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Sample records for british columbian lakes

  1. Respiration of midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) in British Columbian lakes: oxy-regulation, temperature and their role as palaeo-indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Pedersen, Ole; Walker, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    1. The specific respiration rate of 13 chironomid taxa and Chaoborus were measured to test the hypothesis of the relation between a species' ability to regulate their oxygen uptake and their distributional patterns among nine study lakes in British Columbia, Canada. 2. Respiration patterns of ind...

  2. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  3. Essays on the economics of British Columbian timber policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niquidet, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines the process of institutional change in British Columbia’s timber sector. It is composed of a series of essays which highlight the underlying political and economic factors that have shaped past and current reforms. Taking center stage in the analysis, are the resource rents

  4. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  5. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-04-01

    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  6. A Survey of Cancer Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes of British Columbian Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, R; Hawley, P; Yeomans, W

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are many potential barriers to adequate cancer pain management, including lack of physician education and prescription monitoring programs. The authors surveyed physicians about their specific knowledge of pain management and the effects of the regulation of opioids on their prescribing practices.METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed out to British Columbia physicians who were likely to encounter cancer patients. The survey asked for physicians' opinions about College of Phy...

  7. How prostate cancer support groups do and do not survive: British Columbian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Halpin, Michael; Bottorff, Joan L; Hislop, T Gregory; McKenzie, Michael; Mroz, Lawrence

    2008-06-01

    Many prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) have formed in North America during the past decade, yet their operation or factors influencing sustainability are poorly understood. This article reports micro (intragroup), meso (intergroup), and macro (group/structure) analyses drawn from the fieldwork and participant observations conducted for an ethnographic study of PCSGs based in British Columbia, Canada. The findings indicate that effective group leadership is integral to group sustainability and the recruitment and retention of attendees. At the meso level, intergroup connections and communication were often informal; however, the primary purpose of all the PCSGs was to provide information and support to men and their families. Many PCSGs were uncertain how formal associations with cancer fund-raising societies would influence group effectiveness. Macro issues such as prostate cancer activism resided with individual group "champions" through activities coordinated by provincial and national PCSG organizations. However, activism did not guarantee group sustainability. The study findings reveal why some groups flourish while others appear untenable, and form the basis for discussion about how PCSG sustainability might be best achieved.

  8. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Wendy A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women’s psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes. Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC, Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers’ offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women’s fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear and women’s exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight. Methods Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women’s personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson’s Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity, assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia, and psychological variables. Results Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas

  9. Routine hydrography and chemical observations in Lake Nitinat, British Columbia, from 1964 to 1975 (NCEI Accession 7800331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains all of the routine hydrographic and chemical measurements obtained from Lake Nitinat. British Columbia on cruises from 1964 to 1975. In...

  10. Freshwater Microbialites of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada: A Limnological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; McKay, C. P.; Laval, B.; Bird, J.; Cady, S.

    2004-01-01

    Pavillion Lake is 5.7km long and an average of 0.8 km in width, and is located in Marble Canyon in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake with a maximum-recorded depth of 65m. The basin walls of Pavilion Lake are lined with microbialite structures that are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline, and which are found from depths of 5 meters to the bottom of the photic zone (light levels 1% of ambient; approximately 30m depth). These structures are speculated to have begun formation nearly 11,000 years ago, after the glacial retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. They are likely a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, which display micromorphologies possibly related to the ancient Epiphyton and Girvanella classes of calcareous organosedimentary structures.

  11. Mercury in fish from the Pinchi Lake Region, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weech, S.A.; Scheuhammer, A.M.; Elliott, J.E.; Cheng, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water, surface sediments, and <40 cm rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and northern pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected from Pinchi Lake, British Columbia, and from several nearby reference lakes. Hg concentrations in sediment samples from Pinchi L. were highly elevated compared to sediments from reference lakes, especially in sites adjacent to and downstream of a former Hg mine. In both fish species examined, Hg concentration was positively related to age and/or fork length. In northern pikeminnow, Hg concentrations were also positively related to trophic level (δN). Hg concentrations in both fish species were highest in Pinchi L., and were higher in pikeminnow than in rainbow trout of similar size. Average Hg concentrations in small rainbow trout from all lakes, including Pinchi L., were lower than dietary levels reported to cause reproductive impairment in common loons (Gavia immer); however, Hg levels in small pikeminnow from Pinchi L. were sufficiently high to be of concern. The risk for Hg toxicity in the study area is greatest for animals that consume larger piscivorous fish such as larger northern pikeminnow or lake trout, which are known from previous studies to contain higher Hg concentrations

  12. Sensitive clay landslide detection and characterization in and around Lakelse Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Marten; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Kwoll, Eva; Menounos, Brian; Venditti, Jeremy G.; Grenier, Alain; Wiebe, Kelsey

    2018-02-01

    The Lakelse Lake area in northwestern British Columbia, Canada, has a long history, and prehistory, of rapid sensitive clay landslides moving on very low gradients. However, until now, many landslides have gone undetected. We use an array of modern tools to identify hitherto unknown or poorly known landslide deposits, including acoustic subbottom profiles, multibeam sonar, and LiDAR. The combination of these methods reveals not only landslide deposits, but also geomorphic and sedimentologic structures that give clues about landslide type and mode of emplacement. LiDAR and bathymetric data reveal the areal extent of landslide deposits as well as the orientation of ridges that differentiate between spreading and flowing kinematics. The subbottom profiles show two-dimensional structures of disturbed landslide deposits, including horst and grabens indicative of landslides classified as spreads. A preliminary computer tomography (CT) scan of a sediment core confirms the structures of one subbottom profile. We also use archival data from the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure and resident interviews to better characterize historic landslides.

  13. Tracking past changes in lake-water phosphorus with a 251-lake calibration dataset in British Columbia: tool development and application in a multiproxy assessment of eutrophication and recovery in Osoyoos Lake, a transboundary lake in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fraser Cumming

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an active discussion about the potential and challenges of tracking past lake-water trophic state using paleolimnological methods. Herein, we present analyses of the relationship between modern-day diatom assemblages from the surface sediments of 251 fresh-water lakes from British Columbia and contemporary limnological variables. Total phosphorus (TP was significantly related to the modern distribution of diatom assemblages. The large size of this new calibration dataset resulted in higher abundances and occurrences of many diatom taxa thereby allowing a more accurate quantification of the optima of diatom taxa to TP in comparison to previous smaller calibration datasets. Robust diatom-based TP inference models with a moderate predictive power were developed using weighted-averaging regression and calibration. Information from the calibration dataset was used to interpret changes in the diatom assemblages from the north and south basins of Osoyoos Lake, in conjunction with fossil pigment analyses. Osoyoos Lake is a large salmon-bearing lake that straddles the British Columbia-Washington border and has undergone cultural eutrophication followed by recovery due to substantial mitigation efforts in managing sources of nutrients. Both diatom assemblages and sedimentary pigments indicate that eutrophication began c. 1950 in the north basin and c. 1960 in the southern basin, reaching peak levels of production between 1960 and 1990, after which decreases in sedimentary pigments occurred, as well as decreases in the relative abundance and concentrations of diatom taxa inferred to have high TP optima. Post-1990 changes in the diatom assemblage suggests conditions have become less productive with a shift to taxa more indicative of lower TP optima in concert with measurements of declining TP, two of these diatom taxa, Cyclotella comensis and Cyclotella gordonensis, that were previously rare are now abundant.

  14. Conceptual modeling framework to support development of site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, Montana, U.S.A., and British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Karen E.; Naftz, David L.; Presser, Theresa S.

    2017-10-16

    The U.S. Geological Survey, working with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change Strategy, has developed a conceptual modeling framework that can be used to provide structured and scientifically based input to the Lake Koocanusa Monitoring and Research Working Group as they consider potential site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, a transboundary reservoir located in Montana and British Columbia. This report describes that modeling framework, provides an example of how it can be applied, and outlines possible next steps for implementing the framework.

  15. The Columbian Quincentenary: An Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Teacher, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) position paper on Christopher Columbus' influence upon the Americas. Suggests that educators should help students comprehend the contemporary relevance of 1492. Examines such topics as the roles of Africa and Asia in the age of exploration and the realities of the pre-Columbian Americas.…

  16. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  17. Tale of two pit lakes: initial results of a three-year study of the Main Zone and Waterline pit lakes near Houston, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusius, John; Pieters, R.; Leung, A.; Whittle, P.; Pedersen, T.; Lawrence, G.; McNee, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Pit lakes are becoming increasingly common in North America as well as in the rest of the world. They are created as openpit mines fill passively with ground water and surface inflows on cessation of mining activity. In many instances, the water quality in these pit lakes does not meet regulatory requirements due to a number of influences. The most important are the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the associated release of acid and metals and the flushing of soluble metals during pit filling. Examples of pit lakes with severe water-quality problems include the Berkeley Pit lake (Butte, MT) and the Liberty Pit lake (Nevada), whose waters are characterized by a pH near 3 and Cu concentrations as high as ~150 mg/L (Miller et al., 1996; Davis and Eary, 1997). The importance of the problem can be seen in the fact that some of these sites in the United States are Superfund sites.

  18. Potential Influence of Climate Change on the Acid-Sensitivity of High-Elevation Lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Strang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate models predict increased temperature and precipitation in the Georgia Basin, British Colmbia; however, little is known about the impacts on high-elevation regions. In the current study, fifty-four high-elevation lakes (754–2005 m a.s.l. were studied to investigate the potential influence of climate change on surface water acid-sensitivity. Redundancy analysis indicated that the concentration of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and associated metals was significantly influenced by climate parameters. Furthermore, these components differed significantly between biogeoclimatic zones. Modelled soil base cation weathering for a subset of the study lakes (n=11 was predicted to increase by 9% per 1°C increase in temperature. Changes in temperature and precipitation may potentially decrease the pH of surface waters owing to changes in anthropogenic deposition and organic acid production. In contrast, increased soil base cation weathering may increase the critical load (of acidity of high-elevation lakes. Ultimately, the determining factor will be whether enhanced base cation weathering is sufficient to buffer changes in natural and anthropogenic acidity. Mountain and high-elevation regions are considered early warning systems to climate change; as such, future monitoring is imperative to assess the potential ramifications of climate change on the hydrochemistry and acid-sensitivity of these surface waters.

  19. Pre-Columbian landscape impact and agriculture in the Monumental Mound region of the Llanos de Moxos, lowland Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Bronwen S.; Dickau, Ruth; Mayle, Francis E.; Soto, J. Daniel; Iriarte, José

    2013-09-01

    We present a multiproxy study of land use by a pre-Columbian earth mounds culture in the Bolivian Amazon. The Monumental Mounds Region (MMR) is an archaeological sub-region characterized by hundreds of pre-Columbian habitation mounds associated with a complex network of canals and causeways, and situated in the forest-savanna mosaic of the Llanos de Moxos. Pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses were performed on a sediment core from a large lake (14 km2), Laguna San José (14°56.97'S, 64°29.70'W). We found evidence of high levels of anthropogenic burning from AD 400 to AD 1280, corroborating dated occupation layers in two nearby excavated habitation mounds. The charcoal decline pre-dates the arrival of Europeans by at least 100 yr, and challenges the notion that the mounds culture declined because of European colonization. We show that the surrounding savanna soils were sufficiently fertile to support crops, and the presence of maize throughout the record shows that the area was continuously cultivated despite land-use change at the end of the earth mounds culture. We suggest that burning was largely confined to the savannas, rather than forests, and that pre-Columbian deforestation was localized to the vicinity of individual habitation mounds, whereas the inter-mound areas remained largely forested.

  20. Glacial Lake Pickering: stratigraphy and chronology of a proglacial lake dammed by the North Sea Lobe of the British-Irish Ice Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David J.A.; Bateman, Mark D.; Roberts, David H.; Medialdea, Alicia; Hayes, Laura; Duller, Geoff A.T.; Fabel, Derek; Clark, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first chronology, using four new optically stimulated luminescence dates, on the sedimentary record of Glacial Lake Pickering, dammed by the North Sea Lobe of the British–Irish Ice Sheet during the Dimlington Stadial (24–11 ka cal BP). Dates range from 17.6 ± 1.0 to 15.8 ± 0.9 ka for the sedimentation of the Sherburn Sands at East Heslerton, which were formed by multiple coalescing alluvial fans prograding into the falling water levels of the lake and fed by progressively larger...

  1. Historical evidence for a pre-Columbian presence of Datura

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-12-04

    Dec 4, 2007 ... Further, the textual evidence traditionally cited in support of a pre-Columbian Old World presence of Datura species is suggested to be due to the misreading of classical Greek and Arabic sources. As a result, botanists generally accept the opinion that Datura species were transferred into the Old World in ...

  2. Taphonomy of Early Triassic fish fossils of the Vega-Phroso Siltstone Member of the Sulphur Mountain Formation near Wapiti Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taphonomy of fishes living in lacustrine environments has been extensively studied in both the laboratory and the fossil record; the taphonomy of marine fishes, however, is poorly known. Triassic marine fishes with heavy ganoid and cosmoid scales, which provided protection from rapid taphonomic loss, offer a means to examine marine fish taphonomy in the fossil record. Four genera of Early Triassic fishes (the ray-finned actinopterygians Albertonia, Bobasatrania, Boreosomus, and the lobe-finned coelacanth (sarcopterygian, Whiteia from the Wapiti Lake, British Columbia locality of the Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation were examined in order to gain a better understanding of the taphonomy of fish in marine environments, determine ambient environmental conditions in the region during the Early Triassic, and ascertain the habitat and mode of life of the fish. Results indicate that environmental conditions that contributed to the preservation of the fossil fishes of the current study included deposition in deep, quiet waters, which reduced the odds of disarticulation, colder waters under higher pressure, which slowed decay and limited postmortem floatation, and waters that were anoxic, which discouraged predators and scavengers. In addition, the thickness of the primitive ganoid and cosmoid scales of the fossil fishes also increased their preservation potential. Taphonomic, physiological and environmental indicators suggest that Whiteia, Albertonia, and possibly Bobasatrania lived in deep, cold waters near the oxygen minimum zone, while Boreosomus lived higher in the water column. While the anatomical and physiological characteristics of modern fishes will likely continue to inhibit marine taphonomy studies, examination of ancient fish, particularly those with ganoid or cosmoid scales, may provide future avenues of research to gain a better understanding of marine fish taphonomy and provide a powerful tool to examine ancient fish behavior

  3. Tracing the genomic ancestry of Peruvians reveals a major legacy of pre-Columbian ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Jose R; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Acosta, Oscar; Castillo-Herrera, Wilder; Fujita, Ricardo; Pena, Sergio D J; Santos, Fabricio R

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the underlying genetic structure and genomic ancestry proportions of Peruvian subpopulations, we analyzed 551 human samples of 25 localities from the Andean, Amazonian, and Coastal regions of Peru with a set of 40 ancestry informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Using genotypes of reference populations from different continents for comparison, our analysis indicated that populations from all 25 Peruvian locations had predominantly Amerindian genetic ancestry. Among populations from the Titicaca Lake islands of Taquile, Amantani, Anapia, and Uros, and the Yanque locality from the southern Peruvian Andes, there was no significant proportion of non-autochthonous genomes, indicating that their genetic background is effectively derived from the first settlers of South America. However, the Andean populations from San Marcos, Cajamarca, Characato and Chogo, and coastal populations from Lambayeque and Lima displayed a low but significant European ancestry proportion. Furthermore, Amazonian localities of Pucallpa, Lamas, Chachapoyas, and Andean localities of Ayacucho and Huancayo displayed intermediate levels of non-autochthonous ancestry, mostly from Europe. These results are in close agreement with the documented history of post-Columbian immigrations in Peru and with several reports suggesting a larger effective size of indigenous inhabitants during the formation of the current country's population.

  4. Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    2015-01-01

    The American continent is very rich in psychoactive plants and fungi, and many pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures used them for magical, therapeutic and religious purposes. The archaeological, ethno-historical and ethnographic evidence of the use of hallucinogenic substances in Mesoamerica is reviewed. Hallucinogenic cactus, plants and mushrooms were used to induce altered states of consciousness in healing rituals and religious ceremonies. The Maya drank balché (a mixture of honey and extracts of Lonchocarpus) in group ceremonies to achieve intoxication. Ritual enemas and other psychoactive substances were also used to induce states of trance. Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec used peyote, hallucinogenic mushrooms (teonanacatl: Psilocybe spp) and the seeds of ololiuhqui (Turbina corymbosa), that contain mescaline, psilocybin and lysergic acid amide, respectively. The skin of the toad Bufo spp contains bufotoxins with hallucinogenic properties, and was used since the Olmec period. Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), wild tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), water lily (Nymphaea ampla) and Salvia divinorum were used for their psychoactive effects. Mushroom stones dating from 3000 BC have been found in ritual contexts in Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence of peyote use dates back to over 5000 years. Several chroniclers, mainly Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, described their effects in the sixteenth century. The use of psychoactive substances was common in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican societies. Today, local shamans and healers still use them in ritual ceremonies in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. [Possible health effects associated with Pre-Columbian metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro Javier

    2005-09-01

    In the Old World, several researchers have indicated that adverse health effects were associated with exposure to arsenic, and that this influenced a change in the use of copper-arsenic alloys to others less toxic. This hypothesis was evaluated for three Pre-Columbian metallurgy traditions: Central Andes, Intermediate Area, and West Mexico. The metal artifacts from the Central Andes showed arsenic concentrations similar to those in the Old World (0.5%-1.0%). In the Intermediate Area the values were smallest; however, in West Mexico the arsenic content was very high (7%-25%). In Central Andes arsenical bronze was used initially, but copper-tin alloys when introduced were preferred and distributed throughout the Inca Empire. Osteological and artistic evidences of foot amputations among Moche individuals from Central Andes support the presence of "black foot disease" (a condition associated with arsenic poisoning) among Pre-Columbian populations. In conclusion, the adverse effects of arsenic have been observed in the New World, and that these effects promoted a change toward the use of less toxic alloys.

  6. A Survey of Cancer Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes of British Columbian Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Gallagher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are many potential barriers to adequate cancer pain management, including lack of physician education and prescription monitoring programs. The authors surveyed physicians about their specific knowledge of pain management and the effects of the regulation of opioids on their prescribing practices.

  7. Florence Nightingale in absentia: nursing and the 1893 Columbian Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    In 1893, Chicago hosted the Columbian Exposition. This event showcased America's social, cultural, and scientific advances and its growing cultural parity with Western Europe. This was the first major exposition in which women played a prominent role. Integral to the fair was a series of Congresses that provided an international platform for discussion of social issues. The Congress on Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing, a section of the International Congress of Charities, Correction, and Philanthropy, particularly focused on health care issues. Nursing leaders from Europe and North America participated. Although Florence Nightingale provided a major paper that was read at the Congress, she was unable to attend the event. The intent of this article is to examine the issues and themes debated at the 1893 Congress and identify how the influence of Nightingale effected these discussions and the development of Western nursing for the next half-century.

  8. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  9. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Jackson, Dewaine H.; Wolfe, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocol- lared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mor- tality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was 20.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these dif- ferences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  10. Cattle or sheep reduce fawning habitat available to Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston P. Smith; Bruce E. Coblentz

    2010-01-01

    We studied responses of Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus) to cattle and sheep in western Oregon because of viability concerns. We used radio-telemetry, observations from horseback, and searches with a trained dog to determine fawning habitat, dam home ranges, and habitat use by fawns. Dams shifted their center of...

  11. Ancient representation of Meige's syndrome in the Moche culture in the pre-Columbian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Mariscal, Ana; Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro

    2010-03-15

    The Moches were a pre-Columbian culture from Peru, who had a fine ceramic technique and used to represent diseases. One example is the potter presented here which represents a man with a probable Meige's syndrome and may be the first artistic representation of this disease.

  12. Climate change and health in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostry, A.; Ogborn, M.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC; Takaro, T.; Bassil, K.; Allen, D.

    2008-11-01

    This document described the models that scientists use to investigate the links between climate change and health. It then reviewed the evidence for possible impacts of climate change on human health. Most models conceptualize that climate change will affect the health of British Columbians directly through physical and biological pathways, and indirectly through complex socio-economic and environmental pathways. The direct physical and biological pathways will be the easiest to investigate, monitor and attribute to climate change, while the indirect socio-economic pathways will be more complex to investigate but will have the most impact. This document also provided guidance for a program of research and policy directions to better predict future impacts of climate change on health in BC and to enhance adaptation to these changes. The document suggested that basic research is needed to develop a made in BC model and infrastructure for climate change and health investigations. Currently, rural and remote forestry-dependent and Aboriginal communities in mountain pine infected zones are particularly vulnerable. However, it was concluded that although there is strong evidence for shifts in climate in BC, no direct evidence exists on the impact of climate change on human health in BC. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-04-27

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them follows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use.

  14. Characterization of colour pigments in pre-Columbian Chilean potteries by PIXE elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Ancient ceremonial potteries belonging to pre-Columbian cultures in Chile are decorated with three colours, red, white and black. Samples of these colours were analyzed with induced x-ray fluorescence by a 6.6 MeV proton beam. The analyses show clearly distinct patterns for each pigment and also denote differences between the same colour in two cultures. Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe and Cu were detected. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  15. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which

  16. Climate change underlies global demographic, genetic, and cultural transitions in pre-Columbian southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Haak, Wolfgang; Mächtle, Bertil; Masch, Florian; Llamas, Bastien; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Sossna, Volker; Schittek, Karsten; Isla Cuadrado, Johny; Eitel, Bernhard; Reindel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Several archaeological studies in the Central Andes have pointed at the temporal coincidence of climatic fluctuations (both long- and short-term) and episodes of cultural transition and changes of socioeconomic structures throughout the pre-Columbian period. Although most scholars explain the connection between environmental and cultural changes by the impact of climatic alterations on the capacities of the ecosystems inhabited by pre-Columbian cultures, direct evidence for assumed demographic consequences is missing so far. In this study, we address directly the impact of climatic changes on the spatial population dynamics of the Central Andes. We use a large dataset of pre-Columbian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the northern Rio Grande de Nasca drainage (RGND) in southern Peru, dating from ∼840 BC to 1450 AD. Alternative demographic scenarios are tested using Bayesian serial coalescent simulations in an approximate Bayesian computational framework. Our results indicate migrations from the lower coastal valleys of southern Peru into the Andean highlands coincident with increasing climate variability at the end of the Nasca culture at ∼640 AD. We also find support for a back-migration from the highlands to the coast coincident with droughts in the southeastern Andean highlands and improvement of climatic conditions on the coast after the decline of the Wari and Tiwanaku empires (∼1200 AD), leading to a genetic homogenization in the RGND and probably southern Peru as a whole.

  17. Taxonomic and predicted metabolic profiles of the human gut microbiome in pre-Columbian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Dowd, Scot E; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Cano, Raul J

    2016-11-01

    Characterization of naturally mummified human gut remains could potentially provide insights into the preservation and evolution of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, and metabolic profiles. We characterized the gut microbiome of two pre-Columbian Andean mummies dating to the 10-15th centuries using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics, and compared them to a previously characterized gut microbiome of an 11th century AD pre-Columbian Andean mummy. Our previous study showed that the Clostridiales represented the majority of the bacterial communities in the mummified gut remains, but that other microbial communities were also preserved during the process of natural mummification, as shown with the metagenomics analyses. The gut microbiome of the other two mummies were mainly comprised by Clostridiales or Bacillales, as demonstrated with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, many of which are facultative anaerobes, possibly consistent with the process of natural mummification requiring low oxygen levels. Metagenome analyses showed the presence of other microbial groups that were positively or negatively correlated with specific metabolic profiles. The presence of sequences similar to both Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani could suggest that these pathogens were prevalent in pre-Columbian individuals. Taxonomic and functional profiling of mummified human gut remains will aid in the understanding of the microbial ecology of the process of natural mummification. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  19. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  20. PALEOPATHOLOGY OF PRE-COLUMBIAN MUMMIES AT THE MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY IN FLORENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzini, Andrea; Gaeta, Raffaele; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    We performed a histopathological study on the mummified tissue specimens of seven pre-Columbian mummies which arrived in Italy in the second half of the 19th century and are housed in the Section of Anthropology and Ethnology of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Florence. The results confirm that the modern techniques of pathological anatomy can be successfidly applied on mummifed tissues, so as to perform important paleopathological diagnoses. Among the results obtained from this study there is the only known complete paleopathological study of Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis), comprising macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural data, as well as information on atherosclerosis, anthracosis, emphysema and pneumonia.

  1. Adventive Vertebrates and Historical Ecology in the Pre-Columbian Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Stahl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere (ca. AD 1500 is generally used as a convenient reference point for signaling the early appearance of invasive faunas. Although use of this date embraces an implicit belief in benign landscape management by pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas, substantial evidence for the anthropogenic movement of domesticated, wild, and synanthropic vertebrates throughout the Neotropics suggests that it may be an exaggerated and erroneous reference point for the aims of ecological restoration and biological conservation.

  2. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  3. The unique functioning of a pre-Columbian Amazonian floodplain fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatrix, Rumsaïs; Roux, Bruno; Béarez, Philippe; Prestes-Carneiro, Gabriela; Amaya, Marcelo; Aramayo, Jose Luis; Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Iriarte, Jose; de Souza, Jonas Gregorio; Robinson, Mark; Bernard, Cyril; Pouilly, Marc; Durécu, Mélisse; Huchzermeyer, Carl F; Kalebe, Mashuta; Ovando, Alex; McKey, Doyle

    2018-04-16

    Archaeology provides few examples of large-scale fisheries at the frontier between catching and farming of fish. We analysed the spatial organization of earthen embankments to infer the functioning of a landscape-level pre-Columbian Amazonian fishery that was based on capture of out-migrating fish after reproduction in seasonal floodplains. Long earthen weirs cross floodplains. We showed that weirs bear successive V-shaped features (termed 'Vs' for the sake of brevity) pointing downstream for outflowing water and that ponds are associated with Vs, the V often forming the pond's downstream wall. How Vs channelled fish into ponds cannot be explained simply by hydraulics, because Vs surprisingly lack fishways, where, in other weirs, traps capture fish borne by current flowing through these gaps. We suggest that when water was still high enough to flow over the weir, out-migrating bottom-hugging fish followed current downstream into Vs. Finding deeper, slower-moving water, they remained. Receding water further concentrated fish in ponds. The pond served as the trap, and this function shaped pond design. Weir-fishing and pond-fishing are both practiced in African floodplains today. In combining the two, this pre-Columbian system appears unique in the world.

  4. An insight into pre-Columbian raised fields: the case of San Borja, Bolivian lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Lombardo, Umberto; Trauerstein, Mareike; Huber, Perrine; Mohr, Sandra; Veit, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Pre-Columbian raised field agriculture in the tropical lowlands of South America has received increasing attention and been the focus of heated debates regarding its function, productivity, and role in the development of pre-Columbian societies. Even though raised fields are all associated to permanent or semi-permanent high water levels, they occur in different environmental contexts. Very few field-based studies on raised fields have been carried out in the tropical lowlands and little is known about their use and past management. Based on topographic surveying and mapping, soil physical and chemical analysis and OSL and radiocarbon dating, this paper provides insight into the morphology, functioning and time frame of the use of raised fields in the south-western Llanos de Moxos, Bolivian Amazon. We have studied raised fields of different sizes that were built in an area near the town of San Borja, with a complex fluvial history. The results show that differences in field size and height are the result of an adaptation to a site where soil properties vary significantly on a scale of tens to hundreds of metres. The analysis and dating of the raised fields sediments point towards an extensive and rather brief use of the raised fields, for about 100-200 years at the beginning of the 2nd millennium.

  5. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  6. Trace element analysis of teeth from pre-Columbian population groups in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Oliver, A.; Andrade, E.; Macias, R.; Mansilla, J.; Chavez-Lomeli, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Human teeth from pre-Columbian and recent population groups have been analyzed by PIXE. Ancient teeth corresponding to children and adults were obtained from archaeological burials located in five geographic areas of Mexico. Inter-specific and inter-site differences in the trace element contents of enamel were compared in order to get some insight into differences in diet, environmental conditions, teeth health, disease state and post mortem alteration among the co-occurring populations. For permanent teeth from adults, small variations in trace element levels were found depending on the collection site or tooth health, but for deciduous teeth from children, the concentration of elements such as Mn, Fe and Sr varied considerably. In this work, the possible sources of variation are discussed. (author)

  7. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  8. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  9. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckenberger, Michael J; Russell, J Christian; Fausto, Carlos; Toney, Joshua R; Schmidt, Morgan J; Pereira, Edithe; Franchetto, Bruna; Kuikuro, Afukaka

    2008-08-29

    The archaeology of pre-Columbian polities in the Amazon River basin forces a reconsideration of early urbanism and long-term change in tropical forest landscapes. We describe settlement and land-use patterns of complex societies on the eve of European contact (after 1492) in the Upper Xingu region of the Brazilian Amazon. These societies were organized in articulated clusters, representing small independent polities, within a regional peer polity. These patterns constitute a "galactic" form of prehistoric urbanism, sharing features with small-scale urban polities in other areas. Understanding long-term change in coupled human-environment systems relating to these societies has implications for conservation and sustainable development, notably to control ecological degradation and maintain regional biodiversity.

  10. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in a Mexican Pre-Columbian Mummy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerbón Marco A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies showed that Helicobacter pylori existed in the New World prior to the arrival of Columbus. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in pre-Columbian mummies from Northern Mexico. Methods Six samples were studied (four samples of gastric remains, tongue-soft palate, and brain remained as negative controls from two of the six naturally mummified corpses studied (adult male and infant male. Samples were taken from tissues suitable for DNA amplification by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR. DNA was extracted and H. pylori detection was carried out by PCR and hybridized with the pHp probe from 16S rRNA gene. The purified PCR products were cloned and sequenced in both directions. DNA sequences were analyzed with ALIGN and BLAST software. A second amplification was performed using ureB gene by real-time PCR. Results From four samples of gastric remnant, only two were H. pylori-positive for amplification of a 109 bp DNA fragment; the remaining two were negative, as were the tongue-soft palate and the brain biopsies as well. These PCR products were hybridized with a pHp probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed homology with H. pylori in 98 of 99% when compared with the gene bank nucleotide sequence. Only one sample of gastric remnant H. pylori-positive with 16S rRNA gene was also positive for ureB gene from H. pylori. Conclusion This data supported infection with H. pylori in Mexican pre-Columbian mummies dating from approximately 1,350 AC.

  11. Volcanic impediments in the progressive development of pre-Columbian civilizations in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A.

    2008-10-01

    Archaeological investigations in Ecuador have proposed that there appear to be hiatus or anomalous jumps in the progressive development of pre-Columbian indigenous cultures, based upon the fact that their ceramics and tools demonstrate abrupt advances in their sophistication at several horizons in the soil profile. Because some of these horizons are clearly associated with volcanic ash layers, archaeologists have sought a causal relation with volcanism, that is, the eruptive events or their products severely interfered with the early inhabitants, resulting in their abandonment of certain areas. Geological studies of the young volcanoes in the Ecuadorian Andes carried out during the past two decades now allow us to make a more thorough evaluation of the role of volcanism during the Holocene. This contribution briefly describes the principal Holocene volcanic events and the distribution of the corresponding eruptive products found along the InterAndean Valley, from southern Colombia to central Ecuador. Only those events that were sufficiently large that they could have had a detrimental effect on the valley's early residents are discussed. Dacitic and rhyolitic ash flows, as well as numerous debris flows (lahars) have occurred frequently and their deposits cover many valleys and floodplains, where early inhabitants probably settled. The enormous Chillos Valley lahar, associated with the 4500 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi volcano, buried soils containing ceramics of the early Formative Period. However, the greatest impact upon mankind was probably not these short-lived violent events, but rather the burying of settlements and agricultural fields by ash fallout, the effect of which may have lasted hundreds of years. Ash fall layers are observed in pre-Columbian cultural horizons in the soil profile, occurring in the InterAndean Valley, the lower flanks of the Andes, and along Ecuador's Pacific coast, the oldest corresponding to the 5800 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi. This brief

  12. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  13. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  14. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  15. [Skull cult. Trophy heads and tzantzas in pre-Columbian America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    2012-07-16

    The skull cult is a cultural tradition that dates back to at least Neolithic times. Its main manifestations are trophy heads, skull masks, moulded skulls and shrunken heads. The article reviews the skull cult in both pre-Columbian America and the ethnographic present from a neuro-anthropological perspective. The tradition of shaping and painting the skulls of ancestors goes back to the Indo-European Neolithic period (Natufian culture and Gobekli Tepe). In Mesoamerica, post-mortem decapitation was the first step of a mortuary treatment that resulted in a trophy head, a skull for the tzompantli or a skull mask. The lithic technology utilised by the Mesoamerican cultures meant that disarticulation had to be performed in several stages. Tzompantli is a term that refers both to a construction where the heads of victims were kept and to the actual skulls themselves. Skull masks are skulls that have been artificially modified in order to separate and decorate the facial part; they have been found in the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. The existence of trophy heads is well documented by means of iconographic representations on ceramic ware and textiles belonging to the Paraca, Nazca and Huari cultures of Peru. The Mundurucu Indians of Brazil and the Shuar or Jivaroan peoples of Amazonian Ecuador have maintained this custom down to the present day. The Shuar also shrink heads (tzantzas) in a ritual process. Spanish chroniclers such as Fray Toribio de Benavente 'Motolinia' and Gaspar de Carvajal spoke of these practices. In pre-Columbian America, the tradition of decapitating warriors in order to obtain trophy heads was a wide-spread and highly developed practice.

  16. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  17. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478-1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research.

  18. Multi-Phase US Spread and Habitat Switching of a Post-Columbian Invasive, Sorghum halepense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Uzay Sezen

    Full Text Available Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense is a striking example of a post-Columbian founder event. This natural experiment within ecological time-scales provides a unique opportunity for understanding patterns of continent-wide genetic diversity following range expansion. Microsatellite markers were used for population genetic analyses including leaf-optimized Neighbor-Joining tree, pairwise FST, mismatch analysis, principle coordinate analysis, Tajima's D, Fu's F and Bayesian clusterings of population structure. Evidence indicates two geographically distant introductions of divergent genotypes, which spread across much of the US in <200 years. Based on geophylogeny, gene flow patterns can be inferred to have involved five phases. Centers of genetic diversity have shifted from two introduction sites separated by ~2000 miles toward the middle of the range, consistent with admixture between genotypes from the respective introductions. Genotyping provides evidence for a 'habitat switch' from agricultural to non-agricultural systems and may contribute to both Johnsongrass ubiquity and aggressiveness. Despite lower and more structured diversity at the invasion front, Johnsongrass continues to advance northward into cooler and drier habitats. Association genetic approaches may permit identification of alleles contributing to the habitat switch or other traits important to weed/invasive management and/or crop improvement.

  19. Raman, SEM-EDS and XRPD investigations on pre-Columbian Central America "estucado" pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova Municchia, Annalaura; Micheli, Mario; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Toledo, Michelle; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Lo Mastro, Sergio; Sodo, Armida

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen different colored fragments from six selected pre-Columbian estucado ceramics from El Salvador have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The peculiarity of this kind of ceramics consist of the unusual presence of a white engobe, traditionally termed stucco, between the ceramic body and the decoration elements, hence the name estucado ceramics. The aim of this work was to study the unusual manufacturing technique and to identify the chemical composition of the engobe and of the pigment palette. The results showed that the stucco layer is made of clay (kaolinite) with traces of titanium oxide (anatase). Remarkably, this is the same composition of the white pigments used for the decoration layer, thus excluding an early use of natural titanium oxide as a white pigment in the estucado productions as suggested in previous investigations. Moreover, the presence of kaolinite and anatase both in the stucco and in the decoration layer suggests a cold-working or low temperature technique. The red, yellow and green decorations were realized by the use of natural ochre, while in all the blue and gray decorations Maya blue pigment was identified. Finally, an amorphous carbon pigment of vegetal origin and manganese oxide were used to obtain black pigments.

  20. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  1. Anemia and childhood mortality: latitudinal patterning along the coast of pre-Columbian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Deborah E; Buikstra, Jane E; Keng, Linda; Tomczak, Paula D; Shoreman, Eleanor; Stevens-Tuttle, Debbie

    2005-06-01

    Hrdlicka ([1914] Smithson. Inst. Misc. Collect. 61:1-69) reported that pre-Columbian skeletal material from the coastal lowland Andean region exhibited a high frequency of porotic hyperostosis, a pathological condition of bone that generally is thought to indicate childhood anemia. While subsequent studies tended to reinforce this conclusion, factors implicated in the condition have yet to be fully explored in the region as a whole. This study explores regional and intravalley variation as one step in establishing biocultural variables that increase the apparent risk of childhood anemia. The study sample includes 1,465 individuals: 512 from Peruvian collections housed at the Field Museum of Natural History, and 953 from systematically excavated contexts from Moquegua, Peru. Environmental stressors, such as parasites and disease, rather than specific dietary practices were found to be more likely associated with childhood anemia in these coastal Andean samples. The study supports cribra orbitalia as an earlier expression of porotic hyperostosis and suggests that porotic hyperostosis, as recorded here, cannot be easily dismissed as a result of cranial shape modification. No clear temporal patterns were observed. Finally, the study establishes that comparing data for children and adults can reveal the relative association between childhood anemia and mortality. Childhood mortality associated with anemia was elevated where the presence of tuberculosis or tuberculosis-like conditions was more common and the presence of water-borne pathogens was negligible. In contrast, those buried at lower altitudes, closer to the coast, and consuming mainly marine resources were less likely to die in childhood with anemia than in the other contexts studied. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production. Fruits, as well as small marine and terrestrial animals were also part of the Saladoid diet. Methods Dental calculi samples were recovered from the archaeological site of Sorcé, in the municipal island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, characterized using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and compared to the microbiome of previously characterized coprolites of the same culture, as well modern plaque, saliva and stool microbiomes available from the Human Microbiome Project. Results Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes comprised the majority of the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome. The Saladoid dental calculi microbiome was distinct when compared to those of modern saliva and dental plaque, but showed the presence of common inhabitants of modern oral cavities including Streptococcus sp., Veillonella dispar and Rothia mucilaginosa. Cell motility, signal transduction and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites may be unique features of the Saladoid microbiome. Discussion Results suggest that the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome structure and function may possibly reflect a horticulturalist lifestyle and distinct dietary habits. Results also open the opportunity to further elucidate oral disease states in extinct Caribbean cultures and extinct indigenous cultures with similar lifestyles.

  3. [Evidence of facial palsy and facial malformations in pottery from Peruvian Moche and Lambayeque pre-Columbian cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2006-01-01

    Moche (100-700 AD) and Lambayeque-Sicán (750-1100 AD) are pre-Columbian cultures from Regional States Period, developed in Northern Peru. Information about daily life, religion and medicine has been obtained through the study of Moche ceramics found in lords and priests tombs, pyramids and temples. To analyze archeological evidences of Moche Medicine and neurological diseases through ceramics. Representations of diseases in Moche and Lambayeque iconography and Moche pottery collections exposed in Casinelli museum from Trujillo, and Brüning National Archeological museum from Lambayeque, Peru, were studied. The most representative cases were analyzed and photographed, previous authorization from authorities and curators of the museums. The following pathologies were observed in ceramic collections: peripheral facial palsy, facial malformations such as cleft lip, hemifacial spasm, legs and arm amputations, scoliosis and Siamese patients. Male and females Moche doctors were also observed in the ceramics in ritual ceremonies treating patients. The main pathologies observed in Moche and Lambayeque pottery are facial palsy and cleft lip. These are one of the earliest registries of these pathologies in pre-Columbian cultures in South-America.

  4. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-07

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

  5. Reading the dental record : a dental anthropological approach to foodways, health and disease, and crafting in the pre-Columbian Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mickleburgh, Hayley Louise

    2013-01-01

    Reading the Dental Record investigates human foodways, health and disease, and certain (gender-related) craft activities in the pre-Columbian Caribbean archipelago, through integrated analyses of patterns of dental wear and pathology in a large number of skeletal remains from the region.

  6. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  7. Privatising British electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1992-01-01

    The privatisation of the British electricity industry was intended to be the most radical change made to a European power system in the post-war period. It was of an experimental nature, imposing on electricity a way of operating which has no equivalent anywhere in the world. This report shows, however, that in the long run-up to privatisation, a number of factors combined to pull the plan far from its original aims and to produce a hybrid system which has caused many new difficulties without establishing a fully commercial market. The original ideas behind the new system - most notably the establishment of a fully competitive commercial system - have not been fulfilled. Many of them were wholly impractical. The problems of establishing a competitive market in electricity were never properly addressed until the planning for the new system was well under way. (author)

  8. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  9. British Nuclear Fuels (Warrington)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, D.; Cryer, B.; Bellotti, D.

    1992-01-01

    This adjournment debate is about British Nuclear Fuels plc and the 750 redundancies due to take place by the mid-1990s at BNFL, Risley. The debate was instigated by the Member of Parliament for Warrington, the constituency in which BNFL, Risley is situated. Other members pointed out that other industries, such as the textile industry are also suffering job losses due to the recession. However the MP for Warrington argued that the recent restructuring of BNFL restricted the financial flexibility of BNFL so that the benefits of contracts won for THORP at Sellafield could not help BNFL, Risley. The debate became more generally about training, apprentices and employment opportunities. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Energy explained the position as he saw it and said BNFL may be able to offer more help to its apprentices. Long- term employment prospects at BNFL are dependent on the future of the nuclear industry in general. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. (U.K)

  10. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  11. APRENDER JUGANDO CON "TEJIDOS PRECOLOMBINOS" MEDIANTE ROMPECABEZAS VIRTUALES LEARN BY PLAYING WITH "PRE-COLUMBIAN TEXTILES" THROUGH VIRTUAL PUZZLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aracena Pizarro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un ambiente multimedia de rompecabezas sobre tejidos precolombinos de gran complejidad ornamental, expuestos en el Museo Arqueológico San Miguel de Azapa, Arica-Chile. El rompecabezas permite interaccionar de manera más entretenida y didáctica, con el objetivo de que la facilidad del uso del software permita aprender jugando, observando los intrincados símbolos y signos precolombinos que de otra manera pasan desapercibidos por no formar parte del ideario de los estudiantes actuales. El software se evaluó con alumnos de enseñanza básica y media de establecimientos educacionales de la ciudad, con el objetivo de complementar sus estudios a las asignaturas de historia que contienen temática prehispánica. Esta representación educacional fue implementada con herramienta Flash multimedia, con el propósito de estimular la parte creativa de los estudiantes y de abrir un mundo de juegos complementarios referentes al mismo tema, con la filosofía de aprender jugando.This paper presents a multimedia environment puzzle about Pre-Columbian textiles exhibiting ornamental complexities, found in the Archeological Museum San Miguel de Azapa, Arica-Chile. The software allow for an enjoyable and didactic interactive way of learning by playing, giving the users the opportunity of identifying intricate pre-Columbian symbols and signals, that otherwise would be unnoticed. The software was tested with schoolboys of ages 12 to 16 years old, from schools in Arica, with the purpose of complementing their studies in History courses containing Pre-hispanic topics. This educational software was implemented with Multimedia Flash Tool, so as to stimulate the creativity of the students, opening a world of complementary games with the philosophy of "learning by playing".

  12. Regional futures: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, W.

    1993-01-01

    Two paradigms that are the source of present-day economic development policies are described. The dominant paradigm is the expansionist world view that assumes economic growth is essentially unlimited, subject to certain constraints, and that the best way to monitor the human economy is through money flows. The steady-state or ecological world view assumes there are real constraints on material throughput and growth, and puts a significant emphasis on natural capital as a form of wealth which is distinct from economic or manufactured capital. Over the long term, each generation must receive from the previous generation at least an adequate stock of natural capital assets to ensure long-term sustainability. For every major category of consumption, such as food and energy, an ecological footprint can be assigned which represents the land needed to sustain a given pattern of consumption. For the lower mainland of British Columbia, this footprint would be about 22 times the actual land area; for the Netherlands, it would be about 15 times larger than the country itself. On a global basis, only about 1.7 hectares per capita of ecologically productive land is actually available, showing that Canadian material standards would not be sustainable on a global level. The steady-state approach to economic development would involve a local and regional approach from the bottom up, preferring small-scale labor-intensive enterprise. Trade would be limited to trading in real ecological surpluses, and value-added products would be made locally instead of shipping raw materials for processing elsewhere. 5 figs

  13. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... wedged between two irreconcilable identities, divisions threatened to derail this already enfeebled grouping. Yet leaders of the community, presuming a common Britishness with the Falkland Islanders and Britons in the United Kingdom, sought to intervene in the conflict by reaching out to both...

  14. Report and recommendations in the matter of British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and an inquiry into a Heritage Contract for British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's existing generation resources and regarding stepped rates and transmission access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, R.H.; Hall, K.L.; Bradley, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    Under British Columbia's new energy plan, the BC Utilities Commission made recommendations on two main policy initiatives regarding regulation of BC Hydro. The first involved a Heritage Contract that would ensure any benefits attributable to the existing low-cost generation of BC Hydro would be secured for British Columbians. The Heritage Contract had the support of all participants. The proposal was based on the revenue required by Generation to meet the cost of supplying the energy of Heritage Resources to Distribution. The second recommendation involved a stepped rate structure for large commercial and industrial customers to encourage a more efficient use of energy resources and private investments in new generation. It also recommends concurrent implementation of time-of-use rates. BC Hydro had also proposed a significant change in the determination and disposition of Trade Income between BC Hydro and Powerex. The agreement stipulated that Trade Income would no longer include revenues from the sale of surplus power, except for profits realized by Powerex after paying BC Hydro an indexed price for surplus power. All Trade income up to $200 million would accrue to the ratepayers. This report presents 3 alternatives to the Trade Income proposal and several others recommendations dealing with transmission voltage customers and generation access, legislation, regulation and special directions. The report identified a schedule for implementation of retail access by the end of 2004. 9 appendices

  15. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The British Monarchy On Screen

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Moving images of the British monarchy, in fact and fiction, are almost as old as the moving image itself, dating back to an 1895 American drama, The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. British monarchs even appeared in the new ‘animated photography’ from 1896, led by Queen Victoria. Half a century later, the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II was a milestone in the adoption of television, watched by 20 million Britons and 100 million North Americans. At the century’s end, Princess Diana’s funeral ...

  17. British Values and British Identity: Muddles, Mixtures, and Ways Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robin

    2015-01-01

    In the final eleven months of its five-year term, the Coalition Government placed much emphasis in the education system on what it called fundamental British values (FBV). The phrase had its origins in counter-terrorism strategies that were of dubious validity both conceptually and operationally, and the trigger for its introduction into the…

  18. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  19. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  20. Influence of landslides on biophysical diversity — A perspective from British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsema, Marten; Pojar, James J.

    2007-09-01

    Landslides have long been overlooked or underestimated as important natural disturbance agents. In particular the ecological role of landslides in maintaining biological diversity has been largely ignored. Here we provide a western Canadian ( British Columbian) perspective on the influences of landslides on biophysical diversity, which is related in several ways to biological diversity. We recognize several types of biophysical/ecological diversity: site diversity, soil diversity, and the derivative habitat or ecosystem (including aquatic ecosystems) diversity. There are also a variety of landslide types, depending on materials and on the rate and style of movement. We discuss the roles of different landslide types on various aspects of terrestrial diversity. Landslides are simultaneously depositional and erosional processes that influence sites by redistributing materials and changing surface expression — usually creating a complex microtopography that can include very dry ridges and hummocks, and sometimes depressions with standing water. Landslide impacts to site also influence soil and soil development. Portions of landslides with exposed parent material are set back to the initial stages of soil development and ecological succession. Landslides can also change soil density, structure, porosity, surface texture, chemistry and microclimate. By changing site and soil, landslides also influence habitat. Landslides influence habitat diversity by engendering a mosaic of seral stages (often both primary and secondary), and in overwhelmingly forested landscapes often create nodes or hotspots of non-forested habitat and biota. In some areas, like the boreal forest, there is an important interplay between landslides and fire, while on the coast of British Columbia debris and snow avalanches can be the dominant disturbance agent. Low-gradient and deep-seated landslides are often opportunistically colonized by beaver and other water and shrub-loving fauna. Sag ponds and

  1. Medical slang in British hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam T; Fertleman, Michael; Cahill, Pauline; Palmer, Roger D

    2003-01-01

    The usage, derivation, and psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of slang terminology in medicine are discussed. The colloquial vocabulary is further described and a comprehensive glossary of common UK terms provided in appendix. This forms the first list of slang terms currently in use throughout the British medical establishment.

  2. Nuclear power in British politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the subject of nuclear power in British politics in 1986. The policies of the major political parties towards nuclear power are briefly outlined, along with public attitudes to nuclear energy, Chernobyl, and the rise of the anti-nuclear campaigners. (UK)

  3. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  4. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  5. Drowning of British children abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornall, P; Howie, S; Mughal, A; Sumner, V; Dunstan, F; Kemp, A; Sibert, J

    2005-09-01

    To quantify the risks of British children drowning abroad. The numbers of British children drowning abroad were estimated for 1996-2003 using the RoSPA/RLSS press cutting database. We compared these figures with the numbers of British children going abroad from the International Passenger Survey from the Office of National Statistics. Sixty-eight children (45 boys-23 Girls) drowned in the eight-year period: 48 (71%) in swimming pools (mostly in hotels). Allowing for exposure, the rate was higher in North America [5.2 (CI 2.9-9.4)/million tourists] than the European Union [1.9 (CI 1.4-2.5)/million tourists] p = 0.002. On average eight British children drown each year abroad. This is therefore a rare but tragic event. Most of these episodes happen in swimming pools and this needs to be compared to the one child that dies each year in municipal swimming pools in the United Kingdom where there is adequate lifeguarding. It may be that parents have a false sense of security for their children in pools abroad. We believe that there needs to be action from the European Union on this important event.

  6. Distribution modelling of pre-Columbian California grasslands with soil phytoliths: New insights for prehistoric grassland ecology and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Stephen E; Evett, Rand R

    2018-01-01

    Historical reconstructions of plant community distributions are useful for biogeographic studies and restoration planning, but the quality of insights gained depends on the depth and reliability of historical information available. For the Central Valley of California, one of the most altered terrestrial ecosystems on the planet, this task is particularly difficult given poor historical documentation and sparse relict assemblages of pre-invasion plant species. Coastal and interior prairies were long assumed to have been dominated by perennial bunchgrasses, but this hypothesis has recently been challenged. We evaluated this hypothesis by creating species distribution models (SDMs) using a novel approach based on the abundance of soil phytoliths (microscopic particles of biogenic silica used as a proxy for long-term grass presence) extracted from soil samples at locations statewide. Modeled historical grass abundance was consistently high along the coast and to a lesser extent in higher elevation foothills surrounding the Central Valley. SDMs found strong associations with mean temperature, temperature variability, and precipitation variability, with higher predicted abundance in regions with cooler, equable temperatures and moderated rainfall, mirroring the pattern for modern perennial grass distribution across the state. The results of this study strongly suggest that the pre-Columbian Central Valley of California was not dominated by grasses. Using soil phytolith data as input for SDMs is a promising new method for predicting the extent of prehistoric grass distributions where alternative historical datasets are lacking.

  7. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  8. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  9. Wellness Circles: The Alkali Lake Model in Community Recovery Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Leon W.; And Others

    The case study described here was conducted as a doctoral research project at Northern Arizona University. The study documents the success of the Shuswop Indian Band of Alkali Lake, British Columbia (Canada), in their 15-year battle with alcoholism, once the people themselves decided on recovery. The study looks back at the 95 percent recovery…

  10. Pre-Columbian Population Dynamics and Cultural Development in South Coast Perú as Revealed by Analysis of Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I report on a study whose principal aim is to understand the development and decline of the southern Peruvian Nasca culture in the upper Río Grande de Nasca drainage, and its cultural and biological affinities to the preceding Paracas culture. Ancient DNA analyses were conducted on over 300 pre-Columbian individuals from various cemeteries in southern Perú, from periods ranging from the Formative Period to the Middle Horizon. Our results show that the Nasca populations are close...

  11. Fauna, flora, fowl, and fruit: effects of the Columbian Exchange on the allergic response of New and Old World inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaggio, J E

    1992-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange has been described as "the most important event in human history since the end of the Ice Age." This interchange of many species of fauna, flora, fowl, and fruits resulted in new encounters between New and Old World inhabitants. Prominent among these were manifestations of allergic reactions to many of the new substances. Little imagination is required to reflect on what these substances, added to or detracted from both the New and Old World lifestyles, habits, and diets. The numerous peas, vegetable seeds, and grasses, such as sugarcane, introduced during Columbus' later voyages, made an enormous difference in the lives of New World inhabitants, as did the introduction of the cow and horse, not to mention substances such as coconuts and bananas, that are now intimately associated with the Caribbean and the Bahamas. This article focuses on some the more important exchange substances and emphasizes many forms of anaphylaxis: asthma, food allergy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis, serum sickness, and other conditions that developed in both New and Old World inhabitants. To mention only a few examples, the Europeans introduced to the New World potential dangers such as honeybees (anaphylaxis). It also gave the New World the cow and the horse (serum sickness), which became the constant companion of Columbus' Indians and the American cowboy. It gave the Italians their thick red gravy, and the New World its pizza (food allergy). The Caribbean received bananas and coconuts and the New World embraced coffee (caffeine addiction). On the other hand, the exchange also caused Europeans to begin puffing away on tobacco.

  12. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, B.

    2008-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  13. Science and the British Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2005-03-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a flowering of interest in the history of science in the British Empire. This essay aims to provide an overview of some of the most important work in this area, identifying interpretative shifts and emerging themes. In so doing, it raises some questions about the analytical framework in which colonial science has traditionally been viewed, highlighting interactions with indigenous scientific traditions and the use of network-based models to understand scientific relations within and beyond colonial contexts.

  14. Immunization delivery in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, John; Buxton, Jane; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Catterson, Jason; Li, Jane; Derban, Andrea; Hasselback, Paul; Machin, Shelagh; Linekin, Michelle; Morgana, Tamsin; O’Briain, Barra; Scheifele, David; Dawar, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences of family physicians and pediatricians delivering immunizations, including perceived barriers and supports. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Setting Ten cities throughout British Columbia. Participants A total of 46 family physicians or general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, and 2 residents. Methods A semistructured dialogue guide was used by a trained facilitator to explore participants’ experiences and views related to immunization delivery in British Columbia. Verbatim transcriptions were independently coded by 2 researchers. Key themes were analyzed and identified in an iterative manner using interpretive description. Main findings Physicians highly valued vaccine delivery. Factors facilitating physician-delivered immunizations included strong beliefs in the value of vaccines and having adequate information. Identified barriers included the large time commitment and insufficient communication about program changes, new vaccines, and the adult immunization program in general. Some physicians reported good relationships with local public health, while others reported the opposite experience, and this varied by geographic location. Conclusion These findings suggest that physicians are supportive of delivering vaccines. However, there are opportunities to improve the sustainability of physician-delivered immunizations. While compensation schemes remain under the purview of the provincial governments, local public health authorities can address the information needs of physicians. PMID:24627403

  15. Leukaemia near british nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    1991-01-01

    An excess of childhood leukaemia has been seen near some British nuclear installations, especially near the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The same result was found in a more general study including a large number of nuclear sites. Similar studies made in USA, Canada and France have been negative. Moreover, epidemiological studies made in England have discovered other childhood leukaemia clusters in areas far from nuclear facilities, and especially near potential sites of nuclear installations. Several explanations are suggested but no definite conclusion is yet possible. Doses from radioactive releases seem to be too low to account for the additional deaths from leukaemia by environmental contamination. A virus activation, which might be associated with population influx into rural isolated areas, has been considered. The hypothesis of genetic mutation induced by ionising radiation in the fathers of children with leukaemia has been made because a higher risk of leukaemia was observed for children of fathers employed at Sellafield. No firm conclusion is possible considering the small number of observed cases and the lack of excess leukaemias in the offspring of Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The possibility of internal contamination, chemicals or even radon is discussed as other causes. Studies in progress might allow to find an answer to the problem of leukaemia in the vicinity of British nuclear installations [fr

  16. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  17. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  18. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  19. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  20. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  1. British coal-down to the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The long-running saga of British Coal's decline is in its final stages with virtually no change from last October when the British government announced plants to close 31 of the 50 remaining mines. That announcement produced a political outcry but having privatized the electricity industry in 1990 the government had effectively left itself up the creek without a paddle. It had no powers to force the generators to buy more coal. The status of the British coal industry is discussed

  2. Petroleum geology framework, southeast Bowser Basin, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggart, J.W. [Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Mahoney, J.B. [Wisconsin Univ., Eau Claire, WS (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2003-07-01

    There are significant coal resources in the northern regions of the Bowser basin in north-central British Columbia. However, the resource potential of the southern part of the basin has not been assessed, therefore the hydrocarbon potential is not known. Geological maps indicate several Mesozoic clastic and volcanic units across the southern part of the basin. Two stratigraphic intervals of the southern Bowser basin are considered to be potential source rocks within the Jurassic-Cretaceous strata. The fine-grained clastic rocks of the Bowser Lake Group contain significant amounts of carbonaceous material or organic matter. Well developed cleavage indicates that the rocks may be thermally over mature. This paper described potential reservoir rocks within the basin, along with their thermal maturation and conceptual play. 4 figs.

  3. Needlestick and other potential blood and body fluid exposures among health care workers in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Cvitkovich, Yuri; Astrakianakis, George; Yu, Shicheng; Yassi, Annalee

    2008-02-01

    Health care workers have high risk of exposure to human blood and body fluids (BBF) from patients in acute care and residents in nursing homes or personal homes. This analysis examined the epidemiology for BBF exposure across health care settings (acute care, nursing homes, and community care). Detailed analysis of BBF exposure among the health care workforce in 3 British Columbian health regions was conducted by Poisson regression modeling, with generalized estimating equations to determine the relative risk associated with various occupations. Acute care had the majority of needlestick, sharps, and splash events with the BBF exposure rate in acute care 2 to 3 times higher compared with nursing home and community care settings. Registered nurses had the highest frequency of needlestick, sharps, and splash events. Laboratory assistants had the highest exposure rates from needlestick injuries and splashes, whereas licensed practical nurses had the highest exposure rate from sharps. Most needlestick injuries (51.3%) occurred at the patient's bedside. Sharps incidents occurred primarily in operating rooms (26.9%) and at the patient's bedside (20.9%). Splashes occurred most frequently at the patient's bedside (46.1%) and predominantly affected the eyes or face/mouth. The majority of needlestick/sharps injuries occurred during use for registered nurses, during disposal for licensed practical nurses, and after disposal for care aides. The high risk of BBF exposure for some occupations indicates there is room for improvement to reduce BBF exposure by targeting high-risk groups for prevention strategies.

  4. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  5. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1997-01-01

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  6. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  7. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  8. British Box Business: A History of OCL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal

    2018-01-01

    Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701......Book review of British Box Business: A History of OCL / edited by A. Bott SCARA, Goldaming, 2009, £17 (hb) 288 pages, illustrations, bibliography, index iSBn 139780955922701...

  9. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  10. There's No Such Thing as British Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Johns

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Conversation Piece” is a British Art Studies series that draws together a group of contributors to respond to an idea, provocation or question. The conversation will develop as more respondents enter the debate. Fifteen contributors respond to the provocation "There's No Such Thing as British Art".

  11. African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Home > African Journals Online: Virgin Islands (British). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal ...

  12. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  13. British power generation/delivery handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the British electricity-supply system and covers: the CEGB, nuclear power - AGR design, boiler plant development coal-fired boilers and oil-fired boilers, steam turbine/generators, boiler-feed pumps, pumped storage, gas turbine plants, transmission system including the link to France, the Sizewell-BPWR, future AGR development, future coal-fired stations, fluidized bed combustion, coal gasification, and wind energy developments. Also included is a list of British equipment suppliers to the electricity supply industry, and a buyer's guide to British equipment and services.

  14. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  15. British women's attitudes to surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poote, A E; van den Akker, O B A

    2009-01-01

    There has been little interest in the research literature on public opinions regarding assisted conception and surrogacy, particularly in European countries, despite the growing evidence showing that problems in adaptation and coping may be related to perceived normative values. This study investigated British women's attitudes to surrogacy using components of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Questionnaires on attitudes to surrogacy and reasons for parenthood were completed by 187 women from the general public. Significant socio-demographic differences were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000). This study supported the predictive utility of components of the TPB, and differentiated adequately between groups on attitudes to recruitment for surrogacy (P = 0.000), the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.000), factors that induce people to become surrogates (P = 0.000), social support (P = 0.000), having personal control (P = 0.002) and reasons for parenthood (P = 0.000). Age (P = 0.000), attitudes to advertising (P = 0.02) and the consequences of surrogacy (P = 0.05) predicted (un)willingness to become a potential surrogate mother. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes of potential surrogates to determine whether the predictive attitudes reported here translate to actual behaviours. The larger group which was not interested in considering becoming a surrogate scored significantly more negatively on all attitudes towards surrogacy. The negative attitudes reported by the 'unwilling to consider being a surrogate' group may reflect attitudes held by the majority of the population and are likely to be influenced by reports of stigma associated with surrogacy.

  16. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  17. The British Empire and the English Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thron, E. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Examines the recent call for English departments to recognize literature that falls outside the British and American tradition. Suggests that we recognize English as a world language and choose books to teach accordingly. (JC)

  18. Efficiency Studies in the British Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Geoffrey

    1986-01-01

    The background, purposes, and methods of institutional efficiency studies conducted at selected British universities are discussed. The evaluations focused on financial management, purchasing, and building maintenance and space utilization. (MSE)

  19. EDRF supports Takakia Lake public inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzsch, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Queen Charlotte Power Corporation (QCPC) has applied for a water licence to drain Takakia Lake in British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands. Their plan is to build a tunnel into the side of the lake and draw water from it to supplement their power generating capabilities at their Moresby Lake hydro generating station. The BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks called for a public inquiry into the application to address public concerns about the project. Through the Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund (EDRF), the North West Habitat Foundation (NWHF) was able to participate in this public inquiry which took place in June, 1999, and represent the environmental concerns of the community. Other participants included QCPC, BC Hydro, the Skidegate Band Council and the Haida Nation. One of the arguments raised was the lack of public disclosure and consultation, particularly regarding First Nations in the area. Takakia Lake area has been referred to as an ecological gem which hosts a unique ecosys tem and several rare plant species. The NWHF argued that the resulting draw-down of water from the lake would permanently damage the microclimate of the lake and would pose a major threat to the ecosystem. The Canadian Wildlife Service has also expressed concerns regarding the impacts on migratory birds. It was also noted that prior to their proposal, QCPC and BC Hydro did not fully consider the use of energy alternatives. As a result of this inquiry, QCPC has asked for more time to submit further documents regarding their proposal. In turn, the NWHF will be given a chance to respond to those materials and to submit their own additional information. 2 figs

  20. New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages for the Mazama tephra layer from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallett, D.J.; Hills, L.V.; Clague, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Charcoal fragments recovered from the Mazama air-fall tephra layer in cores from Dog and Cobb lakes, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, yielded accelerator mass spectrometry ages of 6720 ± 70 and 6760 ± 70 14 C years BP, respectively. These two new ages, together with other previously published radiocarbon ages on charcoal and twig fragments from Mazama air-fall deposits, indicate that the climatic eruption of Mount Mazama occurred 6730 ± 40 14 C years BP. (author)

  1. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  2. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  3. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  4. British Teachers' Transnational Work within and beyond the British Empire after the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on British graduates from Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) in London, this article illustrates transnational history's concerns with the reciprocal flows of people and ideas within and beyond the British Empire. GHTC's progressive curriculum and culture positioned women teachers as agents of change, and the article highlights the lives…

  5. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  6. Key performance indicators in British military trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Adam; Tai, Nigel R; Bowley, Douglas M; Midwinter, Mark; Hodgetts, Tim J

    2008-08-01

    Key performance indicators (KPI) are tools for assessing process and outcome in systems of health care provision and are an essential component in performance improvement. Although KPI have been used in British military trauma for 10 years, they remain poorly defined and are derived from civilian metrics that do not adjust for the realities of field trauma care. Our aim was to modify current trauma KPI to ensure they more faithfully reflect both the military setting and contemporary evidence in order to both aid accurate calibration of the performance of the British Defence Medical Services and act as a driver for performance improvement. A workshop was convened that was attended by senior, experienced doctors and nurses from all disciplines of trauma care in the British military. "Speciality-specific" KPI were developed by interest groups using evidence-based data where available and collective experience where this was lacking. In a final discussion these were streamlined into 60 KPI covering each phase of trauma management. The introduction of these KPI sets a number of important benchmarks by which British military trauma can be measured. As part of a performance improvement programme, these will allow closer monitoring of our performance and assist efforts to develop, train, and resource British military trauma providers.

  7. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  8. British firms mark progress off Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    British companies are making more inroads in exploring for oil and gas off Viet Nam. British Gas plc won a 25 year production sharing contract for a license off southern Viet Nam in the South China Sea. Meantime, London independent Lasmo plc started seismic surveys on the block adjoining the British Gas block. Separately, Thailand and Viet Nam have reached agreement to jointly explore for and develop oil and gas found in waters claimed by both countries. Plans call for the two countries to draw up joint development plans covering oil and gas resources in the southeastern fringe of the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok officials say they would have preferred to delineate maritime boundaries with Hanoi, but opted for the joint development accord, noting that Thailand and Malaysia had taken 12 years to resolve a similar dispute

  9. Alternative strategies for the British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, G

    1973-01-01

    The Green Paper, 'Energy Policy - a Consultative Document' (HC-Cmnd--7101) affords a valuable insight into official attitudes towards the future of the British energy market. The present author challenges some of the energy supply and demand forecasts that are presented in the Working Document; in particular, he questions the optimistic market forecasts that continue to dominate official thinking about the coal industry; and he proposes that an alternative strategy is required for the British coal industry, one that involves quite painful choices of an economic, geographical, social and environmental nature.

  10. Real/Life: New British Art and the Reception of Contemporary British Art in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajiya Kenji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the ways in which the exhibition Real/Life: New British Art was conceived and received in Japan, where contemporary British art has been shown since the 1960s. Taking place at five museums in the country between 1998 and 1999, the exhibition aimed to showhow British artists in the 1990s struggled with realities, internal and external, but its response was not as satisfactory as was expected. The essay examines the exhibition as a turning point for the transformation of exhibition culture in Japan from nationally themed exhibitions to showcases of contemporary art in the global context.

  11. Study and conservation of wood objects saturated of water originating of a pre-Columbian archaeological site: The Gran Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso O, A.; Tzompantzi R, T.; Mendoza A, D.; Morgos, A.; Imazu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have been practiced on deterioration processes suffered by objects made of ancient tropical and coniferous woods. The reason is related to the fact that very few objects made of wood are usually found in archaeological excavations in our country. For this reason, applied studies of archaeological woods are, to us, fundamental to understand the preservation processes which have allowed very few pre-Columbian objects to survive the extreme conditions or submerged in streams and oceans. Some preliminary results were obtained in the studies practiced on the Mexican wooden miniature from the Offering number 102 of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Light and electron microscopy as well as physical tests have proven to be suitable examination techniques to obtain information about the preservation level of wooden structures. The results obtained were important to understand the influence of the context in the preservation of the buried materials, furthermore they have allowed us to evaluate and ascertain new conservation procedures. (Author) 24 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  12. The pre-Columbian introduction and dispersal of Algarrobo (Prosopis, Section Algarobia) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, Eugenia M.; Santoro, Calogero M.; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Latorre, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological and palaeoecological studies throughout the Americas have documented widespread landscape and environmental transformation during the pre-Columbian era. The highly dynamic Formative (or Neolithic) period in northern Chile (ca. 3700–1550 yr BP) brought about the local establishment of agriculture, introduction of new crops (maize, quinoa, manioc, beans, etc.) along with a major population increase, new emergent villages and technological innovations. Even trees such as the Algarrobos (Prosopis section Algarobia) may have been part of this transformation. Here, we provide evidence that these species were not native to the Atacama Desert of Chile (18–27°S), appearing only in the late Holocene and most likely due to human actions. We assembled a database composed of 41 taxon specific AMS radiocarbon dates from archaeobotanical and palaeoecological records (rodent middens, leaf litter deposits), as well an extensive bibliographical review comprising archaeobotanical, paleoecological, phylogenetic and taxonomic data to evaluate the chronology of introduction and dispersal of these trees. Although Algarrobos could have appeared as early as 4200 yr BP in northernmost Chile, they only became common throughout the Atacama over a thousand years later, during and after the Formative period. Cultural and natural factors likely contributed to its spread and consolidation as a major silvicultural resource. PMID:28742126

  13. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  14. British Higher Education and Its Older Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Alan; Wilson, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Using results from a survey of British graduates, examined outcomes of higher education for older students, including their current employment situation, relationship of degree to job, and student satisfaction. Found that mature students are an extremely heterogeneous group, with differences in outcomes by age and mode of study. (EV)

  15. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  16. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  17. The British official response to Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.

    1988-01-01

    The author criticizes the British authorities' response to Chernobyl fallout, briefly examines the deficiencies in monitoring arrangements in Scotland, in particular the lack of weather radar cover for that region, and comments on the new National Response Plan and monitoring network, with reference to venison, rainwater, freshwater fish and game, and milk. (U.K.)

  18. British Nuclear Fuels - a dirty business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyard, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive discharges from British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield, Cumbria, reprocessing plant to the sea are discussed. Statements that have been made by various individuals and groups about the contamination of the sea, the coast and places inland, and the biological effects of plutonium and americium, are discussed in detail. Particular stress is placed on statements about increased incidence of cancers. (U.K.)

  19. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.

    2011-01-01

    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth

  20. Dance History Matters in British Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    In response to concerns about the place and nature of dance history in British higher education curricula, a database was compiled of representative but significant examples of modules which focused directly on the teaching and learning of history, or had history as a key component. An analysis is presented of these modules in terms of the place…

  1. Academic Advising in British Columbia. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Advising" consists of those activities and tasks that result in providing information to students. British Columbia's (BC) post-secondary education has evolved over the past number of years and student advising has changed along with it. Post-secondary institutions are currently challenged to increase student engagement, improve…

  2. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  3. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  4. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  5. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  6. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  7. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  8. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  9. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  10. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  11. Experiences within British Steel since 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The experience of British steel is that there is a serious and continuing threat of radioactive material being included in scrap delivered to steelworks. All scrap entering the steelworks is monitored for radioactivity. The scrap suppliers and the national authorities have recognized the difficulties caused by the presence of radioactivity in scrap, and are working to minimise the problem. Both domestic and imported scrap has been found to contain radioactivity, but the imported scrap is much more likely to contain radioactivity. If radioactivity is found the Environmental Agency is informed, and established procedures are used to minimise the hazard, and to isolate the radioactivity. Detecting, and isolating radioactive scrap, and preventing it being re-melted in the steelmaking process, is part of the overall commitment of British Steel to work safely, and to provide a safe, good quality, product (author)

  12. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs

  13. Dirty Pop: Contemporary British Painting, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Phil Allen, Peter Ashton Jones, Jake Clark, Richard Clegg, Dan Coombs, Nelson Diplexcito, Nadine Feinson, Mick Finch, Richard Hamilton, Dan Hays, Gavin Lockheart, Andrea Medjesi Jones, David Leeson, Duncan Newton, Sarah Pickstone, Colin Smith, John Stark, Michael Stubbs, James White, Mark Wright.\\ud \\ud Dirty Pop, curated for &Model by Mark Wright, presents twenty contemporary painters whose work connects with Pop Art of the 1960’s, and particularly the legacy of the important British artist ...

  14. Young British readers' engagement with manga

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yi-Shan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents young British readers’ engagement with manga regarding literary, aesthetic, social, and cultural dimensions. The study explores young readers’ points of views of their reading preference – manga. I investigated how children interpreted manga, with respect to the artistic techniques, the embedded ideologies, and the cultural elements therein. I also looked into children’s participation in manga fandom and its social meanings. This allowed me to explore what attracted Briti...

  15. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    the imperial diasporas, identities and networks that developed as the British engineering profession established connections on the African continent. Using a wide range of primary sources that include correspondence, diaries, technical reports, institutional minutes and periodicals, Andersen reconstructs...... the networks and activities of Britain's engineers while focusing on London as a centre of imperial expansion. By treating Britain and the empire as an interconnected zone heanalyses the ways in whichideas , people and technologies circulated during the critical period....

  16. Self-Esteem: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of British-Chinese, White British and Hong Kong Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu Man

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the self-esteem scores of 1303 children, including Chinese children from Britain and Hong Kong and white British children, using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Finds that British Chinese have significantly higher self-esteem than the Hong Kong children, but there is little difference among white British children. (CMK)

  17. Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Zadereev, E.S.; Degermendzhy, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the research on meromictic lakes and a state-of-the art overview of this area. After an introduction to the terminology and geographic distribution of meromictic lakes, three concise chapters describe their physical, chemical and biological features. The

  18. Marketing wholesale electricity in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, B. [Powerex, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    An open access wholesale transmission tariff (WTS) has been in place in British Columbia since 1997, and wholesale electricity can be sold to wholesale purchasers by independent producers located within the province. Customers range from municipalities to British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro), to Powerex, to UtiliCorp Networks Corporation (UNC). Provided that the necessary approvals and transmission services have been acquired, the energy may be transmitted anywhere in Canada or the United States. The generation and sale of electricity within British Columbia and the United States is subject to government and regulatory approvals. Several buyers and sellers that come together to trade a product are part of a hub. The largest such hub in the Pacific Northwest is called the Mid-Columbia (Mid-C) hub in Washington. The commodity is traded in 25 MW standard blocks. The credit requirements of the purchaser must be satisfied by the generating party. BC Hydro wholesale transmission service can be purchased by any wholesale power marketer or generator to transmit the power to market. It is imperative that scheduling personnel be available at all times. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) insists that an operating reserve of 5 per cent hydro generation and 7 per cent thermal generation to support the electrical system in the face of an emergency be available for the electricity marketed through the hub. Powerex has been successful since 1988 in the marketing of electricity throughout the WSCC. An example was provided to help make the rules a bit easier to comprehend. refs.

  19. The British Model in Britain: Failing slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, Britain reorganised its electricity industry to run on competitive lines. The British reforms are widely regarded as successful and the model used provides the basis for reforms of electricity industries worldwide. The main reason for this perception of success is major reductions in the real price of electricity with no reduction in service quality. This paper examines whether the reputation of the British reforms is justified. It concludes that the reputation is not justified and that serious fundamental problems are beginning to emerge. The central question is: have the British reforms resulted in the creation of efficient wholesale and retail markets? On this criterion, the reforms have failed. The wholesale market is dominated by obscure long-term contracts, privileged access to the market and self-dealing within integrated generator/retailers, leaving the spot markets with minimal liquidity and unreliable prices. The failure to develop an efficient wholesale market places the onus on consumers to impose competitive forces on electricity companies by switching regularly. Small consumers will not do this and they are paying too much for their power. For the future, there is a serious risk that the electricity industry will become a weakly regulated oligopoly with a veneer of competition

  20. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  1. Marketing wholesale electricity in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, B.

    2002-01-01

    An open access wholesale transmission tariff (WTS) has been in place in British Columbia since 1997, and wholesale electricity can be sold to wholesale purchasers by independent producers located within the province. Customers range from municipalities to British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro), to Powerex, to UtiliCorp Networks Corporation (UNC). Provided that the necessary approvals and transmission services have been acquired, the energy may be transmitted anywhere in Canada or the United States. The generation and sale of electricity within British Columbia and the United States is subject to government and regulatory approvals. Several buyers and sellers that come together to trade a product are part of a hub. The largest such hub in the Pacific Northwest is called the Mid-Columbia (Mid-C) hub in Washington. The commodity is traded in 25 MW standard blocks. The credit requirements of the purchaser must be satisfied by the generating party. BC Hydro wholesale transmission service can be purchased by any wholesale power marketer or generator to transmit the power to market. It is imperative that scheduling personnel be available at all times. The Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC) insists that an operating reserve of 5 per cent hydro generation and 7 per cent thermal generation to support the electrical system in the face of an emergency be available for the electricity marketed through the hub. Powerex has been successful since 1988 in the marketing of electricity throughout the WSCC. An example was provided to help make the rules a bit easier to comprehend. refs

  2. Privatisation of the British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, R.V. (Norton Rose, London (UK))

    1991-01-01

    The article discusses the possible consequences of the impending privatisation of British Coal. It seems likely that deep mine operations will probably be divided up geographically but opencast mines may be left in single ownership. Freehold ownership of coal is likely to be transferred to the Crown and British Coal's powers to license small mines and opencast sites are likely to be absorbed into a general licensing system under control of the Department of Energy. Possible difficulties of public share issues are discussed - subsidence, environmental problems and also the uncertainty of the future market for British coal are mentioned. As an alternative, a series of contract sales of groups of mine properties could be made. Issues of common concern to future owners of the coal industry may lead to the creation of a new mineowner's trade association. Constraints in the areas of procurement and coal sales are discusssed briefly. Although a gloomy scenario is presented, it is suggested that some mines could become highly profitable. 1 ref.

  3. Globin haplotypes of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected individuals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, suggest a post-Columbian African origin of this virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Luiz Carlos; Van Dooren, Sonia; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza; Kashima, Simone; Costa, Maria Cristina Ramos; Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa; Dourado, Inês; Filho, Antonio Andrade; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2003-08-01

    The city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, has sociodemographic characteristics similar to some African cities. Up to now, it has had the highest prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection (1.74%) in the country. To investigate which strains of HTLV-I are circulating in Salvador, we studied isolates from 82 patients infected with HTLV-I: 19 from the general population, 21 from pregnant women, 16 from intravenous drug users, and 26 from patients and their family attending a neurologic clinic. Phylogenetic analysis from part of the LTR fragments showed that most of these isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype (HTLV-Ia). Only one sample from a pregnant woman was closely related to the Japanese subgroup, suggesting recent introduction of a Japanese HTLV-I lineage into Salvador. betaA-Globin haplotypes were examined in 34 infected individuals and found to be atypical, confirming the racial heterogeneity of this population. A total of 20 chromosomes were characterized as Central African Republic (CAR) haplotype (29.4%), 31 (45.6%) were characterized as Benin (BEN) haplotype, and 17 (25%) were characterized as Senegal (SEN) haplotype. Five patients' genotypes (14.7%) were CAR/CAR; 10 (29,4%), BEN/BEN; 9 (26.5%), CAR/BEN; 2 (5.9%), BEN/SEN; and 7 (20.6%), SEN/SEN. One patient's genotype (2.9%) was CAR/SEN. The betaA-globin haplotype distribution in Salvador is unusual compared with other Brazilian states. Our data support the hypothesis of multiple post-Columbian introductions of African HTLV-Ia strains in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

  4. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  6. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  7. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRoberts, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  8. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruemmel, Eva M.; Scheer, Michael; Gregory-Eaves, Irene; Macdonald, Robie W.; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Smol, John P.; Finney, Bruce; Blais, Jules M.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and δ 15 N, as well as ΣPCB concentrations and δ 15 N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, ΣPCBs and δ 15 N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years

  9. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  10. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  11. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  13. Radio-transmitted electromyogram signals as indicators of swimming speed in lake trout and brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Økland, F.; Koed, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Swimming speed and average electromyogram (EMG) pulse intervals were highly correlated in individual lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (r(2)=0.52-0.89) and brown trout Salmo trutta (r(2)=0.45-0.96). High correlations were found also for pooled data in both lake trout (r(2)=0.90) and brown trout...... of the Ema stock (r(2)=0.96) and Laerdal stock (r(2)=0.96). The linear relationship between swimming speed and average EMG pulse intervals differed significantly among lake trout and the brown trout stocks. This successful calibration of EMGs to swimming speed opens the possibility of recording swimming...... speed of free swimming lake trout and brown trout in situ. EMGs can also be calibrated to oxygen consumption to record energy expenditure. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  14. Malaria in inter-war British India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, W F

    2000-06-01

    British India was an important site of much important malaria research. Although Ronald Ross left India in 1899, a number of malariologists continued the task of evaluating the incidence and distribution of malaria in the country. Implementing practical solutions was hampered by formidable social and economic problems. This paper examines the Indian situation in the late 1920s, through a retrospective selection of writings chosen by J.A. Sinton for reproduction in an early issue of 'The records of the malaria survey of India', and the analysis of the Indian malaria situation through a visit of the League of Nations Malaria Commission in 1929.

  15. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  16. Race, history, and black British jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Toynbee, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the history of black British jazz across five moments from 1920 to the present. It also makes a theoretical argument about the nature of race and its connection both with music and belonging to the nation. Race is indeed a musical-discursive construction, as has been argued in the literature about culture and ethnicity over the last thirty years or so. But it is a social structure too, and the contradictions that result are key to understanding the race-music relationship.

  17. Significance of abolishing British National Oil Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R

    1985-04-01

    The decision to abolish British National Oil Corporation has greater significance than any commentator, so far, has cared to admit. Mr. Mabro says the Government has done much more than get rid of an institution it had previously weakened and emasculated; in effect, it had abdicated its responsibilities for the pricing of North Sea oil. He further observes that these moves may be consistent with the tenets of a simplistic free-market ideology: they betray, however, a lack of understanding of the economics of oil, and of the UK economic interest in oil.

  18. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  19. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  20. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  1. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  2. Foy Lake paleodiatom data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Percent abundance of 109 diatom species collected from a Foy Lake (Montana, USA) sediment core that was sampled every ∼5–20 years, yielding a ∼7 kyr record over 800...

  3. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate

  5. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  6. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g

  7. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  8. Precocious albion: A new interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan; Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac

    2013-01-01

    Many explanations have been offered for the British Industrial Revolution. This article points to the importance of human capital (broadly defined) and the quality of the British labor force on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. It shows that in terms of both physical quality and mechanical skills, British workers around 1750 were at a much higher level than their continental counterparts. As a result, new inventions—no matter where they originated—were adopted earlier, faster, and on a la...

  9. Glocal routes in British Asian drama: Between adaptation and tradaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Giovanna; Sams, Victoria; Schlote, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    In the context of British Asian theatre and the search for a diasporic theatre aesthetics the practice of adaptation has emerged as a recurring feature. Over the last decades, British Asian theatre has sought to create a language of the theatre that can reflect the cultural heritage of Asians in Britain; this search has taken different directions testified also by the plurality of voices that today make up British Asian theatre and has responded to the need to challenge the conceptual binary ...

  10. Comparison of French and Worldwide Bacillus anthracis Strains Favors a Recent, Post-Columbian Origin of the Predominant North-American Clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Gilles; Girault, Guillaume; Thierry, Simon; Pourcel, Christine; Madani, Nora; Blouin, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the highly dangerous zoonotic bacterial pathogen species is currently composed of three genetic groups, called A, B and C. Group A is represented worldwide whereas group B is present essentially in Western Europe and Southern Africa. Only three strains from group C have been reported. This knowledge is derived from the genotyping of more than 2000 strains collected worldwide. Strains from both group A and group B are present in France. Previous investigations showed that the majority of sporadic French strains belong to the so-called A.Br.011/009 group A clade and define a very remarkable polytomy with six branches. Here we explore the significance of this polytomy by comparing the French B. anthracis lineages to worldwide lineages. We take advantage of whole genome sequence data previously determined for 122 French strains and 45 strains of various origins. A total of 6690 SNPs was identified among the available dataset and used to draw the phylogeny. The phylogeny of the French B group strains which belongs to B.Br.CNEVA indicates an expansion from the south-east part of France (the Alps) towards the south-west (Massif-Central and Pyrenees). The relatively small group A strains belonging to A.Br.001/002 results from at least two independent introductions. Strikingly, the data clearly demonstrates that the currently predominant B. anthracis lineage in North America, called WNA for Western North American, is derived from one branch of the A.Br.011/009 polytomy predominant in France. The present work extends the range of observed substitution rate heterogeneity within B. anthracis, in agreement with its ecology and in contrast with some other pathogens. The population structure of the six branches A.Br.011/009 polytomy identified in France, diversity of branch length, and comparison with the WNA lineage, suggests that WNA is of post-Columbian and west European origin, with France as a likely source. Furthermore, it is tempting to speculate that

  11. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  12. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. A case control study of differences in non-work injury and accidents among sawmill workers in rural compared to urban British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Stefania

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a cohort of British Columbian male sawmill workers, we conducted a nested case-control study of the impact of rural compared to urban residence as well as rural/urban migration patterns in relation to hospitalization for non-work injury. We postulate that for many types of non-work injuries, rates will be higher in rural communities than in urban ones and that rates will also be higher for workers who migrate from urban to rural communities. Methods Using conditional logistic regression, univariate models were first run with each of five non-work injury outcomes. These outcomes were hospitalizations due to assault, accidental poisoning, medical mis-adventure, motor vehicle trauma, and other non-work injuries. In multivariate models marital status, ethnicity, duration of employment, and occupation were forced into the model and associations with urban, compared to rural, residence and various urban/migration patterns were tested. Results Urban or rural residence and migration status from urban to other communities, and across rural communities, were not associated with hospitalization for medical misadventure, assault, or accidental poisoning. The likelihood of a rural resident being hospitalized for motor vehicle trauma is higher than for an urban resident. The likelihood that a rural resident is hospitalized for "other" non-work injury is higher than for an urban resident. Conclusion In a relatively homogenous group of workers, and using a rigorous study design, we have demonstrated that the odds of other non-work injury are much higher for workers resident in and migrating to rural regions of Canada than they are for workers resident in or migrating to urban places.

  17. Assessing Resiliency in a Large Lake Receiving Mine Tailings Waste: Impacts of Major Environmental Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Ellen; Owens, Philip; Albers, Sam

    2016-04-01

    On 4th August 2014, the tailings impoundment of the Mount Polley copper and gold mine in British Columbia failed. Material from the impoundment (surface area = 2.7 km2) flowed into nearby Polley Lake and Hazeltine Creek, before discharging into Quesnel Lake, a large (ca. 100 km long, >500 m deep), relatively pristine lake. Initial estimates suggest that approximately 25 Mm3 of tailings (water and solids) and eroded soils and surficial materials from Hazeltine Creek were delivered to Quesnel Lake, raising the lake by 7.7 cm. Much of this material was deposited at the bottom of Quesnel Lake but a plume of fine-grained sediment (D50 of ca. 1 μm) remained suspended in the water column. The impact of the distribution of this sediment was monitored over the next 15 months using water column profiling for temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and turbidity with depth. The plume movement was regulated by natural processes associated with the physical limnology of this large fjord lake, specifically, seiche events which transferred suspended particles both up-lake, against the flow regime, and down-lake into the Quesnel River. Samples of lake water and bottom sediment taken from the impacted area show elevated levels of total metals and other elements, which may have important ecosystem implications in this watershed. Indeed, the breach occurred at a time when a peak run of sockeye salmon were returning to their natal streams in the Quesnel basin. Zooplankton sampling for metals was initiated in fall 2014 to determine up take of metals into the food web. This poster describes the failure of the impoundment dam and presents results of sampling the aquatic environment over the first fifteen months of impact.

  18. Planning developments in British Nuclear Fuels Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roper, D A [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Risley

    1978-10-01

    The state of the corporate planning art in British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. was described by N.R.Geary (Long Range Planning, September (1973)) just 2 years after Company formation. This article discusses more recent planning developments over the period to date during which the Company adopted a Divisionalized structure (from October 1974) and has been required to submit an annual Company plan to the Department of Energy (from November 1975). Background information on the origin and nature of the BNFL and its business, and the particular features of the Company which reflect into the nature and method of its planning were given in the 1973 article and only a brief introductory updating of the Company position is included here. Subsequently the features and problems of BNFL's operating and development planning system are described. Finally, messages arising from BNFL's planning experience to date which may be of general application and therefore of value to other practitioners of planning are listed.

  19. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  20. British Coal and the energy scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruttenden, M G [British Coal Corporation, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts to describe British Coal's (BCC) present position in a rapidly changing UK Energy Market where competition, with imported coal and with other fuels, particularly natural gas is likely to continue to increase. As a relatively high cost coal producer by world standards BCC, while continuing its efforts to improve productivity and lower costs, must work to enhance the value of its product in the market place both by improving quality to more closely match customers individual needs and by offering supporting services which ensure overall customer satisfaction. The paper explores each market sector and describes the steps which the Corporation is taking to improve its competitive position in each market with particular reference to quality standards and supporting services. Finally it attempts to forecast some possible new developments for the future. 3 tabs.

  1. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Tapering strategies in elite British endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Kate L; Fudge, Barry W; Ingham, Stephen A; Faulkner, Steve H; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore pre-competition training practices of elite endurance runners. Training details from elite British middle distance (MD; 800 m and 1500 m), long distance (LD; 3000 m steeplechase to 10,000 m) and marathon (MAR) runners were collected by survey for 7 days in a regular training (RT) phase and throughout a pre-competition taper. Taper duration was [median (interquartile range)] 6 (3) days in MD, 6 (1) days in LD and 14 (8) days in MAR runners. Continuous running volume was reduced to 70 (16)%, 71 (24)% and 53 (12)% of regular levels in MD, LD and MAR runners, respectively (P training (MD; 53 (45)%, LD; 67 (23)%, MAR; 64 (34)%, P training intensity was above race speed in LD and MAR runners (112 (27)% and 114 (3)%, respectively, P training undertaken prior to the taper in elite endurance runners is predictive of the tapering strategy implemented before competition.

  3. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  4. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  5. British standard (BS) 5750--quality assurance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D J

    1995-04-01

    BS5750 is the British Standard on "Quality Systems". Its equivalent in European Standards is EN29000 and in the International Standards Organisation ISO9000. This paper points out that these standards lay down formalised procedures and require documentation but do not ipso facto lead to quality assurance. The author points to the Japanese post-war industrial success as being an example of Total Quality Management within the framework provided by the philosophy of Dr. W. Edwards Deming (1988 and 1993). This philosophy on the management of "systems" to provide high quality products and services is briefly outlined. The author argues that improvement in prosthetic and orthotic services will not be reached through implementation of BS5750 but rather through radical rethinking and the adoption and application of the Deming philosophy.

  6. British torture in the 'war on terror'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, Ruth; Raphael, Sam

    2017-06-01

    Despite long-standing allegations of UK involvement in prisoner abuse during counterterrorism operations as part of the US-led 'war on terror', a consistent narrative emanating from British government officials is that Britain neither uses, condones nor facilitates torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and punishment. We argue that such denials are untenable. We have established beyond reasonable doubt that Britain has been deeply involved in post-9/11 prisoner abuse, and we can now provide the most detailed account to date of the depth of this involvement. We argue that it is possible to identify a peculiarly British approach to torture in the 'war on terror', which is particularly well-suited to sustaining a narrative of denial. To explain the nature of UK involvement, we argue that it can be best understood within the context of how law and sovereign power have come to operate during the 'war on terror'. We turn here to the work of Judith Butler, and explore the role of Britain as a 'petty sovereign', operating under the state of exception established by the US executive. UK authorities have not themselves suspended the rule of law so overtly; indeed, they have repeatedly insisted on their commitment to it. Nevertheless, they have been able to construct a rhetorical, legal and policy 'scaffold' that has enabled them to demonstrate at least procedural adherence to human rights norms while, at the same time, allowing UK officials to acquiesce in the arbitrary exercise of sovereignty over individuals who are denied any access to appropriate representation or redress in compliance with the rule of law.

  7. Biodiesel in British Columbia : feasibility study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, M.; Murray-Hill, A.; Schaddelee, K. [Wise Energy Co-op, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-05-05

    This report evaluates the potential for biodiesel as a viable fuel in British Columbia. Biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable fuel produced from recycled bio-oils that can be used to replace conventional petroleum diesel. The report also examines potential feedstock characteristics, output volumes and environmental impacts. Production of biodiesel is increasing globally due to its economic, human and environmental health benefits. Canada's Climate Change Action Plan target of 500 million litres of biodiesel production per year by 2010 will also contribute to biodiesel growth. The use of pure biodiesel as an alternative fuel results in reduced emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, methane, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. British Columbia's biodiesel feedstock volumes yield a total theoretical capacity of 125 million litres per year of biodiesel, or 4.5 per cent of the province's total annual diesel consumption The feedstock is enough to fuel over 3,700 transit buses annually and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report outlines the activities needed to establish commercial biodiesel companies in the province. It also examines standards and regulatory issues; technology availability; cost and processing analysis; potential markets and distribution channels; and environmental impact comparisons. The 4 critical factors that will determine the success or failure of a commercial biodiesel project include: the ability to balance feedstock supplies, processing technology, and market penetration in an integrated system that is reliable and efficient; the ability to form stable strategic alliances with feedstock suppliers, distributors and end users; the ability to deal effectively with competitive pressures; and, the ability to generate a business plan that will attract financing. It was concluded that community-based biodiesel production at a plant scale

  8. Real-estate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1971-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization waterfront land has been an irresistible attraction to man. Throughout history he has sought out locations fronting on oceans, rivers, and lakes. Originally sought for proximity .to water supply and transportation, such locations are now sought more for their esthetic qualities and for recreation. Usable natural waterfront property is limited, however, and the more desirable sites in many of our urban areas have already been taken. The lack of available waterfront sites has led to the creation of many artificial bodies of water. The rapid suburbanization that has characterized urban growth in America since the end of World War II, together with increasing affluence and le-isure time, has created a ready market for waterfront property. Accordingly, lake-centered subdivisions and developments dot the suburban landscape in many of our major urban areas. Literally thousands of lakes surrounded by homes have materialized during this period of rapid growth. Recently, several "new town" communities have been planned around this lake-centered concept. A lake can be either an asset or a liaoility to a community. A clean, clear, attractively landscaped lake is a definite asset, whereas a weed-choked, foul-smelling mudhole is a distinct liability. The urban environment poses both problems and imaginative opportunities in the development of lakes. Creation of a lake causes changes in all aspects of the environment. Hydrologic systems and ecological patterns are usually most severely altered. The developer should be aware of the potential changes; it is not sufficient merely to build a dam across a stream or to dig a hole in the ground. Development of Gl a successful lake requires careful planning for site selection and design, followed by thorough and cc ntinual management. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of real-estate lakes, to pinpoint potential pmblems, and to suggest possible planning and management guidelines

  9. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  10. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  11. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  12. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  13. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  14. Britishness as Racist Nativism: A Case of the Unnamed "Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather Jane

    2016-01-01

    The construct of Britishness, as with nationalism elsewhere in the world, although amorphous and permeable over time, continues to be used by politicians and the media as a powerful exclusionary force. Moreover in England, fundamental British values (FBV), its most recent and official incarnation, now hold particular currency in education policy…

  15. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  16. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  17. Shakespearean Intertexts and European Identities in Contemporary Black British Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Valdivieso, Sofía

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the presence of William Shakespeare as intertext in three recent novels by black British writers which deploy the work of the Bard as they explore British and European identities. Caryl Phillips's "The Nature of Blood" recreates an Othello-like figure who in early Modern Venice struggles to come to terms with his…

  18. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  19. Book Review: "Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review: "Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War"by Timothy C. Winegard. ... Timothy Winegard saw active duty in the Canadian Reserve Force from 2001 to 2010 and served on detachment duty to the British Army for a two-year period. He obtained various academic degrees from 1999 ...

  20. Southern Cameroons' financial contributions to British Second World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serious damage done to the British economy during World War II compelled the leaders of the British Government to look for ways of repairing the damage. Hence, they turned to the colonies for help. Inter alia, they needed financial assistance because of their inability to pay for imports from the United States. Imports of ...

  1. British Television and Official Film, 1946-1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between the British Government's Information Services and both the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the commercial film trade after the BBC's television service resumed independent broadcasts in 1946. Examines proposals for using television as an alternative outlet for commercial and official films. (GEA)

  2. Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russian-French "Entente Cordial" when British turned from bitterest enemy to ..... As it was mentioned above, the army's food supplies were provided in an ... Cronje's capitulation will be a glorious page in the history of the British Anns forever. , ...

  3. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  5. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are located on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and serve as a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Lake Austin, located immediately downstream of Lake Travis, extends for more than 20 miles into the western edge of the city of Austin. Town Lake extends through the downtown area of the city of Austin for nearly 6 miles where the Colorado River is impounded by Longhorn Dam.

  6. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  7. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  8. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  9. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  10. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  11. Geology and Volcanology of Kima'Kho Mountain, Northern British Columbia: A Pleistocene Glaciovolcanic Edifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.

    2014-12-01

    Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10

  12. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  13. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... rings word opgesom terwyl sommige van die lesse wat by Kariba geleer is en 'n ... one area of the lake must have an effect, directly or indirectly, on other consumer organisms in the aquatic environment. Con- sidering ... are liable to attain their high density at the price of other taxa. ... be measured. Data on ...

  14. IN LAKE TANA, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turbidity showed depressed effect on biomass ... Key words/phrases: Biomass, duration of development, Lake Tana, large-turbid ... 36°45'-38°14'E and at an altitude of 1830 In, a.s.l. ... 30 cm mouth opening, 1.2 m cod end), which was ... times of the three copepods were measured under .... The greatest density values were.

  15. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  16. State of the air in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P. [British Columbia Lung Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-08-15

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs.

  17. Safety and licensing: the British perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, R D

    1986-02-01

    The legal framework of British regulatory practice is described, with emphasis on its flexibility and the fact that responsibility rests with the licensee, leaving the NII to monitor his implementation of that duty. The UK regulatory philosophy, the mixture of selective and random sampling used and the organization of the regulatory bodies as it interacts with that of the nuclear industry are outlined. This is followed by a resume of the current nuclear safety issues and of the NII's attitude to them, including the continued operation of the aging Magnox reactors, the extended transition of the AGR from the prototype to the 'tried and tested' stage of its existence, the problems of licensing nuclear chemical plant, the CEGB's proposed introduction of the PWR into this country, the availability of increasingly sophisticated means of assessing safety, and the steadily rising public interest in nuclear power issues. The Lecture ends by noting the problems of risk perception and cost/benefit analysis, emphasizing that in striking the right balance the regulatory body must be open, prepared to justify its reasoning, and productive of conclusions which are acceptable to the public.

  18. State of the air in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.; Furberg, M.; Rother, P.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific evidence is rising regarding the danger of air pollution. Poor air quality can pose a problem in British Columbia, particularly in interior communities when temperature inversions, during certain times of the year, trap pollutants in mountain valleys. This document described where pollutants come from, ambient levels in the atmosphere and how they affect human health. Particular focus was on fine particulate matter, ozone and oxides of nitrogen, as these 3 pollutants have been linked to health impacts. The cost of air pollution through increased health care costs and the economic impact of lost productivity from missed work days was also discussed along with the influence of poor air quality on crop damage and forestry production losses. The document also outlined government and community initiatives to protect public health and listed some measures that individuals can do to keep air clean. Air pollution stems from activities such as land development, burning fossil fuels for energy and transportation, industrial operations, residential wood burning and backyard burning of debris and burning from forestry and agricultural operations. The health impacts range from irritation, to coughing and worsening of existing heart and lung conditions. The document states that despite all measures being taken to reduce emissions and to maintain levels of air pollutants at current low levels, health effects are still observed and still pose a burden to health care cost. Scientific evidence indicates that a further reduction in air pollution will result in health benefits. refs., figs

  19. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  20. British cruisers of the victorian era

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Gradually evolving from the masted steam frigates of the mid-nineteenth century, the first modern cruiser is not easy to define, but for the sake of this book the starting point is taken to be Iris and Mercury of 1875. They were the RN's first steel-built warships; were designed primarily to be steamed rather than sailed; and formed the basis of a line of succeeding cruiser classes. The story ends with the last armoured cruisers, which were succeeded by the first battlecruisers (originally called armoured cruisers), and with the last Third Class Cruisers (Topaze class), all conceived before 1906. Coverage, therefore, dovetails precisely with Friedman's previous book on British cruisers, although this one also includes the wartime experience of the earlier ships.rn The two central themes are cruisers for the fleet and cruisers for overseas operations, including (but not limited to) trade protection. The distant-waters aspect covers the belted cruisers, which were nearly capital ships, intended to deal with for...

  1. British Gas plans global gas unit expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on developing a global gas business, a British Gas plc's strategy for evolving a state owned U.K. gas company to a privatized worldwide oil and gas giant. By 2000, BG's global gas business is expected to provide 20% of its revenues, compared with 40% each from its exploration and production operations and its U.K. gas business. The global gas unit (GGU) plans to meet its targets mainly through acquiring holdings in gas transmission and distribution companies around the world. In the 12 months since GGU was established, it has made two such major acquisitions in this area. BG acquired Consumers Gas Co., Ltd., Ontario, Canada's biggest natural gas distribution company, for $943.5 million. It also took a 10% stake in Catalana de Gas SA, Barcelona, the largest privately owned gas utility in Spain and in terms of number of customers, the fourth largest in western Europe. BG also is targeting additional revenues from developing gas fired cogeneration systems in developing countries with gas reserves but no established transmission and distribution systems

  2. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, D.

    2002-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs

  3. Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  5. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  6. Unity is strength: staff college and the British officer corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Utilizing Bourdieu's concept of the habitus, Keith Macdonald has recently examined the elite social origins of the British officer corps. His analysis is valid as far at it goes but it ignores the professional practices of British officers. This article examines Britain's Joint Services Command and Staff College to assess the unification of the three services around common forms of military practice. It argues that while the new staff college has been effective in disseminating new forms of professional expertise among British officers, various practices have been institutionalized which actively undermine the unity of the officer corps.

  7. British Gas marks progress in drive for global operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that British Gas plc, London, is driving to boost the share of its business that comes form outside the U.K. Non-U.K. activities accounted for about 10% of the company's business last year. By the turn of the century earnings form British Gas's non-U.K. exploration and production activities are expected to be about in line with those form the U.K. core business. In addition, the company's global gas business unit-acquisitions, sales, of British Gas technology worldwide, and power generation form gas-will contribute significantly to overseas earnings

  8. Battling Bullying in the British Army 1987 – 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Wither

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the attempts by the UK MOD to eradicate bullying in the British Army. Although British recruits are not confronted by mistreatment that compares with the phenomenon of dedovshchina, the Army has struggled to eliminate incidents of bullying from the ranks, which have tarnished the image of the British Army. The article examines the nature and extent of the problem, the efficacy of official policy to combat it, and suggests reasons why bullying persists even in a long- standing professional army. It also seeks to provide instructive insights for those militaries of the successor states of the Soviet Union that are currently blighted by dedovshchina.

  9. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this

  10. Skaha Lake crossing, innovations in pipeline installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; Bryce, P.W.; Smith, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a 10.8 km long NPS16 (406 mm, 16 inch diameter) pipeline, across Skaha Lake, in the south Okanagan valley, British Columbia, Canada. The water crossing is part of the 32 km South Okanagan Natural Gas Pipeline Project (SONG) operated by BC Gas. The pipeline is located in a region dependent on year-round tourism. Therefore, the design and construction was influenced by sensitive environmental and land use concerns. From earlier studies, BC Gas identified surface tow or lay as preferred installation methods. The contractor, Fraser River Pile and Dredge departed from a conventional laybarge methodology after evaluating environmental data and assessing locally available equipment. The contractor proposed a surface tow with multiple surface tie-ins. This approach modification to the ''Surface Tow and Buoy Release Method'' (STBRM) used previously with success on relatively short underwater pipelines. A total of 10 pipe strings, up to 1 km long, were towed into position on the lake and tied-in using a floating platform. The joined pipeline was lowered to the lakebed by divers releasing buoys while tension was maintained from a winch barge at the free end of the pipeline. From analysis and field verified measurement the installation stresses were well below the allowable limits during all phases of construction. The entire construction, including mobilization and demobilization, lasted less than three months, and actual pipelaying less than three weeks. Installation was completed within budget and on schedule, without any environmental or safety related incidents. The SONG pipeline became operational in December 1994

  11. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  12. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were used to model the annual mean lake volume and the difference between the annual maximum lake volume and the annual mean lake volume. Residuals from both models were determined to be uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. However, a nonlinear relation between the residuals of the two models was included in the final annual lakevolume model.Because of high autocorrelation in the annual lake levels of Devils Lake, the annual lake-volume model was verified using annual lake-level changes. The annual lake-volume model closely reproduced the statistics of the recorded lake-level changes for 1901-93 except for the skewness coefficient. However, the model output is less skewed than the data indicate because of some unrealistically large lake-level declines. The statistical water mass-balance model requires as inputs seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for Devils Lake. Analysis of annual precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for 1950-93 revealed no significant trends or long-range dependence so the input time series were assumed to be stationary and short-range dependent.Normality transformations were used to approximately maintain the marginal probability distributions; and a multivariate, periodic autoregressive model was used to reproduce the correlation structure. Each of the coefficients in the model is significantly different from zero at the 5-percent significance level. Coefficients relating spring inflow from one year to spring and fall inflows from the previous year had the largest effect on the lake-level frequency analysis.Inclusion of parameter uncertainty in the model

  13. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  14. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E. [Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  15. Mortality of British radiologists. A lecture Note+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, R.

    2005-01-01

    The precautions introduced after the first 23 years experience of the use of x-rays for medical diagnosis proved adequate to eliminate the acute hazards of exposure, but it was much longer before it was realized that small doses that did not produce any acute effect could increase the risk of cancer. British radiologists who took up the specialty at different periods have, therefore, been studied to see if the risk has now been adequately controlled. Four groups have been studied starting respectively before 1921, in 1921-34, 1935-54, and 1955-77, corresponding approximately to periods when different limits of exposure were applied. Altogether 2698 male radiologists have been identified and all but 27 followed successfully to emigration, death, or survival to January 1 st 1997. Of the 1198 who had died, 228 are known to have died of cancer. Two problems arise in evaluating the carcinogenic hazard to which they were exposed: the assessment of the doses received and the selection of an appropriate control group with which to compare their mortality. The most appropriate comparison group would seem to be medical practitioners in general. In comparison with them, radiologists entering in the first 3 periods had increased risks of death from cancer though appreciably less than would have been predicted from the expected effect of the radiation they had received. Those who joined in the latest period had a relatively reduced risk, irrespective of any effect of the small dose of radiation they are likely to have received. Independent evidence suggests, however, that since 1951 radiologists have smoked less than other doctors and the lower than predicted risk in the groups exposed since 1920 is limited to smoking related cancers, the mortality from other cancers being higher than in doctors generally. In assessing the risk of occupational exposure to radiation, life-style has to be taken into consideration, as well as dose of radiation. (author)

  16. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  17. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  18. Idealism to Realism- Representing London in Black British Writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self denigration, exploitation and discrimination meted on them by the British as well as their feeling of alienation, cultural dislocation and their struggle for self ... adaptation through which these immigrants will make the best out of London ...

  19. British sounding-rocket programme and the Esrange Special Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastwood, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    British participation in the Esrange Special Project has developed very satisfactorily since the programme was reviewed at the last Esrange Symposium [Eastwood, 1973; Acton, 1973]. Two campaigns have been undertaken at Andoya and several more are projected

  20. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. SPECIES RICHNESS AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PRIORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterns in the geographic distribution of seven species groups were used to identify important areas for conservation in British Columbia, Canada. Potential priority sites for conservation were determined using an integer programming algorithm that maximized the number of speci...

  2. Geothermal prospects in British Columbia: Resource, market and regulatory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Brown, T.L.S.; MacRae, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia is host to about 15 young volcanic centres and 60 hot springs, all evidence of presence of geothermal resources. Most high-grade geothermal prospects in British Columbia are located along 3 volcanic belts in the south-western region of the province. It is estimated that a minimum of 800 MWe can be generated from the known prospects in this region. Significant low-grade geothermal resources exist in several provincial regions. Market applications consistent with the geothermal resources known and expected to occur in British Columbia include electrical generation, process and other direct heat uses and recreation. Leasing, exploration and development operations for high-grade geothermal resources are addressed by the British Columbia open-quotes Geothermal Resources Actclose quotes which defines geothermal resources and reserves all rights to the Crown in the right of the Province

  3. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  4. developed algorithm for the application of british method of concret

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t-iyke

    Most of the methods of concrete mix design developed over the years were geared towards manual approach. ... Key words: Concrete mix design; British method; Manual Approach; Algorithm. ..... Statistics for Science and Engineering.

  5. British Military Intervention into Sierra Leone: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberson, Walter G

    2007-01-01

    .... The successful British intervention led to the defeat of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and final peace accords, restored order to a failed state, and allowed the democratic restoration of the government of Sierra Leone...

  6. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  7. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  8. The Ethical Perspective of British and American Preservice Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of responses from 38 U.S. and 27 British preservice teachers on the Ethics Position Questionnaire indicated that both groups had high idealism. U.S. teachers had lower relativism scores. (SK)

  9. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  10. Shared Concerns: Thoughts on British Literature and British Music in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allis

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.

  11. British Coal Corporation. Report and accounts 1986/87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the accounts for British Coal from March 30, 1986 to March 28, 1987 with respect to the coal industry in the United Kingdom. The dramatic increases in production and decreases in manpower and collieries have led to many changes and these are discussed. Areas covered include: objectives and relations with public bodies; finance; production; markets; personnel; organization; British Coal Enterprise Limited; research and development; environmental issues; and annual statistics. The full company accounts are also presented.

  12. The sixth sense : synaesthesia and British aestheticism, 1860-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Poueymirou, Margaux Lynn Rosa

    2009-01-01

    “The Sixth Sense: Synaesthesia and British Aestheticism 1860-1900” is an interdisciplinary examination of the emergence of synaesthesia conceptually and rhetorically within the ‘art for art’s sake’ movement in mid-to-late Victorian Britain. Chapter One investigates Swinburne’s focal role as both theorist and literary spokesman for the nascent British Aesthetic movement. I argue that Swinburne was the first to practice what Pater meant by ‘aesthetic criticism’ and that synaesthe...

  13. Submission to the British Columbia government on the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The Business Council provided its comments concerning the Kyoto Protocol and climate change to the government of British Columbia, recommending that a clear position be established quickly on the matter. The adopted position should also be disseminated broadly to allow stake holders sufficient time to prepare for the upcoming meetings of the Joint Ministers and First Ministers. The federal government has announced that the decision on whether to ratify the Kyoto Protocol will be made before the end of 2002, and this decision will have numerous effects on the people of British Columbia, businesses, workers, and consumers alike. The Business Council of British Columbia believes that the unique interests of the province can best be protected by a proactive approach. Actions plans are being prepared by several of the other provinces and territories, who have already stated their position concerning the Kyoto Protocol. The long-term risks of climate change for British Columbia have not been determined nor have the elements of a provincial approach. The following elements should be included in British Columbia's position on the Kyoto Protocol, according to the Business Council of British Columbia: (1) a credible and cost-effective implementation plan that does not unduly burden the province and other jurisdictions must be developed before Canada decides to ratify the Protocol. British Columbia should go on the record stating it does not support the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in its present form. (2) the province should advocate for a national approach to climate change that can be achieved within a reasonable time frame, reflects the long-term nature of the problem, and is in agreement with the economic development objectives of British Columbia, (3) a plan detailing how the province intends to deal with the growth of greenhouse gas emissions should supplement and support the position of the province on the Kyoto Protocol. Consumers and business should be engaged

  14. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  15. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for British Columbia, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in British Columbia. In contrast, a consumptionbased emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in British Columbia through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in British Columbia but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions at the Port of Vancouver that are associated with goods that are subsequently exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from British Columbia to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of Alberta crude oil that is refined in British Columbia and sold as motor gasoline to a British Columbia consumer are recorded as a trade flow from Alberta to British Columbia. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  16. Elliot Lake progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, W.; Scott, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of the Elliot Lake remedial program is to identify houses in Elliot Lake with annual average WL's in excess of 0.02, discover the routes of radon entry into identified houses and close enough of them to reduce the annual average WL to an acceptable level, and to demonstrate that the annual average WL is below 0.02 in houses where remedial work was not thought necessary as well as in houses where remedial work has been completed. The remedial program is organized into two subprograms, the survey program and the remedial action program. By December 31, 1979 more than 17000 survey measurements had been carried out, identifying 157 houses where remedial action was required and confirming that no action was needed in 413 houses. Remedial work had been completed on 98 houses

  17. Britishness and Community Cohesion in Muslim News Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ZRIBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of British national identity and social cohesion have become pressing concerns within the multicultural fabric of contemporary British society. The increasing number of immigrants and their offspring, along with the maintenance of their cultural roots, seem to represent a serious defiance to social cohesion and the alleged “purity” of Britishness. A number of race related reports were produced by the official authorities to churn out the necessary steps to be followed by the British (immigrants and host community in order to keep social stability and community cohesion. Thus, the politics of community cohesion came to the fore as the neologism of contemporary British political discourse. Such new discourse of governance has been digested and processed differently by different mass media. It has been decoded, for instance, preferably by mainstream news agencies like BBC News Online. However, arguably, it is read appositionally or at best negotiatedly by ethnicity-related news agencies such as Muslim News Online. In this article, attempt has been made to adopt media discourse analysis tools to decipher the ways Muslim News Online decoded and then encoded the hegemonic official discourses of Britishness and community cohesion. A critical and interpretative approach is used to accomplish such study. The corpus of this study is primarily extracted from the website of the Muslim News Online.

  18. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  19. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  20. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  1. Limnology of Lake Midmar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breen, CM

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available goals. Those which seem important to us are: the identification of the limnological responses affecting water quality which are of universal application. Some such as phosphorus load are well known whereas others may still require to be identified... Figure 17 Pattern of release of total nitrogen and phosphorus from decomposing vegetation ............................. 56 Figure 18 Changes in the amounts of total phosphorus within the lake, the inflow and the outflow on a weekly basis....... 59...

  2. Restoring life to acidified lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-05-01

    In 1983 EPRI initiated the lake acidification mitigation project (LAMP) in order to examine the long-term ecosystem effects of liming lakes, and to develop a model for calculating optimal liming doses. Investigations were carried out at lakes under 3 sets of conditions: reacidification, maintenance liming and preventive maintenance liming. The research so far has indicated that liming is a safe and effective technique.

  3. Radioecological characteristics of Lake Zarnowieckie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszka, G.J.; Grzybowska, D.; Rostek, J.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wardaszko, T.; Kalinowska, A.; Tomczak, J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of the radioecological studies carried out in Lake Zarnowieckie as a part of pre-operational investigations related to the construction of a nuclear power station at this lake. Concentrations of essential radionuclides were determined in water, bottom sediments and selected plants and animals. Analyses were made of the distribution and spreading of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the lake ecosystem and in the near-by meadows. 28 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs. (author)

  4. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruemmel, Eva M. [Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada Office, 75 Albert St., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5E7 (Canada)], E-mail: eva_kruemmel@hotmail.com; Scheer, Michael [Scheer Software Solutions, 6 Coghlan Lane, P.O. Box 86, Barry' s Bay, Ontario, K0J 1B0 (Canada); Gregory-Eaves, Irene [Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 10 Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Finney, Bruce [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Blais, Jules M. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-03-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and {delta}{sup 15}N, as well as {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, {sigma}PCBs and {delta}{sup 15}N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years.

  5. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  6. Explaining British Political Stability After 1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Though not its main focus, Goldstone's Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (1991 threw considerable new light on 19th century Europe's revolutions and near-revolutions. While Goldstone stresses the role of an expanding and industrializing economy in absorbing 19th century England's demographic shocks, we accept this analysis but argue alongside it for similar attention to the vector of emigration, settler-colonialism, and imperial state expansion into which at least some of the exhaust fumes of the population explosion were vented. Furthermore, it is important to note the crucial role of a highly interventionist state and 'big' government in the background to these dynamics—a far cry from the light-touch, laissez-faire qualities with which the 19th century British state is often associated. To make our case, this article takes advantage of secondary literature and raw data not available prior to the publication of Goldstone's book. Of crucial importance here is our unique dataset of fatality-inducing political violence events in Britain and Ireland from 1785 to 1900. This is the first research paper to utilise this dataset. We draw upon this in the following section, which seeks to establish what the real level of political instability was in 19th century Britain—thus cross-referencing Goldstone's account with more recent data—before moving on in the following section to a more detailed overview of the socio-economic conditions underlying events at the political level. This is followed by our account of the emigration-settler-colonialism-imperial state expansion vector and the interventionist state policy behind it, which we argue was crucial to making 19th century Britain relatively 'revolution-proof'—alongside the expanding economic opportunities rightly highlighted by Goldstone. Lastly come our brief concluding remarks, which lay out the implications, as we see them, of this article's findings for research on

  7. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  8. Submerged Grove in Lake Onogawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Soken; Ochiai, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Abstract : The first record by ultrasonic echo sounding on the distribution of the submerged standing trees on the bottom of Lake Onogawa is presented. Lake Onogawa is a dammed lake formed at the time of the eruption of the volcano Mt.Bandai in 1888. Since then the original vegetation of the dammed valley has remained submerged. Many submerged standing trees are distributed on the bottom within about 600m from the northeast end of the lake. The density of the trees in this area is sufficient ...

  9. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  10. Divergent migration within lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations: Multiple distinct patterns exist across an unrestricted migration corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Steven T; Hondorp, Darryl W; Holbrook, Christopher M; Boase, James C; Chiotti, Justin A; Thomas, Michael V; Wills, Todd C; Roseman, Edward F; Drouin, Richard; Krueger, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    did not vary between populations, sexes, body size or among release locations, which indicated that intrapopulation variability in migratory behaviour is a general feature of the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon in unfragmented landscapes. 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  11. Incidence of clinically suspected venous thromboembolism in British Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, B M; Patel, M S; Rudge, S; Best, A; Mangwani, J

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major public health issue around the world. Ethnicity is known to alter the incidence of VTE. To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature investigating the incidence of VTE in British Indians. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of symptomatic VTE in British Indian patients in the UK. Methods Patients referred to our institution between January 2011 and August 2013 with clinically suspected VTE were eligible for inclusion in the study. Those not of British Indian or Caucasian ethnicity were excluded. A retrospective review of these two cohorts was conducted. Results Overall, 15,529 cases were referred to our institution for suspected VTE. This included 1,498 individuals of British Indian ethnicity. Of these, 182 (12%) had confirmed VTE episodes. A further 13,159 of the patients with suspected VTE were coded as Caucasian, including 2,412 (16%) who had confirmed VTE events. VTE rates were a third lower in British Indians with clinically suspected VTE than in the equivalent Caucasian group. The British Indian cohort presented with VTE at a much earlier age than Caucasians (mean 57.0 vs 68.0 years). Conclusions This study suggests that British Indian patients have a lower incidence of VTE and are more likely to present at an earlier age than Caucasians. There was no significant difference in VTE type (deep vein thrombosis vs pulmonary embolism) among the ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware of variations within ethnicities but should continue to adhere to existing VTE prevention guidance.

  12. Holocene Lake-Level Fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2001-09-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.

  13. Gambian-British and Nigerian-British Children's and Families' Experiences of Migration "Back" to West Africa. Research Briefing No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This research looks at the factors motivating Gambian-British and Nigerian-British parents to send their children "back" to West Africa and what this means for parents, children and families on both continents.

  14. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Nathan B.; Hinch, Scott G.; Lotto, A.G.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0–12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  15. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  16. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  18. Factores de riesgo reproductivo asociados al cáncer mamario, en mujeres colombianas Reproductive risk factors associated with breast cancer in Columbian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Olaya-Contreras

    1999-06-01

    causa de morte feminina na Colômbia (taxa média anual de 4,5*/100.000 hab. mostrando tendência ascendente por este tipo de neoplasia, sendo poucas as informações sobre fatores de risco potenciais de câncer de mama nos países da América Latina. O estudo realizado objetivou testar a proteção da amamentação materna contra essa doença, e estabelecer fatores reprodutivos a ela associados. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo de casos-controle hospitalares pareados por idade, de julho 1995 a março 1996. A população de estudo foi constituída por 171 casos histologicamente confirmados e 171 controles. A história reprodutiva e sociodemográfica foi coletada através de um questionário e adotada a técnica de regressão logística para efetuar a análise estatística dos dados. RESULTADOS: Como fatores de risco foram encontrados: nuliparidade, quando comparada com mulheres com mais de três filhos (OR=3,35 IC 1,4 - 8,0; idade do primeiro nascimento (>20 anos vs. menores de 20. OR= 1,83 IC 0,7 - 4,8; antecedente familiar de câncer mamário e amamentação do primeiro filho (OR=0,09 IC 0,01-0,64 de 1-11 meses e OR= 0,01 IC 0,00-0,14 para os 12 meses, e amamentação acumulada por mais de 24 meses (p=0,001 prova de tendência como um dos principais fatores protetores da doença. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo confirma a importância de promover a amamentação prolongada e ratifica que o nível socioeconômico pode determinar o estilo de vida e os eventos reprodutivos das mulheres, explicando o aumento na mortalidade por câncer mamário nos países Latino-americanos, com perfil de fecundidade e fatores de risco para o câncer mamário, similares a dos países desenvolvidos.INTRODUCTION: As of 1992, breast cancer has been the second cause of death in Columbian women, with a rising trend in mortality due to this type of neoplasm (average annual rate 4.5*/100.000 inhabitants. Information about potential risk factors for breast cancer in Latin American countries is scarce. The

  19. Teaching (about) Britishness? An Investigation into Trainee Teachers' Understanding of Britishness in Relation to Citizenship and the Discourse of Civic Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lee; Clemitshaw, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This research was prompted by the developing political discourse proposing the teaching of Britishness and British values in the context of the United Kingdom. This discourse will be reviewed in the first part of the article, in the context of previous work which has sought to assess how Britishness and related concepts might be promoted through…

  20. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  1. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  2. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  3. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  4. Status of Burbot (Lota lota) in Arrow Lakes Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, S.; Baxter, J.

    2006-03-01

    Burbot populations at a water reservoir were assessed in order to examine the operational impacts of a hydro-electric dam in British Columbia. The study assessed the distribution, relative abundance, size, and age structure of the Burbot population. Spawning locations were evaluated, and an underwater camera was used to make population estimates. The distribution of burbot was determined using data derived from set line sampling catches conducted in 1995. The surveys indicated that the burbot were widely distributed throughout the reservoir. The burbots were larger than burbots seen in other lakes, and the age structure showed evidence of dominant and weak cohorts. Average growth rates were higher than most other populations in the province. Fish monitored in a radio-tagging experiment were located in various spawning areas in the vicinity of the reservoir. It was concluded that no aggregations of spawning burbot were observed in the narrows where an underwater video camera was installed. 31 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  5. British Energy - nuclear power in the private sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1997-01-01

    The first four months of the operation of British Energy as a privatised nuclear utility are briefly reviewed. Operational and financial performance have been good as exemplified by the figures for power output and financial return. Freedom from government control means that the options open to the company are much wider but the need to meet the expectations of shareholders is a major consideration. Added to this, the competitive nature of the electricity industry means that the cost reduction is important, though this cannot be at the expense of safety. Shareholder expectations make the funding of new nuclear power stations unrealistic at present. Increasingly, however, markets are opening up in the maintenance of existing plant and the decommissioning of older plant. The British Energy Group also has considerable expertise in the design, operation and management of power stations and of acting in a competitive energy market that could be exported. British Energy's International Division is in place to develop this potential. (UK)

  6. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  7. British Gas: remuneration. There may be trouble ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    When the Chairman and Chief Executive of British Gas was awarded a huge salary increase recently, a major revolt occurred amongst 4,000 of British Gas's small shareholders. The increase was awarded despite the intense opposition because the pension funds voted with the Board. A critique is offered of the occasion, and a comparison with the rather fairer rise requested by Ofgas's Director General, the gas company regulator, who had been paid as a 3 day a week contract, but had been working six days a week. With deregulation of the gas supply market, British Gas has been under governmental pressure to publish its prices, and has been undercut by competitors. The newly developed contractural relationships in the United Kingdom gas market are very complex and, for the first time subject to legal enforcement. (UK)

  8. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen

    2016-12-01

    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  9. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    2009-01-01

    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied...... as an interconnected dynamic unity in which engineers were situated; the geographical and ideological context in which their activities took place. The thesis can be read as a contribution to recent re-conceptualisations of the British Empire as a zone bind together by ‘colonial connections' and ‘imperial networks......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....

  10. 75 FR 34934 - Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA AGENCY... Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  11. The microbial mats of Pavilion Lake microbialites: examining the relationship between photosynthesis and carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Hawes, I.; Mackey, T. J.; Brady, A. L.; Biddle, J.; Andersen, D. T.; Belan, M.; Slater, G.; Abercromby, A.; Squyres, S. W.; Delaney, M.; Haberle, C. W.; Cardman, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Pavilion Lake in British Columbia, Canada is an ultra-oligotrophic lake that has abundant microbialite growth. Recent research has shown that photoautotrophic microbial communities are important to modern microbialite development in Pavilion Lake. However, questions remain as to the relationship between changing light levels within the lake, variation in microbialite macro-structure, microbial consortia, and the preservation of associated biosignatures within the microbialite fabrics. The 2014 Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) field program was focused on data gathering to understand these complex relationships by determining if a) light is the immediate limit to photosynthetic activity and, if so, if light is distributed around microbialites in ways that are consistent with emergent microbialite structure; and b) if at more local scales, the filamentous pink and green cyanobacterial nodular colonies identified in previous PLRP studies are centers of photosynthetic activity that create pH conditions suitable for carbonate precipitation. A diver-deployed pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to collect synoptic in situ measurements of fluorescence yield and irradiance and across microbialites, focusing on comparing flat and vertical structural elements at a range of sites and depths. As well, we collected time series measurements of photosynthetic activity and irradiance at a set depth of 18 m across three different regions in Pavilion Lake. Our initial findings suggest that all microbialite surfaces are primarily light-limited regardless of depth or location within the lake. Shore based PAM fluorometry and microelectrode profiling of diver-collected samples suggest that pink and green nodules have different photosynthetic properties and pH profiles, and that nodular growth is likely to be the primary route of calcification due to the gelatinous covering the nodule creates. On-going tests for molecular signatures and isotopic shifts will allow for

  12. Tsunami-generated sediment wave channels at Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James G.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Kitts, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    A gigantic ∼12 km3 landslide detached from the west wall of Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada, USA), and slid 15 km east across the lake. The splash, or tsunami, from this landslide eroded Tioga-age moraines dated as 21 ka. Lake-bottom short piston cores recovered sediment as old as 12 ka that did not reach landslide deposits, thereby constraining the landslide age as 21–12 ka.Movement of the landslide splashed copious water onto the countryside and lowered the lake level ∼10 m. The sheets of water that washed back into the lake dumped their sediment load at the lowered shoreline, producing deltas that merged into delta terraces. During rapid growth, these unstable delta terraces collapsed, disaggregated, and fed turbidity currents that generated 15 subaqueous sediment wave channel systems that ring the lake and descend to the lake floor at 500 m depth. Sheets of water commonly more than 2 km wide at the shoreline fed these systems. Channels of the systems contain sediment waves (giant ripple marks) with maximum wavelengths of 400 m. The lower depositional aprons of the system are surfaced by sediment waves with maximum wavelengths of 300 m.A remarkably similar, though smaller, contemporary sediment wave channel system operates at the mouth of the Squamish River in British Columbia. The system is generated by turbidity currents that are fed by repeated growth and collapse of the active river delta. The Tahoe splash-induced backwash was briefly equivalent to more than 15 Squamish Rivers in full flood and would have decimated life in low-lying areas of the Tahoe region.

  13. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E

    2004-01-01

    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  14. Younger British men's understandings of prostate cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Sarah; Parlane, Victoria L; Buckley, Emily

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young British men's understandings of prostate health and cancer of the prostate. A total of 16 White-British men between 31-50 years of age took part in interviews face-to-face or through computer-mediated communication. Thematic analysis broadly informed by grounded theory identified two key themes; 'limited knowledge about the prostate' and 'early detection & unpleasant procedures'. Accounts are discussed with reference to implications for improving men's understandings of prostate cancer, and likelihood of self-referral for prostate screening where necessary.

  15. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  16. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  17. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, M.; Noedland, S.I.

    1991-02-01

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  18. Ecosystem-level changes that may be expected in a changing global climate - a British Columbia perspective. [Canada - British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmins, J.P.; Lavender, D.P. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Science)

    1992-08-01

    British Columbia is a vast province encompassing a wide latitudinal and elevational range. Four of the five major classes of climate in the world are found in British Columbia, where prevailing westerly winds from the Pacific and a series of north-south mountain ranges have produced widely differing local climates. The predicted global warming may result in the migration of species and communities upslope and toward the north, but the heterogenous nature of the present landscape suggests that such migration may not be as pronounced as that likely to occur in regions of Canada with less relief. Effects of climatic warming on long-lived temperate zone trees include possible increased frost damage in early spring; reduced seed production; increased insect and disease incidence; increased damage to forests by wildfire; and, in the warmer parts of coastal British Columbia, a winter climate too warm to satisfy the chilling requirements of some perennial plants.

  19. Forest blowdown and lake acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.; Rush, R.M.; Peplies, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the role of forest blowdown in lake acidification. The approach combines geographic information systems (GIS) and digital remote sensing with traditional field methods. The methods of analysis consist of direct observation, interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs, and statistical comparison of two geographical distributions-one representing forest blow-down and another representing lake chemistry. Spatial and temporal associations between surface water pH and landscape disturbance are strong and consistent in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. In 43 Adirondack Mountain watersheds, lake pH is associated with the percentage of the watershed area blown down and with hydrogen ion deposition (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of -0.67 and -0.73, respectively). Evidence of a temporal association is found at Big Moose Lake and Jerseyfield Lake in New York and the Lygners Vider Plateau of Sweden. They conclude that forest blowdown facilities the acidification of some lakes by altering hydrologic pathways so that waters (previously acidified by acid deposition and/or other sources) do not experience the neutralization normally available through contact with subsurface soils and bedrock. Increased pipeflow is suggested as a mechanism that may link the biogeochemical impacts of forest blowdown to lake chemistry

  20. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  2. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  3. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  4. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    2004-01-01

    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  5. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  6. Mau Mau War: British Counterinsurgency In Colonial Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    supporters. 92 Colin P. Clarke, Molly Dunigan, Beth Grill, and Christopher Paul, Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies (Washington, DC: RAND...labor pool for imperial dirty work, the decision to deputize untrained and ill-disciplined volunteers backfired. A third example of how British

  7. Memos with Personality: A Model from British Technical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Notes that while American technical writing texts stress brevity and directness as important characteristics of business correspondence, British texts stress qualities of personality and courtesy, especially in the memo. Shows how to incorporate personality into correspondence, thereby building cooperation among colleagues. (FL)

  8. the relationship between british war correspondents in the field

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lenovo

    sometimes army officers writing the occasional despatch to the British metropolitan press. There was ..... defence”.27 He was backed both by the army's commander-in-chief, Field Marshal. Lord Wolseley ..... The role of the press was less significant under succeeding directors of. Intelligence ..... Financial Times ? Unknown.

  9. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  10. British Isles Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    The British Isles Field Experience (BIFE) program was initiated at Williamsport Area Community College (WACC) to provide a group of WACC faculty and staff members with individual and group activities of a personal, professional, and cultural nature in order to promote an international perspective that can be infused into student, collegiate, and…

  11. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  12. Afrikaans, American and British Models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions in a national and international context, by comparing the traditions and the roles of the lan- ... The changing linguistic, social, and educational situations in South Africa ... abroad, by the British and American leXicographical traditions. ... interactional styles in the South African social psychology and cross-cultural.

  13. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous

  14. Nieuws uit het westen : meerouderschap en draagmoederschap in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 is in de Canadese provincie British Columbia nieuwe familierechtwetgeving in werking getreden: de Family Law Act, met daarin een regeling voor draagmoederschap, meerouderschap en meeroudergezag. Gezien de discussie in Nederland over deze onderwerpen en de instelling van de Staatscommissie

  15. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  16. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Karen

    2014-11-01

    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szasz, F.M. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK).

  18. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  19. The British scorched earth and concentration camp policies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated ... British policy came to revolve around denying Liebenberg use of the abundant food supplies in the Gatsrand by applying a scorched earth policy there and in the ...

  20. cooperation and conflict – the british army, the natal government

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    invasion of Natal, stand on the punishment of high treason? Martial law had .... The offensive of the British Army in Natal and the immediate results thereof. On 11 May 1900, .... also to exercise its authority and independence. In addition to the ...

  1. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  2. Differences Between British and Americans’ Cultures in Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍巍; 戴立黎

    2008-01-01

    <正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.

  3. Colors in French, American and British dictionaries | Williams | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colors have senses specific to particular fields such as physics and printing, in addi-tion to senses used in everyday life. This article examines the specialized information found in color definitions in French, American and British dictionaries. We explore whether specialized and non-specialized definitions are lumped or split ...

  4. The Relationship between British War Correspondents in the Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In particular, the article looks at the problem and issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists' activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the ...

  5. Towards the Identification and Management of Stress in British Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marie; Ralph, Sue

    In many countries today teaching has been identified as one of the most stressful occupations. The total annual cost of stress to the British Education Service has been estimated as high as 360 million U.S. dollars. The objective of this research study with teachers in the Department of Education at the University of Manchester was to identify…

  6. Muslims, Home Education and Risk in British Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2018-01-01

    The number of families who choose to home educate has significantly increased in the last decade. This article explores the experiences of British Muslims who home educate using data from a larger study exploring the views of a diverse range of families. Drawing on the work of Beck, we discuss how 'risk' is understood in relation to Muslim home…

  7. Separation of British Gas' transportation and storage business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, G.

    1992-12-01

    In making his substantive reference of the transportation and storage business of British Gas to the Monopolies and Mergers Commission, the Director General of Gas Supply identified the following principal effects adverse to the public interest: ''The absence of provision for the establishment of an independent undertaking to operate the pipe-line system and other facilities used by British Gas for the conveyance and storage of gas which would not be subject to conflicting interests in securing (a) transparency of the prices charged, the costs incurred and the operating methods in respect of the conveyance and storage of gas; (b) proper allocation to various parts of the Gas Supply Business of costs incurred and returns by that business; and (c) protection of information relating to the conveyance and storage of gas from which British Gas might obtain unfair commercial advantage, and thereby avoid the restriction or distortion of competition between British Gas and other persons whose business consists of or includes the supply of gas''. This paper considers the structural issues associated with achieving effective competition and looks at how the relationship between the businesses of supply and transportation might be organised in the short and longer term. (Author)

  8. Individual risk. A compilation of recent British data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grist, D.R.

    1978-08-01

    A compilation of data is presented on individual risk obtained from recent British population and mortality statistics. Risk data presented include: risk of death, as a function of age, due to several important natural causes and due to accidents and violence; risk of death as a function of location of accident; and risk of death from various accidental causes. (author)

  9. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  11. Export Market Orientation Behavior of Universities: The British Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Yousra; Melewar, T. C.; Cohen, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to extend our knowledge of export market orientation (EMO) in the context of British universities with regard to recruitment of international students. Export marketing remains an area of limited focus in the marketization of higher education literature. The study predominantly follows a quantitative research design using survey…

  12. British colonial administration, development of Islam and lslamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British policy towards religion in colonial Africa was influenced by its intrinsic value to the maintenance of a very strong administration over the continent and achieving the socio-economic objectives Britain set itself at the beginning of its colonization. The Benin Kingdom had been largely untouched by any world religion ...

  13. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  14. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  15. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  16. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  17. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  18. Spatial distribution of seepage at a flow-through lake: Lake Hampen, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob Baarstrøm; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Nilsson, Bertel

    2011-01-01

    recharge patiern of the lake and relating these to the geologic history of the lake. Recharge of the surrounding aquifer by lake water occurs off shore in a narrow zone, as measured from lake–groundwater gradients. A 33-m-deep d18O profi le at the recharge side shows a lake d18O plume at depths...... that corroborates the interpretation of lake water recharging off shore and moving down gradient. Inclusion of lake bed heterogeneity in the model improved the comparison of simulated and observed discharge to the lake. The apparent age of the discharging groundwater to the lake was determined by CFCs, resulting...

  19. Can small zooplankton mix lakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncelli, S.; Thackeray, S.J.; Wain, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that living organisms may contribute to turbulence and mixing in lakes and oceans (biomixing) dates to the 1960s, but has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Recent modeling and experimental studies suggest that marine organisms can enhance turbulence as much as winds and tides in oceans, with an impact on mixing. However, other studies show opposite and contradictory results, precluding definitive conclusions regarding the potential importance of biomixing. For lakes, on...

  20. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  1. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  2. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between environmental factors and the richness of submerged macrophytes species in 73 Danish lakes, which are mainly small, shallow, and have mesotrophic to hypertrophic conditions. We found that mean species richness per lake was only 4.5 in acid lakes of low...... alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  3. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  4. Risk of malaria in British residents returning from malarious areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Howard, P A; Radalowicz, A; Mitchell, J; Bradley, D J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To identify which British residents travelling abroad are at greatest risk of malaria infection, and to determine the efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis for preventing P falciparum infections in tropical Africa. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study (case-base linkage) with routine national surveillance systems. Denominators (base population) were obtained from monitoring a random sample of returning British travellers with the international passenger survey. Numerators (cases) were obtained from reports of malaria infections in British residents, through the Malaria Reference Laboratory network. SETTING--International passenger survey conducted at passport control of international airports in Britain. Malaria reports received nationally were collated centrally in London. SUBJECTS--2948 British residents (0.2%) returning to Britain in 1987 randomly selected and questioned and 1052 British residents with microscopically confirmed malaria infections in 1987, whose case reports were reviewed and on whom additional data were collected by postal survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Annual incidence subdivided by categories of risk. Chemoprophylactic efficacy for east and west Africa by principal regimens and compliance. RESULTS--Annual rates of reported infection per 100,000 travellers to Oceania were 4100; to west and east Africa were 375 and 172 respectively; to Latin America, the Far East, and the Middle East were 12, 2, and 1 respectively. Immigrants visiting friends and relatives in Ghana and Nigeria were at greatest risk (1303 and 952 per 100,000 respectively) in west Africa. Business travellers to Kenya experienced the highest attack rates in east Africa (465 per 100,000). Age-sex specific attack rates varied by region. No prophylaxis was reported to have been used by 23% of British visitors to west Africa, 17% to east Africa, 46% to central or southern Africa, and 58% visiting south Asia. The efficacy of chloroquine plus proguanil against P falciparum

  5. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND ENVIRONMENT MONITORING ISSUES IN THE PROJECTS OF SUBGLACIAL LAKES STUDIES IN ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Alekhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic subglacial lakes can represent extreme natural habitats for microorganisms from the position of their evolution and adaptation, as well as they can contain the information on Antarctic ice sheet history and climatic changes in their sediments. Now only direct measurements and sampling from these habitats can answer on many fundamental questions. Special precaution should be complied at penetration into these unique relic environments without unfavorable impacts and contamination. A number of recommendations were developed on levels of cleanliness and sterility during direct exploration and research of subglacial environments. Documents considered in the article are the first and necessary steps for appropriate and long-term ecological management of subglacial Antarctic environments. Today there are three projects of subglacial aquatic environment research which are in preparation and realization – the Russian project of Lake Vostok, the similar British project of Lake Ellsworth and the American project on Whillans Ice Stream. The programs of ecological stewardship for direct exploration of these lakes are discussed. All these subglacial aquatic objects of further exploration and research are so various on their structure, age and regime, that only results of all programs as a whole can help to draw us a uniform picture of a subglacial ecological system. Ecological stewardship of these should provide the minimal ecological impact with maximal scientific results. On the basis of existing documents and recommendations the general approaches and the program of ecological stewardship for Lake Vostok research are discussed. Study of drilling fluid, drilling chips, Vostok ice core and the fresh frozen water will allow to make an assessment of biological and chemical contamination as a result of the first penetration and to modify the further stewardship program for the second penetration and direct exploration of lake water.

  6. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  7. The Evolution of Capitalism: A Comparison of British and American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of capitalism in British and American literature. The impact of capitalism on the lives of individuals has been well represented in both American and British literature throughout the centuries. The paper will discuss how seminal British authors such as Thomas More, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George…

  8. The origins of formal education in sub-Saharan Africa: was British rule more benign?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until

  9. Educating for British Values: Kant's Philosophical Roadmap for Cosmopolitan Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The UK's 2016 decision to exit the European Union and the discussion surrounding it indicate that public understanding of British identity has important consequences, one way or another. Defining British identity will be an important task in the years to come. The UK government not long ago provided some guidance on the matter of British identity…

  10. Is There Such a Thing as 'White Ignorance' in British Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Zara

    2018-01-01

    I argue that political philosopher Charles W. Mills' twin concepts of 'the epistemology of ignorance' and 'white ignorance' are useful tools for thinking through racial injustice in the British education system. While anti-racist work in British education has a long history, racism persists in British primary, secondary and tertiary education. For…

  11. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Rongbuk Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  12. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  13. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  14. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km−2 yr−1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km−2 yr−1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September–April. Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the

  15. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Giesbrecht, Ian; Korver, Maartje C.; Floyd, William C.; Sanborn, Paul; Bulmer, Chuck; Lertzman, Ken P.

    2017-08-01

    The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM) composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km-2 yr-1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km-2 yr-1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September-April). Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the British Columbia coast, suggesting that

  16. British Coal Enterprise annual review 1990/91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    British Coal Enterprise (BCE) has continued to provide business advice, counselling and financial assistance to small businesses in UK coal mining regions. In 1990, against a background of recession, BCE helped create or safeguard 9,300 jobs. Investment in new projects has continued at a low level. BCEs range of services include provision of loans for new or existing businesses, running of managed workshops to help new businesses start up, provision of small premises to expanding businesses, placement of ex-British Coal and other redundant workers in new employment through Job Shops and helping employers to recruit and train management teams when locating or expanding in the coalfields. The annual report details achievements in these fields within seven coal mining regions of Britain.

  17. History of British infrared astronomy since the Second World War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In this review, the author describes the development of British infrared astronomy, from its beginnings around 1960 to the present time. The paper outlines the various techniques available and the different wavelength ranges which can be covered by these techniques e.g. balloons, mountain-based telescopes, the AAT in Australia, the 60-inch flux-collector on Tenerife, and the UKIRT telescope on Hawaii, and finally the IRAS satellite. The main groups involved in the British infrared work are UCL, Imperial College, and QMC, together with cooperative programmes with the Netherlands and the USA. The scientific results which have been obtained with these installations include studies of the relict radiation, HII regions, thermal radiation from dust and grains, and a dust shell around the star Vega, to mention but a few, interferometry, photometry and spectroscopy are also discussed, as in the long awaited development of infrared detector arrays. (UK)

  18. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  19. The War for Talent - the British Army's Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sherrard, Paddy

    2016-01-01

    Poster Presentation at the International Applied Military Psychology Symposium (IAMPS) 2016. The British Army must identify its future generals from its officer cadets and retain them for their 35 year career.  There is no written contract and the psychological contract differs considerably as they progress through the ranks with different jobs and remuneration. The PhD will identify how officer talent is managed in current policy, which will be cross-referenced against...

  20. Expectations, reservation wages and employment: Evidence from British panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Taylor, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationship between expectations and reservation wages for a sample of unemployed individuals using panel data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey, 1996 to 2005. To be specific, we initially investigate the determinants of expectations relating to the individual´s financial situation and employment prospects over the next 12 months. Our findings suggest that job search and education are positively associated with financial optimism and confidence regar...

  1. Standardization of mapping practices in the British Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M.

    1997-07-01

    Because the British Geological Survey (BGS) has had, since its foundation in 1835, a mandate to produce geological maps for the whole of Great Britain, there is a long history of introducing standard practices in the way rocks and rock units have been named, classified and illustrated on maps. The reasons for the failure of some of these practices are examined and assessed in relation to the needs of computerized systems for holding and disseminating geological information.

  2. Evaluating management strategies for grizzly bears in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    In British Columbia, The Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations manages grizzly bear hunting as the most rigid and conservatively managed hunt in the province. However, there has been concern raised in the media and from some members of the academic community over the sustainability of grizzly bear hunting. It is unclear whether the current management strategy effectively incorporates uncertainties in grizzly bear biology and management. My research intends to address thes...

  3. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, D.; Hertzog, S.; Scott, G.

    2001-11-01

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Why study abroad? : Sorting of Chinese students across British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Cebolla-Boado, H; Hu, Yang; Soysal, Y

    2018-01-01

    This research contributes to the booming literature on the mobility of international students in higher education. Specifically, it analyzes university-level factors that affect the sorting of Chinese international students across British universities. To do so, we produced a unique dataset merging university-level data from the the 2014 UK Higher Education Statistics Agency and the Higher Expectations Survey, supplemented by qualitative evidence from six focus groups which we use for illustr...

  5. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    OpenAIRE

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were prec...

  6. British Columbia at the crossroads: clean energy or more pollution?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Hertzog, S.; Scott, G. (eds.)

    2001-11-01

    Some of the challenges facing policy makers as we enter this century are related to regional air pollution and global climate change, where both are a consequence of the combustion of fossil fuels. Data on smog and particulates has been compiled for decades by medical authorities and regulators, thereby documenting the causes, the characteristics and the impact of global warming. Sustainable energy policies are required. A historic compromise was forged in July 2001 on how to implement the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It is increasingly important for Canada to make energy policy decisions that support the protection of the climate. Key aspects of human activity, such as tourism, forestry, fishing, agriculture, water supplies and flows, infrastructure reliability and costs, and public health factors are at risk in British Columbia. For British Columbia to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, some sources would be able to expand emissions while others would have to reduce them much more to achieve an overall reduction. This document represents an outline and a vision for new opportunities and analyses the challenges facing energy patterns in British Columbia. It was presented to the British Columbia (BC) Energy Policy Task Force. This broad policy review is an ideal opportunity to build energy policies and related economic initiatives leading to new industries, new jobs, and increased energy security. The document is divided in five parts: the BC situation: trends and impacts, BC Hydro and the rush to gas, the BC gas turbine experience: conflict and controversy, gas and the changing dynamics of the BC energy market, and the clean energy path: lessons and policy recommendations. refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  7. British Nuclear Fuels plc's effluent plant services building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1990-01-01

    The new Effluent Plant Services building (EPSB) on the Sellafield Nine Acre Site was built by Costain Engineering Limited for British Nuclear Fuels Limited. The EPSB is dedicated to a new generation of nuclear waste treatment plants, aimed at reducing discharges into the Irish Sea and other environmental impacts by removing actinides from liquid effluents and decontaminating waste solvents. This article describes the design, construction and operation of the plant. (UK)

  8. British patent 580,504 and Ilford nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, C.

    1988-01-01

    By a new technique disclosed in British Patent 580,504, gelatin with silver halide is precipitated from emulsion by adding a surface active agent. This technique was used from 1945 to produce emulsions with about eight times the normal ratio of silver halide to gelatin. The technique also facilitated the combined use of production and laboratory resources for their reliable manufacture on a fairly large scale. (author)

  9. Dance in the British South Asian diaspora: redefining classicism

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez y Royo, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses South Asian dance forms and genres in Britain, one of the major locations of the South Asian diaspora. It addresses issues of "classicism," "neoclassicism" and "contemporaneity" in South Asian dancing, particularly important as in the British context availability of public funding depends on the artists demonstrating an innovative engagement with their own practice. The author focuses, as a specific case study, on the work, Moham, choreographed and danced as a solo by bha...

  10. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  11. Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.R.; Phillips, B.G.; Van Netten, C.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

  12. Requirements of British universities for higher medical degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the requirements and opportunities for obtaining a doctor of medicine or master of surgery degree from a university in the United Kingdom other than the graduate's own, particularly in the case of foreign graduates. DESIGN--Review of regulations governing the award of doctor of medicine and master of surgery degrees in British universities. SETTING--All 19 universities in the United Kingdom offering clinical courses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Availability of degrees to gradu...

  13. Still Invisible? Women artists in British public collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Montfort

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Does women's work in British public collections receive curatorial care and scholarly attention? And if or when it does not—when it lingers on the darkest racks of museums stores, collected for a posterity it will never achieve—how has this happened, and why? Or should we be especially concerned about the display of women’s work in public collections, in an age of digital images and online archives?

  14. The British centennial commemoration of the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Edward M. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the course and development of British planning to commemorate the First World War. It highlights the fact that any commentary on that war in Britain has to take account of the prevailing cultural norms. These norms have evolved through much of the poetry, literature, theatre and film of the past century, and have come to represent the war as essentially futile, with an horrendous loss of life, best commemorated through the annual acts of remembrance for the fallen. As thi...

  15. British annual energy review of 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document from the British Energy Association consists of contributions from United Kingdom authors on aspects of power generation and energy supply. The review covers the year 1992 to 1993 and features a survey on renewable energy developments in the United Kingdom. The articles stress links between energy availability and social and economic development, as well as the environmental impact of the various energy sources discussed. (UK)

  16. British media attacks on homeopathy: are they justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoulkas, George

    2008-04-01

    Homeopathy is being attacked by the British media. These attacks draw support from irresponsible and unjustified claims by certain teachers of homeopathy. Such claims include the use of 'dream' and 'imaginative' methods for provings. For prescribing some such teachers attempt to replace the laborious process of matching symptom picture and remedy with spurious theories based on 'signatures', sensations and other methods. Other irresponsible claims have also been made. These "new ideas" risk destroying the principles, theory, and practice of homeopathy.

  17. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1955-01-01

    The principal spawning grounds of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) in United States waters of southern Lake Superior are on rocky shoals at depths of less than 20 fathoms. Most spawning occurs in October and early November. Of the mature fish collected on or near the spawning grounds, 60 to 69 percent were males. Among mature fish the average length of females was greater than that of males; few males less than 24 inches or females less than 26 inches in total length were caught. Recoveries of lake trout tagged on the spawning grounds showed that some males remained in the immediate area for a period of several weeks during the spawning season. Marked fish showed a tendency to return during later years to spawning grounds on which they had been tagged, even though many of them ranged long distances between spawning seasons.

  18. The British Royal Family’s Circumcision Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Darby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The birth of Prince William’s son in July 2013 was the occasion for an outpouring of media speculation about the fate of the royal baby’s foreskin. The possibility that he might be circumcised was connected to a purported tradition of circumcision within the British royal family, said to be have been initiated either by Queen Victoria or by George I. In this article, we trace the origins and evolution of these stories and assess their validity. Our conclusion is that belief in a royal circumcision tradition derives from the reported circumcision of Prince Charles by the mohel Jacob Snowman in 1948, and the efforts of the British Israelite movement to concoct a “lost tribes of Israel” origin for the British race. These elements merged into a fully developed narrative that was widely disseminated from the late 1990s. The initially separate claim that the tradition was imported from Hanover by George I can be sourced precisely to 2012. We further show that these stories are inventions, and that the royal family circumcision tradition should be regarded as a classic instance of a contemporary legend or urban myth.

  19. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  20. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  1. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  2. 33 CFR 162.134 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. 162.134 Section 162.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.134 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. (a) Detroit River. The...

  3. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162.132 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a...

  4. 33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. 162.130 Section 162.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.130 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The...

  5. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for...

  6. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  7. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a...

  8. Energy density of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lakes Huron and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Nalepa, T.F.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rediske, R.R.; Schneeberger, P.J.; He, J.X.

    2006-01-01

    We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis off Alpena and Tawas City, Michigan, USA in Lake Huron and off Muskegon, Michigan USA in Lake Michigan during 2002–2004. We determined energy density and percent dry weight for lake whitefish from both lakes and lipid content for Lake Michigan fish. Energy density increased with increasing fish weight up to 800 g, and then remained relatively constant with further increases in fish weight. Energy density, adjusted for weight, was lower in Lake Huron than in Lake Michigan for both small (≤800 g) and large fish (>800 g). Energy density did not differ seasonally for small or large lake whitefish or between adult male and female fish. Energy density was strongly correlated with percent dry weight and percent lipid content. Based on data from commercially caught lake whitefish, body condition was lower in Lake Huron than Lake Michigan during 1981–2003, indicating that the dissimilarity in body condition between the lakes could be long standing. Energy density and lipid content in 2002–2004 in Lake Michigan were lower than data for comparable sized fish collected in 1969–1971. Differences in energy density between lakes were attributed to variation in diet and prey energy content as well as factors that affect feeding rates such as lake whitefish density and prey abundance.

  9. AN IMPECUNIOUS PILOT: BRITISH BUSINESS CULTURE AND THE CASE OF LOWELL YEREX, 1933-1946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between a New Zealand-born entrepreneur, Lowell Yerex, and the British government. It will give particular attention to the role of British business culture in shaping the government’s response to Yerex. During the 1930s and l940s, Yerex built an important airline network in the Caribbean Basin. A British subject, he had an affinity for the empire. However, the British rebuffed his repeated efforts to form an alliance. While they had political, economic and strategic reasons for doing so, the British also manifested a disdain for Yerex because he did not measure up to their business ideals.

  10. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  11. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  12. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  13. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  14. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  15. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

  16. Competition on the British natural gas market - development and mechanisms, and effects on the British gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millgramm, C.

    1996-01-01

    The development of the British gas industry shows that structural changes at one industrial stage may have effects on the other stages and that competition at one stage (commercial stage) may be limited by the way the other stages are structured. The conditions of regulation in the gas industry, the development at its different stages, and its present structure are described. The effects of commercial restructuring on gas exploration and gas lifting, gas transport and gas storage are analyzed. (orig./UA) [de

  17. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  18. Study of pollution in Rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, M.I.A.; Nisar, M.; Kaleem, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    It was intended to establish effects of pollution on quality of water of Rawal Lake, Islamabad. Six stations were located for collection of water. The data collected and analyzed so far indicated increasing pollution in the lake Increase in growth of hydrophytes in quite evident, leading towards process of eutrophication of the lake. (author)

  19. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  20. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  1. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  2. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  3. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  4. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  5. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  6. LAKE BAIKAL: Underwater neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A new underwater detector soon to be deployed in Lake Baikal in Siberia, the world's deepest lake with depths down to 1.7 kilometres, could help probe the deepest mysteries of physics. One of the big unsolved problems of astrophysics is the origin of very energetic cosmic rays. However there are many ideas on how particles could be accelerated by exotic concentrations of matter and provide the majority of the Galaxy's high energy particles. Clarification would come from new detectors picking up the energetic photons and neutrinos from these sources

  7. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  8. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  9. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  10. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)…

  11. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  12. Some Observation on the Strengths and Weaknesses of the British Primary Schools. Project for Workshops--Studying Informal Education in the British Setting--England, Summer 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Roselie

    In this paper some comparisons are made between the British Primary School system and the American school system. For example, the role of the British headmaster/mistress is considerably more powerful than the role of the American principal in areas concerning curriculum content, school personnel, use of auxiliary personnel, scheduling of…

  13. Isotope techniques in lake water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater lakes are among the most easily exploitable freshwater resources. Lakes are also recognized as major sedimentological features in which stored material can be used to study recent climate and pollution evolution. To adequately preserve these important landscape features, and to use them as climatic archives, an improved understanding of processes controlling their hydrologic and bio-geochemical environments if necessary. This article briefly describes the IAEA activities related to the study of lakes in such areas as lake budget, lake dynamics, water contamination, and paleolimnological investigations

  14. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  15. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  16. Ohio Lake Erie Commission Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    management of Lake Erie: including, water quality protection, fisheries management, wetlands restoration over 365 projects since 1993. Projects have focused on an array of issues critical to the effective quality of its waters and ecosystem, and to promote economic development of the region by ensuring the

  17. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Bloch, Paul; Makaula, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Historically, open shorelines of Lake Malawi were free from schistosome, Schistosoma haematobium, transmission, but this changed in the mid-1980s, possibly as a result of over-fishing reducing density of molluscivore fishes. Very little information is available on schistosome infections among...

  18. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  19. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. The British parliament: An effort towards the constitutional reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The British Parliament is the eldest representative assembly which inspired the development of most European parliamentary systems. This institution provides a framework for the Westminster model of democracy. The Parliament structure is based on bicameralism, including two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The two-chamber structure is an integral part of the British parliamentary system. During the last century, many reforms took place regarding the modernization of Parliament. Thus, the number of members of the House of Lord has been reduced in order to ensure more efficiency in the working procedures. However, the House of Commons is still 'the dominant House' given its capacity to recruit a political majority which is eligible to control the Cabinet. During the 20th century, several waves of reforms engulfed the traditional English parliamentarism and its 'unwritten' constitution. Although the reforms have yielded some results, they have not yet produced a constitution in the formal sense. The partially reformed Parliament has not lost the traditional supremacy it was initially vested under the original postulates of the parliamentary sovereignty doctrine. The great constitutional reform in the UK, initiated in 1997, has encompassed not only Parliament but also a vast array of other areas ranging from the state power organization to human rights. In this process, the British Parliament should exercise a dual function: as a subject of reform ('reformer', as well as an object of reform ('the reformed'. Undoubtedly, the United Kingdom has been facing one of the largest waves of constitutional reforms in its long history, which will sooner or later lead to a constitutional codification in the state whose system is still predominantly based on the historical and 'unwritten' constitution.

  1. Compensation patterns for healthcare workers in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, H; Siow, S; Yu, S; Ngan, K; Guzman, J

    2009-06-01

    This report examines relationships between the acceptance of compensation claims, and employee and workplace characteristics for healthcare workers in British Columbia, Canada to determine suitability of using only accepted claims for occupational epidemiology research. A retrospective cohort of full-time healthcare workers was constructed from an active incident surveillance database. Incidents filed for compensation over a 1-year period were examined for initial claim decision within a 6-month window relative to sub-sector of employment, age, sex, seniority, occupation of workers, and injury category. Compensation costs and duration of time lost for initially accepted claims were also investigated. Multiple logistic regression models with generalised estimating equations (GEEs) were used to calculate adjusted relative odds (ARO) of claims decision accounting for confounding factors and clustering effects. Employees of three health regions in British Columbia filed 2274 work-related claims in a year, of which 1863 (82%) were initially accepted for compensation. Proportion of claims accepted was lowest in community care (79%) and corporate office settings (79%) and highest in long-term care settings (86%). Overall, 46% of claims resulting from allergy/irritation were accepted, in contrast to 98% acceptance of claims from cuts and puncture wounds. Licensed practical nurses had the lowest odds of claims not accepted compared with registered nurses (ARO (95% CI) = 0.55 (0.33 to 0.91)), whereas management/administrative staff had the highest odds (ARO = 2.91 (1.25 to 6.79)) of claims not accepted. A trend was observed with higher seniority of workers associated with lower odds of non-acceptance of claims. Analysis from British Columbia's healthcare sector suggests variation in workers' compensation acceptance exists across sub-sectors, occupations, seniority of workers, and injury categories. The patterns observed, however, were independent of age and sex of workers

  2. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  3. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  4. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Juan

    2010-03-01

    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  6. Strategic Analysis of an Electricity Deficit in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Brooks

    2015-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) Government introduced the Clean Energy Act in 2010. With the new legislation, BC Hydro has been mandated to be electricity self sufficient by 2016. BC Hydro may not have enough generation capacity to meet the regulatory requirement in time. This project explores three potential options for Teck’s Zinc Smelter to provide made-in-BC generation capacity to BC Hydro. After evaluating the options, this author recommends for Teck to make an offer to swap BC Hydro’s imports...

  7. The Effects of British Television Among Foreign Audience

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of television on international students of Anglia\\ud Ruskin University in terms of English speaking skills, knowledge of British culture, change of\\ud the type of food, and also the change of type of music. Thousands of students enter UK every\\ud year to study. These students, who come from different parts of the world, speak different\\ud languages and also have different culture. It was based on this that the researcher decided to\\ud undertake this study to i...

  8. Sizewell B - analysis of British application of US PWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report provides information on the staff's evaluation of major design differences and issues developed by the British in their application (Sizewell B) of US PWR technology. One design change, the addition of steam-driven charging pumps, was assessed to have a relatively high value compared to the other changes. However, the assessment is based on a number of assumptions for which inadequate data exist to make an unqualified judgment. Other changes to the US design (as typified by the SNUPPS design) were found to have relatively low or moderate safety benefits for US application

  9. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  10. British business in Brazil: maturity and demise (1850-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paiva Abreu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the long-term trends of ''British business'' in Brazil since 1850. It covers investment and other manifestations of the British presence such as those related to trade as well as financial intermediation. Primary interest is in British involvement in Brazilian private sector activities, whether by direct investment or by the flotation of sterling securities for firms operating in Brazil. The article also considers the role of London as a financial market where Brazilian public loans were floated, the relevance of Britain as a market for Brazilian commodities and as a supplier to Brazil, and British intermediation in Brazilian trade with third countries. It is divided in chronological sections: imperial years (1850-1889; stagnation and boom (1889-1914; first signs of decline (1914-1930, and the divestment period (1930 to the mid-1950's. The final section presents the conclusions and mentions post-1950 trends.Este artigo considera as tendências de longo prazo das relações econômicas e financeiras britânicas com o Brasil desde 1850. Abrange investimentos e outas manifestações da presença britânica no Brasil, tais como as relacionadas a comércio e intermediação financeira. O interesse fundamental é no envolvimento britânico com as atividades do setor privado no Brasil, seja através de investimento direto, seja na intermediação financeira em benefício de firmas privadas que operavam no Brasil. O artigo também menciona o papel de Londres como centro financeiro no qual eram lançados empréstimos públicos brasileiros, a relevância do Reino Unido como mercado para as exportações brasileiras e como supridor de importações para o Brasil, e a intermediação britânica no comércio brasileiro com terceiros países. O artigo é dividido em seções cronológicas: os anos imperiais (1850-1889; estagnação e boom (1889-1914; primeiros sinais de declínio (1914-1930; os anos de redução de investimentos (1930

  11. British Columbia water quality guidelines (criteria): 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.; Pommen, L.W.; Swain, L.G.

    1998-08-01

    British Columbia has developed water quality guidelines in order that water quality data can be assessed and site-specific water quality objectives can be prepared. The guidelines provide benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives. Guidelines are provided to protect the following six major water uses: drinking water, aquatic life, wildlife, recreation/aesthetics, agriculture, and industrial. Water quality encompasses the physical, chemical and biological quality of the water, sediment and biota. Among other quality criteria the guide provides maximum approved concentrations for nitrogen, aluminum, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, and molybdenum. 30 tabs.

  12. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  13. A history of British atomic tests in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    The history of the Australian involvement in the British atomic tests is presented. Background to all the major trials, the trials themselves and their aftermath are considered up to the last in 1957. Operations Hurricane, Totem, Mosaic, Buffalo, and Antler are described in detail. Attention is given to the minor trials and assessment tests - Kittens, Tims, Rats and the Maralinga Experimental Programme. The radiological surveys performed and the work carried out in 1967 to reduce the radiation levels and the potential levels of contamination, particularly in the test areas at Maralinga and Emu, are described

  14. Sour gas map of Alberta and British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Geographic locations of sour gas wells in Alberta and British Columbia are shown (by geographic coordinates) on a large-size fold-out map issued as a supplement to the July issue of Oilweek Magazine. Pools are color coded based on hydrogen sulphide content. Five classes are recognized, i. e.: hydrogen sulphide content less than one percent; between one and 4.9 per cent; between five and 9.9 per cent; between ten and 29.9 per cent ; and hydrogen sulphide content exceeding 30 per cent. The locations of gas processing plants with sulphur recovery are also identified

  15. Privatization and culture change: British Nuclear Fuels case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes and explains the process of organizational change experienced by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) during the late 1980s. BNFL went through a major transformation in management values and practices to survive in the new business environment characterized by government deregulation and fiercer global market competition. The paper describes both the historical and the prevailing management behaviour as well as the strategy utilized by BNFL's top management in their change process. The key factor in the process of change seems to lie in top management commitment and a fully integrated set of actions involving different sub-systems of the organization. (author)

  16. The emerging geography of e-commerce in British retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, GP; Thompson, C; Birkin, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the growth of e-commerce in British grocery retailing and examines the spatial variations in e-commerce usage. The main data source is a large commercial consumer survey (Acxiom’s Research Opinion Data) rarely used by academics to date. Using these data in combination with census data, the paper addresses a number of key questions. After outlining key trends in the dataset on e-commerce usage (by product and over time) the first research question is: How do e-commerce purc...

  17. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  18. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  19. Spatial and temporal genetic diversity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Hartman, Travis; Johnson, Jim; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) are important commercially, culturally, and ecologically in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Stocks of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes have recovered from low levels of abundance in the 1960s. Reductions in abundance, loss of habitat and environmental degradation can be accompanied by losses of genetic diversity and overall fitness that may persist even as populations recover demographically. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify stocks that have reduced levels of genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity at microsatellite DNA loci in lake whitefish collected between 1927 and 1929 (historical period) and between 1997 and 2005 (contemporary period) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Genetic analysis of lake whitefish from Lakes Huron and Erie shows that the amount of population structuring varies from lake to lake. Greater genetic divergences among collections from Lake Huron may be the result of sampling scale, migration patterns and demographic processes. Fluctuations in abundance of lake whitefish populations may have resulted in periods of increased genetic drift that have resulted in changes in allele frequencies over time, but periodic genetic drift was not severe enough to result in a significant loss of genetic diversity. Migration among stocks may have decreased levels of genetic differentiation while not completely obscuring stock boundaries. Recent changes in spatial boundaries to stocks, the number of stocks and life history characteristics of stocks further demonstrate the potential of coregonids for a swift and varied response to environmental change and emphasise the importance of incorporating both spatial and temporal considerations into management plans to ensure that diversity is preserved.

  20. The Role of the British Crown on Security Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United Kingdom is a limited parliamentary monarchy, in which state sovereignty is exercised jointly by two basic political institutions: Royal Crown and Parliament. The credit for a successful political co-governance of these institutions, which are simultaneously bearers of popular sovereignty, are usually addressed to the Queen's lack of executive power to exercise power alone and hence all the restraint in the race for primate of governance. It goes even further considering that the Queen is quite weak and has only ceremonial functions, which do not disturb the Parliament. However, a careful researcher may notice that the Queen continues to affect the British Government in general and in particular on defence issues. Declassification of communication between Prince Charles and the Government in 2013, pointed out a continuing impact of the Queen and her son on many political issues, including those of defence and security. Since Britain has no codified constitution in a single document, it is not easy to determine the real power and competences of the Queen. It is even more difficult, because customary law and precedent prevail. Therefore, the real definition of the role of the Queen in general in the British Government, can be done by studying the culture, structure and constitutional practice. On their basis I will try to determine the real impact of the Queen in matters of defence and security, whether through her prerogatives in relation to the Government and Parliament, or through moral and informal influence in relation to the Prime Minister and particular ministers.

  1. Legionum Urbs and the British Martyrs Aaron and Julius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Breeze

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the localization of the martyrdom of the British saints Aaron and Julius, known of solely from Gildas, writing in the early 530s. His remarks were taken up by Bede (d. 737, so that the two saints have never been forgotten, their cult surviving to this day. The author provides a detailed survey of discussion of Aaron and Julius over the centuries, and argues that their martyrdom was neither at Caerleon (in south-east Wales nor Chester (in north-west England, as suggested by numerous scholars, but at Leicester, another major city of Roman Britain. Working from epigraphic sources and taking into account ancient models of naming, the author attempts a reinterpretation of Legionum urbs in the original texts by emending it to Legorum urbs “city of the Legores,” the Celtic people of the Leicester region. The latter, by the time of Gildas, was occupied by the Angles, while the city itself was abandoned, which may explain Gildas’s remarks, otherwise unclear if one identifies Legionum urbs with Caerleon or Chester. The author adduces both historical and linguistic arguments for his proposal and shows that it sheds new light on the history of early British Christianity.

  2. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will

    2014-02-01

    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  3. British Gurkha Recruitment and Higher Education of Gurung Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibaji Gurung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gurungs have historical attachment with British Gurkha recruitment and some special social values about it have been developed. So, lahure practice has been developed as a culture among them. This research has tried to analyze the impact of British Gurkha recruitment on the higher education of Gurung young men. The social value of being a lahure and an educated professional in the Gurung community is a major discourse of the study. The study is based on the field work carried out in Pokhara Sub-metropolis. It is basically qualitative in nature and interview was adopted as the main tool to collect the necessary information. Being a lahure is a matter of great craze among the Gurung youths. The socio-cultural circumstances also encourage them to try for recruitment. There is high social value of being a lahure in the Gurung community in contrast with getting higher education. The educational attainment of the Gurung youths is inter-related with these social values. It has an adverse effect on the educational status of the Gurung youths. The educational achievement of the Gurung community would have been far better if the community was not dominated by the pro-lahure culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 143-70

  4. Internships, Workfare, and the Cultural Industries: A British Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While media work has long been characterized as being structurally dependent on internships, “work experience,” and other forms of free labour (Banks 2007; Hesmondhalgh and Baker 2010, the recent shift towards internships has served to normalize what has become known as the media industries “dirty little secret” (Silver 2005. This article contextualizes internship culture within the British cultural industries against a wider political and social frame. Internships and other modes of “apprenticeship” across the British economy reflect a continuation and transformation of national workfare policies, which seek to avert inflationary pressures by coercing people to work or risk losing their welfare benefits. Internship culture has been highly pronounced in the cultural industries and other attractive white-collar sectors such as law and finance (Perlin 2012. Yet, the provision of internships to young people in previously unimaginable contexts such as fast food, retail, and other low-pay service sectors represents a significant shift in policy, compounded by increasingly draconian demands on young people to comply in order to receive state benefits. Discursively, unpaid media work is now seen as an opportunity for the lucky few, rather than a mode of exploitation servicing corporate gain. This has particular relevance for battles over equality and exploitation which have been fought in these sectors, which this discursive shift makes appear increasingly archaic.

  5. Introduction to British Sculpture Abroad in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Wood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, British sculpture enjoyed a complex transitional life, taking on a new, bold, and increasingly internationalized profile, at the very same time that its forms and meanings were being challenged and contested. Both in Britain and beyond its shores, sculpture experienced substantial reorientation at the same time as it developed a rich and complicated “import” and “export” life, conceptually, commercially, and curatorially. When “Sculpture” was “British” and “Abroad”, its “abroad-ness” was not always so explicitly visible, since its forms and concerns frequently chimed with sensibilities and approaches that were emerging elsewhere too, whether they were figurative or abstract, Constructivist or Pop. At the same time, when sculpture was being displayed in Britain, whether in terms of groups, schools, and/or recent tendencies, it was increasingly described as “British Sculpture”. Visual evidence of foreign impact and exchange gradually emerged at the same time as this national and generational trope became a cultural identifier on a broader cultural landscape.

  6. Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae: A new British allopolyploid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vallejo-Marin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization plays an important role in species formation as chromosome doubling results in strong reproductive isolation between derivative and parental taxa. In this note I describe a new species, Mimulus peregrinus (Phrymaceae, which represents the first recorded instance of a new British polyploid species of Mimulus (2n = 6x = 92 that has arisen since the introduction of this genus into the United Kingdom in the 1800’s. M. peregrinus presents floral and vegetative characteristics intermediate between M. guttatus and M. luteus, but can be distinguished from all naturalized British Mimulus species and hybrids based on a combination of reproductive and vegetative traits. M. peregrinus displays high pollen and seed fertility as well as traits usually associated with genome doubling such as increased pollen and stomata size. The intermediate characteristics of M. peregrinus between M. guttatus (2n = 2x = 28 and M. luteus (2n = 4x = 60-62, and its close affinity with the highly sterile, triploid (2n = 3x = 44-45 hybrid taxon M. × robertsii (M. guttatus × M. luteus, suggests that M. peregrinus may constitute an example of recent allopolyploid speciation.

  7. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    To explore ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults, and the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in those inequalities. We analysed data on 1925 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults living in an ethnically diverse and socially deprived area. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD)≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA)≥4 mm. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal measures were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (gender and age groups) and SEP indicators (education and socioeconomic classification). Compared to White British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Asian Others had more teeth with PPD≥4 mm whereas White East European, Black African and Bangladeshi had more teeth with LOA≥4 mm, after adjustments for demographic and SEP measures. The association of ethnicity with periodontal disease was moderated by education, but not by socioeconomic classification. Stratified analysis showed that ethnic disparities in the two periodontal measures were limited to more educated groups. This study showed considerable ethnic disparities in periodontal disease between and within the major ethnic categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. British energy policy and the market for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Evidence given by representative of Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear to the Trade and Industry Committee is presented verbatim with appendices of facts and figures. Scottish Nuclear presented a Company profile, a commentary on Scottish Nuclear's generation costs together with an outline of the initiatives currently being implemented to reduce these costs including the long-term dry storage of intact spent fuel and an outline of Scottish Nuclear's view of the need for a UK energy policy with a strong nuclear component within a diverse energy strategy. Nuclear Electric's evidence examined the need for nuclear power as a complement to coal to ensure a long term strategic balance of fuel, examined ways of strengthening the market for British coal, suggested a way of stabilising the market for British coal and emphasised the need to keep nuclear power options open until the 1994 Government review of Nuclear Power has been undertaken. Both sets of evidence were backed by details of generation costs, load factors, etc., which are all included. (UK)

  9. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Reducing environmental risks in water management in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownlow, H.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of water management regarding hydroelectric generating facilities in British Columbia was discussed. BC Hydro has adopted the following three processes to address water management risks: (1) the Electric System Operating Review, (2) Water Use Plans, and (3) an Environmental Management System. The greatest concern regarding water management are the potential impacts to fish and fish habitat. More than 90 per cent of BC Hydro's installed capacity is hydroelectric, with the balance produced by natural gas and diesel. All facilities are licensed under the provincial Water Act which has been in effect for the past century and is currently way out of date. Among its inadequacies is the fact that it does not provide for the protection of fish. The B.C. Fish Protection Act suggests that effective immediately, there should be no new dams on the Fraser and other significant rivers. BC Hydro facilities impact 16 of the 2,576 streams in British Columbia that support anadromous (migrating) salmon stocks. BC Hydro has 25 dams and diversions located on these 16 rivers. It was concluded that BC Hydro's impact on fish and fish habitat, although relatively small compared to the total fish resource in the province, is significant. The technology now used by BC Hydro is claimed to have the capacity to allow for easy documentation, rapid communication and the development of a comprehensive database for use in identifying and managing the impact of the Utility's operations on the fish population. 10 refs., 12 figs

  11. Educational and social class assortative mating in fertile British couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Positive assortative mating for education and social position has been widely reported in a number of countries, but very few studies have tested whether or not educational or social class homogamy is related to differential fertility. This study examined the relationship between educational and social class assortative mating and fertility in a British national cohort. The analyses were based on 7452 husband-wife pairs from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). The mean fertility was 3.22 children per couple; the number of children significantly increased from higher to lower social classes and from the more educated to the less educated. The extent of assortative mating for social class and educational level was related to fertility; as educational assortative mating decreased so did the average number of children, whereas the opposite trend was observed for social class. When assortative mating for education and social class were considered together, educational assortative mating was the more significant predictor of the number of children and educationally homogamous couples had higher fertility independent of their social class assortative mating. The relationship between assortative mating and fertility for education and social class appeared to be acting in the opposite direction.

  12. Nutrition claims in British women's magazines from 1940 to 1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M E; Burridge, J D

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined dietary messages conveyed in articles and advertising in two popular British women's magazines, Woman and Home and Woman's Own, between 1940 and 1954. A qualitative analysis of written content was performed, focusing on regularities evident in content, and addressing the construction of the role of women in relation to food provision, as well as assertions for nutritional health. The setting comprised a desk-based study. The study sample encompassed 37 magazines, and yielded a corpus of 569 articles concerned with food or dietary supplements, of which 80.1% were advertisements. Ministry of Food dietary advice featured prominently up to 1945 and advocated food consumption according to a simple nutrient classification. Advertising and article content also used this classification; advocating consumption of food and supplements on the grounds of energy, growth and protection of health was customary. Providing food to meet nutritional needs was depicted as fundamental to women's war effort and their role as dutiful housewives. Advertising in 1950s magazines also focused on nutritional claims, with a particular emphasis on energy provision. These claims reflected the prevailing food policy and scientific understanding of nutritional health. This analysis of food messages in women's magazines provides lessons for contemporary nutrition policy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  14. Geothermal energy--managing the resource in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Prerequisites for geothermal potential are meteoric waters, underground fractures or faults. Areas of plate tectonic activity, which make up the earth's crust, are the prime areas of geothermal exploration. Along these edges, it has been found that the weakness of the crust has allowed magmatic intrusions into the crust, and extrusions (volcanos) that have provided the sources of heat at a depth shallow enough to be developed economically. British Columbia sits right above the line where the Pacific and North American plates come together, and as a result is ideally located. Altogether, four volcanic belts lie within the province, including Garibaldi, and extension of the American Cascade belt in which Mount St. Helen's is situated. It is this same belt that the most promising potential for electrical production from geothermally-heated steam has been found in British Columbia, Canada./sub 9/ Meager Creek, about 150 kilometres north of Vancouver, has been the site of considerable geothermal exploration activity over the past ten years. In recent years, crews funded by the provincial utilities corporation, B.C. Hydro, have completed drilling a series of shallow test holes plus three deep wells to depths of more than 3 000 metres. These latter holes have been cased awaiting a decision on possible development for future power generation.

  15. Alive and inseparable : British Columbia's coastal environment : 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, L.; Bonner, L.; Brown, R.; Francis, K.; Johanneson, D.; Canessa, R.; Paynter, R.

    2006-01-01

    The coastal population of British Columbia is projected to increase by a million people over the next 20 years. Population growth in the region will increase pressure on the environment through land-use changes and water demand, and the discharge of wastes and pollutants. Changes to the environment will have an impact on industries such as forestry, fishing, and tourism that depend on healthy ecosystems. Six technical papers were presented in this volume as part of a project reporting on the coastal environment of British Columbia. The volume was compiled to help in the future-decision making processes in the province. Reporting for the project focused on a region extending westward from the height of the Coast Mountains, and included the marine area within Canada's 200-mile limit. Papers were presented on the following topics: (1) population and economic activity; (2) climate change; (3) industrial contaminants; (4) ecosystem protection; (5) bio-diversity; and (6) fisheries. Each of the 6 papers provided an overview of issues related to their topic, a set of indicators, and a summary of results. refs., tabs., figs

  16. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  17. Channel 4 and British film: an assessment of industrial and cultural impact, 1982-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Mayne, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an historical investigation of Channel 4’s influence on the British film industry and on British film culture between 1982 and 1998. Combining archival research with interview testimony and secondary literature, this thesis presents the history of a broadcaster’s involvement in British film production, while also examining the cultural and industrial impact of this involvement over time. This study of the interdependence of film and television will aim to bring together aspects...

  18. TOLERATION OF CATHOLICS IN QUEBEC AND BRITISH PUBLIC FINANCES, 1760 TO 1775

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Geloso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of the institutional decisions made by the British when they conquered the French colony of Quebec in 1760 by examining why toleration was the chosen policy course. Past experiences and the dire state of British public finances pushed the British government to adopt toleration of Catholics and of French legal institution in the colony as a policy designed to preserve the empire financially and strategically.

  19. Establishment patterns of water-elm at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen S. Doerr; Sanjeev Joshi; Richard F. Keim

    2015-01-01

    At Catahoula Lake in central Louisiana, an internationally important lake for water fowl, hydrologic alterations to the surrounding rivers and the lake itself have led to an expansion of water-elm (Planera aquatic J.F. Gmel.) into the lake bed. In this study, we used dendrochronology and aerial photography to quantify the expansion of water-elm in the lake and identify...

  20. Standing the Test of Time: Revising the British Army's Counterinsurgency Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Herlihy, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The recent experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan confirm the fundamental validity of the British Army's counterinsurgency doctrine, but offer lessons which should be incorporated into a doctrinal review...

  1. Abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours and perceived parental control: a study of white British and British-Asian school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Adam-Saib, S

    2001-09-01

    Previous studies have found significantly higher scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) which measures eating disorders among second-generation British-Asian schoolgirls in comparison to their White counterparts. Further, high EAT-26 scores (an indication of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours) are positively associated with parental overprotection scores on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). This study aimed to replicate and extend previous findings, comparing British-Asian schoolgirls to White schoolgirls and consider 'intra-Asian' differences on the same measures, including factor scores. Participants completed three questionnaires: EAT-26, PBI and BSS (Body Satisfaction Scale). There were 168 participants: 46 White, 40 Indian, 44 Pakistani and 38 Bengali. Previous findings were supported; the Asian scores were significantly higher than the White scores on the EAT-26 and PBI, but not the BSS. The Bengali sample had significantly higher EAT-26 total and 'oral control' scores than the other groups. There were no intra-Asian differences for the overprotection scores. PBI scores were not associated with EAT-26 scores. The BSS score was the only significant predictor of EAT scores, when entered into a regression along with PBI scores and the body mass index. Results demonstrated sociocultural factors in the development of eating disorders. The results suggest that there are important psychological differences between second-generation migrants from different countries on the Indian subcontinent. In line with previous studies, significant differences were found between the four ethnic groups, parenting styles, but these did not relate to actual eating disorders.

  2. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges, Klamath..., Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County, Oregon, and..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and Siskiyou and...

  3. Large Lakes Dominate CO2 Evasion From Lakes in an Arctic Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher-Ros, Gerard; Giesler, Reiner; Lundin, Erik; Salimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Anders; Karlsson, Jan

    2017-12-01

    CO2 evasion from freshwater lakes is an important component of the carbon cycle. However, the relative contribution from different lake sizes may vary, since several parameters underlying CO2 flux are size dependent. Here we estimated the annual lake CO2 evasion from a catchment in northern Sweden encompassing about 30,000 differently sized lakes. We show that areal CO2 fluxes decreased rapidly with lake size, but this was counteracted by the greater overall coverage of larger lakes. As a result, total efflux increased with lake size and the single largest lake in the catchment dominated the CO2 evasion (53% of all CO2 evaded). By contrast, the contribution from the smallest ponds (about 27,000) was minor (evasion at the landscape scale.

  4. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  5. From Greenland to green lakes: Cultural eutrophication and the loss of benthic pathways in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Jeppesen, E.; Zanden, M. J. V.

    2003-01-01

    Benthic community responses to lake eutrophication are poorly understood relative to pelagic responses. We compared phytoplankton and periphyton productivity along a eutrophication gradient in Greenland, U.S., and Danish lakes. Phytoplankton productivity increased along the phosphorus gradient (t...

  6. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Colorado Region 14 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  7. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in North East Region 1 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  8. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Souris Red Rainy Region 9 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Colorado Region 15 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Mississippi Region 7 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  11. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Upper Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Rio Grande Region 13 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Arkansas White Red Region 11 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Pacific Northwest Region 17 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Mississippi Region 8 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Texas-Gulf Region 12 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Lower Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Expanding models of lake trophic state to predict cyanobacteria in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Cyanobacteria are a primary taxonomic group associated with harmful algal blooms in lakes. Understanding the drivers of cyanobacteria presence has important implications for lake management and for the protection of human and ecosystem health. Chlor...

  19. Bubbles in a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S A; Stubbs, A R

    1979-05-31

    WHEN the wind is strong enough to produce whitecaps on Loch Ness, patchy 'clouds' of acoustic reflectors are detected well below the surface, the depth to which they penetrate increasing with wind speed (Fig. 1). No seasonal variation in the occurrence of the reflectors has been detected. A biological explanation is therefore discounted and we suggest here that they are bubbles caused by waves breaking and forming whitecaps in deep water. Similar bubble clouds may occur in other lakes and in the sea.

  20. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.