), patient safety and risk management, environmental management, health and safety at work can be embedded in daily health care processes as an integrated management system (the "all in one system" principle). Sustainable advantages and benefits for patients, staff, and the organisation will result: stable, high-quality, efficient, and indicator-based health care processes. Hospitals with their broad variety of complex health care procedures should now exploit the full potential of total process orientation.

  18. Process for dehydration of oregano using propane gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Velásquez-Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes two important issues, the first is the process to design, implement and validate a mechanical dryer of oregano, using propane gas as fuel, and the second is the cost of the process of dehydrated, taking into account the cost of electric energy consumption by the fan and the cost of propane gas consumption by the heat exchanger. To achieve this, it was necessary review the state of the art and the study of the raw material (oregano, were established as premises of design the necessary technical specifications and the variables involved in the process, using conceptual methods and simulation to ensure that it complies with the ISO standard 7925:1999, which defines the requirements for the marketing of dried oregano and processed. Emphasis was made on the percentage of moisture that is 10%, the moisture of the product was found by the azeotropic distillation method, subsequently was validated the functionality and efficiency, comparing the results from an experimental design, then it was obtained the drying curve of oregano with the prototype of drying and it was checked if it meets ISO 7925:1999 standard and the NTC 4423 standard in order to obtain a final product dehydrated with the percentage of humidity appropriate.

  19. The Physical, Geochemical and Microbial Conditions and Processes in the Hyporheic Zone of a Large Tidally Influenced River: The Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, M.; Roschinski, T.; Ross, K.; Leslie, S.; William, M.; Beckie, R.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes that occur in the hyporheic zone of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia. The large flows of between 2000 and 10000 cubic meters per second, the 10 15 m deep, 250 m wide channel, the 1 m tidal fluctuations, the localized scour and redeposition of sediments during freshet and the strong geochemical contrast between groundwater and surface water distinguish this investigation from studies on smaller channels and streams and required the development of novel characterization tools and strategies. The geochemistry of water samples collected with a push-in profiler, bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurements collected with a push-in tool and hydraulic head measurements indicate that groundwater principally discharges into the river approximately 100 m offshore in a 10 m wide band. River water and groundwater mix to a maximum depth of between 0.75 and 1.5 m. While hydraulic heads show strong tidal reversals, bulk EC profiles show only moderate changes during the tidal cycle. It was hypothesized that high iron (10's mg/L of Fe(II)) in reduced groundwater would precipitate from solution as secondary iron-oxide phases in the zone where groundwater mixes with aerobic river water. Sediments were collected with a freeze-shoe corer and depth profiles through the hyporheic zone and into the underlying aquifer were analyzed by selective extractions. The 15-30 mg/g of total extractable iron in both the aquifer and hyporheic zone is relatively high. The lack of noticeable iron accumulation in the hyporheic zone may indicate that iron precipitates on shallow sediments that are subsequently scoured from the river bed during freshet. Microbial DNA from sediments was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and showed a relatively diverse community structure but an overall low biomass.

  20. Riemann problem for one-dimensional binary gas enhanced coalbed methane process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With an extended Langmuir isotherm, a Riemann problem for one-dimensional binary gas enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) process is investigated. A new analytical solution to the Riemann problem, based on the method of characteristics, is developed by introducing a gas selectivity ratio representing the gas relative sorption affinity. The influence of gas selectivity ratio on the enhanced coalbed methane processes is identified.

  1. 75 FR 71733 - Requirements for Measurement Facilities Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ..., flare gas, condensate, natural gas liquids, or any other products recovered from Federal production... Used for the Royalty Valuation of Processed Natural Gas AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... measurement equipment at gas plants and other processing facilities. SUMMARY: This notice provides...

  2. Corporate governance and firm performance: the case of UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The subject of corporate governance and corporate performance has been widely discussed and examined over the last two decades. A great deal of change has developed within British Boardrooms since the emergence of the Cadbury Committee Report in 1992. UK Corporate Governance reforms over the years have been consistently developed where an increase in the number of non-executive directors on board, their roles and their effectiveness, was evident throughout the development of these reports. Fo...

  3. Corporate Awakening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaFrance, Julie; Lehmann, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Predominantly since the 1992 Rio Summit, corporations have been increasingly pursuing partnerships with public institutions including governments, international organisations and NGOs that aim to contribute to sustainable development activities. Both the business community and public organisations...... are recognizing the potential benefits of public-private partnerships for furthering the Millennium Development Goals while having a positive impact on business. Partnerships have become more common as corporations react to mounting pressure from corporate stakeholders, civil society and government...... on the responsible nature of their business practices. The accountability of corporations has moved beyond the traditional obligations of addressing shareholder demands and today, corporations must be accountable to society and all stakeholders affected by global development. The corporate awakening towards...

  4. Corporate Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross......-sector partnerships. The results of this paper are based on interviews, participant observations, and organizational documents from a 19-month empirical study of a Danish corporate foundation. Findings suggest that corporate foundations have potential to act as boundary organizations and facilitate collaborative...... action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...

  5. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  6. Process conditions of preparing methanol from cornstalk gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-feng; DU Lei; LI Xin-bao; LI Guo-ting; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The low-heat-value cornstalk gas produced in the down-flow fixed bed gasifier was tentatively used for methanol synthesis. The cornstalk gas was purified and the technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar, purification and hydrogenation were studied. The catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect of reaction temperature, pressure, catalysttypes, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was investigated. The optimum process conditions and yield of methanol from cornstalk syngas were obtained. The experimental results indicated that the proper catalyst of the synthetic reaction was C301 and the optimum catalyst size (φ) was 0.833 mm×0.351 mm. The optimum operating temperature and pressure were found to be 235℃ and 5 Mpa, respectively. The suitable syngas flow 0.9-1.10 mol/h at entering end was selected and the best composition of syngas were CO 10.49%, CO2 8.8%, N2 37.32%, CnHm 0.95% and H2 40.49%. The best methanol yield is 0.418 g/g cornstalk. The study provided the technical support for the industrial test of methanol production from biomass (cornstalk)gas.

  7. CFD simulation of gas-jet wiping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrillas, K.; Gosset, A.; Rambaud, P.; Buchlin, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the gas-jet wiping process, which is used in coating techniques to control the final coating thickness applied on a substrate. Numerical simulations are performed using the FLUENT commercial software, with the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model coupled with Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The comparison with results from an analytical model, (with and without surface tension), and from dedicated experiments shows good agreement. The realizable k-epsilon turbulence model is used to reduce the computation time, but with no satisfactory agreement compared with LES and experiments.

  8. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  9. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence......The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...

  10. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...... interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  11. 77 FR 68070 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 85, 86, and 600 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523, 531, 533, 536, and 537 RIN 2060-AQ54; RIN 2127-AK79 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas...

  12. EFFECT OF CORPORATE INNOVATION ABILITY ON THE CHOICE BETWEEN PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With the method of duopoly game theory, the effect of firms’ innovation ability on the choice between product and process innovation is studied. The concept of cost coefficient of product innovation is introduced, and the criterion equation for the innovation type is derived. The following conclusions are made: the more the product innovation ability, the more the possibility for the firms to carry out the product innovation in both the Bertrand and the Cournot competitions. With the decrease of the product innovation ability, for the high-quality firms, Cournot competitor turns to select the process innovation earlier than the Bertrand competitor. But for the low-quality firms, the Bertrand competitor would select the process innovation firstly.

  13. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rudy E.; Zhong, Yu

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  14. Qualitative Information in Annual Reports & the Detection of Corporate Fraud: A Natural Language Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sunita

    2009-01-01

    High profile cases of fraudulent financial reporting such as those that occurred at Enron and WorldCom have shaken public confidence in the U.S. financial reporting process and have raised serious concerns about the roles of auditors, regulators, and analysts in financial reporting. In order to address these concerns and restore public confidence,…

  15. A Green Method for Processing Polymers using Dense Gas Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan B. Yoganathan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dense CO2 can be used as an environmentally-benign polymer processing medium because of its liquid-like densities and gas-like mass transfer properties.In this work, polymer bio-blends of polycarbonate (PC, a biocompatible polymer, and polycaprolactone (PCL, a biodegradable polymer were prepared. Dense CO2 was used as a reaction medium for the melt-phase PC polymerization in the presence of dense CO2-swollen PCL particles and this method was used to prepare porous PC/PCL blends. To extend the applicability of dense CO2 to the biomedical industry and polymer blend processing, the impregnation of ibuprofen into the blend was conducted and subsequent dissolution characteristics were observed.

  16. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  17. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  18. British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jim; Woll, Bencie

    1981-01-01

    The author reports on the use of British Sign Language in the United Kingdom and dispels some myths that surround the language. It is pointed out that there is a low level of interest in deaf people and their method of communication. Research needs in the area of sign language systems are briefly considered. (SB)

  19. 1927: a British eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    1999-06-01

    The total solar eclipse of 1927 June 29 was the first to be seen over the British mainland for 203 years. It caused nationwide excitement, induced mass population movement to the towns, villages, moorlands and offshore waters of Wales and the north of England, and severely tested the country's transport and communication systems.

  20. EFFECT OF CORPORATE INNOVATION ABILITY ON THE CHOICE BETWEEN PRODUCT INNOVATION AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Wu; Tian Zhilong

    2010-01-01

    With the method of duopoly game theory, the effect of firms’ innovation ability on the choice between product and process innovation is studied. The concept of cost coefficient of product innovation is introduced, and the criterion equation for the innovation type is derived. The following conclusions are made: the more the product innovation ability, the more the possibility for the firms to carry out the product innovation in both the Bertrand and the Cournot competitions. Wi...

  1. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  2. Corrosion in alkanolamine used for acid gas removal: From natural gas processing to CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.; Fleury, E.; Gonzalez, S.; Ropital, F. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Rond point de l' echangeur de Solaize, 69360 Solaize (France); Vuillemin, B.; Oltra, R. [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to review some of the parameters influencing the corrosivity of alkanolamine solvents used for natural gas purification or for CO{sub 2} capture. In the light of literature data and of new experimental results, the influences of temperature and of acid gas loading are discussed. These two parameters appear to have a strong impact on corrosion rates of carbon steel, with extrapolated corrosion rates of several tens of mm/year for the highest temperature and acid gas loading condition. It is then proposed to discuss about similarities and differences between natural gas processing and CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. For both applications, alkanolamine processes are used. Still, differences can be found in operating parameters. The most significant gap concerns the lean amine sections. In acid gas treatment, the regeneration of the solvent is often performed down to zero loading. Under these conditions, an extremely low corrosivity of the lean solvent is expected. On the contrary, CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas requires only a partial stripping of the CO{sub 2} in the regeneration section, due to energy efficiency reasons. Then, the lean solvent still contains some acid gas, and subsequently a higher corrosivity. Finally, the general principles for material selection for the different parts of acid gas removal units are discussed, considering both cases of natural gas processing or CO{sub 2} capture. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  4. Optimization of Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Khurana, M. K.; Yadav, Pradeep K.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the application of Taguchi method combined with grey relational analysis to optimize the process parameters of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) of AISI 1020 carbon steels for multiple quality characteristics (bead width, bead height, weld penetration and heat affected zone). An orthogonal array of L9 has been implemented to fabrication of joints. The experiments have been conducted according to the combination of voltage (V), current (A) and welding speed (Ws). The results revealed that the welding speed is most significant process parameter. By analyzing the grey relational grades, optimal parameters are obtained and significant factors are known using ANOVA analysis. The welding parameters such as speed, welding current and voltage have been optimized for material AISI 1020 using GMAW process. To fortify the robustness of experimental design, a confirmation test was performed at selected optimal process parameter setting. Observations from this method may be useful for automotive sub-assemblies, shipbuilding and vessel fabricators and operators to obtain optimal welding conditions.

  5. Corporate Language and Corporate Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    2013-01-01

    the geographical borders by the medium of common corporate values for knowledge management, collection of data and analysis in these studies inspired by approach of ground theory and presents a usefulness of distinguishing between corporate language and talks to enable the headquarters learning. Also it concludes...

  6. Evaluation of Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility Using an Analytical Hierarchy Process under a Fuzzy Environment—A Textile Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Shen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ventilating crisis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR issues in the textiles industry resulted in the engagement of many researchers in the analysis of CSR and its related factors throughout the globe. Some researchers in developed nations extend their policies beyond the boundary of CSR in the textiles industry, but some developing contexts are still limited to this boundary, including India, due to facts that have not yet been revealed. Hence, to fill this gap, this study reveals the factors that are resisting the implementation of CSR in the textiles industry with the assistance of a proposed model, and this model is validated with a case industry situated in southern India. Common barriers are collected through various reliable means, and among those common barriers, the essential barrier was identified with the assistance of the case industrial manager through an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP under a fuzzy environment. The results show that financial constraints comprise the main barrier to the implementation of CSR in the Indian textiles industry, which is then further validated with feedback from case industry managers. This study offers both societal and scientific insights, identifies limitations, and provides an approach that may be extended in the future once additional factors are implemented.

  7. Multiphoton processes in KrF-laser induced gas breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poprawe, R.; Herziger, G.

    1986-05-01

    Ionization by multiphoton processes is the dominant generation mechanism of first electrons in the UV-laser-induced gas breakdown. A strongly simplified analytical model for the ion generation rate is used to give an estimate of the threshold intensity I/sub TH/. The result is compared to descriptions by Keldish and Bebb to check its limits of applicability. Solving the kinetic conservation equations for the focus volume gives an estimation of the breakdown intensity where the Debye criterion has been used in the sense of a plasma definition. As an example, breakdown experiments with a KrF-escimer laser have been carried out at different pressures in an argon atmosphere. The pressure dependency of the breakdown threshold intensity and its order of magnitude are predicted by the model.

  8. A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture Since 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay traces the thought processes behind the composition of artists for the exhibition A Quiet Revolution: British Sculpture since 1965 (1987-88. The exhibition introduced American museum audiences to the burgeoning activity in London in the 1980s and which foreshadowed even greater intensity in the following decade.

  9. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toy, Lora [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO

  10. Measuring Corporate Sustainability Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nicolăescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the evolving character of sustainability management in corporations, the significance of environmental protection and sustainability, and barriers to carrying out an incorporated and strategic firm-wide advance of social responsibility. In the present paper, we focus on the contribution of sustainability undertakings towards enhancing corporate performance, the financial involvements of sustainability position and operation, and the chief function of values in corporate policy. Our paper contributes to the literature by supplying proof of elements that lead to the triumph of business patterns for sustainable development, processes through which stakeholders are affecting corporate sustainability conduct, and the link between economic growth and the environment.

  11. Evaluation of Process Capability in Gas Carburizing Process to Achieve Quality through Limit Design Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Palaniradja; N. Alagumurthi; V. Soundararajan

    2004-01-01

    Steel is the most important metallic material used in industry. This is because of the versatility of its engineering properties under different conditions. In one condition it can be very mild, soft and suitable for any forming operation. In another condition the same steel can be very hard and strong. This versatility is made possible by the different heat treatments that the steel can be subject to. One such treatment is Gas carburizing. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of low carbon steels. In this method the surface composition of the steel changes by diffusion of carbon and or nitrogen and result in hard outer surface with good wear resistance properties. A striking feature of Gas Carburizing process is that in this process the original toughness and ductility remains unaffected even after heat treatment. 3% nickel chromium case hardened low carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications such as rack and pinion, gears, camshaft, valve rocker shafts and axles which requires high fatigue resistance. Fatigue behaviour of case carburized parts depends to a great extent on the correct combination of Hardness Penetration Depth (HPD) and the magnitude of hardness at the surface and beneath the surface with low size and shape distortion. In order to reduce the manufacturing costs in terms of material consumption and elimination of the number of processing steps, the effect of Gas carburizing parameters on the fatigue behaviour should already be considered in the parameter design stage. Therefore it is of importance to optimize the gas carburizing process variables to attain quality products with respect to hardness and case depth. In the present paper, the evaluation of process capability was carried out through a Limit Design Concept called orthogonal array design of experiment. To optimize the process variables the influence of several parameters (Holding time,Carbon potential, Furnace temperature and Quench

  12. 76 FR 74853 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Corporate Average Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    .... \\4\\ Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of converting an image of text, such as a... that the documents submitted be scanned using the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) process, thus... first phase of the National Program to regulate fuel economy and GHG emissions from U.S....

  13. ENERGY EFFICENCY INCREASE OF PROCESSES ON GAS – REGULATING STATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhidkov M.A.; Zhidkov D.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are presented results of the thermodynamic analysis of vortex tubes in recuperative technological schemes and examples of practical implementation of findings in the chemical, oil and gas industry, in particular for the vortex heating of the natural gas on the gas - regulating station.

  14. ENERGY EFFICENCY INCREASE OF PROCESSES ON GAS – REGULATING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidkov M.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are presented results of the thermodynamic analysis of vortex tubes in recuperative technological schemes and examples of practical implementation of findings in the chemical, oil and gas industry, in particular for the vortex heating of the natural gas on the gas - regulating station.

  15. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  16. The political economy of corporate social responsibility and community development: a case study of Norway's Snoehvit natural gas complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klick, Matthew T.

    2009-07-01

    This project uses stakeholder evidence from semi-structured interviews to analyze the relative effectiveness of an oil company's stated 'corporate social responsibility' (CSR) initiatives in a new, Arctic host community. Specifically, this project analyzes the outcomes of StatoilHydro initiatives to date in Hammerfest, Norway, where the Snoehvit (Snow White) natural gas project began production in 2007. It gauges the ability of 'socially responsible' approaches to development to internalize negative externalisation and promote positive 'spin-offs'. Arctic countries are increasingly prioritizing petroleum development. The convergence of dramatic climate change, increasing energy demands, and high energy prices has made the Arctic an alluring frontier for the oil industry and Arctic governments. Small Arctic communities are increasingly playing host to large energy projects with the potential for dramatic cultural, social, environmental, and economic upheaval, but also economic growth and increased human capital. In this case study, CSR initiatives resulted in a broader accounting of social costs and benefits, an outcome that better internalized externalities, and pareto-improving trades between stakeholders and industry. (Author). 87 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  18. Study on the formation mechanism of shock wave in process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dong-ling; MIAO Fa-tian; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    According to the research results of motion parameters of coal-gas flow, ana-lyzed the formation mechanism of shock waves at different states of coal-gas flow in the process of coal and gas outburst, and briefly described the two possible cases of outburst shock wave formation and their formation conditions in the process of coal and gas out-burst, and then pointed out that a high degree of under-expanded coal-gas flow was the main reason for the formation of a highly destructive shock wave. The research results improved the shock wave theory in coal and gas outburst.

  19. Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Christopher; Virdee, Satnam

    2003-11-01

    This study explores the dynamics of racism, specifically its generation and reproduction as an ideology, and its role in affecting the reception and occupational location of migrant medical labour in Britain. It is argued that the treatment of 'overseas doctors' in Britain draws on a complex interplay between racism and nationalism underpinned by the historical construction of 'welfarism' as a moral legitimator of 'Britishness'. Through an exploration of internal and external immigration controls introduced with the aim of regulating migrant labour, we demonstrate how British social policy and elite discourses of 'race' combine to construct moral prescriptions of threat such that migrants and British-born 'non-whites' entering the British medical profession are forced to negotiate 'saviour/pariah' ascriptions indicative of discriminatory but contradictory processes specific to the operation of the British National Health Service as a normative institution.

  20. Comparison of oil removal in surfactant alternating gas with water alternating gas, water flooding and gas flooding in secondary oil recovery process

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mehdi Mohammad; Safarzadeh, Mohammad Amin; Sahraei, Eghbal; Nejad, Seyyed Alireza Tabatabaei

    2014-01-01

    Growing oil prices coupled with large amounts of residual oil after operating common enhanced oil recovery methods has made using methods with higher operational cost economically feasible. Nitrogen is one of the gases used in both miscible and immiscible gas injection process in oil reservoir. In heterogeneous formations gas tends to breakthrough early in production wells due to overriding, fingering and channeling. Surfactant alternating gas (SAG) injection is one of the methods commonly us...

  1. Design optimization of heat exchangers in topside systems for offshore oil and gas processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bandopadhyay, Mayukh

    2014-01-01

    On a typical oil and gas platform, mechanical equipment units are integral parts of the topside processing system. Heat exchangers, separators, scrubbers, compressors and other equipment units are critical for the proper operation of the processing plant. The hydrocarbon stream received at the first production separator is a mixed stream comprising oil, water and gas phase. This mixed stream is processed in order to separate the oil dominated, water dominated and gas phase. The processing sys...

  2. Examining corporate governance and corporate tax management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Surya Mulyadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation play an essential role both in a country and in a corporation. For a country it is one of the primary income source, while for the corporation taxes will reduce corporate net income. To minimize the tax payment, corporation conduct a corporate tax management. According to some of previous research, there is a correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. While there are many corporate governance proxies could be used in corporate governance research, in this research we are focusing on three: number of board, number of independent board and board compensation. We measure corporate tax management by using effective tax rate (GAAP ETR and current ETR are used in this research. By using several other control variables, we run the regression and conduct the statistical analysis to examine the correlation between corporate governance and corporate tax management. Our result show that corporate governance have a significant correlation to corporate tax management.

  3. One step derivatization with British Anti-Lewsite in combination with gas chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for the fast and selective analysis of inorganic arsenic in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju Hui; Jung, Hyun Jeong; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2016-08-31

    We developed a new fast and selective analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in rice by a gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in combination with one step derivatization of inorganic arsenic (iAs) with British Anti-Lewsite (BAL). Two step derivatization of iAs with BAL has been previously performed for the GC-MS analysis. In this paper, the quantitative one step derivatization condition was successfully established. The GC-MS/MS was carried out with a short nonpolar capillary column (0.25 mm × 10 m) under the conditions of fast oven temperature ramp rate (4 °C/s) and high linear velocity (108.8 cm/s) of the carrier gas. The established GC-MS/MS method showed an excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.999) in a tested range (0.2-100.0 μg L(-1)), ultra-low limit of detection (LOD, 0.08 pg), and high precision and accuracy. The GC-MS/MS technique showed far greater selectivity (22.5 fold higher signal to noise ratio in rice sample) on iAs than GC-MS method. The gas chromatographic running time was only 2.5 min with the iAs retention time of 1.98 min. The established method was successfully applied to quantify the iAs contents in polished rice. The mean iAs content in the Korean polished rice (n = 27) was 66.1 μg kg(-1) with the range of 37.5-125.0 μg kg(-1). This represents the first report on the GC-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with the one step derivatization with BAL for the iAs speciation in rice. This GC-MS/MS method would be a simple, useful and reliable measure for the iAs analysis in rice in the laboratories in which the expensive and element specific HPLC-ICP-MS is not available.

  4. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  5. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Alexandru SITARU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed to examine the issues “corporate governance” involves, with the goal set to clarify the meanings of such notion, and to provide an overall image of the positive effects arising implementing the corporate governance principles. The first section includes a series of definitions for the purpose of explaining and outlining the concept of “corporate governance”, subsequently giving a definition that appears adequate to us, from the legal standpoint pre eminently. The second section has for purpose to state the corporate governance Principles, and briefly examine the same. Its purpose also includes concretely illustrating the efficient operation methods for a “corporation”, as well as the main dilemmas, and the existing solutions for the same within the internal structure of a joint stock company to adopt, and subject itself to, such principles. Finally, the last section of the work underlines the corporate governance importance, and states the goals to be attained for purposes of securing effective, balanced, and not in the last place profitable management.

  6. Dissipation process of binary mixture gas in thermally relativistic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss dissipation process of the binary mixture gas in the thermally relativistic flow \\textcolor{red}{by focusing on the characteristics of the diffusion flux}. As an analytical object, we consider the relativistic rarefied-shock layer problem around the triangle prism. Numerical results of the diffusion flux are compared with the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) order approximation of the diffusion flux, which is calculated using the diffusion and thermal-diffusion coefficients by Kox \\textit{et al}. [Physica A, 84, 1, pp.165-174 (1976)]. In the case of the uniform flow with the small Lorentz contraction, the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is roughly approximated by the NSF order approximation inside the shock wave, whereas the diffusion flux in the vicinity of the wall is markedly different from the NSF order approximation. The magnitude of the diffusion flux, which is obtained by calculating the relativistic Boltzmann equation, is simil...

  7. Electro-membrane processes for flue gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, T. F.

    1997-12-31

    Various techniques for NO removal in Membrane Contactor were considered. However the NO absorption in a liquid adsorbent with chemical enhancement and its ease for regeneration, was selected as the most practicable choice. Various different compounds for chemical enhancement were studied and Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent was selected for further studies. The technical feasibility of Fe(II)-chelate enhanced adsorbent for obtaining greater than 80% NO removal have been successfully established. Even though the membrane area required for greater than 80% NO removal has been found to be about 500 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c} (compared to 50 - 150 m{sup 2}/MW{sub c}, for 95% SO{sub 2} removal, depending on the membrane characteristics), suitable Membrane Contactor design has been proposed for carrying out the process at an acceptable gas side pressure drop. The electro-membrane processes for the regeneration of adsorbents have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical studies have concerned the study of basic functions of both the bipolar membranes and charge laden (anion/cation) membranes. Suitable experimental techniques have been devised for studying of these basic parameters (e.g. charge transport number, salt diffusion through membranes, current-voltage characteristics of bipolar membranes and electrical resistance of charge laden membranes). These parameters have further been utilized in the mechanistic model of combined membranes in an ED cell (electrodialysis). Based on these fundamental studies and analysis of process requirements, suitable configuration of ED cell has been developed and verified by experimental studies. The effect of both the stack design parameters (e.g. number of cells, membrane type and spacer design) and the operational parameters (e.g. temperature, electrolyte concentration, liquid velocity and current density) have been studied for optimization of energy consumption for regeneration of loaded adsorbents. As a result

  8. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-07-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  9. Report and recommendations to Minister of Competition, Science and Enterprise and Minister of Energy and Mines regarding the offshore oil and gas moratorium process design team consensus report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, J.

    2001-07-05

    The Northern Development Commissioner of British Columbia recognized that with the economic pressures associated with decreased activities in the fishing and forestry sectors along the West Coast, there is serious interest on the part of northerners to publicly examine the issue of the current moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration in the Hecate Strait area which has been in place since 1989. A Process Design Team was therefore engaged to provide a template for a community process to discuss the relevant issues, make decisions and report on the outcome. It was recommended that there should be about 15 meetings held in Northwestern and Coastal communities with four Main Events being held in Terrace, Prince Rupert, on the Queen Charlotte Islands/Haida Gwaii and in Port Hardy. Presenters from eastern Canada, Alaska and other countries will be invited to share their knowledge. It was noted that the consultation processes will be successful only with the involvement of a community advisory group and therefore recommendations were made to establish a six member Community Advisory Committee from those Process Design Team members who wish to continue their involvement. It was also recommended that communities be given 30 days after the reports are released following the meetings to present their views regarding the Offshore Oil and Gas Moratorium. It was suggested that the entire process be completed by March 31, 2002 with a report to government at that time.

  10. Corporate responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint

    2007-01-01

    Is it legitimate for a business to concentrate on profits under respect for the law and ethical custom? On the one hand, there seems to be good reasons for claiming that a corporation has a duty to act for the benefit of all its stakeholders. On the other hand, this seems to dissolve the notion...... to this paradox as Goodpaster, namely that a corporation is the instrument of the shareholders only, but that shareholders still have an obligation to act ethically responsibly. To this, I add discussion of Friedman's claim that this responsibility consists in increasing profits. I show that most of his arguments...

  11. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  12. Love British Books 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Paul; Puzzovio, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The book is a catalogue of an exhibition of British books to be held in Armenia in June 2012 at the 'Armenian Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries'. This is an event arranged with the Armenian Ministry of Culture as part of the UNESCO: 'Yerevan, International Book Capital 2012' & the Armenian 2012 celebrations to mark the 500th anniversary of the first printed book in the Armenian language. The catalogue describes all the books in the exhibition, with a photograph of each and...

  13. Gas expulsion versus gas retention: what process dominates in young massive clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2017-02-01

    The ability of young stellar clusters to expel or retain the gas left over after a first episode of star formation is a central issue in all models aiming to explain multiple stellar populations and the peculiar light element abundance patterns in globular clusters. Recent attempts to detect the gas left over from star formation in present-day clusters with masses similar to those of globular clusters did not reveal a significant amount of gas in the majority of them, which strongly restricts the scenarios of multiple stellar population formation. Here the conditions required to retain the gas left over from star formation within the natal star-forming cloud are revised. It is shown that the usually accepted concept regarding the thermalization of the star cluster kinetic energy due to nearby stellar winds and supernova ejecta collisions must be taken with care in the case of very compact and dense star-forming clouds where three star formation regimes are possible if one considers different star formation efficiencies and mass concentrations. The three possible regimes are well separated in the half-mass radius and in the natal gas central density versus pre-stellar cloud mass parameter space. The two gas-free clusters in the Antennae galaxies and the gas-rich cluster with a similar mass and age in the galaxy NGC 5253 appear in different zones in these diagrams. The critical lines obtained for clusters with a solar and a primordial gas metallicity are compared.

  14. Corporate Governance and Corporate Creditworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror Parnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relation between corporate governance and bankruptcy risk as an underlying force affecting a bond’s yield. The level of corporate governance is captured by the G-index, along with the explicit groups of governance provisions. We estimate bankruptcy risk by Z-score, by cash-flow-score, by O-score, through Merton structural model default probabilities, and by S&P credit ratings. After addressing endogeneity and while controlling for firm-specific factors, based on the four objective methodologies we find that corporate governance is inversely related to bankruptcy risk. Yet, rating agencies take a mixed approach towards this association likely because of the conflicting impact of different governance provisions.

  15. Applying ACF to Desulfurization Process from Flue Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义; 张智刚; 唐强; 曹子栋

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used.Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO2. Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost.

  16. Natural Gas Conditioning and Processing From Marginal Fields Using Modular Technology in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriji A.Boniface

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gas flaring in Nigeria is a major pollution concern for the environment and health of Nigerians. Burning of natural gas brings about emitting of carbon monoxide into the environment as well as warm up the environment, thereby contributing to the global warming scourge. The lack of processing this gas has also led to loss of revenue in a sector where there is a likelihood of otherwise generating more revenue in the country. Gas conditioning and processing in Nigeria has brought about certain level of solutions to the flaring of natural gas in the country. This paper discusses a modular technology associated with the conditioning and processing of natural gas that marginal fields can partake-in in Nigeria to monetize natural gas in the country using a typical Nigeria natural gas plant located in Delta State as a cased study. There have been lots of discouragement in the past about investing in associated gas produced during crude oil production, but the study on this particular gas plant in Nigeria shows solutions to most of this problems. The gas plant LPG facility is a modular assembly of process equipment linked with interconnecting pipework for scalability and ease of deployment. The design took into consideration the specific composition of the associated gas produced during production of crude oil.The traditional approach of piping gas from a remotely located oil field to a central processing facility can now be put aside paving the way for a less than orthodox technique of “bringing the plant to the gas” whereby the need for expensive pipeline will be eliminated by situating the facility adjacent to the oil flow station. The gas plant gives a full technology of utilizing natural gas resources to meet the socio-economic needs of mankind while preserving the environment not only for meeting present needs but for the needs of future generations

  17. Corporate entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina

    2005-01-01

    Corporate entreprenørskab kan blive svaret på, hvordan Danmark fremmer en mere videnintensiv produktion. Begrebet er blevet anvendt til at forklare forskellige organisatoriske fænomener alt fra strategi over ledelse i al almindelighed til innovation, hvilket har medført en mangfoldighed af begreb...

  18. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  19. Lexical Differences Between American English and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia; Zhong-qi

    2014-01-01

    With the development of society, American English and British English have significant difference.By retrospective analysis of British English and American English and the historical evolution of the development process, discusses American English and British English exist in the vocabulary of the main differences through understanding both English vocabulary differences exist, so that English learners to more easily have a certain kind of English, as well as the right to express English contains a wealth of knowledge.This paper also pointed out that the United States has its unique features English and language arts charm has been a topic of concern to the development trend of English.

  20. Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Scrubber of Flue Gas Heat Recovery Device

    OpenAIRE

    Veidenbergs, I; Blumberga, D; Vīgants, E; Kozuhars, G

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the heat and mass transfer process research in a flue gas heat recovery device, where complicated cooling, evaporation and condensation processes are taking place simultaneously. The analogy between heat and mass transfer is used during the process of analysis. In order to prepare a detailed process analysis based on heat and mass process descriptive equations, as well as the correlation for wet gas parameter calculation, software in the Microsoft Office Excel environment...

  1. Process and mechanism for oil and gas accumulation, adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field, Northeast Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin, such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields, the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology. Based on the structure inversion, numerical simulation, and geochemical research, we show at least two intervals of fluid transfer in Puguang paleo-oil reservoir, one in the forepart of late Indo-Chinese epoch to early Yanshan epoch and the other in the metaphase of early Yanshan epoch. Oil and gas accumulation occurred at Puguang structure through Puguang-Dongyuezhai faults and dolomite beds in reef and shoal facies in Changxing Formation (P2ch) - Feixianguan Formation (T1f) in the northwest and southwest directions along three main migration pathways, to form Puguang paleo-oil reservoir. Since crude oil is pyrolysised in the early stage of middle Yanshan epoch, Puguang gas reservoir has experienced fluid adjusting process controlled by tectonic movement and geochemical reconstruction process controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Middle Yan-shan epoch is the main period during which the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR. On one hand, TSR can recreate the fluid in gas reservoir, which makes the gas drying index larger and carbon isotope heavier. On the other hand, the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon, H2S, and water) and reservoir rock induces erosion of the reservoir rocks and anhydrite alteration, which improves reservoir petrophysical properties. Superimposed by later tectonic movement, the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment, one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch, after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  2. VISUAL OBSERBATION OF HCFC141b GAS HYDRATE FORMATION/DECOMPOSITION PROCESS OUTSIDE OF A TUBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应明; 郭开华; 樊栓狮; 梁德青; 顾建明

    2003-01-01

    In order to design a kind of heat exchanger suitable to the indirect-touched gas hydrate cool storage vessel, a visual observation of HCFC141b gas hydrate formation/decomposition process was presented through a self-designed small-scale visualization apparatus of gas hydrate cool storage. Based on the shooted photos and recorded temperatures, the formation/decomposition process of HCFC141b are described, some characteristics are concluded, and some suggestions of designing heat exchanger are indicated according to the specific characteristics of HCFC141b gas hydrate formation/decomposition process.

  3. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  4. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  5. Knowledge-Centered Culture and Knowledge-Oriented Leadership as the Key Enablers of Knowledge Creation Process: A Study of Corporate Sector in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of knowledge-centered culture and knowledge-oriented leadership as the key enablers of knowledge creation process for enhanced organizational performance in corporate sector in Pakistan. The notion is that there is an immense need of effective knowledge creation process for organizations if they have to survive in the dynamic markets. Numerous such initiatives have already been undertaken in this research arena. However, the study is unique as it examines the antecedents that steer the execution of knowledge creation process in order to translate better organizational performance. In this regards, the study considers knowledgecentered culture and knowledge-oriented leadership as the key factors that stimulate knowledge creation process and hence, results in an efficient as well as effective knowledge creation process. The study adopted hypothetico-deductive approach and primary data is collected from respondents in corporate sector in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study employed SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 20.0 for data analyses and found encouraging results. Finally, the study provides future directions and practical implications for the theoretical framework.

  6. Essentials of water systems design in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza; Boyd, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Essentials of Water Systems Design in the Oil, Gas and Chemical Processing Industries provides valuable insight for decision makers by outlining key technical considerations and requirements of four critical systems in industrial processing plants—water treatment systems, raw water and plant water systems, cooling water distribution and return systems, and fire water distribution and storage facilities. The authors identify the key technical issues and minimum requirements related to the process design and selection of various water supply systems used in the oil, gas, and chemical processing industries. This book is an ideal, multidisciplinary work for mechanical engineers, environmental scientists, and oil and gas process engineers.

  7. Design, develop, and manufacture process gas lubricated hot recycle gas circulators. Final technical report, MTI--77TR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominy, D.G.; Hurley, J.D.

    1976-10-01

    In the SYNTHANE coal gasification process raw product gas of approximately 35 mole % methane is passed through a methanator which increases the methane content (and heating value) to approximately 86 mole % methane. The reaction is highly exothermic. In order to limit the temperature rise of the reaction, high BTU methane process gas is diluted with raw product gas. A pressure increase is necessary to force the mixed gases back into the methanator. In addition, varying recycle ratios affect the total flow of the gas stream necessitating a compressor or other device to operate at varying flow capacities. The present hot gas recycle methanator system utilized an eductor to mix and raise the pressure of the product gas. This method has limitations. The pressure rise is small, in the order of 1/2 psig, and the eductor does not allow proper mixing pressures and temperatures if the flow conditions are changed. An eductor is useful for this purpose only in a pilot plant and represents an expedient solution to the problem. For commercial use a compressor is essential.

  8. Gas-solid coupling analysis and numerical simulation of the dynamic process of gas drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai WANG; Bo LI; Jian-Ping WEI; Peng LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic theory of gas seepage and coal seam deformation,using the numerical simulation method,this paper established the gas-solid coupling model of gas drainage from borehole.Using multi-physical coupling analysis software,the authors studied the stress change conditions around the drainage borehole,the influence of the gas drainage effect caused by the drilling gap,and the gas drainage effect under the conditions of different borehole radius and different permeabilities.The results show that the effective drainage radius is 1.03 m during 30 days of drainage.The effect of the diameter change of the drainage borehole is limited,but the influence of coal seam permeability is much bigger.After the same drainage period,the greater the permeability of coal seam is,the bigger the drainage radius is.For a low permeability coal seam,coal miners should take pressure-relief measures and increase the permeability to improve the drainage effects before draining gas through drilling.

  9. Simulation on Gas Injection Refining Process with Mechanical Stirring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ting’an

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the new method of in-situ desulfurization with gas injection and mechanical stirring, the effect of bubble dispersion and disintegration of three type impellers are numerically simulated by commercial CFD software Ansys Fluent 12.0. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional multiphase turbulence in gas injection and mechanical stirring are performed by adopting unsteady SM method coupled with Eulerian multiphase model and two-phase turbulence model. The information of gas-liquid fluid flow, velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and the power consumption are investigated and the results show that the SSB impeller can make bubbles get best dispersion and disintegration,and its power consumption is lower than VB impeller. The disk on the impeller blades can weaken the swirl flow in the upper zone of the impeller. Therefore, the bubble residence time is extended, and the bubble dispersing zone is also increased.

  10. Effects of superficial gas velocity on process dynamics in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, T. T.; Kumar, B.

    2014-06-01

    Present work analyzes the flow hydrodynamics and mass transfer mechanisms in double Rushton and CD-6 impeller on wide range (0.0075-0.25 m/s) of superficial gas velocity ( v g) in a gas-liquid phase bioreactor by employing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The volume averaged velocity magnitude and dissipation rate are found higher with increasing superficial gas velocity. Higher relative power draw ( P g/ P 0) is predicted in CD-6 than the Rushton impeller but no significant difference in volume averaged mass transfer coefficient ( k L a) observed between these two types of impeller. The ratio of power draw with mass transfer coefficient has been found higher in CD-6 impeller (25-50 %) than the Rushton impeller.

  11. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  12. Corporate information management guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

  13. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bed. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units... heaters. 63.988 Section 63.988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters....

  14. The corporate image concept: a strategic approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Following a clarification of the concept of corporate image using the available literature as a basis, the process of image-formation and the nature of the influence of corporate image on behaviour are explored. The relationship with corporate identity is then discussed. This exploration leads us to

  15. Model of coupled gas flow and deformation process in heterogeneous coal seams and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-hui; ZHAO Quan-sheng; YU Yong-jiang

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of coal was studied by mechanical tests. Probability plots of experimental data show that the mechanical parameters of heterogeneous coal follow a Weibull distribution. Based on elasto-plastic mechanics and gas dynamics, the model of coupled gas flow and deformation process of heterogeneous coal was presented and the effects of heterogeneity of coal on gas flow and failure of coal were investigated. Major findings include: The effect of the heterogeneity of coal on gas flow and mechanical failure of coal can be considered by the model in this paper. Failure of coal has a great effect on gas flow.

  16. The Mechanism of Interfacial Mass Transfer in Gas Absorption Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友光; 冯惠生; 徐世昌; 余国琮

    2003-01-01

    Based on the method of molecular thermodynamics ,the mass transfer mechanism at gas-liquid interface is studied theoretically,and a nowe mathematical model is proposed,Using laser holographic interference technique,the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics of CO2 absorption are measured,It is shown that the calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Adsorption of hydrogen gas and redox processes in clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Mathilde; Leone, Laura; Greneche, Jean-Marc; Giffaut, Eric; Charlet, Laurent

    2012-03-20

    In order to assess the adsorption properties of hydrogen gas and reactivity of adsorbed hydrogen, we measured H(2)(g) adsorption on Na synthetic montmorillonite-type clays and Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clayrock using gas chromatography. Synthetic montmorillonites with increasing structural Fe(III) substitution (0 wt %, 3.2 wt %, and 6.4 wt % Fe) were used. Fe in the synthetic montmorillonites is principally present as structural Fe(III) ions. We studied the concomitant reduction of structural Fe(III) in the clays using (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry. The COx, which mainly contains smectite/illite and calcite minerals, is also studied together with the pure clay fraction of this clayrock. Experiments were performed with dry clay samples which were reacted with hydrogen gas at 90 and 120 °C for 30 to 45 days at a hydrogen partial pressure close to 0.45 bar. Results indicate that up to 0.11 wt % of hydrogen is adsorbed on the clays at 90 °C under 0.45 bar of relative pressure. (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry shows that up to 6% of the total structural Fe(III) initially present in these synthetic clays is reduced upon adsorption of hydrogen gas. No reduction is observed with the COx sample in the present experimental conditions.

  18. Developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, Janice A; Sullivan, Trent

    2002-09-01

    This article presents the process that a large urban tertiary care hospital engaged in when developing a corporate compliance program for nursing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nurse executives can successfully implement a comprehensive and practical nursing corporate compliance program. This article describes in detail the 5 steps the hospital took to develop its nursing corporate compliance program and provides examples of tools to guide you in developing a nursing corporate compliance program.

  19. Natural gas engineering and safety challenges downstream process, analysis, utilization and safety

    CERN Document Server

    Nasr, GG

    2014-01-01

    Provides a critical and extensive compilation of the downstream processes of natural gas that involve the principle of gas processing , transmission and distribution, gas flow and network analysis, instrumentation and measurement systems and its utilisation Enriches understanding of the business and management aspects of natural gas as well as highlighting some of the recent research and innovations in the field Covers the needs of practising engineers from different disciplines, who may include project managers, planning and design engineers - the book is also suitable for the demands of u

  20. History of British Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Harrie; Robins, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    1. The scientific background; 2. The technical background; 3. The initiation of the Skylark rocket programme; 4. Post IGY developments; 5. The Ariel programme; 6. The European Space Research Organisation; 7. Commonwealth co-operation in space research; 8. Smaller rockets for scientific purposes - Skua and Petrel; 9. Attitude controlled Skylark rockets; 10. The Trend Committee and the Science Research Council; 11. The transformation of ESRO into ESA; 12. The Space Science Committee for Europe; 13. Scientific studies by British space scientists I; 14. Scientific studies by British space scientists II; 15. The contribution from British space scientists to astronomy; 16. Concluding remarks; Appendices; Annexes.

  1. Modeling of air-gas and dynamic processes in driving development workings in the gas-bearing coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presler, V.T. [Russian Academy of Science, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Siberian Branch, Inst. of Coal & Coal Fuel Chemistry

    2002-04-01

    The models for air-gas processes of different hierarchical level are considered in designing and driving development workings in the coal seams. The procedure is proposed for model adaptation according to the on-line data, which makes it possible to estimate the state of medium and working capacity of measuring equipment.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; Santosh K. Gangwal

    2000-12-01

    The techniques employed in this project have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing sorbents that achieve greater than 99% H{sub 2}S removal at temperatures 480 C and that retain their activity over 50 cycles. Fundamental understanding of phenomena leading to chemical deactivation and high regeneration light-off temperature has enabled us to successfully prepare and scale up a FHR-32 sorbent that showed no loss in reactivity and capacity over 50 cycles. This sorbent removed H{sub 2}S below 80 ppmv and lighted-off nicely at 480 C during regeneration. Overall the test is a success with potential for an optimized FHR-32 to be a candidate for Sierra-Pacific. An advanced attrition resistant hot-gas desulfurization sorbent that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur directly has been developed. Attrition resistant Zn-Fe sorbent (AHI-2) formulations have been prepared that can remove H{sub 2}S to below 20 ppmv from coal gas and can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} to produce elemental sulfur.

  3. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy.

  4. Gas expulsion vs gas retention: what process dominates in young massive clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    The ability of young stellar clusters to expel or retain the gas left over after a first episode of star formation is a central issue in all models aiming to explain multiple stellar populations and the peculiar light element abundance patterns in globular clusters. Recent attempts to detect the gas left over from star formation in present day clusters with masses similar to those of globular clusters did not reveal a significant amount of gas in the majority of them, which strongly restricts the scenarios of multiple stellar population formation. Here the conditions required to retain the gas left over from star formation within the natal star forming cloud are revised. It is shown that the usually accepted concept regarding the thermalization of the star cluster kinetic energy due to nearby stellar winds and SNe ejecta collisions must be taken with care in the case of very compact and dense star forming clouds where three star formation regimes are possible if one considers different star formation efficien...

  5. Analytical methods and monitoring system for E-beam flue gas treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licki, J.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Iller, E.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Tokunaga, O.; Hashimoto, S.

    1998-06-01

    The results of reliable and precise measurement of gas composition in different key points of e-beam installation are necessary for its proper operation and control. Only the composition of flue gas coming into installation is adequate to composition of flue gas emitted from coal-fired boiler. At other points of e-b installation the gas composition is strongly modified by process conditions therefore specific measuring system (sampling and conditioning system and set of gas analyzers) for its determination are required. In the paper system for gas composition measurement at inlet and outlet of e-b installation are described. Process parameters are continuously monitoring by CEM system and occasionally by the grab sample system. Both system have been tested at pilot plant at EPS Kawȩczyn.

  6. Generalized model of synthesis quality monitoring system of extraction, processing and transportation of gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Леонид Иванович Нефедов

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and processing and gas transportation have been analyzed in the article. Decomposition of the process of monitoring is introduced based on that; allowing the hierarchical structure of the monitoring system is request. Scientific novelty consists in the fact that developed generalized synthesis quality model monitoring system to extract, processing and gas transportation, which allows solving the problem of synthesis of a unified system and criteria positions.

  7. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Guláš, Michal; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Fleaca, Claudiu; Farhat, Samir; Veis, Pavel; Le Normand, Francois

    2008-01-01

    International audience; To support experimental investigations, a model based on ChemkinTM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase ...

  8. Synthesis of carbon nanbotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guláš, M.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C. T.; Farhat, S.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.

    2008-09-01

    To support experimental investigations, a model based on Chemkin^TM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase activation sources and pressure is performed.

  9. Incoporating Ammonia Synthesis for an Offshore Gas-to-Liquid Process

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The world energy demand is increasing, and so is the demand for fertilizer to sustain an exponential population growth. Currently, with low oil prices, asso- ciated natural gas is flared off or re-injected into oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). A gas-to-liquid process (GTL) for offshore applications aboard a foating production, storage, and offoading vessel (FPSO) incorpo- rating Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) seeks to reform natural gas into more valuable liq...

  10. Going Corporate

    CERN Document Server

    Kadre, Shailendra

    2011-01-01

    Going Corporate: A Geek's Guide shows technology workers how to gain the understanding and skills necessary for becoming an effective, promotable manager or sought-after consultant or freelancer. Technology professionals typically dive deeply into small pieces of technology - like lines of code or the design of a circuit. As a result, they may have trouble seeing the bigger picture and how their work supports an organization's goals. But ignoring or dismissing the business or operational aspects of projects and products can lead to career stagnation. In fact, understanding the larger business

  11. Corporate Foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Gemünden, Hans Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although in the last three decades much knowledge has been produced on how best to conduct foresight exercises, but little is known on how foresight should be integrated with the innovation effort of a company. Drawing on empirical evidence from 19 case studies and 107 interviews, we identify three...... roles that corporate foresight should play to maximize the innovation capacity of a firm: (1) the strategist role, which explores new business fields; (2) the initiator role, which increases the number of innovation concepts and ideas; and (3) the opponent role, which challenges innovation projects...

  12. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of survival. From this understanding......, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) has arisen, arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to explore the SE construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance...

  13. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  14. The effectiveness assessment of gas accumulation processes in Kuqa depression,Tarim Basin,Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of gas accumulation processes is controlled by several main geological factors in-cluding charging force,features of gas conduit,sealing properties of caprock,etc. Based on the analysis and statistics of the large-medium size gas accumulations in China,the main parameters,in-cluding the excess pressure difference between the source rock and reservoir bed,the area coefficient of the gas conduit,and the thickness or displacement pressure of caprock,and the criteria for the as-sessment of gas accumulation processes have been established. Using the parameters and the criteria above,the effectiveness of gas accumulation processes in the Kuqa depression was quantitatively evaluated. By integrating the parameters of the excess pressure difference between the source rock and reservoir bed,the area coefficient of fault conduit system,and the caprock thickness in gas charging period,a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of gas accumulation in the Kuqa depression has been made. The result reveals that the Tubei-Dawan area,the Central Kelasu area and the Dongqiu-Dina area are three highly-effective areas for gas accumulation in the Kuqa depression.

  15. H/sub 2/S-removal processes for low-Btu coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Process descriptions are provided for seven methods of removing H/sub 2/S from a low-Btu coal-derived gas. The processes include MDEA, Benfield, Selexol, Sulfinol, Stretford, MERC Iron Oxide, and Molecular Sieve. Each of these processes was selected as representing a particular category of gas treating (e.g., physical solvent systems). The open literature contains over 50 processes for H/sub 2/S removal, of which 35 were briefly characterized in the literature survey. Using a technical evaluation of these 35 processes, 21 were eliminated as unsuitable for the required application. The remaining 14 processes represent six categories of gas treating. A seventh category, low-temperature solid sorption, was subsequently added. The processes were qualitatively compared within their respective categories to select a representative process in each of the seven categories.

  16. Effects of Natural Gas Compositions on CNG Fast Filling Process for Buffer Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh-Gord M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of the fast-fill process occurring in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG fuelled vehicle storage cylinders is a complex process and should be thoroughly studied. Final in-cylinder conditions should meet appropriate cylinder safety standards. The composition of natural gas plays an important role on its thermodynamic properties and consequently, on the fast-fill process and the final conditions. Here, a theoretical analysis has been developed to study the effects of the natural gas composition on the filling process of an onboard Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV cylinder. The cylinder is assumed as a lumped system. The analysis is based on laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. Based on AGA8 Equation of State (EOS and thermodynamics relationships, the required properties of natural gas mixtures have been calculated. The results are presented for an adiabatic system. The results show that the compositions of natural gas have great effects on the filling process and final in-cylinder conditions. Furthermore, the gas with less methane percentage in its composition is more suitable for the filling process.

  17. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  18. Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

  19. Recovery Process for Lighter Hydrocarbon of Natural Gas in Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Fulu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Liaohe Oilfield, the third largest oilfield in China is richer in natural gas. Up to the end of 1993,the accumulative production of natural gas reached 31. 15 billion m3,among which associated gas occupied 19.83 billion m3. In the recent ten years ,more than ten of lighter hydrocarbon recovery units with different scales have been constructed. The following is describing the main process features about recovery units of 200 × 104m3/d,120× 104 m3/d and other small recovery units for lighter hydrocarbon of natural gas.

  20. Influences of different types of magnetic fields on HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU; Bifen; MA; Xiaolin; GUO; Kaihua; LI; Jianhong

    2004-01-01

    In this study, visualizations and experiments are carried out on the influence of static and rotating magnetic fields on the characteristics of HCFC-141b gas hydrate formation, such as crystallization form, formation temperature and induction time. It has been found that a proper rotating magnetic field can considerably improve the low-pressure gas hydrate formation process,especially in increasing the formation temperature and shortening the induction time. The morphology of the gas hydrate formation appears rather complex and compact. However, a proper static magnetic field can make the gas hydrate crystal more organized, which will be benefit to heat transfer.

  1. An analog integrated signal processing circuit for on-chip diffusion-based gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hesam; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2013-07-01

    In diffusion-based gas analysis, the transient of gas diffusion process is recorded by a generic gas sensor to serve as a fingerprint for qualitative and quantitative analysis of gaseous samples. Following the acquisition of these specific signals, any standalone gas analyzer requires a pattern recognition system for pattern classification. The classic digital pattern recognition methods require computing hardware of adequate computational throughput. In this paper, we have followed a straightforward mathematical procedure to relate the signals to their associated target gases. We have shown that the procedure can be implemented by a set of analog functions. Based on the results, we have designed an analog integrated circuit, in 0.18 µm standard CMOS process, for processing the diffusion-based transient signals. The main circuit components are a low-pass filter, the differentiator, the feature extractor and an artificial neural network. The output of the circuit is a 2-bit binary code that specifies the target gas. The circuit successfully classified four alcoholic vapors by processing the experimentally obtained response patterns. The proposed signal processing circuit, the semiconductor gas sensor and the diffusion channel can all be implemented on a single substrate to fabricate an integrated micro gas analyzer.

  2. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  3. THERMAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PROCESS OF GAS AND THERMAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Spiridonov; I. O. Sokorov; M. V. Niaroda

    2008-01-01

    The paper reveals thermal zones of magnetic and electric grinding process. The influence of electric and physical parameters of magnetic and electric grinding on temperature in the zone of gas and thermal protective coatings has been established in the paper.

  4. Corporate Climate Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian; Maltha, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change outlined the first embryonic plans for an emissions market, a significant uncertainty about the value on carbon, in concert with a swift development in energy business, has brought about the concept of carbon management. Carbon management aims...... strategic carbon management for medium to large companies with greenhouse gas intensive activities. The guideline framework is established on the basis of a generic strategy structure in which the factors influencing corporate climate strategies are identified. It is concluded that there is little rationale...... behind extracting of climate strategy from the Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) context - the truly innovative aspect is the construction of an operational multiple Green House Gas information system, which should 1) measure, monitor, aggregate, record, and disseminate emission data (e.g. through...

  5. 公司治理过程发展研究--基于治理熵与耗散结构的分析%The Process of Corporate Governance Evolution---Based on Governance Entropy and Dissipative Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾亮; 刘振杰

    2013-01-01

    By using the entropy theory and the theory of dissipative structure and by introducing the conception of governance entropy, this article analysis the rules of corporate governance evolution by following the theory of dissipative structure, and proposed that corporate governance is a spiral development process. Finally, this article use 7 years Nankai Corporate Governance Index from year 2004 to 2010 to validate the change trends of corporate governance, for listed companies, the efficiency of corporate governance followed the development of long-term and stagnation or back of local time, we prove that corporate governance is a spiral development process.%本文运用熵理论及耗散结构理论,通过引入治理熵概念,利用耗散结构理论分析了公司治理的演变规律,提出公司治理是一个螺旋式上升的发展过程。最后,本文引用2004-2010年7年间南开大学公司治理指数的变化趋势验证,对于我国上市公司,公司治理效率遵循长期向上发展局部时段出现停滞和后退,证实了公司治理是一个螺旋式上升发展过程。

  6. THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON CORPORATE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana DOBRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the correlation between Corporate Social Responsability actions and companies’ value. For this purpose a data base was created for 101 important companies in Romania, for years 2011 and 2012. The data was processed using Eviews 7 and SAS 9.2 softwares and the econometric variables specific determinations were interpreted in an econometric approach. A new index for the Corporate Social Responsabilitiy hierarchy levels was proposed and its applicability was demonstrated.

  7. 12 CFR 611.1135 - Incorporation of service corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporation of service corporations. 611.1135... Organizations § 611.1135 Incorporation of service corporations. (a) What is the process for chartering a service corporation? A Farm Credit bank or association (you or your) may organize a corporation acting alone or...

  8. The Impacts of well Planned Recruitment and Selection Process on Corporate Performance in Nigerian Banking Industry (A Case Study of First Bank Plc 2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Mudashiru Mustapha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A sound recruitment programme logically follows a well drawn-up manpower plan. In fact, the quality of the present manpower plan as indeed of every present decision of the organization depends upon the quality of recruitment policies and practices. This paper examines recruitment and selection process. It identifies a typical source by separating recruitment into internal and external and discussed the advantages of each method. The analytical tools used in this study were regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the relationship between a well planned recruitment and selection process on corporate performance. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between recruitment and selection based on merit and organizational performance; that effective recruitment and selection is a key to organizational commitment; that a well planned recruitment and selection contributes to organizational performance. The paper concludes by drawing the danger potends by poor recruitment and selection as poor recruitment could lead to selection of poor applicants.

  9. HFC-134a refrigerant gas hydrate formation process and RIN model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the macroscopic visualization experiments of HFC-134a refrigerant gas hydrate formation are investigated. According to the macroscopic photos and Mori's microscopic photos of HFC-134a hydrate formation process, the mechanism of gas hydrate formation is analyzed.A random inducement nucleation model is presented to describe the hydrate formation process. The factors affecting the fractal growth dimension in the model, such as step,branch increment and angle, are discussed.``

  10. Corporate citizenship: Statoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Olav

    2003-01-01

    Open markets alone do not guarantee equitable and sustainable development. Income disparities are growing both within and between countries to the extent that the marginalization of the poor has become a key challenge of globalization. To meet this challenge, the global community must address the governance gap between global finance/economics and local or national politics in world affairs. This article discusses how globalization is shaping Statoil's approach to corporate citizenship. The Norwegian firm, with 17,000 workers in some 25 countries, is one of the major net sellers of crude oil and supplies Europe with natural gas. Statoil maintains that corporations can contribute to global governance by conducting business in a manner that is ethical, economically viable, environmentally sound, and socially responsible. This contribution can be achieved through development partnerships with national governments, multilateral institutions, and nongovernmental organizations. Norway's Statoil ASA is one of the world's largest net sellers of crude oil and a major supplier of natural gas to Europe. It is the leading Scandinavian retailer of petroleum and other oil products. Statoil employs approximately 17,000 workers and operates in 25 countries.

  11. Corporate Foresight and Strategic Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Portaleoni, Claudio; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Ul-Haq, Rehan;

    The investigation of the future of an organization has always captivated the attention of academics and business managers. Presently, the aspiration to entrench future-relevant insights into management practices is a must. Companies that have made attempts to use corporate foresight have generally...... dealt successfully with internal information sharing processes that in most cases have prepared them for the challenges of the future. Corporate Foresights and Strategic Decisions investigates the relationships between corporate foresight and management decision-making processes in organizations...... accountability and integrity of the participating departments as well as by the apparent nature of environmental explosiveness. This book provides clear confirmations showing that the impacts of corporate foresight on strategic decisions are critically affected by the evaluative and analytical verdicts...

  12. Process analysis of syngas production by non-catalytic POX of oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchen WANG; Xinwen ZHOU; Wenyuan GUO; Zhenghua DAI; Xin GONG; Haifeng LIU; Guangsuo YU; Zunhong YU

    2009-01-01

    A non-catalytic POX of oven gas is proposed to solve the problem of secondary pollution due to solid wastes produced from the great amount of organic sulfur contained in oven gas in the traditional catalytic partial oxidation (POX) process. A study of the measurement of flow field and a thermodynamic analysis of the process characteristics were conducted. Results show that there exist a jet-flow region, a recirculation-flow region, a tube-flow region, and three corresponding reaction zones in the non-catalytic POX reformer. The combustion of oven gas occurs mainly in the jet-flow region, while the reformation of oven gas occurs mainly in the other two regions. Soot would not be formed by CH4 cracking at above 1200℃. Since there are very little C2+ hydrocarbons in oven gas, the soot produced would be very tiny, even if they underwent cracking reaction. The integrated model for entrained bed gasification process was applied to simulate a non-catalytic POX reformer. It indicated that the proper oxygen-to-oven gas ratio is 0.22-0.28 at differ-ent pressures in the oven gas reformation process.

  13. Mixing process of a binary gas in a density stratified layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tetsuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    This study is to investigate the effect of natural convection on the mixing process by molecular diffusion in a vertical stratified layer of a binary fluid. There are many experimental and analytical studies on natural convection in the vertical fluid layer. However, there are few studies on natural convection with molecular diffusion in the vertical stratified layer of a binary gas. Experimental study has been performed on the combined phenomena of molecular diffusion and natural convection in a binary gas system to investigate the mixing process of the binary gas in a vertical slot consisting of one side heated and the other side cooled. The range of Rayleigh number based on the slot width was about 0 < Ra{sub d} < 7.5 x 10{sup 4}. The density change of the gas mixture and the temperature distribution in the slot was obtained and the mixing process when the heavier gas ingress into the vertical slot filled with the lighter gas from the bottom side of the slot was discussed. The experimental results showed that the mixing process due to molecular diffusion was affected significantly by the natural convection induced by the slightly temperature difference between both vertical walls even if a density difference by the binary gas is larger than that by the temperature difference. (author). 81 refs.

  14. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  15. [Evaluation of high-efficiency gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing]. Semiannual technical progress report, October 1, 1992--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this proposed program is to evaluate the potential of rotating gas-liquid contactors for natural gas processing by expanding the currently available database. This expansion will focus on application of this technology to environments representative of those typically encountered in natural gas processing plants. Operational and reliability concerns will be addressed while generating pertinent engineering data relating to the mass-transfer process. This report presents results on fluid dynamics and mass transfer coefficient studies.

  16. Managing Corporate Reputation Through Corporate Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Majken; Hatch, Mary Jo; Adams, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This article, which concentrates on symbolic management by explaining the role of corporate branding in managing corporate reputation, using Novo Nordisk as a case study, presents three perspectives on corporate branding: the marketing perspective, the organisational perspective and the co......-creation perspective. The three perspectives reviewed show the possibility of developing a multidisciplinary conceptualisation of corporate branding. They all offer insights important to managing organisations as corporate brands in a multi-stakeholder context and thus to the likelihood that corporate branding...... is a way to influence corporate reputation. The Novo Nordisk management believes the data indicate that corporate branding influenced reputation more than the other way around. Formal brand management practices may work considerably better when they complement rather than try to control existing forces...

  17. Simulation of a Wet Sulfuric Acid Process (WSA for Utilization of Acid Gas Separated from Omani Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jawad Ali Al-Dallal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a proposed process for the utilization of hydrogen sulphide separated with other gases from omani natural gas for the production of sulphuric acid by wet sulphuric acid process (WSA was studied. The processwas simulated at an acid gas feed flow of 5000 m3/hr using Aspen ONE- V7.1-HYSYS software. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the optimum conditions for the operation of plant. This included primarily the threepacked bed reactors connected in series for the production of sulphur trioxidewhich represented the bottleneck of the process. The optimum feed temperature and catalyst bed volume for each reactor were estimated and then used in the simulation of the whole process for two cases namely 4 and 6 mole% SO2 stream fed to the first catalytic reactor. The 4mole% SO2 gaves the highest conversion (98% compared with 6 mole% SO2 (94.7%. A valuable quantity of heat was generated from the process. This excess heat could also be transformed into power in a turbine or used as a heating media in neighbouring process units.

  18. Diffusion membrane and process for separating hydrogen from gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, F.; Schulten, R.; Weirich, W.

    1985-01-29

    For separation of hydrogen and its isotopes by diffusion through a membrane virtually impermeable to other gases, a non-porous hydrogen-permeable metallic membrane is provided on the gas access side with a coating of an alloy of palladium with at least 45 atomic % Cu or at least 50 atomic percent Ag or at least 7 atomic % Y, the membrane itself containing Cu, Ag or Y respectively in a concentration at least equilibrated with the coating at operation temperature. Preferably the membrane consists of a metal of niobium and/or tantalum bases especially of an alloy containing from 10 to 30 % Ti, 3 to 10 % V, 0 to 25 % Nb and at least 30 % Ta, all by weight, and preferably it is of a composition of 20 to 25 % Ti, 5 to 7,5 % V, 0 to 25 Nb, and at least 50 % Ta, being saturated with copper and or silver, while a copper and/or silver palladium alloy coating is used. Such inherently oxidation sensitive membranes can be stabilized by provision of an internal intermediate layer in the form of a melt forming or containing an alkaline metal hydride and/or an alkaline earth metal hydride. A melt containing alkaline metal and/or alkaline earth metal which forms a hydride, brought into contact on the secondary side of a membrane in accordance with the invention, provides a hydrogen sink on the secondary side and inhibits internal hydride formation and secondary side oxidation of the membrane.

  19. Corporate Social Communication and Corporate Social Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ziggers, Gerrit Willem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide firms in the food and agricultural sector a model that enables them to assess their corporate social initiatives in conjunction with their stakeholders. Building on the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate social performance (CSP) and the relational view the paper argues that firms can improve the results of their corporate social initiatives by setting up a dialogue with their stakeholders and to relate this to their internal or...

  20. Measuring instruments of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grgić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is focused on the instruments for the measurement of corporate reputation. Recent research of the elements which influence the success of a company shows a growing interest in intangible values. Corporate reputation itself has been identified as one of the key intangible assets which create the company’s added value. Understanding of the importance of corporate reputation has been determined as a significant component of the company’s competitiveness, that is, of its competitive edge. Reputation is a normal part of our life and an integral part of our society. Our interest in the honesty and integrity of others is firmly established in all cultures and nowadays the focus of this interest is switching increasingly on companies. Corporate reputation can be acquired by means of strong, well-developed strategies, which are crucial for the opinion of stakeholders regarding future stability and competitive sustainability of the company. On the other hand, it should be emphasized that in order to manage it, corporate reputation has to be measured first. However, although the concept of corporate reputation is universally accepted and its significance has been recognized especially in the last two decades, the process of its measurement is still at an early stage and there is no universally accepted instrument for its measurement. Therefore, the author of this paper gives an overview of the instruments used for the measurement of corporate reputation which have gained a foothold through former practical usage.

  1. Corporate Carbon Footprint Arla Foods amba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Poulsen, Jan; Shonfield, Peter

    2009-01-01

    or of the overall “Closer to Nature” strategy. The business activities covered in this assessment include: • Farm processes • Arla Foods’ processing operations • Transport • Packaging ii Activities that have not been included in the scope of the current study include: • Business travel • Non-processing operations......, their greenhouse gas emissions. Arla Foods is a market-leading producer of dairy products and climate change may have severe effects on its business at all levels, for example: • Availability of raw materials – farm productivity may be affected by changing, and less predictable, climatic conditions and through...... to affect consumers’ purchasing decisions Recognising the potentially important impact of climate change on its business, as well as its wider social responsibility to effectively manage its GHG emissions, Arla Foods has commissioned PE North West Europe to carry out a corporate carbon footprint analysis...

  2. CFD Applied to Process Development in the Oil and Gas Industry – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is increasingly used in the oil and gas industry. The present article aims to show how CFD can be used at all steps of the development of a new process, with a focus on refining technologies. Those different steps consist first of setting up tools that will be used during the development phase, second of obtaining data in complement with experiments required for the process development, and finally, of troubleshooting actions or technology developments that will make the process even more efficient. A large number of applications corresponding to various flow configurations, single-phase or gas-liquid, gas-solid or even gas-liquid-solid, characterised by significantly different scales and requiring adapted simulation approaches, are discussed based on original results and a review of the literature. Perspectives are given in particular on the multi-scale approach and physical phenomena coupling.

  3. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2016-09-06

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  4. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Roscioli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4 emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc. results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20–47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  5. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.

    1997-10-30

    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Integrated risk estimation of metal inert gas (MIG and metal active gas (MAG welding processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karkoszka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the technical characteristics of the welding processes, associated with the fulfilling clients’ requirements, the assurance of safe and healthy working places as well as the environment protection the fundamental meaning belongs to the application of the appropriate methods of risk assessment of these processes. The paper presents the results of risk analysis, using an integrated risk indicator implemented into operation of the MIG and MAG welding processes in the practice. In the welding risk management one can decide about reduce the risk by avoiding the risky ventures, or as a result of the proper preventive actions’ application.

  7. CORPORATE RISK REPORTING IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Corporate reporting in Bosnia and Herzegovina is traditionally focused on meeting the legislation frame for the financial reporting. Changes in business environment influence on business perspective of doing business but also on decision making process for wide range of corporate stakeholders. All the matters aforesaid contribute to the necessary changes in traditional financial reporting. Risk reporting is only a first step of corporate reporting process improvement. The institutional frames...

  8. Laser guided and stabilized gas metal arc welding processes (LGS-GMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, Jörg; Barroi, Alexander; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    The demands of the industry are cheap and fast production of highly sophisticated parts without compromises in product quality. To realize this requirement, we have developed a laser guided and stabilized gas metal arc process (LGS-GMA welding). The new welding process is based on a gas metal arc process using low power laser radiation for stabilization. The laser stabilization of gas metal arcs welding is applied to joint welding and cladding. With only 400 W laser power and a focal spot of 1.6 mm the laser radiation is mainly interacting with the arc plasma in order to guide and stabilize it. In joint welding up to 100% increase in welding speed is possible, at equal penetration depth. The guidance effect also enables the process to weld in challenging situations like different sheet thicknesses. Used for cladding, the enhanced process stability allows low penetration depth with dilutions of only 3%. Coatings with up to 63 HRC were achieved.

  9. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  10. Community and corporate social responsibility in sector of oil, gas and mining: short approach considering practice and theory aspects; Responsabilidade social corporativa e comunitaria nos setores de petroleo, gas e mineracao no Brasil: breve reflexao sobre a evolucao teorico-pratica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Pereira, Maira de S.; Lopes, Luciano E. [GAIA - Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the debate about corporate and community social responsibility has been happening, in Brazil, with the implementation of programs for the quality of services and products; the improvement of the performance of activities related to environmental conservation, the increase in security and health of workers and communities; the intensification of communication and relationship with workers, communities, and other stakeholders. This work discusses the evolution of this culture in petroleum, gas and mining sectors in Brazil during the last 20 years. It was based on the experience of the Interdisciplinary Learning Application Group (GAIA) with both, the internal public (including all employees) and the communities directly or indirectly affected by old or new activities. The cases analyzed are good examples of this cultural change, which prioritizes the development of humanist and progressive approaches to corporate education. The results GAIA obtained actuating during the last 15 years in partnership with corporations from several sectors evidenced that the incorporation of social responsibility objectives and targets as part of corporation's business brought benefits for all stakeholders. To the managers it brought an improvement in administration considering the stakeholders. To the workers it helped developing their self-esteem and citizenship. To the communities it enhanced their capacity to dialogue and created sustainable initiatives that improve their quality of life. (author)

  11. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to

  12. Numerical solution of moving boundary problem for deposition process in solid fuel gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, V. M.; Dorofeenko, S. O.; Sharov, M. S.; Toktaliev, P. D.

    2016-11-01

    Moving boundary problem in application to process of depositions formation in gas generator are considered. Gas generator, as a part of fuel preparation system of high-speed vehicle, convert solid fuel into multicomponent multiphase mixture, which further burned down in combustion chamber. Mathematical model of two-phase “gas-solid particles” flow, including Navier-Stokes equations for turbulent flow in gas generator and mass, impulse conservations laws for elementary depositions layer are proposed. Verification of proposed mathematical model for depositions mass in gas generator conditions is done. Further possible improvements of proposed model, based on more detail accounting of particle-wall interaction and wall's surface adhesion properties are analyzed.

  13. Study of Mass Transfer in Gas Blowing Processes for Silicon Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberend, Jochen; Chichignoud, Guy; Delannoy, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Boron removal processes are crucial to make the metallurgical route for silicon refining for solar cells competitive and thus reduce the cost of solar energy. The rate-limiting step was investigated in silicon purification processes for boron removal based on gas blowing, to gain better understanding that should help to improve the design of such processes. We calculate the boron concentration in the off-gas that corresponds to chemical equilibrium between the gas and silicon. The real concentration in the off-gas ranges between 9 and 30 pct of this theoretical value calculated using Gibbs free energies reported in literature. Purification experiments with varying temperature and hydrogen concentration were done to evaluate whether limited chemical reaction rates induce deviation from chemical equilibrium. The experiments and data from literature show that the chemical reactions at the surface of the melt are close to chemical equilibrium, thus the purification rate is limited by mass transfer in the gas phase near the interface. Based on this, recommendations for the design of a gas blowing purification process are given.

  14. Monitoring off-gas O2/CO2 to predict nitrification performance in activated sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Shao-Yuan; Libra, Judy A; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Nitrification/denitrification (NDN) processes are the most widely used technique to remove nitrogenous pollutants from municipal wastewater. The performance of nitrogen removal in the NDN process depends on the metabolism of nitrifying bacteria, and is dependent on adequate oxygen supply. Off-gas testing is a convenient and popular method for measuring oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) under process conditions and can be performed in real-time. Since carbon dioxide is produced by carbonaceous oxidizing organism and not by nitrifiers, it should be possible to use the off-gas carbon dioxide mole fraction to estimate nitrification performance independently of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) or OTE. This paper used off-gas data with a dynamic model to estimate nitrifying efficiency for various activated sludge process conditions. The relationship among nitrification, oxygen transfer, carbon dioxide production, and pH change was investigated. Experimental results of an online off-gas monitoring for a full-scale treatment plant were used to validate the model. The results showed measurable differences in OUR and carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) and the simulations successfully predicted the effluent ammonia by using the measured CO(2) and O(2) contents in off-gas as input signal. Carbon dioxide in the off-gas could be a useful technique to control aeration and to monitor nitrification rate.

  15. Corporate Control in Global Agrifood System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikov Aleksandr Borisovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of global agrifood system is characterized by the increase in large enterprises concentration at each of food chain stages. One of the key factors providing the corporate control of multinational corporation is represented by the achievement of vertical and horizontal integration at each step of production, processing and sale of agrifood production. At this, the vertical and horizontal corporate integration is considered as the factor providing development and stability of control over the multinational corporations in agrifood sector. The classification of primary activities of agroindustrial multinational corporations including the leading multinational corporations is presented. The food chain of the largest multinational corporations is analysed on the basis of the following criteria – gene material, seeds, chemical fertilizers, trade and processing of raw agricultural material, processing industry, supermarkets. The analysis of consequences of agrocorporations concentration is also carried out on the example of seed farming branch and retail trade enterprises. The authors give recommendations on the adaptation to the consequences of multinational corporations expansion. Within these corporations it is necessary for the governments of host countries to improve the state legislation in the field of effective regulation of oligopolistic bodies; to make corporations responsible for any violations of the labor legislation; to provide conditions for competition at the food market and to control the merges and absorptions at the different stages of food chain.

  16. Adsorption process to recover hydrogen from feed gas mixtures having low hydrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Novosat, Paul Anthony

    2010-04-13

    A process for selectively separating hydrogen from at least one more strongly adsorbable component in a plurality of adsorption beds to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from a low hydrogen concentration feed with a high recovery rate. Each of the plurality of adsorption beds subjected to a repetitive cycle. The process comprises an adsorption step for producing the hydrogen-rich product from a feed gas mixture comprising 5% to 50% hydrogen, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas withdrawal steps, a provide purge step resulting in a first pressure decrease, a blowdown step resulting in a second pressure decrease, a purge step, at least two pressure equalization by void space gas introduction steps, and a repressurization step. The second pressure decrease is at least 2 times greater than the first pressure decrease.

  17. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remote locations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, considering two mixed-refrigerant and two expansion-based processes suitable for offshore applications. Two FPSO configurations are considered...

  18. Operation, Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2001-01-01

    The Reverse Water Gas Shift process is a candidate technology for water and oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production project. This report focuses on the operation and analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process, which has been constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A summary of results from the initial operation of the RWGS, process along with an analysis of these results is included in this report. In addition an evaluation of a material balance model developed from the work performed previously under the summer program is included along with recommendations for further experimental work.

  19. Numerical Studies of the Application of Shock Tube Technology for Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, R.; Bobzin, K.; Lugscheider, E.; Parkot, D.; Varava, W.; Olivier, H.; Luo, X.

    2007-12-01

    A new method for a combustion-free spraying is studied fundamentally by modeling and simulation in comparison with first experiments. The article focuses on the numerical simulation of the gas-particle nozzle flow, which is generated by the shock reflection at the end wall section of a shock tube. To study the physical fundamentals of this process, at present only a single shot operation is considered. The particles are injected downstream of the nozzle throat into a supersonic nozzle flow. The measurements of the particle velocity made by a laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) set up show that the maximum velocity amounts to 1220 m/s for stainless steel particles of 15 μm diameter. The CFD-Code (Fluent) is first verified by a comparison with available numerical and experimental data for gas and gas-particle flow fields in a long Laval-nozzle. The good agreement implied the great potential of the new dynamic process concept for cold-gas coating applications. Then the flow fields in the short Laval nozzle designed and realized by the Shock Wave Laboratory (SWL) are investigated. The gas flow for experimentally obtained stagnation conditions is simulated. The gas-particle flow without and with the influence of the particles on the gas flow is calculated by the Surface Engineering Institute (IOT) and compared with experiments. The influence of the injection parameters on the particle velocities is investigated, as well.

  20. Corporate social responsibility as communicational strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Jorge C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Based on a concrete case, the negotiation of compensation and reparation for environmental damage in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this paper deals with the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as main strategic instrument to set up a relationship among state, businesses and the civil society in the process of licensing and deploying gas pipelines. In this kind of process, a few cultural aspects, such as a social pattern based in philanthropy and paternalism, make difficult for any agreement to be reached among the stake holders. As a result, the process of licensing becomes slow and fragile. In some cases, negotiation ends up unsuccessful. This mental model coexists with an imperious need for investments in energy, leading to a hard contradiction between a traditional behavior and the surge of modern consumerism habits. Besides, local legislation and bureaucracy allow for few or no options to solve the conflict. In this context, as will be seen, CSR is a preferential way to establish fruitful dialog. By means of Corporate Social Investments (CSI), it is possible to create a common experience of local development among entrepreneurs, the state and the community, by this breaking communication barriers and providing alternatives to solve the original contradiction. (author)

  1. Process for the separation of C sub 2 hydrocarbons from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.; Sapper, R.

    1990-08-21

    A process for the separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas under pressure is disclosed, in which the natural gas is cooled, partially condensed, and separated into a liquid fraction and a gaseous fraction. The liquid fraction is subcooled and then expanded into the upper zone of a rectifying column. The gaseous fraction, after engine expansion, is also introduced into the rectifying column. During rectification, a product stream containing essentially C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons and a residual gas stream containing predominantly lower-boiling components are obtained. The residual gas stream is initially heated by heat exchange with the liquid fraction and then heated by heat exchange with the gaseous fraction obtained after partial condensation. The residual gas stream is then further heated by heat exchange with the feed stream of natural gas to be partially condensed. The heated residual gas is then engine expanded and reheated again by heat exchange with the feed stream of natural gas to be partially condensed.

  2. 3D Simulation of Neutral Gas Dynamics for PVD DC-MSIP and HPPMS Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Bobzin, Kirsten; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Brugnara, Ricardo Henrique; Schäfer, Marcel; Trieschmann, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetron sputtering processes used for physical vapor deposition often require gas pressures well below 1 Pa. Under these conditions the gas flow in the reactor is usually determined by a Knudsen number of about one, i.e. a transition regime between the hydrodynamic and the rarefied gas regime. In the first, the gas flow is well described by the Navier-Stokes equations, while in the second a kinetic approach via the Boltzmann equation is necessary. In this paper the neutral and reactive gas flow of argon and molecular nitrogen gas inside an industrial scale plasma reactor is simulated using a fluid model, as well as a fully kinetic model. The results are compared and it is found that the gas flow appears to be significantly different, although the neutral particles exhibit a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in energy space for both approaches. It is shown that the results are in qualitative agreement and the main expected characteristics of the gas flow are covered by both models. However, only the kinetic mod...

  3. Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Bogdan Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called

  4. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…

  5. Exploring Language and Diplomatic Thinking through Process Types: A Contrastive Study on Sino-British Diplomatic Thinking Based on the China-UK Joint Declaration

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chen

    2016-01-01

    The China-UK Joint Declaration on Building a Global Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for the 21st Century is one of the fruits of Chinese President Xi Jinping’s recent official state visit to the Great Britain. As a typical and important diplomatic language document, the Joint Declaration deserves scientific research. In this paper, based on the six process types of Halliday’s Transitivity system, we attempt to disclose the diplomatic thinking underlying the employment of process types and...

  6. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  7. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.

    1978-01-01

    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  8. Features of the content of corporate contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Petrovna Gladneva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the legal nature to reveal the peculiarities of the subject and other essential terms of corporate contracts as a technique and means of legal regulation of corporate relations. Methods general and specific methods of cognition dialectical formal logic analysis synthesis modeling structural and systemicfunctional methods as well as comparative legal logical legal historical legal grammatical methods and systemic interpretation. Results it is concluded that the object of corporate contracts includes terms about the features of implementation of corporate rights for shares and share in capital assets conditions order of the implementation of corporate rights and approval of other actions related to company management activity reorganization and liquidation the passive duty of corporate organizations to refrain from committing any action authority arising from the nature of corporate agreements as well as the active responsibilities associated with the certain implementation of corporate rights certified by stocks shares rights to stocks shares. In addition to the subject the content of corporate contractsincludes other essential necessary conditions stipulated by the corporate legislation norms and the agreement of the participants of economic entity. Scientific novelty for the first time taking into account modern achievements of civilistic jurisprudence and practice the authors investigate the relationship between the concepts of a civil contract and corporate contract give the definition of corporate contract show the specificity of the subject and other material terms of corporate contracts. Practical significance the findings can be taken into account in the further research of corporate law issues as subbranch of civil law used in law making and enforcement activities in the educational process as a teaching material in civil law. nbsp

  9. Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

    2006-09-30

    This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated

  10. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  11. Environmental Impact during Shale Gas Exploration and Development Process%页岩气勘探开发过程中的环境影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚运; 柯研; 周晓珉; 李骞

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, China is actively promoting ihe exploration and development of shale gas resources; meanwhile, its environmental impact during exploration and development process lack scientific assessment and normative management. Based on systematic analyses of the shale gas exploration and development main processes which include site selection and construction, horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and production, this paper identifies the main factors of ecological destruction and environmental pollution and the referential techniques and experience. Combined with the distribution and the exploration and development status quo of shale gas resources in China, the paper presents the direciion of environmental protection and management during shale gas development process from three levels of regulations and policies, corporate responsibility and technology innovation in China.%当前,我国正积极推进页岩气资源的勘探和开发工作,但其对环境的影响尚缺乏科学评价和规范管理.在系统分析页岩气勘探开发主要流程:井场选址与建设、水平井钻井、水力压裂和投产等的基础上,辨识了其造成生态破坏和环境污染的主要因素以及可借鉴的技术和经验.结合我国页岩气资源的分布和勘探开发现状,从法规政策、企业责任以及技术创新三个层面,提出我国页岩气开发过程中环境保护和管理应努力的方向.

  12. The limits of corporate social responsibility and the possibilities for harnessing mining to reinstitute processes of state-led local development in the DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractParallel with the increasing liberalisation of the Congolese economy since the turn of the century has been the increasing delegation of previously state-held functions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to corporate actors, and in particular transnational mining corporations

  13. The Management Mechanism Design of Corporate Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The corporate entrepreneurship has become an important part in the business mana gement as well as a worldwide fashion. Traditional management idealism, organiza tion structure, management technology and enterprise culture have influenced the further step of the whole process to some extent. Therefore, manager should sea rch for the plausible management mechanism with an aim to support the corporate entrepreneurship. It includes strengthening the corporate risk-taking, setting up motivation mechanism for...

  14. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference

  15. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2011-05-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Test programs performed in recent years have shown that mercury in off-gas streams from processes that treat radioactive wastes can be controlled using fixed beds of activated sulfur-impregnated carbon, to levels low enough to comply with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards. Carbon bed hot spots or fires have occurred several times during these tests, and also during a remediation of tanks that contained mixed waste. Hot spots occur when localized areas in a carbon bed become heated to temperatures where oxidation occurs. This heating typically occurs due to heat of absoption of gas species onto the carbon, but it can also be caused through external means such as external heaters used to heat the carbon bed vessel. Hot spots, if not promptly mitigated, can grow into bed fires. Carbon bed hot spots and fires must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Hot spots are detected by (a) monitoring in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (b) more important, monitoring of bed outlet gas CO concentrations. Hot spots are mitigated by (a) designing for appropriate in-bed gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) appropriate monitoring and control of gas and bed temperatures and compositions, and (c) prompt implementation of corrective actions if bed hot spots are detected. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from.

  16. Acoustic Emission Characteristics of Gas-Containing Coal during Loading Dilation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raw coal was used as the study object in this paper to identify the evolution characteristics of acoustic emission (AE during the dilation process of gas-containing coal. The coal specimens were stored in gas seal devices filled with gas at different pressures (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MPa for 24 h prior to testing. Then, the specimens were tested in a rock-testing machine, and the deformation and crack fracture patterns were recorded by using strain gauges and an AE system. The axial and volumetric strains–stress curves were analyzed in relation to the AE and the failure mode. Results show that as gas pressure increases, the uniaxial compression strength and elasticity modulus of gas-containing coal decreases, whereas the Poisson’s ratio increases. In all the coal specimens, the dilation initiation stress decreases, and the dilation degree increases. During the dilation process, before the loaded coal specimens reach peak stress, and as the load increases, the changes in the specimens and in the AE energy parameter of specimens can be divided into four phases: crack closure deformation, elastic deformation, stable crack propagation, and unstable crack propagation (dilation process. Across the four phases, the AE energy increases evidently during crack closure and elastic deformation but decreases during stable crack propagation. As the gas pressure increases, the AE signal frequency increases from 4.5 KHz to 8.1 KHz during the dilation process. Thus, the gas presence in coal specimens exerts a significant influence on the closure of sample cracks and dilation damage.

  17. Coal damage mechanism in the developing process of coal and gas outburst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Hong-wei; HU Qian-ting; LIANG Yun-pei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the damage analysis of elliptical aperture, the mechanism of coal dam-age in the developing process of coal and gas outburst was researched. The results show that the damage to coal by gas is mainly caused by the concentrated tensile stress appearing near the endpoint of the pores. Fractures in coal, gas pressure, ground stress and the tensile strength of the coal matrix are the major controlling factors of this kind of damage. When the ground stress releases abruptly and the gas pressure is high, tensile failure will occur around the endpoint of the small pores due to gas pressure, and the coal may be broken up like pow-der; this is called pulverization. Otherwise, when the gas pressure is low, the tensile stress can only occur around the endpoint of the large pores and fractures due to gas pressure, the frac-tures in coal extend and link together, the fracture extension direction is statistically perpen-dicular to the direction of the minor principal stress. This kind of damage is shown as the strati-fied spall around the outburst hole.

  18. Qualitative gas temperature distribution in positive DC glow corona using spectral image processing in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Inada, Yoichi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Izawa, Yasuji; Nishijima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method of determining a qualitative two-dimensional image of the gas temperature in stationary atmospheric nonthermal plasma by spectral image processing was presented. In the experiment, a steady-state glow corona discharge was generated by applying a positive DC voltage to a rod-plane electrode in synthetic air. The changes in the gas temperature distribution due to the amplitude of applied voltage and the ambient gas pressure were investigated. Spectral images of a positive DC glow corona were taken using a gated ICCD camera with ultranarrow band-pass filters, corresponding to the head and tail of a N2 second positive system band (0-2). The qualitative gas temperature was obtained from the emission intensity ratio between the head and tail of the N2 second positive system band (0-2). From the results, we confirmed that the gas temperature and its distribution of a positive DC glow corona increased with increasing applied voltage. In particular, just before the sparkover voltage, a distinctly high temperature region was formed in the positive DC glow at the tip of the rod electrode. In addition, the gas temperature decreased and its distribution spread diffusely with decreasing ambient gas pressure.

  19. [Microbial Processes and Genesis of Methane Gas Jets in the Coastal Areas of the Crimea Peninsula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhova, T V; Kanapatskii, T A; Egorov, V N; Malakhova, L V; Artemov, Yu G; Evtushenko, D B; Gulin, S B; Pimenov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Hydroasoustic techniques were used for detection and mapping of gas jet areas in the coastal regions of the Crimean peninsula. Gas seep areas in the bays Laspi, Khersones, and Kazach'ya were chosen for detailed microbiological investigation. The first type of gas jets, observed in the Laspi Bay, was probably associated with discarge of deep thermogenic methane along the faults. Methane isotopic composition was char- acterized by Δ13C of -35.3 degrees. While elevated rates of aerobic methane oxidation were revealed in the sandy sediments adjacent to the methane release site, no evidence of bacterial mats was found. The second type of gas emission, observed in the Khersones Bay, was accompanied by formation of bacterial biofilms of the "Thiodendron" microbial community type, predominated by filamentous, spirochete-like organisms, in the areas of gas seepage. The isotopic composition of methane was there considerably lower (-60.4 degrees), indicating a considerable contribution of modern microbial methane to the gas bubbles discharged in this bay. Activity of the third type of gas emission, the seeps of the Kazach'ya Bay, probably depended directly on modern microbial processes of organic matter degradation in the upper sediment layers. The rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were 260 and 34 μmol dm(-3) day(-1), respectively. Our results indicate different mechanisms responsible for formation of methane jets in the Laspi Bay and in the coastal areas of the Heracles Peninsula, where the bays Kazach'ya and Khersones are located.

  20. Increasing the capacity of the NEAG natural gas processing plants; Kapazitaetssteigerung der Erdgasaufbereitungsanlagen der NEAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, W.; Weiss, A. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The fact that new deposits of sour natural gas were found in the concessions at Scholen/Wesergebirgsvorland and that a sour gas pipeline was built from the BEB-operated field in South-Oldenburg increased the sour gas volume handled by the North German Natural Gas Processing Company (NEAG) so much, that capacities had to be stepped up. This paper describes the measures taken to increase capacities. Various interesting process engineering methods employed to remove bottlenecks in the parts of the plant are described in detail. These refer to the modification of the baffle plates in the high-pressure absorber of the Purisolwashers NEAG I, as well as in the expansion tank and the purified gas waher of the NEAG III washing plant as well as comprehensive modifications of the MODOP-flue gas scrubber NEAG III (orig.) [Deutsch] Neue Sauergasfunde in den Konzessionen Scholen/Wiehengebirgsvorland sowie der Bau der Sauergasverbindungsleitung aus dem von BEB operierten Feldesbereich Sued-Oldenburg haben die der Norddeutschen Erdgas-Aufbereitungsgesellschaft (NEAG) in Voigtei angebotenen Sauergasmengen soweit erhoeht, dass eine Kapazitaetserhoehung notwendig wurde. Im Rahmen des Vortrages werden die Massnahmen zur Kapazitaetssteigerung vorgestellt. Einige verfahrenstechnisch besonders interessante Loesungen zur Beseitigung von Engpaessen in Anlagenteilen werden detailliert beschrieben. Es handelt sich hierbei um die Modifikation der Einbauten im Hochdruckabsorber der Purisolwaesche NEAG I, im Entspannungsbehaelter und Reingaswaescher der Waesche NEAG III sowie umfangreiche Aenderungen im Bereich der MODOP-Abgasreinigungsanlage NEAG III. (orig.)

  1. Processamento cognitivo e equilíbrio corporal em idosos com disfunção vestibular Cognitive processing and body balance in elderly subjects with vestibular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cristina dos Santos Caixeta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Idosos com disfunção vestibular crônica podem apresentar alteração do equilíbrio corporal e disfunção cognitiva. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre o processamento cognitivo e o equilíbrio corporal de idosos com vestibulopatia periférica crônica. Forma de Estudo: Transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O estudo incluiu 76 pacientes (> 60 anos, com disfunção vestibular periférica crônica, com queixa de tontura há mais de três meses. Os testes utilizados para investigar o equilíbrio corporal foram: Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Dynamic Gait Index (DGI, Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT e Timed Up Go Test modificado (TUGTm e para a avaliação cognitiva utilizou-se Mini Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM, Teste do Relógio (TR e Teste de Fluência Verbal (FV. RESULTADOS: A média etária dos pacientes foi de 69,03 anos (DP=6,21 anos, sendo a maioria feminina (82,9%. Observou-se correlação negativa significante entre o MEEM e TUGT (ρ=-0,312; p=0,01, MEEM e TUGTm (ρ=-0,306; p=0,01, FV e TUGT (ρ=-0,346; p=0,01 e FV e TUGTm (ρ=-0,536; p=0,01; e correlação positiva significante entre TR e BBS (ρ=0,343; p=0,01, TR e DGI (ρ=0,298; p=0,01, FV e BBS (ρ=0,299; p=0,01, e FV e DGI (ρ=0,306; p=0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Idosos com vestibulopatia periférica crônica com pior desempenho no equilíbrio corporal funcional apresentam prejuízo nas habilidades cognitivas.Abnormal body balance and cognitive dysfunction may develop in elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction. AIM: To evaluate the relationship between cognitive processing and body balance in elderly patients with chronic peripheral vestibular disease. Type of Study: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Seventy-six patients (> 60 years with chronic peripheral vestibular dysfunction and dizziness for more than three months were enrolled. The tests for investigating body balance were: the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Dynamic Gait Index (DGI, Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT Timed Up and Go Test modified (TUGTm; the

  2. Exergy analysis of offshore processes on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    generation. In this paper, the most thermodynamically inefficient processes are identified by performing an exergy analysis, based on models built with the simulation tools Aspen Plus®, DNA and Aspen HYSYS®. Results reveal that the total exergy destruction of the system amounts to 69.4 MW, while the total...... exergy losses amount to 22.3 MW. The gas lifting train and the production-separation module are the most exergy-destructive operations of the oil and gas processing system, consuming 8.83 MW and 8.17 MW respectively, while the power generation system alone is responsible for 46.7 MW. The exergetic...

  3. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  4. Investigation of a Gas-Solid Separation Process for Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Clement, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The gas/solid heat exchanger (2D-HX), developed to replace the cyclone preheaters in cement plants is presented. This design aims at reducing construction height and operation costs. The separation process in the 2D-HX is experimentally investigated, and the results show that separation efficienc......The gas/solid heat exchanger (2D-HX), developed to replace the cyclone preheaters in cement plants is presented. This design aims at reducing construction height and operation costs. The separation process in the 2D-HX is experimentally investigated, and the results show that separation...

  5. Energy transfer process in gas models of Lennard-Jones interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jinghua; Wang, Jiao; Zhao, Hong

    2011-01-01

    We perform simulations to investigate how the energy carried by a molecule transfers to others in an equilibrium gas model. For this purpose we consider a microcanonical ensemble of equilibrium gas systems, each of them contains a tagged molecule located at the same position initially. The ensuing transfer process of the energy initially carried by the tagged molecule is then exposed in terms of the ensemble-averaged energy density distribution. In both a 2D and a 3D gas model with Lennard-Jones interactions at room temperature, it is found that the energy carried by a molecule propagates in the gas ballistically, in clear contrast with the Gaussian diffusion widely assumed in previous studies. A possible scheme of experimental study of this issue is also proposed

  6. Nongray-gas Effects in Modeling of Large-scale Oxy-fuel Combustion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    , among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a large-scale utility boiler is numerically investigated......, the gray calculation of the oxy-fuel WSGGM remarkably over-predicts the radiative heat transfer to the furnace walls and under-predicts the gas temperature at the furnace exit plane, which also result in a higher incomplete combustion in the gray calculation. Moreover, the gray and non-gray calculations......Quite some studies have been conducted in order to implement oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycle in conventional utility boilers as an effective effort of carbon capture and storage. However, combustion under oxy-fuel conditions is significantly different from conventional air-fuel firing...

  7. Gas Service Areas, LP and LNG, As recorded with Arizona Corporation Commission, Published in 2003, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, UniSource Energy Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Service Areas, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2003....

  8. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  9. Modelling of tetrahydrofuran promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    accurate descriptions of both fluid- and hydrate phase equilibria in the studied system and its subsystems. The developed model is applied to simulate two simplified, gas hydrate-based processes for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture from power station flue gases. The first process, an unpromoted...... hydrate process, operates isothermally at a temperature of 280. K. Applying three consecutive hydrate formation/dissociation stages (three-stage capture process), a carbon dioxide-rich product (97. mol%) is finally delivered at a temperature of 280. K and a pressure of 3.65. MPa. The minimum pressure...... requirement of the first stage is estimated to be 24.9. MPa, corresponding to the incipient hydrate dissociation pressure at 280. K for the considered flue gas. A second simulated carbon dioxide capture process uses tetrahydrofuran as a thermodynamic promoter to reduce the pressure requirements. By doing so...

  10. Survey of processes for high temperature-high pressure gas purification. [52 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.P.; Edwards, M.S.

    1978-11-01

    In order to ensure the optimum operating efficiency of a combined-cycle electric power generating system, it is necessary to provide gas treatment processes capable of operating at high temperatures (> 1000/sup 0/F) and high pressures (> 10 atm (absolute)). These systems will be required to condition the inlet stream to the gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) to be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. A survey of the available and developmental processes for the removal of these various contaminant materials has been conducted. Based on the data obtained from a variety of sources, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of potential cleanup processes in view of the overall system needs. The results indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup systems (for the removal of H/sub 2/S, particulate matter, alkali, and nitrogen compounds) capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for turbine use will not be available for some time.

  11. Conventional processes and membrane technology for carbon dioxide removal from natural gas: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zee Ying Yeo; Thiam Leng Chew; Peng Wei Zhu; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Siang-Piao Chai

    2012-01-01

    Membrane technology is becoming more important for CO2 separation from natural gas in the new era due to its process simplicity,relative ease of operation and control,compact,and easy to scale up as compared with conventional processes.Conventional processes such as absorption and adsorption for CO2 separation from natural gas are generally more energy demanding and costly for both operation and maintenance.Polymeric membranes are the current commercial membranes used for CO2 separation from natural gas.However,polymeric membranes possess drawbacks such as low permeability and selectivity,plasticization at high temperatures,as well as insufficient thermal and chemical stability.The shortcomings of commercial polymeric membranes have motivated researchers to opt for other alternatives,especially inorganic membranes due to their higher thermal stability,good chemical resistance to solvents,high mechanical strength and long lifetime.Surface modifications can be utilized in inorganic membranes to further enhance the selectivity,permeability or catalytic activities of the membrane.This paper is to provide a comprehensive review on gas separation,comparing membrane technology with other conventional methods of recovering CO2 from natural gas,challenges of current commercial polymeric membranes and inorganic membranes for CO2 removal and membrane surface modification for improved selectivity.

  12. Gas-assisted gravity drainage (GAGD) process for improved oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dandina N [Baton Rouge, LA

    2012-07-10

    A rapid and inexpensive process for increasing the amount of hydrocarbons (e.g., oil) produced and the rate of production from subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by displacing oil downwards within the oil reservoir and into an oil recovery apparatus is disclosed. The process is referred to as "gas-assisted gravity drainage" and comprises the steps of placing one or more horizontal producer wells near the bottom of a payzone (i.e., rock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities) of a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing reservoir and injecting a fluid displacer (e.g., CO.sub.2) through one or more vertical wells or horizontal wells. Pre-existing vertical wells may be used to inject the fluid displacer into the reservoir. As the fluid displacer is injected into the top portion of the reservoir, it forms a gas zone, which displaces oil and water downward towards the horizontal producer well(s).

  13. Erosion processes and micro-particle production in gas discharge lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letardi, T.; Giordano, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The erosion processes of the cathode for pulsed excimer gas lasers are explained by comparing the initiation conditions of the pulsed excimer gas laser discharge to that of the vacuum discharge breakdown. The number of the micro-particles, generated due to the above cathode-processes, are estimated. Several possible influences of the micro-particles on performances of the gas discharge lasers are analyzed. Two methods for eliminating the micro-particles or reducing their influences are discussed. [Italian] Viene descritto, comparandolo con la scarica in vuoto, il processo di erosione del catodo di un laser ad eccimeri a scarica. Viene stimato il numero delle micro-particelle generate dal processo di scarica. Vengono analizzate le possibili influenze di tali micro-particelle sulle prestazioni dei laser a scarica. Sono presentati e discussi due possibili metodi per la eliminazione delle micro-particelle generate dalla scarica.

  14. Three-Dimensional Model for Electrospinning Processes in Controlled Gas Counterflow

    CERN Document Server

    Lauricella, Marco; Succi, Sauro

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of a controlled gas flow on the dynamics of electrified jets in the electrospinning process. The main idea is to model the air drag effects of the gas flow by using a non-linear Langevin-like approach. The model is employed to investigate the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that a controlled gas counterflow can lead to a decrease of the average diameter of electrospun fibers, and potentially to an improvement of the quality of electrospun products. We probe the influence of air drag effects on the bending instabilities of the jet and on its angular fluctuations during the process. The insights provided by this study might prove useful for the design of future electrospinning experiments and polymer nanofiber materials.

  15. The politics of being Muslim and being British in the British Christian print media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been a significant number of published studies in recent years on the British media representation of Muslims. These studies have tended to focus only on the British mainstream media, and to my knowledge, there is no significant research on the discursive construction of British Muslims in alternative media outlets. This paper attempts to fill this gap, focusing on the representations of British Muslims in the British Christian print media. Drawing on empirical data relating to four British Christian print media, Church Times, The Tablet, Evangelicals Now and Evangelical Times, this paper investigates how the questions of being Muslim and being British are dealt with in the British Christian print media, and the extent to which the politics of being Muslim and being British inform us about identity formation and affirmation.

  16. Corporate Governance- Issues and Challenges in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenish Ameer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistani companies are crucial for attaining the better position in the global market by adopting the actual concept of corporate governance. Corporate governance is a worldwide phenomenon. Corporate Governance is the system of rules, practices and processes by which a company is directed and controlled. This research paper focuses on the finding & reviewing of the issues and challenges faced by corporate governance in Pakistan. Keeping in view the objectives of this study , research design was adopted to have greater accuracy and in depth analysis of the research study. Available secondary data was extensively used for the study. The investigator procures the required data through secondary survey method. Different news articles, Books and Web were used which were enumerated and recorded The causes of poor corporate governance in Pakistani companies are ineffectiveness of INED’s in Pakistani companies, a lack of understanding, inadequately trained personnel, coverage, policy etc. further adds to the reach and effectiveness of corporate governance programs.

  17. Corporate social responsibility and the tobacco industry: hope or hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, N

    2004-12-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) emerged from a realisation among transnational corporations of the need to account for and redress their adverse impact on society: specifically, on human rights, labour practices, and the environment. Two transnational tobacco companies have recently adopted CSR: Philip Morris, and British American Tobacco. This report explains the origins and theory behind CSR; examines internal company documents from Philip Morris showing the company's deliberations on the matter, and the company's perspective on its own behaviour; and reflects on whether marketing tobacco is antithetical to social responsibility.

  18. USING THE BUSINESS ENGINEERING APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS FOR A LARGE CORPORATION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Moll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most South African organisations were historically part of a closed competitive system with little global competition and a relatively stable economy (Manning: 18, Sunter: 32. Since the political transformation, the globalisation of the world economy, the decline of world economic fundamentals and specific challenges in the South African scenario such as GEAR and employment equity, the whole playingfield has changed. With these changes, new challenges ', appear. A significant challenge for organisations within this scenario is to think, plan and manage strategically. In order to do so, the organisation must understand its relationship with its environment and establish innovative new strategies to manipulate; interact with; and ultimately survive in the environment. The legacy of the past has, in many organisations, implanted an operational short-term focus because the planning horizon was stable. It was sufficient to construct annual plans rather than strategies. These plans were typically internally focused rather than driven by the external environment. Strategic planning in this environment tended to be a form of team building through which the various members of the organisation 's management team discussed and documented the problems of the day. A case study is presented of the development of a strategic management process for a large South African Mining company. The authors believe that the approach is a new and different way of addressing a problem that exists in many organisations - the establishment of a process of strategic thinking, whilst at the same time ensuring that a formal process of strategic planning is followed in order to prompt the management of the organisation for strategic action. The lessons that were drawn from this process are applicable to a larger audience due to the homogenous nature of the management style of a large number of South African organisations.

  19. Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  20. The role of personnel marketing in the process of building corporate social responsibility strategy of a scientific unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarosławska-Sobór

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to discuss the significance of human capital in the process of building the strategy of social responsibility and the role of personnel marketing in the process. Dynamically changing social environment has enforced a new way of looking at non-material resources. Organizations have understood that it is human capital and social competences that have a significant impact on the creation of an organization’s value, generating profits, as well as gaining competitive advantage in the 21st century. Personnel marketing is now a key element in the process of implementation of the CSR concept and building the value of contemporary organizations, especially such unique organizations as scientific units. In this article you will find a discussion concerning the basic values regarded as crucial by the Central Mining Institute in the context of their significance for the paradigm of social responsibility. Such an analysis was carried out on the basis of the experiences of Central Mining Institute (GIG in the development of strategic CSR, which takes into consideration the specific character of the Institute as a scientific unit.

  1. Optical methods to study the gas exchange processes in large diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S.; Hattar, C. [Wartsila Diesel International Oy, Vaasa (Finland); Hernberg, R.; Vattulainen, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology, Tampere (Finland). Plasma Technology Lab.

    1996-12-01

    To be able to study the gas exchange processes in realistic conditions for a single cylinder of a large production-line-type diesel engine, a fast optical absorption spectroscopic method was developed. With this method line-of-sight UV-absorption of SO{sub 2} contained in the exhaust gas was measured as a function of time in the exhaust port area in a continuously fired medium speed diesel engine type Waertsilae 6L20. SO{sub 2} formed during the combustion from the fuel contained sulphur was used as a tracer to study the gas exchange as a function of time in the exhaust channel. In this case of a 4-stroke diesel engine by assuming a known concentration of SO{sub 2} in the exhaust gas after exhaust valve opening and before inlet and exhaust valve overlap period, the measured optical absorption was used to determine the gas density and further the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature during the exhaust cycle. (author)

  2. Characteristics and Microstructure of a Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloy Powder by Ultrasonic Gas Atomization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A hypereutectic Al-Si alloy powder was prepared by ultrasonic gas atomization process. The morphologies, microstructure and phase constituent of the alloy powder were studied. The results showed that powder of the alloy was very fine and its rnicrostructure was mainly consisted of Si crystals plus intermetallic compound Al9FeSi3, which were. very fine and uniformly distributed.

  3. U-GAS coal gasification process with in-situ desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium based sorbents such as limestone and dolomite have been used in conjunction with the U-GAS coal gasification process for in-situ capture of sulfur present in the coal. Under the reducing conditions of the gasifier, these sorbents react with sulfur compounds to form calcium sulfide. As a unique feature of the U-GAS process, the calcium sulfide could be further reacted with air in the ash discharge zone to form calcium sulfate, which is environmentally acceptable for disposal directly from the gasifier along with the agglomerated ash. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has conducted considerable testing in this area under different programs. The suitability of dolomite as in-situ sulfur capturing agent has been verified in U-GAS process using high-sulfur Pittsburgh coal. The gasification tests were conducted at 1850{degree}F in pressure ranges of 100 to 450 psig. The kinetics of the reaction between calcium based sorbents and hydrogen sulfide at these gasification conditions have been derived separately using a thermogravimetric technique. Effect of temperature, pressure, and particle size on the reaction rate were also included in these latter tests. Furthermore, the operating conditions and the type of sorbents suitable for achieving maximum calcium conversion to calcium sulfate during the oxidation step of the process have also been identified. 9 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. THERMAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC GRINDING PROCESS OF GAS AND THERMAL PROTECTIVE COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Spiridonov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals thermal zones of magnetic and electric grinding process. The influence of electric and physical parameters of magnetic and electric grinding on temperature in the zone of gas and thermal protective coatings has been established in the paper.

  5. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Z.; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K.I.; Wessling, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid se

  6. British Telecom and Project Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, G. H. L.; Morrow, G.

    1983-07-01

    Factors influencing the emergence of local area network (LANs) are covered along with British Telecom's involvement in Project Universe, an experiment to produce high-speed data links between several LANs in the United Kingdom with the Orbital Test Satellite (OTS). Other functions of Project Universe include measuring the network components performance, developing procedures for using the system for computer-computer and terminal-computer operations, and investigating the use of LAN satellites for business and computer communications. British Telecom has been involved with Project Universe since its inception. A standard Videotex system has been connected to the Cambridge Ring, consequently providing Videotex terminals attached to the ring access to a special Universe Prestel system. Future goals include replacing the OTS with a new satellite with a terminal operating at 8-10 Mbit/s. Block diagrams are provided.

  7. Improved adsorption technology for gas treatment in LNG installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeman, J.J.

    1990-06-01

    The production and storage of Liquefied Natural Gas plays an important role in the British Gas strategy for meeting winter peak demands for gas in the UK. The feed gas to the liquefaction plants must be purified to remove carbon dioxide and water vapour which would otherwise freeze and cause blockages in the liquefaction plant. To remove carbon dioxide and water to the very low levels required an adsorption process is used. Faced with the problem of processing natural gas containing carbon dioxide concentrations in excess of the design values, the true adsorption capacity of commercially available adsorbents was investigated and the adsorption purification process examined in detail. Mathematical models of adsorption and regeneration were developed, which have allowed these purification plants to be more precisely designed, and existing plants to process gases containing carbon dioxide concentrations up to eight times the design value. (author).

  8. Enhancing the concept of corporate diplomacy : encompassing political corporate social responsibility, international relations, and peace through commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann-Behaylo, M.K.; Rehbein, K.; Fort, T.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate diplomacy is an emerging concept within the management literature. It describes corporate conduct in the international arena, particularly in challenging political and social environments. Management scholarship and practitioner literature have focused on the communication processes and in

  9. Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained by random samplings, the fitted distributions should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence strongly suggests that larger fields tend to be discovered earlier in the discovery process than they would be by random sampling. Economic factors also can limit the number of small fields that are developed and reported. This paper examines observed size distributions in state and federal waters of offshore Texas. Results of the analysis demonstrate how the shape of the observable size distributions change with significant hydrocarbon price changes. Comparison of state and federal observed size distributions in the offshore area shows how production cost differences also affect the shape of the observed size distribution. Methods for modifying the discovery rate estimation procedures when economic factors significantly affect the discovery sequence are presented. A primary conclusion of the analysis is that, because hydrocarbon price changes can significantly affect the observed discovery size distribution, one should not be confident about inferring the form and specific parameters of the parent field size distribution from the observed distributions. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  11. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  12. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  13. Fortune 500 Corporate Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Large Corporate Headquarters in the United States This database is composed of 'an annual list of the 500 largest industrial corporations in the U.S., published by...

  14. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  15. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I. [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Amsterdam, (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Corporate Business Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This article illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of the field of corporate business diplomacy using examples from academic disciplines, such as economics and political science, which can contribute to the understanding of corporate business diplomacy. Examples also show that corporate business...... diplomacy can complement business theories such as stakeholder theory and agency theory. Examples from practice show that in a broad sense, corporate business diplomacy is concerned with managing external stakeholders, while in a narrow sense, it is concerned with managing internal stakeholders...

  17. Corporate communications impact on corporate image and corporate competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Pirić

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an analysis of the impact of corporate communications and of the intensity of their application on a company’s image management, and an emphasis of the role that a company’s image plays as one of the fundamental sources of its competitiveness in contemporary market conditions. Through review and analysis of theoretical contributions, the paper shows how corporate communications integrate management, organization and the marketing communication dimension at the lev...

  18. 25 CFR 227.6 - Corporations and corporate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporations and corporate information. 227.6 Section 227... § 227.6 Corporations and corporate information. (a) If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it... the lands are located, evidence showing compliance with the corporation laws thereof. Statements...

  19. 25 CFR 213.14 - Corporations and corporate information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporations and corporate information. 213.14 Section... Corporations and corporate information. If the applicant for a lease is a corporation, it shall file evidence..., evidence showing compliance with the corporation laws thereof. Statements of changes in officers...

  20. Evolution of Corporate Essence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2016-01-01

    , it offers a legal framework where public benefit is more important than profits. As a corporate entity, Public Benefit Corporation already exists in numerous jurisdictions and those jurisdictions that do not yet facilitate creation of this corporate form should most definitely consider it....

  1. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of corporate communications…

  2. A process mining approach to redesign business processes : A case study in gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, N. R. T. P.; Maruster, L.; Negru,; Jebelean, T; Petcu, D; Zaharie, D

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays organizations have to adjust their business processes along with the changing environment, in order to maintain a competitive advantage. Often, a change in a part of the system which is to support the business process implies a change of the whole system, which causes complex redesign activ

  3. Anoxic incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags: a method for biogeochemical process studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, JW; Thamdrup, B.; Jørgensen, BB

    2000-01-01

    Incubation of sediment in gas-tight plastic bags is described as a method for experimental studies of biogeochemical processes. Sediment incubation in these bags allows time-course experiments to be conducted on homogenised sediment without dilution, continuous stirring, or gaseous head......-space. Consequently, bag incubations of sediment combine the advantage of low heterogeneity in slurry incubations with the more natural conditions in jar and whole-core incubations. The bag material is a transparent laminated plastic comprised of Nylon, ethylenevinyl alcohol, and polyethylene with a low permeability...... for the studied gases: O-2, CO2, H2S, CH4, N-2, H-2, and He. Estimated fluxes of biologically active gases through the plastic bag during sediment incubation were insignificant compared to rates of microbial processes and to gas concentrations in coastal sediments. An exception was CH4, for which process...

  4. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs.

  5. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis.

  6. Numerical simulation of gas-dynamic, thermal processes and evaluation of the stress-strain state in the modeling compressor of the gas-distributing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakov, A. F.; Modorskii, V. Ya.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of gas-dynamic processes occurring in the flow path, thermal analysis and evaluation of the stress-strain state of a three-stage design of the compressor gas pumping unit. Physical and mathematical models of the processes developed. Numerical simulation was carried out in the engineering software ANSYS 13. The problem is solved in a coupled statement, in which the results of the gas-dynamic calculation transferred as boundary conditions for the evaluation of the thermal and stress-strain state of a three-stage design of the compressor gas pumping unit. The basic parameters, which affect the stress-strain state of the housing and changing gaps of labyrinth seals in construction. The method of analysis of the pumped gas flow influence on the strain of construction was developed.

  7. Optimisation of the Fischer-Tropsch process using zeolites for tail gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carbajo, J; Gómez-Álvarez, P; Bueno-Perez, R; Merkling, P J; Calero, S

    2014-03-28

    This work is aimed at optimizing a Fischer-Tropsch Gas To Liquid (GTL) process by recycling compounds of the expelled gas mixture using zeolites for the separation. To that end, we have performed a computational study on four structures widely used in industry. A range of Si/Al ratios have been explored and the effects of their distribution assessed. The ability of the considered force fields and molecular models to reproduce experimental results has been widely proved in previously reported studies. Since this tail gas is formed by a five-component mixture, namely carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and hydrogen, molecular simulations present clear advantages over experiments. In addition, the viability of the Ideal Adsorption Solution Theory (IAST) has been evaluated to easily handle further separation steps. On the basis of the obtained results, we provide a separation scheme to perform sequentially the separation of CO2, CH4, CO, N2 and H2.

  8. Purification technology of flue gas from remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩亭; 曾光明; 魏先勋; 袁兴中; 王丽平

    2002-01-01

    Through a practical example of treatment of the flue gas from the remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings, the design and calculation method of exhaust hood, as well as the principles and the equipments of dust removal, smoke abatement and harmful gas elimination were studied. Combination of centrifugal and wet dust removal can purify the dust high efficiently. The carbon black and harmful gases in the flue gas can be removed by adding a small quantity of activator to the absorption solution. The application results are that the dedusting efficiency is 97.43%, Cl2 control efficiency is 88.03%, the exhaust fume blackness is lower than Ringelman number I, and the purification device resistance is 1126Pa.

  9. Review of Slug Detection, Modeling and Control Techniques for Offshore Oil & Gas Production Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The current offshore oil & gas multi-phase production and transportation installations have big challenges related with the slugging flow: An unstable multi-phase flow regime where the flow rates, pressures and temperatures oscillate in the considered processes. Slug can be caused by different...... of these methods can simultaneously reduce the oil & gas production, which is a very big concern as the production rate is the key evaluation parameter for offshore production. We conclude that the slugging flow is a well-defined phenomenon, even though this subject has been extensively investigated in the past...... operating conditions and installation structures. The most severe slugs are often induced in long vertical risers or production wells, where liquid blocks gas at the riser/well base and correspondingly it causes the pressure to accumulate and hence originates the oscillating performance. There are many...

  10. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using biological processes : a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, M.; Soreanu, G.; Falletta, P.; Beland, M. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials, and can be corrosive to internal combustion engines. This study investigated biological H{sub 2}S removal processes with the aim of overcoming the chemical and disposal costs associated with existing chemically-based removal processes. Current biological H{sub 2}S removal processes were reviewed, and research needs for potential process improvements were identified. Processes included photoautotrophs; chemotrophs; bioreactors for H{sub 2}S removal involving phototrophic bacteria; continuous-flow reactors; phototube reactors; gas-fed batch reactors; bioscrubbers; biofilters; and biotrickling filters. Results of the review suggested that the preferred treatment method for H{sub 2}S gas containing streams depended on the source of the gas. In the case of H{sub 2}S in biogas, anaerobic methods involving phototrophic bacteria provided the inherent advantage of maintaining the anaerobic nature of the gas. Cholorobium limicola was recommended as a desirable bacterium due to its growth using inorganic substrates, its efficiency at converting sulfide to elemental sulfur, and its extracellular production of elemental sulfur. Fixed-film reactors had the greatest potential for cost-effective sulfide conversion. It was noted that light supply is one of the key cost components in the process and poses a major constraint. It was concluded that future research should focus on the development and use of energy efficient LEDs and the proper use of sunlight and reflectors to minimize the electrical energy use. 73 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  12. Corporate compliance and voluntary disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, A B

    1995-09-01

    In any event, the decision to institute a corporate compliance program is a relatively simple one. In view of the ambiguity surrounding certain fraud and abuse provisions, and the corporate "death sentence" that may result from program exclusion, a compliance program is always sound corporate policy. To be sure, if the compliance program is administered improperly, it can actually increase the likelihood of whistleblower actions and create a body of potentially hurtful documentation. But these dangers can be minimized by structuring the program to protect the self-evaluative process through relevant privileges. The risks also pale in comparison to the exposure to criminal or exclusionary sanctions when improper conduct goes undetected by an organization.

  13. CSR as Corporate Political Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we develop a conceptual framework to understand how a company’s CSR identity becomes defined as a political activity destabilizing the strong identity–image relations. We draw on theories of political CSR and organizational identity–image relations to study how CSR emerges...... as a corporate political activity in a context where the corporate CSR work is first appreciated and later critiqued by the public in the wake of socio-political events. We analyse the micro-organizational processes in the context of macro-political level changes, and we refer to this as the ‘identity......–image dynamics of political CSR’. Concretely, we describe in two vignettes how IKEA’s declared ‘apolitical and neutral’ CSR identity becomes entangled with national and international socio-political events that critically challenge the corporate engagement prior national understandings of citizenship rights...

  14. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  15. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  16. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    within the sea ice cover, including in the gaseous form. Diffusive processes will become dominant once internal melting is strong enough to stratify the brine network within the ice. In the Kapisilit case, the regular decrease of an internal gas peak intensity due to external forcing during ice growth......Recent data from a year-round survey of landfast sea ice growth in Barrow (Alaska) have shown how O2/N2 and O2/Ar ratios could be used to pinpoint primary production in sea ice and derive net productivity rates from the temporal evolution of the oxygen concentration at a given depth within the sea...... ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment...

  17. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

    2013-05-01

    Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non-process

  18. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate...

  19. Effect of fuel size and process temperature on fuel gas quality from CFB gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A.; Van Doorn, J. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    A bench-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier with a capacity of max. 500 kWh{sub th} has been used to study the effect of fuel size and process temperature. A higher process temperature (range tested: 750 to 910C) results in more air needed to maintain the desired temperature, a lower heating value of the product gas, a higher carbon conversion and a net increase of cold gas efficiency of the gasifier. A higher process temperature also results in less heavy tars. However, light tars (measured using the solid phase adsorbent (SPA) method) do show an odd behaviour. Some individual components within the group of light tars even increase in concentration when process temperature is raised. The main reason probably is that heavy tars decompose to these relatively stable light tar components. The particle size of the fuel does influence some product gas parameters considerably. The presence of small particles seems to increase the (heavy) tar concentration and decrease the conversion of fuel-nitrogen to ammonia. Small particles can also be responsible for large temperature gradients along the axis of the riser of a CFB-gasifier. This effect can be avoided by either mixing the fuel with larger particles or feed the small particles at the bottom of the reactor. 5 refs.

  20. Investigation of the moving-bed copper oxide process for flue gas cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Hoffman, J.S.; Yeh, J.T. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Resnik, K.P.; Vore, P.A. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is a dry, regenerable sorbent technique that uses supported copper oxide sorbent to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas generated by coal combustion. The process can be integrated into the design of advanced power systems, such as the Low-Emission Boiler System (LEBS) or the High-Performance Power System (HIPPS). This flue gas cleanup technique is currently being evaluated in a life-cycle test system (LCTS) with a moving-bed flue gas contactor at DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. An experimental data base being established will be used to verify reported technical and economic advantages, optimize process conditions, provide scaleup information, and validate absorber and regenerator mathematical models. In this communication, the results from several process parametric test series with the LCTS are discussed. The effects of various absorber and regenerator parameters on sorbent performance (e.g., SO{sub 2} removal) were investigated. Sorbent spheres of 1/8-in diameter were used as compared to 1/16-in sized sorbent of a previous study. Also discussed are modifications to the absorber to improve the operability of the LCTS when fly ash is present during coal combustion.

  1. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  2. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Urban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  3. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  4. The Application of Standardization System in Corporate Management and Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses three important components of corporate standardization system and their functions and how such a system can be used in corporate management and administration. It also offers certain solutions and suggestions to some of the existing problems in the process of implementing corporate standardization system.

  5. Large-Scale Elongated Gas Blowouts, Offshore Virginia/North Carolina: Process and Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Weissel, J. K.; Goff, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    A shipboard program conducted in May 2000 onboard the R/V Hatteras provided major new insight into the origin of the enigmatic "crack"-like features arranged in en-echelon fashion along a 40 km-long stretch of the outermost shelf off Virginia and North Carolina. High-resolution side-scan backscatter and chirp subbottom reflection data show the features are not simple normal faults, but appear to be large-scale excavations or craters resulting from massive expulsion of gas through the seafloor. Visualization of the dip- and strike-line sonar mosaics in three dimensions, along with co-registered seismic data, has improved the spatial resolution of the features and reveals a strong correlation between trapped gas and internally deformed, deltaic strata that drape the shelf edge. The geometry of the blowouts and their location along the outer shelf suggests a composite formation of the pockmark features, combining gas accumulation, down-slope creep of the deltaic strata and fluid expulsion. Shallow gas accumulation is seen clearly in the chirp profiles as bright, high amplitude reflections, obscuring any deeper reflectors. The gas is trapped beneath a thin veneer (few tens of meters) of stratified sediment draped across the outermost shelf/upper slope, which is interpreted as a shelf-edge delta, probably deposited since the last glacial maximum (LGM). The chirp data show clear evidence of internal deformation of the shelf-edge delta, including thickening and thinning of chaotic or transparent layers, segmentation and rotation of superjacent sections, and homoclinal contacts that emphasize contrasts between transparent and reflective intervals. The observed stratigraphic disturbance, most likely a result of downslope creep processes, is interpreted to create permeable pathways for upslope/updip gas migration and eventual expulsion. In summary, the new data 1) show that gas expulsion occurred after the deposition of a seaward-dipping wedge of sediments, which we suggest

  6. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.;

    2009-01-01

    utilizing oxygen that diffuses into the cover layer from the atmosphere. The methane oxidation process, which is governed by several environmental factors, can be exploited in engineered systems developed for methane emission mitigation. Mathematical models that account for methane oxidation can be used...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed.......Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...

  7. Tibetans' Fight Against British Invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Late in the 19th century, the Qing Central Governmentwas in a state of permanent decline, and its control oversome southwestern and northwestern areas suffered accordingly,making possible British and Russian incursions. In order to expand its sphereof influence and occupy all of Tibet,Britain clandestinely sent nominal preachers, tourists and explorers to explore for minerals in Tibet. Later,they managed to encroach on some of the adjacent countries of Tibet including Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, paving the way for invading Tibet.

  8. Best of Digital British Columbia : Digitization Around the Province

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science defines digitization as “the process of converting data to digital format for processing by a computer.” We have all heard about mass digitization projects such as the Google Digitization Project and Project Gutenberg, but local ’boutique’ digitization efforts do not receive as much fanfare. Digitization projects completed in BC showcase the unique culture and history of British Columbia. The BC Digitization Coalition is a new initiativ...

  9. Nano-sized cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for gas-to-liquid process applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Shik; Awate, S V; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, So Jung; Park, Moon Ju; Lee, Sang Deuk; Hong, Suk-In; Moon, Dong Ju

    2010-05-01

    Nano-sized cobalt supported catalysts were prepared for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in gas-to-liquid (GTL) process. The dependence of crystallite size and reducibility of Co3O4 on the supports were investigated with FTS activity. XRD peaks revealed nano crystallites ( Co/Al2O3 (70.0%) > Co/R_TiO2 (61%) > Co/A_TiO2 (57.5%).

  10. Fractal characteristics of surface crack evolution in the process of gas-containing coal extrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; Wang Enyuan; Ou Jianchun; Li Zhonghui; Wei Mingyao; Li Xuelong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,simulated experiment device of coal and gas outburst was employed to perform the experiment on gas-containing coal extrusion.In the experiment,coal surface cracks were observed with a highspeed camera and then the images were processed by sketch.Based on the above description,the paper studied the fractal dimension values from different positions of coal surface as well as their changing laws with time.The results show that there is a growing parabola treen of crack dimension value in the process of coal extrusion.Accordingly,we drew the conclusion that extruded coal crack evolution is a process of fractal dimension value increase.On the basis of factal dimension values taken from different parts of coal masses,a fractal dimension of the contour map was drawn.Thus,it is clear that the contour map involves different crack fractal dimension values from different positions.To be specific,where there are complicated force and violent movement In coal mass,there are higher fractal dimension values,i.e.,the further the middle of observation surface is from the exit of coal mass,and the lower the fractal dimension value is.In line with fractal geometry and energy theory of coal and gas outburst,this study presents the relation between fractal dimension and energy in the process of extruding.In conclusion,the evolution of crack fractal dimension value can signify that of energy,which has laid a solid foundation for the quantification research on the mechanism of gas-containing coal extrusion.

  11. Effects of corporate governance on corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    López González, Eva

    2015-01-01

    One of the most critical strategic and enduring assets that a corporation may possess is good reputation. The positive impact of corporate reputation on firm performance has been analyzed and documented for ages. Intangible assets like reputation are increasing their importance in companies as sources of sustainable advantages. Organizations used to look for tangible assets as the drivers of these advantages, but nowadays intangible ones are getting much more weight in this sense. This is wh...

  12. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RELATION WITH CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    ISSAM MF SALTAJI

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability is targeted in this article to be integrated with corporate governance presenting its importance in business world not as obligation, but as a tool be adopted. Economic challenges push companies to think twice before making decisions. Corporate governance is a success key for companies through improving performance and gain mistrust of investors serving business sustainability. Objectives direction has been changed from concentrating on shareholders’ benefits to maintain sustai...

  13. Еnterprise’s corporate management improvement on the base of corporate culture development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O. Biliak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reveals extremely important role of corporate culture and uniqueness of the corporate culture system. It is established that the corporate management is characterized above all, by the economic activity and corporate culture practice. The securement of the balance in the process of interaction between organization and its environment plays one of the key roles in any management system. The author determines the influence of corporate culture on the business activity of the enterprise, when personnel predicts the situation development according to which they build models and evaluate their behavior. While realizing them in their activity employees strengthen certain trends and create in such a way appropriate situations. The search of ways of development and changing corporate culture as the base of corporate management improvement is conducted with the use of the strategic approach. The creation of a corporate culture that supports the development strategy of the enterprise, is an essential component of effective business and management, because the culture shapes a socio-psychological climate and corporate spirit which contributes to the operational execution of tasks and achievement of certain goals. Accordingly to the mentioned above, the set of measures of enterprise’s corporate culture development securement is proposed.

  14. A Study on Process Characteristics and Performance of Hot Wire Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process for High Temperature Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban MR,Anantha; Neelakandan, Baskar; Kandasamy,Devakumaran

    2016-01-01

    Hot wire gas tungsten arc welding (HW-GTAW) process is the one where the filler wire is pre-heated close to its melting point before it is fed in to the arc. The effect of HW-GTAW parameters such as welding current, hot wire current and the wire feed rate during welding of super ASS 304H stainless steel tubes were evaluated in terms of heat input, voltage-current (V-I) characteristics and weld bead characteristics such as bead weight and geometry. The results obtained indicate that for a cons...

  15. Community Entrepreneurship in Deprived Neighbourhoods: Comparing UK Community Enterprises with US Community Development Corporations (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varady, D.P.; Kleinhans, R.J.; Van Ham, M.

    2015-01-01

    Through a review of the recent American community development literature, this paper tests the assertion that British community enterprises (CEs) are fundamentally similar to American community development corporations (CDCs), and therefore, that CEs can learn from CDCs. In the context of the curren

  16. Optimizing Location of Bulk Metallic Minerals Processing Based on Greenhouse Gas Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The bulk minerals iron ore and bauxite cause significant greenhouse emissions in their processing to steel and aluminum respectively. The level of these emissions is highly dependent on the source of electrical and thermal energy. However, they also cause significant greenhouse gas emissions from their transportation across the globe for processing. This study examines these minerals from the perspective of greenhouse gas avoidance, examining the location of processing as an option for reducing transportation-based and process-based emissions. The analysis proposes a “radius of reduction” to define the potential for transporting ore to reduce emissions by offshore processing. Overall scenarios for localized steel production indicate potential for 85% reduction of transport emissions in the steel industry and 14% of overall industry emissions. Local high-carbon electricity grids and inefficient production mean that the benefit of reduced transportation is partially counteracted by increased processing emissions. The transportation of all global bauxite to Norway and other nations with low-emissions electricity for production of aluminum could result in an overall reduction of industry emissions of up to 44%.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  18. Methane gas generation from waste water extraction process of crude palm oil in experimental digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; Penafiel, R.; Garzón, P. V.; Ochoa, V.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial processes to extract crude palm oil, generates large amounts of waste water. High concentrations of COD, ST, SV, NH4 + and low solubility of O2, make the treatment of these effluents starts with anaerobic processes. The anaerobic digestion process has several advantages over aerobic degradation: lower operating costs (not aeration), low sludge production, methane gas generation. The 4 stages of anaerobic digestion are: hydrolysis, acidogenic, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. Through the action of enzymes synthesized by microbial consortia are met. The products of each step to serve as reagents is conducted as follows. The organic load times and cell hydraulic retention, solids content, nutrient availability, pH and temperature are factors that influence directly in biodigesters. The objectives of this presentation is to; characterize the microbial inoculum and water (from palm oil wasted water) to be used in biodigestores, make specific methanogenic activity in bioassays, acclimatize the microorganisms to produce methane gas using basal mineral medium with acetate for the input power, and to determine the production of methane gas digesters high organic load.

  19. Information transfer model of natural processes: from the ideal gas law to the distance dependent redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Fielitz, P

    2009-01-01

    We consider a general information transfer model which comprises any natural process which is able to transfer information and which can be characterised by only two independent process variables. We further postulate that these independent process variables serve as source and destination of information during a natural process. To define information which is directly related to the process variables, we apply the definition of information originally formulated by Hartley. We demonstrate that the proposed information transfer model yields well known laws, which, as yet, have not been directly related to information theory, such as the ideal gas law, the radioactive decay law, the formation law of vacancies in single crystals, and Fick's first law. Further, for the propagation of photons from a point source the information transfer model shows that any detector device, if at rest relative to the point source, will measure a redshift relative to the photon wavelength which is emitted from the point source. Tha...

  20. Processamento cognitivo e equilíbrio corporal em idosos com disfunção vestibular Cognitive processing and body balance in elderly subjects with vestibular dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Cristina dos Santos Caixeta; Flávia Doná; Juliana Maria Gazzola

    2012-01-01

    Idosos com disfunção vestibular crônica podem apresentar alteração do equilíbrio corporal e disfunção cognitiva. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre o processamento cognitivo e o equilíbrio corporal de idosos com vestibulopatia periférica crônica. Forma de Estudo: Transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O estudo incluiu 76 pacientes (> 60 anos), com disfunção vestibular periférica crônica, com queixa de tontura há mais de três meses. Os testes utilizados para investigar o equilíbrio corporal foram: Ber...

  1. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  2. Fracture toughness of Si3N4 processed by gas pressure sintering and hot pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio V. Rocha

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This present work evaluates the influence of microstructure on the fracture toughness of two types of silicon nitride. The two microstructural types of silicon nitride were processed using the gas pressure sintering (GPS and hot pressing (HP pathways. The fracture toughness was measured using the Single Edge V-Notch Beam (SEVNB and Chevron Notch Beam (CNB methods. The results from both methods for the two forms were in close agreement (with a maximum variation of 5.8%; the K Ic of the material processed by HP was 35% higher than that of GPS and the grain length had a direct influence on the fracture toughness.

  3. Irreversible Processes in a Universe modelled as a mixture of a Chaplygin gas and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kremer, G M

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of a Universe modelled as a mixture of a Chaplygin gas and radiation is determined by taking into account irreversible processes. This mixture could interpolate periods of a radiation dominated, a matter dominated and a cosmological constant dominated Universe. The results of a Universe modelled by this mixture are compared with the results of a mixture whose constituents are radiation and quintessence. Among other results it is shown that: (a) for both models there exists a period of a past deceleration with a present acceleration; (b) the slope of the acceleration of the Universe modelled as a mixture of a Chaplygin gas with radiation is more pronounced than that modelled as a mixture of quintessence and radiation; (c) the energy density of the Chaplygin gas tends to a constant value at earlier times than the energy density of quintessence does; (d) the energy density of radiation for both mixtures coincide and decay more rapidly than the energy densities of the Chaplygin gas and of quintessen...

  4. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  5. British and American Literature Infiltration of English Teaching in Junior School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟超华; 马生仓

    2014-01-01

    Under the New Curriculum Reform, the English teaching materials have changed, there are several units involved in British and American drama, British and American poetry in junior school. From these teaching materials, we can see that New Curriculum Standards require students to understand the British and American literature in the process of English learning. To meet the needs of New Curriculum Reform, the introduction of literature become a necessity in English language teaching. This paper systematically analyzes the necessity and meaning of literature infiltration in English teaching. It aims to explore how to per-meate literature knowledge in English class.

  6. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  7. Modeling and Analysis of the Reverse Water Gas Shift Process for In-Situ Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    2000-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of mathematical models and simulation tools developed for the Reverse Water Gas Shift (RWGS) process. This process is a candidate technology for oxygen production on Mars under the In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) project. An analysis of the RWGS process was performed using a material balance for the system. The material balance is very complex due to the downstream separations and subsequent recycle inherent with the process. A numerical simulation was developed for the RWGS process to provide a tool for analysis and optimization of experimental hardware, which will be constructed later this year at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Attempts to solve the material balance for the system, which can be defined by 27 nonlinear equations, initially failed. A convergence scheme was developed which led to successful solution of the material balance, however the simplified equations used for the gas separation membrane were found insufficient. Additional more rigorous models were successfully developed and solved for the membrane separation. Sample results from these models are included in this report, with recommendations for experimental work needed for model validation.

  8. A Frequency Model of Vibrational Processes in Gas-Turbine Drives of Compressor Stations of Main Gas Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekardovskiy, M. N.; Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Razboynikov, A. A.; Ponomareva, T. G.

    2016-10-01

    At compressor stations, systematic measurements of noise and vibration of power equipment - gas compressor units - are carried out. The article presents basic equations for calculating natural and forced frequencies at which the main defects appear. According to the studied dependences, results of calculations are obtained on the following types of drives for gas-compressor units GTK-10-4, Avon-1534, DG-90.

  9. A Medium-Scale 50 MWfuel Biomass Gasification Based Bio-SNG Plant: A Developed Gas Cleaning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiar Sadegh-Vaziri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a primary energy source. A suitable replacement for fossil natural gas is bio-SNG, produced by biomass gasification, followed by methanation. A major challenge is efficient gas cleaning processes for removal of sulfur compounds and other impurities. The present study focuses on development of a gas cleaning step for a product gas produced in a 50 MWfuel gasification system. The developed gas cleaning washing process is basically a modification of the Rectisol process. Several different process configurations were evaluated using Aspen plus, including PC-SAFT for the thermodynamic modeling. The developed configuration takes advantage of only one methanol wash column, compared to two columns in a conventional Rectisol process. Results from modeling show the ability of the proposed configuration to remove impurities to a sufficiently low concentrations - almost zero concentration for H2S, CS2, HCl, NH3 and HCN, and approximately 0.01 mg/Nm3 for COS. These levels are acceptable for further upgrading of the gas in a methanation process. Simultaneously, up to 92% of the original CO2 is preserved in the final cleaned syngas stream. No process integration or economic consideration was performed within the scope of the present study, but will be investigated in future projects to improve the overall process.

  10. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  11. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  12. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  13. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  14. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  15. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  16. The Contemporaneity of the British Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Charles Brooks

    The seeming remoteness of material studied in a British literature survey course can be frustrating for the teacher. Students may find little relevance in the story of Beowulf or the descriptions of Gulliver's voyages. However, instructors can highlight the contemporaneity of British literary texts by drawing parallels to modern times. For…

  17. The Falklands War and the British Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the way the Falklands War of 1982 was reflected in the creation of British playwrights. Officially, the war was seen as a heroic act, as another glorious page in the book of British history. But for many writers it contained nothing heroic; it was just noisy brandishing of weapons and useless loss of human lives.

  18. British and American literatures and English education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田露

    2011-01-01

    British and American literature teachings and university English the teaching isn't self-contradict,can be complement each other.Strengthen British and American literature teachings,contribute to an improvement our country English education,develop high c

  19. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  20. The Corporate Marketing Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Eggert, Andreas; Münkhoff, Eva

    Corporate marketing has been downsized or eliminated in many firms. At the same time, firms that still own a corporate marketing department struggle with organizing and positioning their commercial front‐end. The question arises whether firms need a corporate marketing department, and if so, how...... it can best add value to the firm. Based on a qualitative study among B2B companies, we develop a conceptual framework highlighting the various parental roles through which corporate marketing can contribute to overall firm and business unit performance. In addition, we identify five gaps that restrain...... successful outcomes of corporate marketing activities. In sum, our framework provides important insights on how to successfully organize corporate marketing activities....

  1. Process of maintenance performance management and its imperatives within the offshore petroleum industry:Part III: Integration of maintenance performance to corporate value process

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanage, Jayantha P.; Kumar, Uday

    2002-01-01

    The following is a continuation of our series addressing the principles of a new concept termed Value-based maintenance performance management.We advocate that the starting point for any measurement system,in the current business environment, is the need to move away from a classical cost and profit perspective to a more value-based perspective. In this paper, we discuss the integration of maintenance as a value delivery process rather than a cost center.This intends to be a thought-provoking...

  2. Cutting Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Using Laser Cutting Process without Assist Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ozaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, laser cutting is used in many industries. Generally, in laser cutting of metallic materials, suitable assist gas and its nozzle are needed to remove the molten metal. However, because of the gas nozzle should be set closer to the surface of a workpiece, existence of the nozzle seems to prevent laser cutting from being used flexible. Therefore, the new cutting process, Assist Gas Free laser cutting or AGF laser cutting, has been developed. In this process, the pressure at the bottom side of a workpiece is reduced by a vacuum pump, and the molten metal can be removed by the air flow caused by the pressure difference between both sides of the specimen. In this study, cutting properties of austenitic stainless steel by using AGF laser cutting with 2 kW CO2 laser were investigated. Laser power and cutting speed were varied in order to study the effect of these parameters on cutting properties. As a result, austenitic stainless steel could be cut with dross-free by AGF laser cutting. When laser power was 2.0 kW, cutting speed could be increased up to 100 mm/s, and kerf width at specimen surface was 0.28 mm.

  3. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second 3 months of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The development of an automatic technique for analytical solution of one-dimensional gas flow problems with volume change on mixing is described. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of their development of techniques for analytic solutions along a streamline including volume change on mixing for arbitrary numbers of components.

  4. Aerosol and Trace Gas Processing by Clouds During the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Alexander, L.; Lee, Y.; Ogren, J.; Andrews, B.

    2008-12-01

    Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and pact scavenging. The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) aimed at characterizing freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus) in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. The experiment took place in June 2007. Evolution of aerosol and cloud properties downwind of the Oklahoma City is of particular interest in this project. These observations of a mid-size and mid-latitude city can be used in the development and evaluation of regional-scale and global climate model cumulus parameterizations that describes the transport and transformations of these aerosols by fair-weather cumulus. The Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was one of the main platforms used in CHAPS. It carried a suite of instruments to measure properties of interstitial aerosols behind an isokinetic inlet and a set of duplicate instruments to determine properties of activated particles behind a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of interstitial particles out of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured as were key meteorological state parameters including liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point temperature were measured. This presentation will focus on results related to the transformation and transport of aerosols and trace gases observed in fair-weather cumulus and compare these results with concurrent observations made outside these clouds. Our interest will focus on the differences in particle size and composition under varying conditions. The role of

  5. Transport and reaction processes affecting the attenuation of landfill gas in cover soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molins, S.; Mayer, K.U.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    to exopolymeric substance production, may result in reduced methane attenuation due to limited O2-ingress. Copyright © 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.......Methane and trace organic gases produced in landfill waste are partly oxidized in the top 40 cm of landfill cover soils under aerobic conditions. The balance between the oxidation of landfill gases and the ingress of atmospheric oxygen into the soil cover determines the attenuation of emissions...... of methane, chlorofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons to the atmosphere. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxidation reactions on the overall gas transport regime and to evaluate, the contributions of various gas transport processes on methane attenuation in landfill cover soils...

  6. Transport—Reaction Process in the Reaction of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanYan; DuuJongLee; 等

    2000-01-01

    A theoreticasl investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization.A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed,which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time.BHased on this model,the reaction rate and t6he absorbent utilization can be calculated.The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time,the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa,the optimum initial radius and absorent concentration are 210-310μm and 23% respectively.The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  7. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqin; Wang, Diansheng; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen

    2013-03-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  8. The Bose Gas and Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process on the Half-Line

    CERN Document Server

    Tracy, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we find explicit formulas for: (1) Green's function for a system of one-dimensional bosons interacting via a delta-function potential with particles confined to the positive half-line; and (2) the transition probability for the one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) with particles confined to the nonnegative integers. These are both for systems with a finite number of particles. The formulas are analogous to ones obtained earlier for the Bose gas and ASEP on the line and integers, respectively. We use coordinate Bethe Ansatz appropriately modified to account for confinement of the particles to the half-line. As in the earlier work, the proof for the ASEP is less straightforward than for the Bose gas.

  9. Bioterrorism: processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoile, Rebecca; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2007-09-01

    In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and non-porous items were contaminated with viable [corrected] spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered post decontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h.

  10. Process and.mechanism for oil and gas accumulation,adjustment and reconstruction in Puguang Gas Field,Northeast Sichuan Basin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ChunGuo; HAO Fang; ZOU HuaYao; ZHU YangMing; CAI XunYu; WANG CunWu

    2009-01-01

    With the discoveries of a series of large gas fields in the northeast of Sichuan Basin,such as Puguang and Longgang gas fields,the formation mechanism of the gas reservoir containing high H2S in the ancient marine carbonate formation in superposition-basin becomes a hot topic in the field of petroleum geology.Based on the structure inversion,numerical simulation,and geochemical research,we show at least two intervals of fluid transfer in Puguang paleo-oil reservoir,one in the forepart of late Indo-Chinese epoch to early Yanshan epoch and the other in the metaphase of early Yanshan epoch.Oil and gas accumulation occurred at Puguang structure through Puguang-Dongyuezhai faults and dolomite beds in reef and shoal facies in Changxing Formation (P2ch) - Feixianguan Formation (T1f) in the northwest and southwest directions along three main migration pathways,to form Puguang paleo-oil reservoir.Since crude oil is pyrolysised in the early stage of middle Yanshan epoch,Puguang gas reservoir has experienced fluid adjusting process controlled by tectonic movement and geochemical reconstruction process controlled by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR).Middle Yanshan epoch is the main period during which the Puguang gas reservoir experienced the geochemical reaction of TSR.On one hand,TSR can recreate the fluid in gas reservoir,which makes the gas drying index larger and carbon isotope heavier.On the other hand,the reciprocity between fluid regarding TSR (hydrocarbon,H2S,and water) and reservoir rock induces erosion of the reservoir rocks and anhydrite alteration,which improves reservoir petrophysical properties.Superimposed by later tectonic movement,the fluid in Puguang reservoir has twice experienced adjustment,one in the late Yanshan epoch to the early Himalayan epoch and the other time in late Himalayan epoch,after which Puguang gas reservoir is finally developed.

  11. Gas properties of winter lake ice in Northern Sweden: biogeochemical processes and implication for carbon gas release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Boereboom

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes gas composition, total gas content and bubbles characteristics in winter lake ice for four adjacent lakes in a discontinuous permafrost area. Our gas mixing ratios suggest that gas exchange occurs between the bubbles and the water before entrapment in the ice. Comparison between lakes enabled us to identify 2 major "bubbling events" shown to be related to a regional drop of atmospheric pressure. Further comparison demonstrates that winter lake gas content is strongly dependent on hydrological connections: according to their closed/open status with regards to water exchange, lakes build up more or less greenhouse gases (GHG in their water and ice cover during the winter, and release it during spring melt. These discrepancies between lakes need to be taken into account when establishing a budget for permafrost regions. Our analysis allows us to present a new classification of bubbles, according to their gas properties. Our methane emission budget (from 6.52 10−5 to 12.7 mg CH4 m−2 d−1 for the three months of winter ice cover is complementary to the other budget estimates, taking into account the variability of the gas distribution in the ice and between the various types of lakes.

    Most available studies on boreal lakes have focused on quantifying GHG emissions from sediment by means of various systems collecting gases at the lake surface, and this mainly during the summer "open water" period. Only few of these have looked at the gas enclosed in the winter ice-cover itself. Our approach enables us to integrate, for the first time, the history of winter gas emission for this type of lakes.

  12. Impurity processing system for the JET active gas handling system - inactive commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, J.; Hemmerich, J.L.; Lasser, R.; Yorkshades, J.; Salanave, J.L. [JET Joint Undertaking, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    The Impurity Processing (IP) system is designed to recover tritium from tritiated compounds (Q{sub 2}O, C{sub x}Q{sub y}, NQ{sub 3}, with Q = H, D, T and x>=1, y>=4) collected from the JET torus or generated during the processing of gases inside the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS). The recovery process involves dilution of the impurities in helium, addition of oxygen, recirculation of the helium-impurities-oxygen mixture over a hot recombiner (773K) to generate water and CO{sub 2}, and trapping of the water on 160K cold surfaces. The remaining gas species He, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} (with a very small tritium concentration) are transferred finally to the Exhaust Detritiation (ED) system for further reduction of the tritium concentration by at least a factor of 1000. The cold trap is heated (473K) and the water vapour passed over two hot iron beds at 823K to `crack` the water. The recovered hydrogen isotopes are stored in cold uranium beds (U-beds) for further processing in AGHS. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Chemical hot gas purification for biomass gasification processes; Chemische Heissgasreinigung bei Biomassevergasungsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmler, Michael

    2010-07-01

    The German government decided to increase the percentage of renewable energy up to 20 % of all energy consumed in 2020. The development of biomass gasification technology is advanced compared to most of the other technologies for producing renewable energy. So the overall efficiency of biomass gasification processes (IGCC) already increased to values above 50 %. Therefore, the production of renewable energy attaches great importance to the thermochemical biomass conversion. The feedstock for biomass gasification covers biomasses such as wood, straw and further energy plants. The detrimental trace elements released during gasification of these biomasses, e.g. KCl, H{sub 2}S and HCl, cause corrosion and harm downstream devices. Therefore, gas cleaning poses an especial challenge. In order to improve the overall efficiency this thesis aims at the development of gas cleaning concepts for the allothermic, water blown gasification at 800 C and 1 bar (Guessing-Process) as well as for the autothermic, water and oxygen blown gasification at 950 C and 18 bar (Vaernamo-Process). Although several mechanisms for KCl- and H{sub 2}S-sorption are already well known, the achievable reduction of the contamination concentration is still unknown. Therefore, calculations on the produced syngas and the chemical hot gas cleaning were done with a thermodynamic process model using SimuSage. The syngas production was included in the calculations because the knowledge of the biomass syngas composition is very limited. The results of these calculations prove the dependence of syngas composition on H{sub 2}/C-ratio and ROC (Relative Oxygen Content). Following the achievable sorption limits were detected via experiments. The KCl containing syngases were analysed by molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). Furthermore, an optimised H{sub 2}S-sorbent was developed because the examined sorbents exceeded the sorption limit of 1 ppmv. The calculated sorption limits were compared to the limits

  14. Power shift: a media analysis of the discourse of electricity deregulation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Gregory Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Despite a record of low rates and significant public revenue generation on the part of the public utility, BC Hydro, the government of British Columbia in recent years has begun to deregulate the provincial electricity system. Measures undertaken include breaking up the utility and transferring responsibility for new generation to the private sector. I provide a content analysis of the process of electricity deregulation in British Columbia as represented in the Vancouver Sun and the Times Co...

  15. Book Review: Making British law: committees in action by Louise Thompson

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In Making British Law: Committees in Action, Louise Thompson presents a history and statistical analysis of the work of bill committees – formerly known as standing committees – and their influence over the process of making British law. Thompson offers a well-evidenced argument that goes beyond the statistics to persuasively account for the role and importance of MPs in shaping government legislation through bill committees, writes Richard Berry.

  16. British media attacks on homeopathy: are they justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoulkas, George

    2008-04-01

    Homeopathy is being attacked by the British media. These attacks draw support from irresponsible and unjustified claims by certain teachers of homeopathy. Such claims include the use of 'dream' and 'imaginative' methods for provings. For prescribing some such teachers attempt to replace the laborious process of matching symptom picture and remedy with spurious theories based on 'signatures', sensations and other methods. Other irresponsible claims have also been made. These "new ideas" risk destroying the principles, theory, and practice of homeopathy.

  17. Analysis of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery and Pollution Processing for Z12V190 Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Xuejun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly prominent problem regarding rapid economy development and the gradually serious environmental pollution, the waste heat recovery and waste gas pollution processing have received significant attention. Z12V190 diesel engine has high fuel consumption and low thermal efficiency and releases large amounts of exhaust gas and waste heat into the atmosphere, causing serious problems of energy waste and environmental pollution. In this work, the diesel engine exhaust gas components are analysed and the diesel engine exhaust emission rates and exhaust gas waste heat rates are calculated. The calculating results proved the economic feasibility of waste heat recovery from Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas. Then, the mainly harmful components are analysed and the corresponding methods of purification and processing about Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas pollution discussed. In order to achieve full recovery of waste heat, save energy, purify treatment pollution and ultimate to lay the foundation for waste gas recovery and pollution treatment, the comprehensive process flows of Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas pollution processing and waste heat recovery are preliminary designed.

  18. Thermodynamic evolution of cosmological baryonic gas: I. Influence of non-equipartition processes

    CERN Document Server

    Courty, S

    2003-01-01

    Using N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, the influence of non-equipartition processes on the thermal and dynamical properties of cosmological baryonic gas is investigated. We focus on a possible departure from equilibrium between electrons, ions and neutral atoms in low temperature (10^4-10^6 K) and weakly ionized regions of the intergalactic medium. The simulations compute the energy exchanges between ions, neutrals and electrons, without assuming thermal equilibrium. They include gravitation, shock heating and cooling processes, and follow self-consistently the chemical evolution of a primordial composition hydrogen-helium plasma without assuming collisional ionization equilibrium. At high redshift, a significant fraction of the intergalactic medium is found to be warmer and weakly ionized in simulations with non-equipartition processes than in simulations in which the cosmological plasma is considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. With a semi-analytical study of the out of equilibrium regions we show t...

  19. Important engineering issues in FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process%催化裂化可再生湿法烟气脱硫工艺应关注的工程问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏; 郭宏昶; 胡永龙; 汤红年; 王刻文; 谭忻; 朱雷鸣

    2012-01-01

    The two typical and industrialized FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing processes I. E. LABSORB process of DuPont BELCO and CANSOLV process of Shell Global Solutions are introduced and the main technical indexes and technical features of the two processes are compared. The main characteristics of RASO process and associated engineering technologies developed by SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Engineering Corporation are described, and the ion liquid recycle flue gas scrubbing process developed by Chengdu Huaxi Chemical Technology Co, Ltd. Are discussed. The impacts of application of regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process in FCC units on the upstream flue gas expander, waste heat boiler or CO boiler and on operating parameters and capacity of the downstream sulfur recovery unit are studied in detail. It is pointed out that the absorbent ( scrubbing liquid) is the core technology of the regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing process, which determines the advance of the technology as well as capital investment and energy consumption of the flue gas scrubbing unit. The engineering technologies for application of regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing technology in FCC unit need to be further improved in respect of long-term operation, equipment layout & plot area requirement, capital vestment, energy consumption and operating costs, etc. When selecting the regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing for FCC unit, the impacts on upstream flue gas expander, waste heat boiler or CO boiler and the downstream sulfur recovery unit have to be considered to design FCC unit, flue gas scrubbing unit and sulfur recovery unit into an integrated complex.The two typical and industrialized FCC regenerable wet flue gas scrubbing processes I. E. LABSORB. Process of DuPont, BELCO, And CANSOLV, Process of Shell Global Solutions are introduced and the main technical indexes and technical features of the two processes are compared. The main characteristics of RASO process and associated engineering

  20. Gas and liquid phase fuels desulphurization for hydrogen production via reforming processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoguet, Jean-Christophe; Karagiannakis, George P.; Valla, Julia A.; Agrafiotis, Christos C. [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 361, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G. [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 361, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, P.O. Box 1517, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-06-15

    The present work focuses on the development of efficient desulphurization processes for multi-fuel reformers for hydrogen production. Two processes were studied: liquid hydrocarbon desulphurization and H{sub 2}S removal from reformate gases. For each process, materials with various chemical compositions and microporous structures were synthesized and characterized with respect to their physicochemical properties and desulphurization ability. In the case of liquid phase desulphurization, the adsorption of sulphur compounds contained in diesel fuel under ambient conditions was studied employing as sorbents, zeolite-based materials, i.e. NaY, HY and metal ion-exchanged NaY and HY, as well as a high-surface area activated carbon (AC), for three different diesel fuels with sulphur content varying between 5 and 180 ppmw. Among all sorbents studied, AC showed the best desulphurization performance followed by cerium ion-exchanged HY. The gas phase desulphurization experiments involved the evaluation of zinc-based mixed oxides, synthesized by non-conventional (combustion synthesis) techniques on high steam content reformate gas mixtures. (author)

  1. Two Noveland Simple Correlations to Estimate Equilibrium Water Dew Point for Natural Gas Dehydration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Alberto Benitez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is probably the most undesirable component found in crude natural gas because its presence can produce hydrate formation, and it can also lead to corrosion or erosion problems in pipes and equipment. Natural gas must be dehydrated before being transported through a long distance to ensure an efficient and trouble-free operation. Thermodynamic modelling of triethyleneglycol (TEG-water system is still rather inaccurate, especially with regard to systems at high temperature and high TEG concentration. As a consequence, design and operation of absorber towers are affected by the lack of accurate data. Two novel correlations have been developed to estimate the equilibrium water dew point of a natural gas stream by evaluating experimental data and literature. These data were collected and analyzed by means of images scanned with MATLAB software R2012B version. An average percentage error is of 1-2% for linear correlation and it is of 2-3% for non-linear correlation. Results are quite accurate and they are consistent with literature data. Due to the simplicity and precision of the correlations developed in this work, the equations obtained have a great practical value. Consequently, they allow process engineers to perform a quick check of the water dew point at different conditions without using complex expressions or graphics.

  2. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  3. Super-emitters in natural gas infrastructure are caused by abnormal process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Alvarez, Ramón A; Lyon, David R.; Allen, David T.; Marchese, Anthony J.; Zimmerle, Daniel J.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Effectively mitigating methane emissions from the natural gas supply chain requires addressing the disproportionate influence of high-emitting sources. Here we use a Monte Carlo simulation to aggregate methane emissions from all components on natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale production region (Texas). Our total emission estimates are two-thirds of those derived from independent site-based measurements. Although some high-emitting operations occur by design (condensate flashing and liquid unloadings), they occur more than an order of magnitude less frequently than required to explain the reported frequency at which high site-based emissions are observed. We conclude that the occurrence of abnormal process conditions (for example, malfunctions upstream of the point of emissions; equipment issues) cause additional emissions that explain the gap between component-based and site-based emissions. Such abnormal conditions can cause a substantial proportion of a site's gas production to be emitted to the atmosphere and are the defining attribute of super-emitting sites. PMID:28091528

  4. Effect of Orifice Diameter on Bubble Generation Process in Melt Gas Injection to Prepare Aluminum Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jianyu; Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ningzhen; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    The bubble generation process in conditioned A356 alloy melt through submerged spiry orifices with a wide diameter range (from 0.07 to 1.0 mm) is investigated in order to prepare aluminum foams with fine pores. The gas flow rate and chamber pressure relationship for each orifice is first determined when blowing gas in atmospheric environment. The effects of chamber pressure ( P c) and orifice diameter ( D o) on bubble size are then analyzed separately when blowing gas in melt. A three-dimensional fitting curve is obtained illustrating both the influences of orifice diameter and chamber pressure on bubble size based on the experimental data. It is found that the bubble size has a V-shaped relationship with orifice diameter and chamber pressure neighboring the optimized parameter ( D o = 0.25 mm, P c = 0.4 MPa). The bubble generation mechanism is proposed based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. It is found that the bubbles will not be generated until a threshold pressure difference is reached. The threshold pressure difference is dependent on the orifice diameter, which determines the time span of pre-formation stage and bubble growth stage.

  5. Influence of gas pressure and substrate temperature on PIII nitrocarburizing process of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag Branch, Sohag (Egypt) and Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: ahmedphys96@hotmail.com; El-Hossary, F.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag Branch, Sohag (Egypt); Negm, N.Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag Branch, Sohag (Egypt); Prokert, F. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Richter, E. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Moeller, W. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research, FWII, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been used to modify the surface properties of 304 austenitic stainless steel (AISI). The influence of working gas pressure, 0.2-1.0 Pa, and substrate temperature, 300-500 deg. C, on the microstructure, treating rate, nitrogen/carbon concentration depth profile, and surface microhardness was investigated. A gas composition of 25% C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, 75% N{sub 2}, r.f. plasma power input of 350 W, and a negatively biased potential of 30 kV were fixed during the experiment. The experimental results show that the substrate temperature and the diffusion process of nitrogen and carbon depend on the gas pressure inside the plasma chamber. The thickness of the modified layer has been found to be more than 30 {mu}m for samples were treated in the plasma for 60 min. The results show also that the values of diffusion coefficient and surface microhardness of the treated samples are high to be 3.4 x 10{sup -1} {mu}m{sup 2}/s and 1880 kg/mm{sup 2}, respectively.

  6. Influence of gas pressure and substrate temperature on PIII nitrocarburizing process of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, A. M.; El-Hossary, F. M.; Negm, N. Z.; Prokert, F.; Richter, E.; Möller, W.

    2004-12-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been used to modify the surface properties of 304 austenitic stainless steel (AISI). The influence of working gas pressure, 0.2-1.0 Pa, and substrate temperature, 300-500 °C, on the microstructure, treating rate, nitrogen/carbon concentration depth profile, and surface microhardness was investigated. A gas composition of 25% C2H2, 75% N2, r.f. plasma power input of 350 W, and a negatively biased potential of 30 kV were fixed during the experiment. The experimental results show that the substrate temperature and the diffusion process of nitrogen and carbon depend on the gas pressure inside the plasma chamber. The thickness of the modified layer has been found to be more than 30 μm for samples were treated in the plasma for 60 min. The results show also that the values of diffusion coefficient and surface microhardness of the treated samples are high to be 3.4 × 10-1 μm2/s and 1880 kg/mm2, respectively.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions of waste management processes and options: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Belen; Hooda, Peter S

    2016-07-01

    Increasing concern about climate change is prompting organisations to mitigate their greenhouse gas emissions. Waste management activities also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In the waste management sector, there has been an increasing diversion of waste sent to landfill, with much emphasis on recycling and reuse to prevent emissions. This study evaluates the carbon footprint of the different processes involved in waste management systems, considering the entire waste management stream. Waste management data from the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, London (UK), was used to estimate the carbon footprint for its (Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames) current source segregation system. Second, modelled full and partial co-mingling scenarios were used to estimate carbon emissions from these proposed waste management approaches. The greenhouse gas emissions from the entire waste management system at Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames were 12,347 t CO2e for the source-segregated scenario, and 11,907 t CO2e for the partial co-mingled model. These emissions amount to 203.26 kg CO2e t(-1) and 196.02 kg CO2e t(-1) municipal solid waste for source-segregated and partial co-mingled, respectively. The change from a source segregation fleet to a partial co-mingling fleet reduced the emissions, at least partly owing to a change in the number and type of vehicles.

  8. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors.

  9. Multiobjective optimization scheme for industrial synthesis gas sweetening plant in GTL process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Behroozsarand; Akbar Zamaniyan

    2011-01-01

    In industrial amine plants the optimized operating conditions are obtained from the conclusion of occurred events and challenges that are normal in the working units.For the sake of reducing the costs, time consuming, and preventing unsuitable accidents, the optimization could be performed by a computer program.In this paper, simulation and parameter analysis of amine plant is performed at first.The optimization of this unit is studied using Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II in order to produce sweet gas with C02 mole percentage less than 2.0%and H2S concentration less than 10 ppm for application in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.The simulation of the plant in HYSYS v.3.1 software has been linked with MATLAB code for real-parameter NSGA-II to simulate and optimize the amine process.Three scenarios are selected to cover the effect of (DEA/MDEA) mass composition percent ratio at amine solution on objective functions.Results show that sour gas temperature and pressure of 33.98 ℃ and 14.96 bar, DEA/C02 molar flow ratio of 12.58, regeneration gas temperature and pressure of 94.92 ℃ and 3.0 bar,regenerator pressure of 1.53 bar, and ratio of DEA/MDEA= 20%/10% are the best values for minimizing plant energy consumption, amine circulation rate, and carbon dioxide recovery.

  10. Changing the Corporate Elite? Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Oxelheim, Lars; Randøy, Trond;

    the social identity and critical mass theory to further show how these responses may vary with the current composition of the board. Viewing the board as a locus for the maintenance of the positive distinctiveness of the established corporate elite, we conjecture that new female appointments will not only...... new women to their boards. To address this issue we – in this study – introduce the cognitive and affective processes related to directors’ identification with the traditional corporate elite as an explanation for the slow organizational response to pressure for gender diversity on boards. We bridge...... these propositions on a sample of 387 publicly traded Nordic corporations during 2001–2008....

  11. PRACTICE OF GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălăceanu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  13. Membrane process for separating H{sub 2}S from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    Objective was to develop a membrane process for separating hydrogen sulfide and other impurities (CO{sub 2}, water vapor) from low-quality natural gas. A membrane material was identified with very high H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity in the range of 40--60; membrane production was scaled up to commercial size rolls; high-pressure membrane and module development and optimization were completed; and a membrane permeation flux of 4{times}10{sub {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s{center_dot}cm{sup 2}cmHg, twice as high state-of-the-art cellulose acetate membranes, was achieved.

  14. Inhalation of phosphine gas following a fire associated with fumigation of processed pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Fong, Harvard; Sánchez, Martha E; Roisman, Rachel; Nonato, Yvette; Mehler, Louise

    2013-01-01

    On December 10, 2009, a fumigation stack containing aluminum phosphide became soaked with rain water and caught fire at a pistachio processing plant in Kern County, California. Untrained plant personnel responding to the fire had exposure to pyrolysis by-products, particulates, and extinguisher ingredients. Ten workers taken for medical evaluation had respiratory and nonspecific systemic symptoms consistent with exposure to phosphine gas. Six of the 10 workers had respiratory distress, indicated by chest pain, shortness of breath, elevated respiratory rate, or decreased oxygen saturation. Recommendations are made for the management of similar illnesses and prevention of similar exposures.

  15. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  16. Corporate Media Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Petrus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    The media can make or break a reputation. This being said, it seems to be essential for companies, governments and institutions to pay specific attention to corporate media management in their daily operations. However, this thesis shows that they often neglect to pay adequate attention to corporate

  17. Corporate Crime and Restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Charles F.

    1985-01-01

    Articulates need, nature, and form of a restitutionary approach to corporate crime. Considers small, in-prison production-oriented programs; residential in-community programs, and nonresidential in-community programs for individual offenders; also considers lump sum and continuous payments for corporations to make restitution. (NRB)

  18. Corporate Bankruptcy Tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenberg, Oscar; Lubben, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign corporations facing financial distress have a choice: resructure in their home jurisdiction or file for bankruptcy in the United States. And some number of foreign corporations do file bankruptcy petitions in the United States. But besides the occasional anecdotal account, how frequently thi

  19. Corporation as climate ambassador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2012-01-01

    At a time when corporations are addressing increasingly complex, global corporate social responsibility (CSR) issues, this study examines and evaluates the strategies used in Vattenfall’s challenging and innovative CSR campaign which aimed at establishing the energy company as a credible climate...

  20. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of…

  1. Nonintrusive inspection assesses wall loss in gas-plant separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, B. [CATS International Ltd., Merseyside (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-09

    Ultrasonic surveying at British Gas Tunisia Ltd.`s (BGTL) Hannibal plant in Tunisia accurately characterized the extent surface erosion caused by flow impingement in a separation vessel. The procedure also provided a base-line data set in preparation for installation of continuous condition monitoring. Built by Bechtel and commissioned in 1997, the Hannibal installation removes nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide from the gas as it comes ashore. Part of the treatment process entails the separation of the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from an activated amine solution.

  2. Institutional conditions of corporate citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Exploring the concept of citizenship from the history of political philosophy provides suggestions about what corporate citizenship could mean. The metaphor of corporate citizenship suggests an institutional approach to corporate social responsibility. Citizenship is a social role, characterized by

  3. TRISO-Coated Fuel Processing to Support High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.

    2002-10-01

    The initial objective of the work described herein was to identify potential methods and technologies needed to disassemble and dissolve graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated gas-cooled-reactor spent fuels so that the oxide fuel components can be separated by means of chemical processing. The purpose of this processing is to recover (1) unburned fuel for recycle, (2) long-lived actinides and fission products for transmutation, and (3) other fission products for disposal in acceptable waste forms. Follow-on objectives were to identify and select the most promising candidate flow sheets for experimental evaluation and demonstration and to address the needs to reduce technical risks of the selected technologies. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) may be deployed in the next -20 years to (1) enable the use of highly efficient gas turbines for producing electricity and (2) provide high-temperature process heat for use in chemical processes, such as the production of hydrogen for use as clean-burning transportation fuel. Also, HTGR fuels are capable of significantly higher burn-up than light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels or fast-reactor (FR) fuels; thus, the HTGR fuels can be used efficiently for transmutation of fissile materials and long-lived actinides and fission products, thereby reducing the inventory of such hazardous and proliferation-prone materials. The ''deep-burn'' concept, described in this report, is an example of this capability. Processing of spent graphite-encapsulated, ceramic-coated fuels presents challenges different from those of processing spent LWR fuels. LWR fuels are processed commercially in Europe and Japan; however, similar infrastructure is not available for processing of the HTGR fuels. Laboratory studies on the processing of HTGR fuels were performed in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, but no engineering-scale processes were demonstrated. Currently, new regulations concerning emissions will impact the

  4. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  5. THEORIES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae BORLEA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide a theoretical framework for the corporate governance debate. The review of various corporate governance theories enhances the major objective of corporate governance which is maximizing the value for shareholders by ensuring good social and environment performances. The theories of corporate governance are rooted in agency theory with the theory of moral hazard’s implications, further developing within stewardship theory and stakeholder theory and evolving at resource dependence theory, transaction cost theory and political theory. Later, to these theories was added ethics theory, information asymmetry theory or the theory of efficient markets. These theories are defined based on the causes and effects of variables such as: the configuration of the board of directors, audit committee, independence of managers, the role of top management and their social relations beyond the legal regulatory framework. Effective corporate governance requires applying a combination

  6. Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at

  7. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    The goal of the project is to develop and assess the feasibility and economic viability of an innovative concept that may lead to commercialization of new gas-storage capacity near major markets. The investigation involves a new approach to developing underground gas storage in carbonate rock, which is present near major markets in many areas of the United States. Because of the lack of conventional gas storage and the projected growth in demand for storage capacity, many of these areas are likely to experience shortfalls in gas deliverability. Since depleted gas reservoirs and salt formations are nearly non-existent in many areas, alternatives to conventional methods of gas storage are required. The need for improved methods of gas storage, particularly for ways to meet peak demand, is increasing. Gas-market conditions are driving the need for higher deliverability and more flexibility in injection/withdrawal cycling. In order to meet these needs, the project involves an innovative approach to developing underground storage capacity by creating caverns in carbonate rock formations by acid dissolution. The basic concept of the acid-dissolution method is to drill to depth, fracture the carbonate rock layer as needed, and then create a cavern using an aqueous acid to dissolve the carbonate rock. Assessing feasibility of the acid-dissolution method included a regional geologic investigation. Data were compiled and analyzed from carbonate formations in six states: Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York. To analyze the requirements for creating storage volume, the following aspects of the dissolution process were examined: weight and volume of rock to be dissolved; gas storage pressure, temperature, and volume at depth; rock solubility; and acid costs. Hydrochloric acid was determined to be the best acid to use because of low cost, high acid solubility, fast reaction rates with carbonate rock, and highly soluble products (calcium chloride

  8. Influence of shielding gas pressure on welding characteristics in CO2 laser-MIG hybrid welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Chen; Zhenglong Lei; Liqun Li; Lin Wu

    2006-01-01

    The droplet transfer behavior and weld characteristics have been investigated under different pressures of shielding gas in CO2 laser and metal inert/active gas (laser-MIG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer frequency and stable welding range of conventional MIG arc are changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in laser-MIG hybrid welding process, and the shielding gas pressure has a crucial effect on welding characteristics. When the pressure of shielding gas is low in comparison with MIG welding, the frequency of droplet transfer decreases, and thedroplet transfer becomes unstable in laser-MIG hybrid welding. So the penetration depth decreases, which shows the characteristic of unstable hybrid welding. However, when the pressure of shielding gas increases to a critical value, the hybrid welding characteristic is changed from unstable hybrid welding to stablehybrid welding, and the frequency of droplet transfer and the penetration depth increase significantly.

  9. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping.

  10. CNPC/EXXON/MITSUBISH Jointly Signing of Natural Gas Pipeline Study Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) ,American Exxon Corporation and Japanese Mitsubish Corporation Jointly. signed a study agreement on long-distance natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan via Uzbekistan, Kazakstan,China to Japan in Beijing on August 22, 1995.

  11. Final Report - "Foaming and Antifoaming and Gas Entrainment in Radioactive Waste Pretreatment and Immobilization Processes"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, Darsh T.

    2007-10-09

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass, while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule-heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The DWPF has experienced difficulty during operations. The cause of the operational problems has been attributed to foaming, gas entrainment and the rheological properties of the process slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and meter feed processes. Highly viscous material can lead to air entrainment during agitation and difficulties with pump operations. Excessive foaming in waste evaporators can cause carryover of radionuclides and non-radioactive waste to the condensate system. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the surface phenomena, suspension rheology and bubble generation of interactions that lead to foaming and air entrainment problems in the DOE High Level and Low Activity Radioactive Waste separation and immobilization processes were pursued under this project. The first major task accomplished in the grant proposal involved development of a theoretical model of the phenomenon of foaming in a three-phase gas-liquid-solid slurry system. This work was presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis (9). The second major task involved the investigation of the inter-particle interaction and microstructure formation in a model slurry by the batch sedimentation method. Both experiments and modeling studies were carried out. The results were presented in a recently completed Ph.D. thesis. The third task involved the use of laser confocal microscopy to study

  12. Predictive estimation of upward pollutant migration during shale gas production using satellite image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalko, Vadim; Azimov, Oleksandr; Yakovlev, Yevgen

    2016-07-01

    The report considers the relevance of the application of modern remote aerospace and hydrogeological methods in the problems of the ecological safety for the hydrosphere during shale gas production in Ukraine. Case studies of pilot implementation of these methods are present for the Bilyaivska area adjacent to the Yuzivka licensed site within the Dnieper-Donets Depression. A number of the hydrogeological filtration parameters and the thematic processing for remote sensing data of the Earth enable to obtain the rough estimate of the temporal indices for the upward pollutant migration from the fracturing zone to the groundwater aquifers in the potential process of shale gas production (as an example the 400-Bilyaivska well). It is found that the possible variety of the active permeability in tectonic zone, which may be predicted by using remote sensing of the Earth image interpretation in vicinity of the well, is responsible for the passage time of pollution from the fracturing zone level to the groundwater aquifers one and this time interval spans 50˜5 years.

  13. Characterization of airborne particles generated from metal active gas welding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C; Gomes, J F; Carvalho, P; Santos, T J G; Miranda, R M; Albuquerque, P

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the characterization of particles emitted in the metal active gas welding of carbon steel using mixture of Ar + CO2, and intends to analyze which are the main process parameters that influence the emission itself. It was found that the amount of emitted particles (measured by particle number and alveolar deposited surface area) are clearly dependent on the distance to the welding front and also on the main welding parameters, namely the current intensity and heat input in the welding process. The emission of airborne fine particles seems to increase with the current intensity as fume-formation rate does. When comparing the tested gas mixtures, higher emissions are observed for more oxidant mixtures, that is, mixtures with higher CO2 content, which result in higher arc stability. These mixtures originate higher concentrations of fine particles (as measured by number of particles by cm(3) of air) and higher values of alveolar deposited surface area of particles, thus resulting in a more severe worker's exposure.

  14. New portable instrument for the measurement of thermal conductivity in gas process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, C. S. G. P.; Lourenço, M. J. V.; Vieira, S. I.; Serra, J. M.; Nieto de Castro, C. A.

    2016-06-01

    The development of high temperature gas sensors for the monitoring and determination of thermophysical properties of complex process mixtures at high temperatures faces several problems, related with the materials compatibility, active sensing parts sensitivity, and lifetime. Ceramic/thin metal films based sensors, previously developed for the determination of thermal conductivity of molten materials up to 1200 °C, were redesigned, constructed, and applied for thermal conductivity measuring sensors. Platinum resistance thermometers were also developed using the same technology, to be used in the temperature measurement, which were also constructed and tested. A new data acquisition system for the thermal conductivity sensors, based on a linearization of the transient hot-strip model, including a portable electronic bridge for the measurement of the thermal conductivity in gas process conditions was also developed. The equipment is capable of measuring the thermal conductivity of gaseous phases with an accuracy of 2%-5% up to 840 °C (95% confidence level). The development of sensors up to 1200 °C, present at the core of the combustion chambers, will be done in a near future.

  15. The ozonizer discharge as a gas-phase advanced oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1997-09-01

    In the past several years, there has been increased interest in gas-phase pollution control arising from a larger body of environmental regulations and a greater respect for the environment. One promising class of pollution-control technologies is that called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Ozonizers have been used for over a century in water treatment and for about two decades in advanced oxidation. Ozonizers are fundamentally based on non-thermal plasmas, which are useful for generating reactive species (free radicals) in gas streams. Because radical-attack reaction rate constants are very large for many chemical species, entrained pollutants are readily decomposed by these radicals. Non-thermal plasmas can generate both oxidative and reductive radicals; therefore, they show promise for treating a wide variety of pollutants. However, this application is only about a decade old, so more work is needed for optimizing and commercializing the process. This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to the subject of pollutant decomposition with the nonthermal plasmas generated by ozonizer discharges. Basic plasma and decomposition chemistry, laboratory experiments, and example applications are discussed.

  16. New portable instrument for the measurement of thermal conductivity in gas process conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, C S G P; Lourenço, M J V; Vieira, S I; Serra, J M; Nieto de Castro, C A

    2016-06-01

    The development of high temperature gas sensors for the monitoring and determination of thermophysical properties of complex process mixtures at high temperatures faces several problems, related with the materials compatibility, active sensing parts sensitivity, and lifetime. Ceramic/thin metal films based sensors, previously developed for the determination of thermal conductivity of molten materials up to 1200 °C, were redesigned, constructed, and applied for thermal conductivity measuring sensors. Platinum resistance thermometers were also developed using the same technology, to be used in the temperature measurement, which were also constructed and tested. A new data acquisition system for the thermal conductivity sensors, based on a linearization of the transient hot-strip model, including a portable electronic bridge for the measurement of the thermal conductivity in gas process conditions was also developed. The equipment is capable of measuring the thermal conductivity of gaseous phases with an accuracy of 2%-5% up to 840 °C (95% confidence level). The development of sensors up to 1200 °C, present at the core of the combustion chambers, will be done in a near future.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF GAS-ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (GAGD) PROCESS FOR IMPROVED LIGHT OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Amit P. Sharma

    2004-10-01

    This report describes the progress of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' for the duration of the second project year (October 1, 2003--September 30, 2004). There are three main tasks in this research project. Task 1 is scaled physical model study of GAGD process. Task 2 is further development of vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for miscibility determination. Task 3 is determination of multiphase displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks. In Section I, preliminary design of the scaled physical model using the dimensional similarity approach has been presented. Scaled experiments on the current physical model have been designed to investigate the effect of Bond and capillary numbers on GAGD oil recovery. Experimental plan to study the effect of spreading coefficient and reservoir heterogeneity has been presented. Results from the GAGD experiments to study the effect of operating mode, Bond number and capillary number on GAGD oil recovery have been reported. These experiments suggest that the type of the gas does not affect the performance of GAGD in immiscible mode. The cumulative oil recovery has been observed to vary exponentially with Bond and capillary numbers, for the experiments presented in this report. A predictive model using the bundle of capillary tube approach has been developed to predict the performance of free gravity drainage process. In Section II, a mechanistic Parachor model has been proposed for improved prediction of IFT as well as to characterize the mass transfer effects for miscibility development in reservoir crude oil-solvent systems. Sensitivity studies on model results indicate that provision of a single IFT measurement in the proposed model is sufficient for reasonable IFT predictions. An attempt has been made to correlate the exponent (n) in the mechanistic model with normalized solute compositions present in

  18. Influence of dielectric constant of polymerization medium on processability and ammonia gas sensing properties of polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Pratim Sengupta; Pradip Kar; Basudam Adhikari

    2011-04-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by the oxidation of aniline hydrochloride in the presence of ammonium persulphate and hydrochloric acid. The polymerization reaction was carried out in several batches in different solvent media by changing the volume ratio of ,-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and water as binary solvent mixture. The dielectric constant of the polymerizationmedium for each batch reaction was determined by measuring the capacitance with change in frequency. The UV spectra of the synthesized polyaniline solutions helped us to optimize the ratio of the binary solvent to get sufficient polymer growth and processability. Thin film of processable polyaniline was then deposited on glass slides coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) crosslinked with maleic anhydride (MA). FTIR and XRD studies of the coated film were also done. AFM studies further helped in the morphological study of the film deposited. Finally, conductivity and ammonia gas-sensing property of the polyaniline film were also studied.

  19. Arc Interference Behavior during Twin Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjian Ye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process, the synchronous acquisition system has been established to acquire instantaneous information of arc profile including dynamic arc length variation as well as relative voltage and current signals. The results show that after trailing arc (T-arc is added to the middle arc (M-arc in a stable welding process, the current of M arc remains unchanged while the agitation increases; the voltage of M arc has an obvious increase; the shape of M arc changes, with increasing width, length, and area; the transfer frequency of M arc droplet increases and the droplet itself becomes smaller. The wire extension length of twin arc turns out to be shorter than that of single arc welding.

  20. Cyclization of 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls is not a homogenous gas phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Theodore S.

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies of 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls derived from alkanes have suggested that they can cyclize to saturated furans, which can subsequently eliminate water to form the corresponding dihydrofurans. CBS-QB3 and G3 studies of 5-hydroxy-2-pentanone and 2-hydroxypentanal show that both steps have activation barriers far too large for these reactions to occur as homogenous gas phase reactions. Similar results were obtained in CBS-QB3 studies of the analogous process leading from 2- and 3-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-butenal (species posited to form in the degradation of isoprene) to 3-methylfuran. The latter two processes are much more favorable, thermodynamically, than the formation of dihydrofurans from the saturated 1,4-hydroxycarbonyls.

  1. Estimation on Global Reaction Heat for the Aromatization Process of Liquefied Petroleum Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小辉; 朱建华; 郝代军

    2013-01-01

    The reaction heat effect analysis for the aromatization process of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) was completed in this paper. In order to characterize this complex reaction system, one set of independent reactions was determined by means of atomic coefficient matrix method. Based on reaction thermodynamic and stoichiometric knowledge, the heat effect, Gibbs free energy change and equilibrium constant for each independent reaction was calculated for the specified conditions. Under these conditions, based on the initial and final composition data from LPG aromatization experiments, the actual extent of reaction for each independent reaction was determined. Fur-thermore, the global reaction heat and adiabatic temperature rise of LPG aromatization reaction system could be es-timated. This work would provide a theoretical guidance for the design and scale-up of reactor for LPG aromatiza-tion process, as well as for the selection of proper operating conditions.

  2. Double-sided gas tungsten arc welding process on TC4 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong-ming; BAI Yan; YANG Tian-dong

    2005-01-01

    TC4 titanium alloy was welded by double-sided gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW) process in comparison with conventional GTAW process, the microstructure and mechanical performance of weld were also studied. The results indicate that double-sided GTAW is superior over regular single-sided GTAW on the aspects of increasing penetration, reducing welding deformation and improving welding efficiency. Good weld joint was obtained, which can reach 96.14% tensile strength and 70.85 % elongation percentage of the base metal. The grains in heat-affected zone(HAZ) are thin and equiaxed and the degree of grain coarsening increases as one moves to the weld center line,and the interior of grains are α and α' structures. The coarse columned and equiaxed grains, which interlace martensitic structures α' and acicular α structures, are observed in weld zone. The fracture mode is ductile fracture.

  3. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  4. Marketing mix - commercial gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.F.

    1975-07-01

    British Gas Corp. points out that a substantial increase in the use of gas in Great Britain's commercial energy market has occurred in the past 6 yr. Some of the newest applications of gas are in the areas of the cook/freeze system of preparing frozen foods in commercial catering, commissariats preparing in-flight food, and heating/cooling systems of large buildings. The variety of buildings and institutions using gas-fired systems indicates that, with the sensible pricing policies and the security of an indigenous fuel, the commercial market for gas will continue to develop for several years in Britain.

  5. Natural gas measurement process development in PETROBRAS system: new concepts and challenges; Desenvolvimento do processo de medicao de gas natural no sistema PETROBRAS: novos conceitos e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Carlos Alexandre L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mercon, Eduardo G. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Considering the wide increase of natural gas participation in the Brazilian energetic source matrix, this paper describes, comments and analyzes how the natural gas flow measurement process has been structured in PETROBRAS, so that it become a potential factor of this increase. Initially, the work makes a metrological approach of measured volumes, based on volumetric balance of the gas flow in the two principals pipe segments of PETROBRAS gas line network, localized in the Brazilian southeast and northeast systems. This approach runs through the investigation of several parameters that have influence on that balance, considering field installation improvement and normative adjustments, sketching aims and suggesting best practices for its optimization. Further, it will be described PETROBRAS' systems being in use to provide natural gas flow measurement control and management, from available data in transporters' SCADA system to billing, and to integrate the processes of: shipping scheduling; transmission and delivering; real time supervision; and consolidation of these information for invoicing. (author)

  6. Numerical studies of hydrate dissociation and gas production behavior in porous media during depressurization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuke Ruan; Mingjun Yang; Yongchen Song; Haifeng Liang; Yanghui Li

    2012-01-01

    process of hydrate dissociation and gas production.

  7. Recommendations for improved data processing from expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robergs, Robert A; Dwyer, Dan; Astorino, Todd

    2010-02-01

    There is currently no universally recommended and accepted method of data processing within the science of indirect calorimetry for either mixing chamber or breath-by-breath systems of expired gas analysis. Exercise physiologists were first surveyed to determine methods used to process oxygen consumption ((.)VO2) data, and current attitudes to data processing within the science of indirect calorimetry. Breath-by-breath datasets obtained from indirect calorimetry during incremental exercise were then used to demonstrate the consequences of commonly used time, breath and digital filter post-acquisition data processing strategies. Assessment of the variability in breath-by-breath data was determined using multiple regression based on the independent variables ventilation (VE), and the expired gas fractions for oxygen and carbon dioxide, FEO2 and FECO2, respectively. Based on the results of explanation of variance of the breath-by-breath (.)VO2 data, methods of processing to remove variability were proposed for time-averaged, breath-averaged and digital filter applications. Among exercise physiologists, the strategy used to remove the variability in (.)VO2 measurements varied widely, and consisted of time averages (30 sec [38%], 60 sec [18%], 20 sec [11%], 15 sec [8%]), a moving average of five to 11 breaths (10%), and the middle five of seven breaths (7%). Most respondents indicated that they used multiple criteria to establish maximum ((.)VO2 ((.)VO2max) including: the attainment of age-predicted maximum heart rate (HR(max)) [53%], respiratory exchange ratio (RER) >1.10 (49%) or RER >1.15 (27%) and a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of >17, 18 or 19 (20%). The reasons stated for these strategies included their own beliefs (32%), what they were taught (26%), what they read in research articles (22%), tradition (13%) and the influence of their colleagues (7%). The combination of VE, FEO2 and FECO2 removed 96-98% of (.)VO2 breath-by-breath variability in incremental

  8. Convergence of Corporate and Public Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Hirigoyen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the differences between the corporate and public governance, theoretical and empirical research seems to indicate that the two domains of governance are far too different to share any common aspect. However, in this particular research, it has been argued that public governance is an application of corporate governance. Thus, the research question entails the description and analysis of this possible convergence of the two. Extensive research from literature on corporate governance has been undertaken to establish a relationship between the boards process and the roles that acts as a framework to bridge the gap separating corporate governance from public governance. Corporate governance, at a global level, exists in the for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations. Thus, the definition of this concept needs to be viewed from “an innovative” eye, considering the relationship between the process of the board and roles as characteristic of the public organization and private ones. As the private as well as public organizations are an application of corporate governance, the difference between the two gets narrowed. For the purpose of this research, the case of the French hospitals’ board has been taken into consideration. The members of the public board have been considered for the board process to perform their roles.

  9. Processes forming Gas, Tar, and Coke in Cellulose Gasification from Gas-Phase Reactions of Levoglucosan as Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2015-07-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of levoglucosan (LG), the major intermediate species during cellulose gasification, was studied experimentally over the temperature range of 400-900 °C. Gaseous LG did not produce any dehydration products, which include coke, furans, and aromatic substances, although these are characteristic products of the pyrolysis of molten LG. Alternatively, at >500 °C, gaseous LG produced only fragmentation products, such as noncondensable gases and condensable C1 -C3 fragments, as intermediates during noncondensable gas formation. Therefore, it was determined that secondary reactions of gaseous LG can result in the clean (tar- and coke-free) gasification of cellulose. Cooling of the remaining LG in the gas phase caused coke formation by the transition of the LG to the molten state. The molecular mechanisms that govern the gas- and molten-phase reactions of LG are discussed in terms of the acid catalyst effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding to promote the molten-phase dehydration reactions.

  10. Racial Discrimination in the British Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Contains results of a study of racial discrimination in the British job market for accountants and financial executives. Results show that considerable discrimination remains several years after the adoption of the Race Relations Act of 1968. (CT)

  11. Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

  12. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William A.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  13. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  14. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  15. The concentration distribution around a growing gas bubble in a bio tissue under the effect of suction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S A

    2014-07-01

    The concentration distribution around a growing nitrogen gas bubble in the blood and other bio tissues of divers who ascend to surface too quickly is obtained by Mohammadein and Mohamed model (2010) for variant and constant ambient pressure through the decompression process. In this paper, the growing of gas bubbles and concentration distribution under the effect of suction process are studied as a modification of Mohammadein and Mohamed model (zero suction). The growth of gas bubble is affected by ascent rate, tissue diffusivity, initial concentration difference, surface tension and void fraction. Mohammadein and Mohamed model (2010) is obtained as a special case from the present model. Results showed that, the suction process activates the systemic blood circulation and delay the growth of gas bubbles in the bio tissues to avoid the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS).

  16. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  17. Strategic corporate sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grewatsch, Sylvia; Rohrbeck, René; Madsen, Henning

    This paper aims to advance the understanding of the circumstances under which corporate sustainability (CS) pays off. On the basis of a review of 129 major papers from both the sustainability and general management literature, we discuss the development of the research field. In addition we discuss...... antecedents and outcomes. To overcome this limitation we propose an integrated typology which may facilitate more research on the link between corporate sustainability performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance (CFP). Our expectation is that the strategy type might play a moderating or mediating...

  18. Corporate Blogging For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Karr, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Establish a successful corporate blog to reach your customers. Corporate blogs require careful planning and attention to legal and corporate policies in order for them to be productive and effective. This fun, friendly, and practical guide walks you through using blogging as a first line of communication to customers and explains how to protect your company and employees through privacy, disclosure, and moderation policies. Blogging guru Douglas Karr demonstrates how blogs are an ideal way to offer a conversational and approachable relationship with customers. You'll discover how to prepare, e

  19. Effect of gas composition on the kinetics of iron oxide reduction in a hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Lorethova, Hana; Stonawski, Lubor; Wiltowski, Tomasz [Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States); Mondal, Kanchan; Szymanski, Tomasz [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes, Carbondale, IL (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a suitable oxygen transfer agent for converting CO present in syngas to CO{sub 2} for its eventual separation from H{sub 2}. However, H{sub 2} also reacts with iron oxide to form H{sub 2}O. In order to evaluate the reactions for hydrogen enrichment, investigations into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to FeO reduction kinetics in the presence of syngas constituents were conducted. The reaction kinetic parameters were estimated based on the thermogravimetric data. Hancock and Sharp method of comparing the kinetics of isothermal solid-state reactions, based on Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Erofe'ev equation describing nucleation and growth processes, was applied. The experimental results indicate that the reduction is initially a surface-controlled process, but once a thin layer of lower iron oxides (magnetite, wusite) is formed on the surface, the mechanism shifts to diffusion control. It was concluded that this initial stage of the reaction process could be interpreted as a both phase-boundary-controlled reaction and the two-dimensional nucleation and growth (transformation of the crystallographic lattices of higher oxide to lattices of lower oxide) at the gas/iron oxide interface. Comparison of the reaction courses for both the reducing agents (H{sub 2}, CO) independently and for their mixture was performed. It was found, that the reaction rate increases with, both, temperature and the hydrogen content in inlet gas. The activation energy values were estimated and compared. (author)

  20. ENUMERATION OF MICROBES AND GAS PRODUCTION DURING DENITRIFICATION AND NITROGEN FIXATION PROCESSES IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry plant material contains 2-4% nitrogen, making it an essential nutrient for all plants. The nitrogen cycle regulates the pathways which transform nitrogen from a relatively inert dinitrogen gas to forms of organic nitrogen such as proteins and nucleic acids. Denitrification and nitrogen fixation are the two most important processes that remove and add nitrogen to the soil, respectively. The aim of the study was to gain information on the denitrification and nitrogen fixing activities in soil and sediment employing the acetylene technique and assuring the gas chromatography analysis by total plate count and most probably number. The results indicated that acetylene (0.1 atm inhibited N2O reduction and caused stoichiometric accumulation of N2O during the conversion of NO3- to N2. N2O was an obligatory intermediate in the sequence of steps between N2O- and N2. The appearance of CO2 and accumulation of N2O would be suitable criteria for the presence of denitrifiers in appropriately enriched media and the acetylene reduction test is a suitable assay for nitrogen fixing activity. There was an obligatory requirement for organic carbon as a carbon and energy source for denitrification and nitrogen fixation to take place. The results showed that acetylglucosamine can be used as a carbon and energy source for denitrification but not as a nitrogen source (C:N ratio of 5:1. NH4+ has no effect on denitrification activity but it inhibited the nitrogenase activity. The presence of air in the gas phase affects both the denitrification and nitrogen fixing activity while adding H2O encouraged anaerobic conditions.