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Sample records for british columbia cryptococcosis

  1. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.

    1978-01-01

    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  2. Integrated Curriculum Programs in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Julie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses British Columbia's integrated curriculum programs (ICPs). In this province of sea and mountains, outdoor adventures figure prominently in its ICPs--with a healthy dose of environmental and sustainability education mixed in. The author presents five examples from British Columbia's ICPs: (1) Earthquest Outdoor…

  3. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/britishcolumbia.html Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services / ILL Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street ...

  4. Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a systemic fungal infection, caused by encapsulated yeast of the genus Cryptococcus, C neoformans and C gattii. These environmental microorganisms live in pigeon and other bird droppings, as well as in the fruit and bark of various trees. Infection in humans and other animal species usually occurs by inhalation and less frequently through the skin and by ingestion of the fungus. Most infections have a benign course and resolve spontaneously; however, the incidence of cryptococcosis has increased considerably, mainly due to diverse causes of immunodeficiency, particularly AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans infections are common, worldwide, and severe forms are seen in immunocompromised patients. Cases caused by C gattii predominate in tropical or subtropical regions. Cryptococcosis may present as an acute, subacute, or chronic lung disease, as a nonpurulent cerebrospinal fluid meningitis, or as a severe infection with fever, anemia, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. The eye can be affected, with partial or total loss of vision. Diagnosis is by direct observation of the causative agent, in histopathologic studies, by isolation in culture, and by the presence of capsular antigen. Treatment is the intravenous administration of amphotericin B deoxycholate, alone or combined with 5-fluorocytosine or fluconazole, which can be given orally or intravenously. Itraconazole is less effective when the central nervous system is affected. Voriconazole appears to be a drug that can be used in these patients. In AIDS patients, secondary prophylaxis is administered with fluconazole or amphotericin B and is continued until CD4 cell counts exceed 200 cells/μL. Evaluation of intracranial pressure is important in the first weeks after diagnosis in AIDS patients.

  5. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  6. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  7. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  8. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  9. Capacity building: a framework for strengthening stewardship in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherlock, C; Webber-Lampa, K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the current status of capacity building in the stewardship sector in British Columbia in order to identify gaps and recommend next steps...

  10. Sustainable energy policies for British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackney, T.; Dauncey, G.; Goodeve, D.; Fisher, Z.; Maxwell, B.; McDonald, M.; Mott, C.; Sundberg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Varnos, G.

    2005-04-01

    The BC Sustainable Energy Association (BCSEA) aims to achieve a sustainable energy future for British Columbia. Their policies currently focus on areas where the greatest potential exists to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Recommendations were grouped into the following 9 sections: (1) greenhouse gas emissions reduction; (2) fuel and transportation; (3) fossil fuel production; (4) electricity; (5) buildings, equipment and appliances; (6) urban planning; (7) landfill gas; (8) hydrogen; and (9) jobs and training. A carbon sales taxes on all fuels and mandatory fuel efficiency labelling was recommended as well as support for the replacement of fossil fuel with biodiesel and a sustainable electricity program. A mixture of levies, incentives and regulatory measures to discourage waste was recommended, as well as an investment in efficiency and the setting of best practices regulatory standards concerning buildings, equipment and appliances. A province-wide transportation planning framework with a focus on liveable, walkable communities and urban containment was advised, as well as regulations for municipalities to capture and reduce emissions from the decay of solid waste in landfill sites. A commitment by the government to support hydrogen and fuel cell demonstration projects that use sustainably produced hydrogen was also recommended, as well as a sustainable energy transition task force to develop training and education programs and work with business in the sustainable energy sector. 104 refs.

  11. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits). ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC) residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn.) in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraple...

  12. Foreign students, visitors and immigration to British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunin, R

    1993-01-01

    "This report has provided a brief outline of business immigration to Canada and to British Columbia from several source countries in the Asian Pacific Rim. The importance of business immigration to Canada in general, and British Columbia in particular, is [examined].... Even with the limited data currently available, this brief study indicates a very high statistical relationship between business immigration and other less formal and less permanent movements of people such as student flows and visitors." excerpt

  13. Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating a...

  14. Avulsions, channel evolution and floodplain sedimentation rates of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ages of channels of the anastomosing upper Columbia River, south-eastern British Columbia, Canada, were investigated in a cross-valley transect by C-14 dating of subsurface floodplain organic material from beneath levees. The avulsion history within the transect was deduced from these data, and morp

  15. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.

  16. Hobby Farms and the Protection of Farmland in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land protection near the urban-rural fringe is a goal of many jurisdictions, and none more so than British Columbia, Canada, which uses a provincial-wide zoning scheme to prevent subdivisions and non-agricultural uses of the land. A preferential tax regulation scheme for farmers is also

  17. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of wood so t

  18. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  19. Labour Trends and Training Needs in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P.

    In an effort to meet the training needs of the British Columbia (BC) labor force, Open College (OC), in Burnaby, has focused future activities on market-driven, employer-centered training programs utilizing advanced technologies and traditional on-site instructional methods. Designed to ensure that these courses and programs reflect actual labor…

  20. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  1. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.

  2. Radical Neoliberalism in British Columbia: Remaking Rural Geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Young

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that rural regions of British Columbia, Canada, are currently the subject of a radical political-economic experiment dismantling traditional Fordist and Keynesian approaches to economic development and replacing them with neoliberal strategies. This experiment targets both corporate resource economies and local or community-based economies. The paper argues that current reforms aim to enhance flexibility in major resource sectors (particularly in forestry by "liberating" corporate actors from traditional obligations to environment, labour, and communities. This strategy is buttressed by concurrent reforms to community development policies to promote "entrepreneurial" forms of development that (it is assumed can be achieved independently of the dominant resource economy. Using field research from several case communities in coastal British Columbia, the paper argues that these developments are having a strong impact on traditional economic structures and practices, as neoliberal reforms seek to disaggregate corporate and community-level economies.

  3. British Columbia's untapped wind export potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, M. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind energy developments in British Columbia (BC). There are currently more than 5000 MW of wind power development activities in British Columbia, but only 325 MW of wind power purchase agreements (PPAs). Various renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas (GHG) initiatives are now being use to create demand for additional renewable energy development in the northwestern United States. Studies have demonstrated that BC wind export initiatives have the potential to deliver wind power to markets in the Pacific northwest. Canadian transmission export proposals are now examining methods of bringing renewable energy to areas with high load demands. However, the United States has more than 240,000 MW of proposed wind projects for key markets in the northwestern region. It was concluded that activities in United States wind development are now posing a challenge to Canadian wind energy exporters. Various transmission projects in the United States are now looking at developing renewable energy sources close to BC. tabs., figs.

  4. Best of Digital British Columbia : Digitization Around the Province

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science defines digitization as “the process of converting data to digital format for processing by a computer.” We have all heard about mass digitization projects such as the Google Digitization Project and Project Gutenberg, but local ’boutique’ digitization efforts do not receive as much fanfare. Digitization projects completed in BC showcase the unique culture and history of British Columbia. The BC Digitization Coalition is a new initiativ...

  5. The criminal careers of chronic offenders in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Christopher M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Typically, research on “chronic offenders” employs a cohort design with general population or higher risk samples. These designs tend to include a small number of high frequency offenders. This dissertation examines the conviction histories of 152 pre-identified high frequency offenders who are supervised by the Chronic Offenders Program (COP) at the Vancouver Police Department in Vancouver, British Columbia. The lifetime conviction histories and other background variables of the 152 offen...

  6. Optimizing nursing human resource planning in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, Mariel S; Puterman, Martin L

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes a linear programming hierarchical planning model that determines the optimal number of nurses to train, promote to management and recruit over a 20 year planning horizon to achieve specified workforce levels. Age dynamics and attrition rates of the nursing workforce are key model components. The model was developed to help policy makers plan a sustainable nursing workforce for British Columbia, Canada. An easy to use interface and considerable flexibility makes it ideal for scenario and "What-If?" analyses.

  7. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren

    2016-02-01

    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  9. Union-Active School Librarians and School Library Advocacy: A Modified Case Study of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association and the British Columbia Teachers' Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2015-01-01

    This modified case study examines how the members of the British Columbia Teacher-Librarians' Association (BCTLA), a Provincial Specialist Association (PSA) of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF), work together to advocate for strong school library programs headed by a credentialed school librarian. Since 2002, despite nullification…

  10. Wind energy on the horizon in British Columbia. A review and evaluation of the British Columbia wind energy planning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jason

    This study examines the wind energy planning frameworks from ten North American jurisdictions, drawing important lessons that British Columbia could use to build on its current model which has been criticized for its limited scope and restriction of local government powers. This study contributes to similar studies conducted by Kimrey (2006), Longston (2006), and Eriksen (2009). This study concludes that inclusion of wind resource zones delineated through strategic environmental assessment, programme assessment, and conducting research-oriented studies could improve the current British Columbia planning framework. The framework should also strengthen its bat impact assessment practices and incorporate habitat compensation. This research also builds upon Rosenberg's (2008) wind energy planning framework typologies. I conclude that the typology utilized in Texas should be employed in British Columbia in order to facilitate utilizing wind power. The only adaptation needed is the establishment of a cross-jurisdictional review committee for project assessment to address concerns about local involvement and site-specific environmental and social concerns.

  11. Preliminary tsunami hazard assessment in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, T. L.; Grilli, A. R.; Grilli, S. T.; Shelby, M. R.; Wang, K.; Gao, D.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Harris, J. C.; Heesemann, M.; McLean, S.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), a not-for-profit initiative by the University of Victoria that operates several cabled ocean observatories, is developing a new generation of ocean observing systems (referred to as Smart Ocean Systems™), involving advanced undersea observation technologies, data networks and analytics. The ONC Tsunami project is a Smart Ocean Systems™ project that addresses the need for a near-field tsunami detection system for the coastal areas of British Columbia. Recent studies indicate that there is a 40-80% probability over the next 50 for a significant tsunami impacting the British Columbia (BC) coast with runups higher than 1.5 m. The NEPTUNE cabled ocean observatory, operated by ONC off of the west coast of British Columbia, could be used to detect near-field tsunami events with existing instrumentation, including seismometers and bottom pressure recorders. As part of this project, new tsunami simulations are underway for the BC coast. Tsunami propagation is being simulated with the FUNWAVE-TVD model, for a suite of new source models representing Cascadia megathrust rupture scenarios. Simulations are performed by one-way coupling in a series of nested model grids (from the source to the BC coast), whose bathymetry was developed based on digital elevation maps (DEMs) of the area, to estimate both tsunami arrival time and coastal runup/inundation for different locations. Besides inundation, maps of additional parameters such as maximum current are being developed, that will aid in tsunami hazard assessment and risk mitigation, as well as developing evacuation plans. We will present initial results of this work for the Port Alberni inlet, in particular Ucluelet, based on new source models developed using the best available data. We will also present a model validation using measurements of the 2011 transpacific Tohoku-oki tsunami recorded in coastal BC by several instruments from various US and Canadian agencies.

  12. Joint orientation measurements in Western Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. SCHEIDEGGER

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint orientations were measured in the mountains of Western Alberta
    and British Columbia. These were then evaluated statistically according
    to the standard method of Kohlbeck and Scheidegger. If the bisectrices
    of the preferred joint orientations are interpreted as principal directions
    of the neotectonic stress field, the maximum compression in the latter
    is found to be from NE-SW (in the South to NNE-SSW (in the North.
    This agrees well with data regarding the neotectonic intraplate stresses
    observed from oil-well break-out data.

  13. Benchmarking Course Completion Rates: A Method with an Example from the British Columbia Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Louis

    2007-01-01

    We report findings on the methodological phase of a research project designed to assess the progress of the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) toward a 1997 goal of increasing distance education course completion rates to British Columbia system levels by adapting existing "off-line" courses for online delivery (a virtualization…

  14. Intestinal parasites of raccoons (Procyon lotor) from southwest British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L; Leighton, B J; Stephen, C

    2000-01-01

    This is the first extensive survey of metazoan parasites (particularly of the roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis) from the intestines of raccoons in British Columbia. The sample collected in 1997-1998 consisted of 82 raccoons that had been sick or had been killed accidentally by automobiles. Fifteen parasite taxa were found: 3 nematodes, 9 digenetic trematodes, 2 acanthocephalans and 1 cestode. Ten of these parasites constitute new host records for raccoons, including 4 digenetic trematodes that have been reported in marine birds and mammals on the Pacific Coast of North America. Baylisascaris procyonis infected 61% of the raccoons with a mean intensity of 27. The high rate of infection indicates a large potential for environmental contamination and, thus, human and animal exposure to infectious eggs. Prevention of larva migrans is discussed, particularly for people in contact with raccoons in wildlife rehabilitation centers. PMID:10805249

  15. Independent review of timber royalty rates in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This review of timber royalty rates was conducted to establish a long-term, stable relationship between royalty rates and stumpage prices in British Columbia. The review first examines the history of the timber license royalty issue describes the review process. It then compares the positions taken on royalty rates by three classes of forest industry companies and considers the matter of royalties received for timber harvested from Dominion Patent Lands. The review discusses the fundamental issues from historical perspectives, identifies and reviews the arguments for establishing royalty rates at the same or at different levels than the stumpage prices, evaluates the merits of these arguments. Finally, it makes recommendations on stumpage appraisals, development costs and transitional arrangements, benchmarking royalties to the stumpage system, forest practices, acreage-based tenures, and the compensation issue.

  16. Trumpeter swan lead shot poisoning investigation in northwest Washington and southwest British Columbia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trumpeter (Cygnus buccinator) and tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) populations wintering in northwest Washington State and on the Sumas Prairie, British Columbia,...

  17. 1992: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  18. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  19. 1995: Northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories: Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories during...

  20. Differences between diploma and baccalaureate dental hygiene education in British Columbia: a qualitative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunell, S; McFarlane, Rdd; Biggar, H C

    2016-02-10

    The British Columbia Ministry of Health in Canada approved a new registration category for dental hygienists in 2012. This category included four abilities that registrants were required to demonstrate at a 4th-year baccalaureate degree level.

  1. Managing Relational Legacies: Lessons from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to company-community relations and the social license to operate have emerged as strategic business issues. This paper aims to contribute to the growing body of research on long-term company-community relations. An analysis of the relationship between Alcan (Aluminum of Canada, Montréal, Canada part of Rio Tinto since 2007 with the Cheslatta Carrier First Nation in the Kemano-Kitimat area of northern British Columbia, Canada, provides three contributions. The first is related to the notion of relational legacy, which refers to the sedimentation of unresolved issues that have the potential to impede the realization of corporate activities and the reproduction of low levels of social license to operate. The second concerns stakeholder management. While the literature suggests that stakeholders should be managed by companies according to the degree of salience, this analysis suggests that researchers and managers should consider the evolution of the environmental context in their analyses. Third, the analysis suggests that small or marginalized groups, depicted by the stakeholder management literature as dormant stakeholders, should not be underestimated.

  2. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  3. HIV/AIDS in Vancouver, British Columbia: a growing epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Viviane D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of HIV in Vancouver, British Columbia was subject to two distinct periods of rapid increase. The first occurred in the 1980s due to high incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM, and the second occurred in the 1990s due to high incidence among injection drug users (IDU. The purpose of this study was to estimate and model the trends in HIV prevalence in Vancouver from 1980 to 2006. HIV prevalence data were entered into the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP where prevalence trends were estimated by fitting an epidemiological model to the data. Epidemic curves were fit for IDU, MSM, street-based female sex trade workers (FSW, and the general population. Using EPP, these curves were then aggregated to produce a model of Vancouver's overall HIV prevalence. Of the 505 000 people over the age of 15 that reside in Vancouver, 6108 (ranging from 4979 to 7237 were living with HIV in the year 2006, giving an overall prevalence of 1.21 percent (ranging from 0.99 to 1.43 percent. The subgroups of IDU and MSM account for the greatest proportion of HIV infections. Our model estimates that the prevalence of HIV in Vancouver is greater than one percent, roughly 6 times higher than Canada's national prevalence. These results suggest that HIV infection is having a relatively large impact in Vancouver and that evidence-based prevention and harm reduction strategies should be expanded.

  4. British Columbia's new coalbed methane royalty regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinski, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Energy and Minerals Div.

    2002-07-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines is promoting the development of the coalbed methane (CBM) industry in the province in order to make CBM a viable and competitive investment option for industry. It is establishing a regulatory and fiscal regime for CBM development. Issues of concern regarding CBM development include water production, gas production rates, well numbers, and marginal economics. The features of the CBM royalty regime include a new producer cost of service allowance, the creation of a CBM royalty tax bank to collect excess PCOS allowances, and a royalty tax credit for wells drilled by the end of February, 2004. The marginal well adjustment factor threshold has been raised from 180 mcf per day to 600 mcf per day for CBM only. It was noted that royalties will probably not be payable for several years following the first commercial well because royalties are very depending on capital and operating costs, local infrastructure and price. Royalty regimes cannot save CBM from low gas prices, poor resources or economics. 2 figs.

  5. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Harrison

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  7. Power shift: a media analysis of the discourse of electricity deregulation in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Gregory Nigel

    2008-01-01

    Despite a record of low rates and significant public revenue generation on the part of the public utility, BC Hydro, the government of British Columbia in recent years has begun to deregulate the provincial electricity system. Measures undertaken include breaking up the utility and transferring responsibility for new generation to the private sector. I provide a content analysis of the process of electricity deregulation in British Columbia as represented in the Vancouver Sun and the Times Co...

  8. Going for Gold in 2010: An Analysis of British Columbia's Literacy Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a recent government initiative aimed at raising adult literacy levels across the Canadian province of British Columbia by 2010. Through analysis of policy documents and interviews conducted with policymakers, analysts, researchers and practitioners, the author argues that the current focus on adult literacy in British Columbia…

  9. Anatomy of the Kitimat fiord system, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Stacey, Cooper D.; Wu, Yongsheng; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    2017-09-01

    The geomorphic complexity of the Kitimat fiord system, on the active margin of British Columbia, Canada, is analysed from several perspectives. Sub-glacial landforms and sediments show that grounded ice exiting the fiord system at the last glacial maximum streamed down Moresby Trough towards the Queen Charlotte trough mouth fan. After brief halts on the inner shelf, grounded ice margins cleared the fiord threshold perhaps by c. 15.5 ka cal. yrs BP, and certainly before 13 ka cal. yrs BP. Just outside the fiords, meltwater plumes deposited stratified glaciomarine sediments interbedded with submarine slides. Inside the fiords, thick glaciomarine sediments were deposited, and large transverse moraines formed during temporary halts in retreat. Several glacial outburst floods eroded the Kitkiata moraine and deposited distinctive mud deposits. Postglacial sedimentation on fiord floors has been spatially variable: drifts of mud > 90 m-thick corresponding with areas of low current velocity alternate with areas of non-deposition and erosion corresponding with areas of high velocity. The fiord system hosts more than a hundred morphologically diverse fan deltas that can be classified in the Prior and Bornhold (1989, 1990) system. Submarine mass transport was most frequent immediately following ice retreat (15.5-11.5 ka cal. yrs BP). The largest event ( 1.2 km3) involved failure of glaciomarine sediment on a submarine moraine at Squally Channel, and consequent movement of material into the adjacent deep basin. This event occurred post-13 ka cal. yrs BP. In the postglacial phase, mass transport continued on a lesser scale up to the present day, most intensively in Kitimat Arm. From the perspective of glacial landforms, postglacial sedimentation and mass transport, this Pacific active margin fiord system has some parallels with fiord systems on Canada's east coast passive margin, and with Norwegian fiords, but the intensive development of Holocene fan deltas is strongly

  10. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  11. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  12. The physical environment affects cyanophage communities in British Columbia inlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, C M; Short, S M; Suttle, C A

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about the natural distribution of viruses that infect the photosynthetically important group of marine prokaryotes, the cyanobacteria. The current investigation reveals that the structure of cyanophage communities is dependent on water column structure. PCR was used to amplify a fragment of the cyanomyovirus gene (g) 20, which codes for the portal vertex protein. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR amplified g20 gene fragments was used to examine variations in cyanophage community structure in three inlets in British Columbia, Canada. Qualitative examination of denaturing gradient gels revealed cyanophage community patterns that reflected the physical structure of the water column as indicated by temperature and salinity. Based on mobility of PCR fragments in the DGGE gels, some cyanophages appeared to be widespread, while others were observed only at specific depths. Cyanophage communities within Salmon Inlet were more related to one another than to communities from either Malaspina Inlet or Pendrell Sound. As well, surface communities in Malaspina Inlet and Pendrell Sound were different when compared to communities at depth. In the same two locations, distinct differences in community composition were observed in communities that coincided with depths of high chlorophyll fluorescence. The observed community shifts over small distances (only a few meters in depth or inlets separated by less than 100 km) support the idea that cyanophage communities separated by small spatial scales develop independently of each other as a result isolation by water column stratification or land mass separation, which may ultimately lead to changes in the distribution or composition of the host community.

  13. Boussinesq Modeling of the 1975 Kitimat, British Columbia Landslide Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, T.; Watts, P.; Fullarton, M.; Grilli, S. T.; Kirby, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    Mass failures near the head of Kitimat fjord in British Columbia produced water waves that caused severe destruction of waterfront facilities. We revisit this event with the latest numerical models in order to better understand the geological and tsunamigenic processes involved. Mass failure began around low tide near Moon Bay, possibly on account of construction activities taking place there. Retrogressive failure along the fjord floor proceeded over the next several minutes, until it reached the steep fjord head just underneath the Kitimat River. A mass on the steep slope then failed during a single event that is best characterized as an underwater slide in glacial sediments, resulting in an observed depression of the water within the middle of the fjord. This slide was much larger in volume than the initial mass failure, and consequently much more tsunamigenic. The Kitimat event presents many processes that appear to apply to tsunamis in fjords elsewhere. We examine the larger slide volume and linear dimensions based on the available bathymetry. The slide scar is relatively well discerned and extends along the entire slope, in what can be termed a typical fashion. We reproduce tsunami generation of the larger slide with TOPICS and simulate tsunami propagation and inundation with the Boussinesq model FUNWAVE. Our simulation results reproduce the tsunami runup observations, as well as the regions of damage incurred along the shoreline. We also reproduce far-field wave amplitude observations from fishing boats located further south. The agreement between the modeling results and observations suggests that landslide tsunamis in fjords are becoming well-studied events that can yield consistent processes and that can be accurately modeled.

  14. RADICALIZATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS: THE PRINCIPALS' PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  15. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  16. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn

    2015-04-01

    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  17. Impacts of large scale integration of wind power into the power system of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeer, Torsten; Djilali, Ned; Rowe, Andrew [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems; Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the impacts of increasing the contribution of wind energy to British Columbia's power generation and transmission system. A model has been developed utilizing wind energy data provided by BC Hydro, the power generating authority in the province. These wind profiles were superimposed on the British Columbia Power System. The model incorporates various wind penetration scenarios and utility assumptions regarding load growth over the next 10 years. The objectives are to determine optimal strategies that integrate wind energy generation into the power system while maintaining or improving system reliability. The simulations were conducted using MATPOWER functionality within MATLAB. The results are based on a simplified representation of British Columbia's power system and incorporate optimal power flow with unit commitment optimization. (orig.)

  18. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  19. Landslide-generated tsunami geomorphology at Chehalis Lake, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; McKillop, R.; Clague, J. J.; Lawrence, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The 2007 Chehalis Lake tsunami in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia is one of the most comprehensively described landslide-generated tsunamis in the world. We use field observations and remotely sensed data collected during the two years following the tsunami to characterize its geomorphic impact and propose a suite of geomorphic features characteristic of tsunamis generated by subaerial landslides. On December 4, 2007, a highly fragmented 3 Mm3 rockslide entered the north end of Chehalis Lake and generated a tsunami that drastically altered much of the shore of the 8.5-km-long lake, with local run-up exceeding 35 m. The tsunami continued as a surge down lower Chehalis River, at the south end of the lake. We characterized geomorphic features produced by the tsunami by collecting multi-scale data, starting immediately after the event. Data included reconnaissance helicopter and ground observations, low-altitude aerial digital photography and aerial LiDAR survey, detailed GPS-controlled field traverses, and an underwater survey using side-scan sonar and swath bathymetric sounding. The impact of the tsunami was greatest on low-gradient shores and the shoreline nearest the landslide. Erosional features include wave-cut scarps, soil erosion, and complete removal of forest, leaving sharp trimlines. Debris transported by the tsunami stripped bark from standing trees, left impact marks on them, and embedded gravel in them. Depositional features include imbricated cobbles and boulders, ripples in sand and gravel, pebble lags, rip-up clasts of glaciolacustrine silt, and trash lines of woody debris in forest at and near the limit of tsunami run-up. Similar features have been reported at sites of landslide-triggered tsunamis, notably in Alaska, Chile, Norway, and elsewhere in Canada. We grouped geomorphic features at Chehalis Lake on the basis of their areal distribution and their inferred formative energy. The geomorphic groups form a continuum, reflecting

  20. : Carbon Taxation and the Double Dividend Hypothesis: A Case Study Of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpe, Rian

    2014-01-01

    This project is interdisciplinary research combining economics with PSR. The paper is a case study of British Columbia, Canada, investigating the attempt to have both a decrease in carbon emissions, with the possibility of economic growth. Climate change is debatably the most prominent issue of our time. Carbon emissions have continued to rise at an unprecedented rate. Some scientists are suggesting that change must happen sooner than later. In response to this, the province of British Columb...

  1. Sampling location for harbor seal genetics in Washington and British Columbia from 1993-08-25 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0148458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using skin samples from 777 unweaned pups collected in 9 different regions in WA state and British Columbia (WA Coastal Estuaries, WA North Coast, British Columbia,...

  2. Secondary School Teachers' Conceptions of Critical Thinking in British Columbia and Japan: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edward Ronald

    Critical thinking has received much attention among educators yet remains largely undeveloped in traditional teacher-centered classrooms. A study was conducted to: (1) obtain a sense of what secondary school teachers believe critical thinking entails; (2) compare and contrast British Columbia (BC), Canada, and Japanese secondary teachers'…

  3. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  4. Multiculturalism and Human Rights in Civic Education: The Case of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper considers how textbooks resolve the tension between contradictory goals of promoting a cohesive national identity while teaching respect and equality among diverse social groups in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Purpose: The article presents preliminary results of a larger study examining the content of required civic…

  5. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  6. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen

    2011-01-01

    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  7. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  8. From Casual Work to Economic Security: The Case of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Fiona; Bowles, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of casual work in British Columbia is an important issue given that the increase in casual work has been greater in this province than in other provinces in Canada and given that the labour market has been substantially deregulated since 2001. In this paper, we analyse how individuals' casual employment status affects their economic…

  9. The El Niño Southern Oscillation index and wildfire prediction in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zhen; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential to predict monthly wildfires and area burned in British Columbia's interior using El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and the generalized Pareto (GP) distributions are used, respectively, to account for uncertainty in

  10. Libraries: Vital to Tomorrow's World; British Columbia Centennial Citizens' Conference on Libraries (Victoria, May 3, 1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Library Development Commission, Vancouver. Committee on Library Development.

    The purpose of this meeting of an invited group of concerned citizens was to focus attention on the interrelation of all types of libraries in British Columbia. It was intended to involve those who pay for library service in a discussion of its potential to meet the demands of the coming generation. This record, which is not intended to be a…

  11. Incidence and Survival for Gastric and Esophageal Cancer Diagnosed in British Columbia, 1990 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bashash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Geographical variation and temporal trends in the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancers vary according to both tumour morphology and organ subsite. Both diseases are among the deadliest forms of cancer. The incidence and survival rates for gastric and esophageal carcinoma in British Columbia (BC between 1990 and 1999 are described.

  12. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  13. British Columbia Council on Admissions & Transfer Annual Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The role of the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) is to facilitate admission, articulation, and transfer arrangements in the BC post-secondary system. BCCAT carries out this work in various ways; for example, engaging in research on admissions and student transitions, evaluating the effectiveness of the transfer system…

  14. Colliding Rights in the Schools: Trinity Western University v. The British Columbia College of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brummelen, Harro; Sawatsky, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses British Columbia College of Teachers' (BCCT) denial of Trinity Western University's (TWU) teacher education programs and teacher certification due to TWU's prohibition of homosexuality. Reports that TWU filed suit, and the Supreme Court of Canada determined that BCCT's action interfered with TWU's right to religious freedom. (Contains 32…

  15. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  16. A GENERAL SITE LOCATION STUDY FOR A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GILES, FREDERIC T.; AND OTHERS

    THE FEASIBILITY AND GENERAL SITE LOCATION OF A REGIONAL COLLEGE FOR TEN SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE OKANAGAN AREA OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WAS STUDIED AND ESTABLISHED. GEOGRAPHIC CENTERS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION, TRANSPORTATION, GENERAL ECONOMY AND SCHOOL POPULATIONS FOR GRADES 1-12 AND 13-14 WERE DETERMINED FROM THE ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC, GEOGRAPHIC…

  17. Arts and the Perceived Quality of Life in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were (1) to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived quality of life of a representative sample of British Columbians aged 18 years or more in the spring of 2007, and (2) to compare the findings of this study with those of a sample of 1,027 adults drawn from five B.C. communities (Comox Valley,…

  18. Creating a safety culture at the Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Katrina N; Taylor, Annemarie; Northway, Tracie L; Hudson, Denise G; Van Stolk, Dori E; Shearer, Kim J; McDougall, Debbie L; Miller, Georgene

    2007-02-01

    The Children's' and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia (C&W) is the largest hospital providing specialized care to women and children across the province of British Columbia in Canada. The values of quality and safety are threaded throughout the C&W strategic plan which emphasizes that safety is vital for better health. At C&W, a multifaceted approach is used to create and sustain a culture of safety. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has developed tools to facilitate the development of safety cultures within hospital settings. This article describes the implementation of some of these tools, such as the Safety Briefings Model and Patient Safety Leadership Walkrounds. We will discuss how we adapted these strategies to our pediatric settings; what we learned through the implementation process-our successes and challenges; and implications for future success.

  19. An intercomparison of regional and at-site rainfall extreme value analyses in southern British Columbia, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannon, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    ...), and generalized maximum likelihood (GML) estimators are compared against RFA with L-moment methods at stations in southern British Columbia, Canada via cross-validation and Monte Carlo simulations...

  20. Routine hydrography and chemical observations in Lake Nitinat, British Columbia, from 1964 to 1975 (NCEI Accession 7800331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains all of the routine hydrographic and chemical measurements obtained from Lake Nitinat. British Columbia on cruises from 1964 to 1975. In...

  1. Environmental footprints of British Columbia wood pellets from a simplified life cycle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pa, Ann; Craven, Jill S.; Xiaotao T. Bi; Melin, Staffan; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental footprints of wood pellets produced in British Columbia (BC) of Canada are to be estimated based on industry surveys and published emission factor data. Method: The streamlined life cycle analysis starts from raw material acquisition and ends at port Rotterdam in Europe for exported pellets or North Vancouver port for domestically used pellets. The raw materials used for pellet production are dry and wet sawmill residues, and allocations are based on dry mass....

  2. Rate, Delay and Predictors of Hepatitis C Treatment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Hoi Lun Yau; Terry Lee; Alnoor Ramji; Hin Hin Ko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current treatment rate for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is suboptimal despite the availability of efficacious antiviral therapy.OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate, delay and predictors of treatment in patients with chronic HCV infection.METHODS: A retrospective chart review of chronic HCV patients who were being evaluated at a tertiary hepatology centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, was performed.RESULTS: One hundred sixty-four patients with chronic HCV infection ...

  3. Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    M Anne George; Cherylynn Bassani; Robert W. Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence of perceived discrimination on the health and behaviour of ethnic minority immigrant children in British Columbia, Canada. Using data from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, we examine perceived discrimination experienced by the parent, family, and cultural group in Canada to test the influence of micro-, meso-, and macrolevels of discrimination on children. Families from 6 ethnic backgrounds participated in the study. Parents’ perceptions of the chil...

  4. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock, Artemisia sp. (wormwood, Chenopodium album (lambsquarters and C. ambrosioides (epazote, Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle, Juniperus spp. (juniper, Mentha piperita (peppermint, Nicotiana sp. (tobacco, Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives, Symphytum officinale (comfrey, Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion, Thuja plicata (western redcedar and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle.

  5. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle). PMID:21756341

  6. Population-Based Surveillance of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease in British Columbia: 1996-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Gordean L Bjornson; Scheifele, David W; Alison Bell; Arlene King

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe all cases of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection occurring in British Columbia during a two-year period.DESIGN: Active, laboratory-based surveillance with supplemental case description.SETTING: Forty community and regional hospitals and the provincial laboratory participated, encompassing all health regions.POPULATION STUDIED: Entire provincial population from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1998.MAIN RESULTS: Over the 24-month surveillance period, 18...

  7. Breeding biology of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorraine A. Andrusiak; K. M. Cheng

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of the Barn Owl was studied from 1990-1992 in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, the northern limit of the species' North American range. Over 3 years, mean clutch size was 6.5 ± 3.5, mean brood size at time of banding was 3.3 ± 2.0, and mean number of nestlings fledged was 2.6 ± 2.1. Clutch size ranged from 2 to 18 eggs....

  8. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy

    2011-07-14

    Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle).

  9. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  10. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  11. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, Byron V; Dawson, Natalie G; Talbot, Sandra L; Flamme, Melanie J; Cook, Joseph A

    2011-05-04

    Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  12. Revisiting the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis: Argon-argon geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Sarah Jo

    The controversy concerning terrane displacements in western British Columbia, otherwise known as the Baja-BC hypothesis, is revisited using paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and thermal modeling. We studied three plutons in northwest British Columbia, the Ecstall, Butedale, and Smith Island plutons. The Ecstall pluton is the focus of this research as it has been the subject of considerable debate over the cause of systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction across the ˜25 km wide pluton. Hollister et al. (2004) proposed that magnetization carried by lamellar magnetism in ilmenite-hematite was variably reset during reheating by emplacement of the younger Quottoon plutonic complex on the eastern margin of the Ecstall pluton, thus causing the systematic variations in paleomagnetic direction. To test this hypothesis we conducted a number of studies on samples from the Ecstall pluton. First, a detailed mineralogic study using scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy found evidence of microstructural and mineralogic changes to the magnetic oxides of the Ecstall pluton as a function of distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Second, rock magnetic experiments on single crystals of Fe-Ti oxides confirm changes to the magnetic properties of single crystals that are related to both microstructure and distance from the Quottoon plutonic complex. Third, spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from hornblende and biotite were found to be consistent with reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex. In addition to reheating by the Quottoon plutonic complex, thermal modeling suggests that spatial trends in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages are most consistent with a thermal history that also includes northeast side up tilt of the Ecstall. The Smith Island and Butedale plutons do not show evidence for tilting in their 40Ar/39Ar cooling age trends, and paleomagnetic directions from these plutons are approximately concordant with the

  13. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  14. Cretaceous Apparent Polar Wander Relative to the Major Cratons and Displacement Estimates of Baja British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    When paleogeographic interpretations derived from independent observations conflict, the methods and results from each discipline come under careful scrutiny, as illustrated by the Baja British Columbia controversy. Cretaceous paleomagnetic data from a large region of the Canadian Cordillera render paleopoles which are far-sided with respect to cratonic North American poles, suggesting this region, designated Baja British Columbia, translated northward during Late Cretaceous - Paleogene time. Criticism of this interpretation based on other geological reasoning prompted me to perform new reviews of Cretaceous to Eocene paleomagnetic results from the Cordillera and from the major cratons of the globe. The global review follows the method of Besse and Courtillot (1991; 2002). One difference between our methods is that I compiled paleomagnetic results from highly studied rock units to single results to balance data weightings spatially and temporally, thus reducing the number of individual results. For the period 160 to 40 Ma, 51 poles were included compared to 92 poles by Besse and Courtillot (2002). Differences between apparent polar wander paths in their and my analyses are never significant at 95% confidence, however mean pole positions differ by up to 500 km, which is important for paleogeographic analysis. The global distribution of sampling localities and the tight clustering of the paleomagnetic poles after plate reconstruction provide invaluable confirmation of plate tectonically derived Euler rotations, the reliability of paleomagnetic remanence directions, and the geocentric dipole geometry of the geomagnetic field. My Cordilleran review shows that paleolatitudes derived from plutons and remagnetized rocks are significantly more scattered than those derived from bedded rocks. Using bedded rocks only, the paleomagnetic record shows that Baja British Columbia sat 2100 ± 500 km south of its present position with respect to cratonic North America during the

  15. Sincere but naive: methodological queries concerning the British Columbia polygamy reference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sean Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Academics frequently serve as expert witnesses in legal cases, yet their role as transmitters of social scientific knowledge remains under-examined. The present study analyzes the deployment of social science within British Columbia's polygamy reference trial where research is used to support the assertion that polygamy is inherently harmful to society. Within the trial record and the written decision, the protection of monogamy as an institution is performed in part through the marginalization of qualitative methodology and the concurrent privileging of quantitative studies that purportedly demonstrate widespread social harms associated with the practice of polygyny.

  16. British Columbia S-2000 monitoring project, vol. 1, performance summary: Interim report, June 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    The S-2000 program was established to promote cooperation between CANMET, electrical utilities, and provincial governments interested in evaluation on whether solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems are suited to the reduction of peak electrical load levels and pollutant emission control through cost-effective energy displacement. Current activity consists of cooperative pilot projects between government and utilities to install and monitor several SDHW systems across Canada. As a first step to demonstrate the potential of SDHW in British Columbia, eight systems were purchased by B.C. Hydro and West Kootenay Power and installed on private residences throughout the province. This interim report summarizes the monitoring results from June-December 1993.

  17. Medicinal plants used in British Columbia, Canada for reproductive health in pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Brauer, Gerhard; Khan, Tonya

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, semi-structured interviews were conducted in British Columbia, Canada with participants obtained using a purposive sample on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for animals. Twenty-nine participants provided the information in this paper on the ethnoveterinary remedies used for reproductive health in dogs and cats. The plants used for pregnancy support and milk production in pets were raspberry-leaf (Rubus idaeus), motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Uterine infections were treated with black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) and goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Most of the studies conducted on these plants have not been conducted on companion animals.

  18. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; McDaniel, Neil G

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, Auletta krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m) and Dragmacidon kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m). We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas.

  19. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA WINE INDUSTRY: CAN IT COMPETE WITH THE BIG GUYS?

    OpenAIRE

    Cartier, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In 1989, the Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was implemented and dramatically changed the course of the wine industry’s development in British Columbia (BC). The FTA forced the industry to make the transition from being highly protected, and inefficient, to a competitive market contender. Although considered initially to be a victim of the FTA, by 2010, the BC wine industry contributed $295.8 million to the BC economy, or 0.15% of provincial GDP, and provided 5,100 direct an...

  20. Two new species in the family Axinellidae (Porifera, Demospongiae from British Columbia and adjacent waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Austin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Demospongiae are described for British Columbia and adjacent waters in the family Axinellidae, Auletta krautteri sp. n. and Dragmacidon kishinensis sp. n. They represent range extensions for both of these genera. Both are fairly commonly encountered, A. krautteri below diving depths (87 to at least 300 m and D. kishinensis in shallow water (intertidal to 30 m. We propose an amended genus diagnosis for Auletta to account for the variability among species in principal spicules that form the ascending tracts to be either oxeas, styles or strongyles rather than just oxeas.

  1. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  3. Supply and distribution of primary healthcare registered nurses in british columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sabrina T; Watson, Diane E; Young, Ella; Mooney, Dawn

    2009-11-01

    WHAT DID WE DO?: This study uses an existing data source to (a) describe the population and geographic distribution of registered nurses (RNs) working in primary healthcare (PHC) in British Columbia, (b) compare this workforce to PHC physicians and (c) assess the distribution of PHC-RNs relative to population health status. WHAT DID WE LEARN?: Of the 27,570 practising RNs in British Columbia in 2000, there were 3,179 (12%) in the PHC workforce. This translates into 147 people per practising RN and 1,277 people per PHC-RN. In 2000, there were 990 people per PHC physician. PHC-RNs represented 43% of the combined PHC workforce of physicians and RNs. A large proportion (47%) of PHC-RNs worked in community health centres, whereas less than 2% worked in physicians' offices. Geographic distribution of PHC-RNs is similar to the distribution of PHC physicians and is not associated with population health status. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS?: There seem to be sufficient PHC-RNs to implement policy objectives in support of interdisciplinary PHC teams, but physicians and nurses will increasingly need to practice in the same location or have access to electronic information systems to support coordination, continuity and comprehensiveness of PHC. The PHC workforce could be better deployed to align with population health status.

  4. Genomic Analysis of a Serotype 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth R. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause a wide spectrum of disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD. From 2005 to 2009 an outbreak of IPD occurred in Western Canada, caused by a S. pneumoniae strain with multilocus sequence type (MLST 289 and serotype 5. We sought to investigate the incidence of IPD due to this S. pneumoniae strain and to characterize the outbreak in British Columbia using whole-genome sequencing. Methods. IPD was defined according to Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines. Two isolates representing the beginning and end of the outbreak were whole-genome sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for single nucleotide variants (SNVs and putative genomic islands. Results. The peak of the outbreak in British Columbia was in 2006, when 57% of invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were serotype 5. Comparison of two whole-genome sequenced strains showed only 10 SNVs between them. A 15.5 kb genomic island was identified in outbreak strains, allowing the design of a PCR assay to track the spread of the outbreak strain. Discussion. We show that the serotype 5 MLST 289 strain contains a distinguishing genomic island, which remained genetically consistent over time. Whole-genome sequencing holds great promise for real-time characterization of outbreaks in the future and may allow responses tailored to characteristics identified in the genome.

  5. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  6. British Columbia capital regional district 100% smokefree bylaw: a successful public health campaign despite industry opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, J; Glantz, S

    2003-09-01

    To describe how the British Columbia Capital Regional District successfully passed, implemented, and enforced a 100% smokefree bylaw in all public places, including restaurants and bars, despite an aggressive campaign by the tobacco industry (acting through the hospitality industry) to stop it. Information was obtained from news reports, internal tobacco industry documents, reports, public documents, and interviews with key players. Tobacco industry documents were accessed between February and April 2002. This project was approved by the University of California San Francisco committee on human research. As in the USA and elsewhere in the world, the tobacco industry in British Columbia, Canada, recruited and created hospitality associations to fight against the district smokefree bylaw. They used the classic industry rhetoric of individual rights and freedoms, economic devastation, and ventilation as a solution. Public health authorities were able to counter industry strategies with a strong education campaign, well written bylaws, and persistent enforcement. It is possible to overcome serious opposition orchestrated by the tobacco industry and develop and implement a 100% smokefree bylaw in Canada. Doing so requires attention to detail in drafting the bylaw, as well as a public education campaign on the health dangers of secondhand smoke and active enforcement to overcome organised resistance to the bylaw. Jurisdictions considering smokefree bylaws should anticipate this opposition when developing and implementing their bylaws.

  7. British Columbia takes its place in the world of open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaff, S.; Bright, D.

    1996-04-01

    On 1 February 1996, British Columbia Hydro allowed utilities and other power producers in British Columbia, Alberta and the United States to use its transmission lines to move electricity through or to B.C. on a reciprocal basis at non-discriminatory rates. B.C. Hydro stated that the rates were comparable to B.C.Hydro`s internal costs of using the transmission system for its own purposes. Those rates would ensure that wholesale users of Hydro`s transmission facilities would not be subsidized by domestic customers. The president of the Gridco Company of Alberta, the transmission administrator for the Alberta Power Pool of Alberta disputed the claim that B.C. Hydro was the first utility in Canada to offer wholesale transmission. Gridco claimed they offered the service as of January 1, 1996, one month ahead of B.C. Hydro. The Independent Power Producers` Society of Alberta claims that the Gridco rates are discriminatory because they favour the Alberta utility members of the Alberta power pool.

  8. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J Teichman

    Full Text Available Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007 involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007 conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Grant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  10. Observations and Numerical Modeling of the 2012 Haida Gwaii Tsunami off the Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Isaac V.; Cherniawsky, Josef Y.; Thomson, Richard E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Krassovski, Maxim V.

    2015-03-01

    A major ( M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (L eonard and B ednarski 2014). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada's cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (L eonard and B ednarski 2014) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region.

  11. Characteristics of primary biliary cirrhosis in British Columbia's First Nations population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arbour

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a rare, autoimmune liver disorder characterized by progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, that results in portal inflammation, scarring, cirrhosis and, eventually, liver failure. Although considered rare in Canadian populations, it is the leading indication for referral for liver transplantation in British Columbia's First Nations population. Previously, an expanded review of all cases referred to the British Columbia Transplant Society for PBC was carried out comparing the demographics of those of First Nations descent with those not of First Nations descent. The review suggested that the rate of referral for transplantation was eight times higher for those of First Nations descent compared with those of other descent (P=0.0001, and a disproportionate number of the First Nations cases lived on Vancouver Island (48% of cases versus 18% expected, P<0.05. Additionally, the age of referral was significantly younger (45.9 versus 54.3 years for those of First Nations descent and there are fewer First Nations men referred (1:34 than expected. For the purpose of the present report, 28 symptomatic cases were ascertained separately and reviewed in a clinical study to delineate the features of this population.

  12. Factors in Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Co-management in British Columbia Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Pinkerton

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten years of research and efforts to implement co-management in British Columbia fisheries have demonstrated that we lack neither good models nor the political will in communities to design and test local and regional institutions for successful involvement in various aspects of management. The barriers lie rather in the distrust and resistance of management agencies and the lack of broadly organized political support. The nature of the barriers and some of the elements of a successful approach to overcoming them are identified and discussed. The analysis is focused around the barriers encountered by two differently situated fishing communities or regions that have launched conservation initiatives through cooperation between local aboriginal and nonaboriginal fishing groups. In attempting to overcome the political barriers, the communities seek to develop expertise in selective fishing technology for more sustainable harvest, principled multi-stakeholder negotiation, marketing, shared databases, and preliminary ecosystem monitoring. The communities exemplify small- and medium-scale bottom-up approaches to adaptive management. The analysis shows the key and possibly unique contributions of processes at these levels, and suggests how they can be scaled up and linked to processes at other levels. Both types of analysis are largely missing in adaptive management theory, which has tended to focus on larger scale processes and to dismiss the potential of smaller scale ones to transform, expand, and link. This analysis focuses on salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. fisheries of British Columbia, Canada, but the literature suggests that the findings have far broader applicability.

  13. British Columbia Jurisdictional Report to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada for the Period April 1, 2008-March 31, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) during the period April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Its purpose is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of the steps taken in British Columbia to improve student mobility and credit transfer in…

  14. British Columbia Jurisdictional Report Submitted to the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada for the Period April 1, 2006-March 31, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report is a summary of projects and activities completed by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) during the period April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007. Its purpose is to inform the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada (CMEC) of the steps taken in British Columbia to improve student mobility and credit transfer in…

  15. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupp, Linda; Zajac, David

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a profile of undergraduate transfer students admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia from British Columbia colleges over the five-year fiscal period, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (Summer 2003 to Winter 2008). It includes a general profile of BC college transfer students, their academic performance while at UNBC, and a…

  16. The role of First Nations in environmental assessment of British Columbia offshore resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, J.M. [Government of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Justice

    2005-07-01

    The important role of First Nations in the environmental management of Canada's offshore Pacific and North Coast was discussed with reference to the Aboriginal law and policy developments governing offshore project planning and environmental assessments in the area. Currently, there is a federal and provincial moratorium on offshore oil and gas exploration in the area. Most Aboriginal bands are opposed to lifting the moratorium, particularly in the Queen Charlotte Basin. According to enforceable duties, if First Nations have a claim on the land that would be used, they must be consulted and accommodated as a new integral part of environmental management and assessment of all offshore resource development projects in British Columbia and Canada. Some Aboriginal bands, such as the Nisga'a Lisms are interested in offshore projects and have made separate submissions to the federal Minister of Natural Resources regarding potential exploration and development of offshore oil and gas resources adjacent to the Nass River area. A memorandum of understanding (MOU) has been signed that will involve the Nisga'a in all aspects of offshore and gas development, including environmental assessments and revenue sharing. However, with nearly 75 per cent opposition to removing the moratorium, it is unlikely that preliminary exploration such as seismic testing will take place in the Queen Charlotte Basin before 2010. This presentation outlined the Federal-Provincial jurisdiction in terms of First Nations Aboriginal rights and title claims and First Nations treaty claims. A summary of Aboriginal law and the framework for environmental law was presented. An outline of the provincial environmental assessment framework was also presented in terms of consultation and accommodation duties with the Haida Nation versus British Columbia; Taku River Tlingit First Nation versus British Columbia; provincial policy for consultation with First Nations; and, the BC Environmental

  17. Valuation of land use in the Netherlands and British Columbia: a spatial hedonic GIS-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotteleer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The main reason for government intervention in land markets is market failure. Open space is a non-market output or externality of farmland and, although it might be important to people, there is no actual market for the good as such. The Netherlands and the Province of British Columbia in Canada bo

  18. Implications of Expanding Bioenergy Production from Wood in British Columbia: An Application of a Regional Wood Fibre Allocation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stennes, B.; Niquidet, K.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Energy has been produced from woody biomass in British Columbia for many decades, primarily within the pulp and paper sector, using residual streams from timber processing to create heat and electricity for on-site use. More recently, there has been some stand-alone electricity production and an inc

  19. Communication Disorders and the Inclusion of Newcomer African Refugees in Rural Primary Schools of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Canadian public primary schools, newcomer West African refugees like other ethnic immigrant students are a visible minority group, often referred as Linguistic and Culturally Different (LCD) students. In the province of British Columbia, newcomer immigrant students are subjected to a battery of tests, as soon as they enroll in the primary…

  20. Evaluation of the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP) for Senior Elementary and Alternative School Students in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charles K.; Meehan, George

    This study evaluated the Courtlink Auto Crime Prevention Program (CACPP), a 13-hour curriculum for senior elementary school and secondary school alternative program at-risk students in British Columbia, Canada. The program provides students with information about automobile crime and its costs, consequences, and prevention. It promotes positive…

  1. The Emerging Fourth Tier in K-12 Education Finance in British Columbia, Canada: Increasing Privatisation and Implications for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Wendy; Fallon, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines increasing privatisation of education in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Conceptually, the paper is informed by theories of privatisation and social justice; and methodologically, it uses policy analysis to examine documents and financial records obtained from government departments. The paper critically analyses…

  2. The Seeds of Growth and the Winds of Change. Part II: Change and Stability: Classroom Life in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Deborah; Riecken, Ted

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the anticipation of educational change in British Columbia associated with the Year 2000 document. The perspective on change involves positive and negative aspects dependent on values and beliefs embedded in the culture. The study of four teachers and their classrooms shows that the seeds of change have been planted. (KS)

  3. Myiasis in pet animals in British Columbia: The potential of forensic entomology for determining duration of possible neglect

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Results of a survey of veterinarians in British Columbia included 25 past cases of myiasis and 10 active cases. Most respondents received at least 5 to 10 cases per year, with some as high as 30 per year. This study revealed some advantages and disadvantages of using forensic entomology in living animals.

  4. Microplastic Ingestion by Wild and Cultured Manila Clams (Venerupis philippinarum) from Baynes Sound, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katie; Dudas, Sarah E

    2016-08-01

    Microplastics, plastic particles Baynes Sound, British Columbia were chosen to examine the microplastic concentrations in wild and cultured Manila clams. Microplastics were isolated using a nitric acid digestion technique and enumerated from 54 clams (27 farmed and 27 non-farmed). Qualitative attributes, such as colour and microplastic type (fiber, fragment, or film) also were recorded. There was no significant difference (F = 1.29; df = 1,4; P = 0.289) between microplastic concentrations in cultured and wild clams. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 5.47 particles/g (from reference beach and shellfish farm clams, respectively). Fibers were the dominant microplastic (90 %); colourless and dark gray fibers were the most common colours observed (36 and 26 %, respectively). Although this indicates that microplastics are definitely present in seafood consumed by humans, shellfish aquaculture operations do not appear to be increasing microplastic concentrations in farmed clams in this region.

  5. Influence of Perceived Racial Discrimination on Health and Behaviour of Immigrant Children in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anne George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of perceived discrimination on the health and behaviour of ethnic minority immigrant children in British Columbia, Canada. Using data from the New Canadian Children and Youth Study, we examine perceived discrimination experienced by the parent, family, and cultural group in Canada to test the influence of micro-, meso-, and macrolevels of discrimination on children. Families from 6 ethnic backgrounds participated in the study. Parents’ perceptions of the child’s health and six behavioral scales (hyperactivity, prosocial behaviour, emotional problems, aggression, indirect aggression, and a general combined behaviour scale were examined as outcome variables. After controlling for ethnicity and background variables, our findings suggest that perceived micro- and macrodiscrimination has the greatest influence on the health and behaviour of our immigrant child sample. Variation among ethnic groups provided the largest explanation of health and behavioural discrepancies in our study.

  6. The conversion of evenaged into unevenaged mixed conifer forests in southern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the conditions and history leading to the establishment and continuity of all-aged mixed coniferous forests in the montane south central region of British Columbia, Canada. Also described are the attempts by one forest products company to perpetuate and proportionally increase this type of forest cover through the selective removal necessitated by bark beetle depredation of the component, Pinus contorta. The report concludes with a description of and recommendations for the post-harvest management employing treatments which imitate natural conditions leading to a gradual and lasting conversion of natural multi-species stands into unevenaged or all-aged stands of mixed conifers which are conducive to single tree or group selection harvests at more or less regular intervals. 10 figs, 1 tab

  7. A Life Cycle Assessment of integrated dairy farm-greenhouse systems in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siduo; Bi, Xiaotao Tony; Clift, Roland

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticipated environmental benefits from integrating a dairy farm and a greenhouse; the integration is based on anaerobic digestion of manures to produce biogas energy, biogenic CO2, and digested slurry. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been conducted on six modeled cases applicable in British Columbia, to evaluate non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, acidification, eutrophication, respiratory effects and human toxicity. Compared to conventional practice, an integrated system has the potential to nearly halve eutrophication and respiratory effects caused by inorganic emissions and to reduce non-renewable energy consumption, climate change, and acidification by 65-90%, while respiratory effects caused by organic emissions become negative as co-products substitute for other materials. Co-digestion of other livestock manures, greenhouse plant waste, or food and food processing waste with dairy manure can further improve the performance of the integrated system.

  8. Early Holocene thermal maximum in western North America: New evidence from Castle Peak, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Mathewes, R. W.

    1989-03-01

    Conifer logs and branches of early Holocene age are common on the surface and in sediments above timberline at Castle Peak in the southeastern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. A study of this wood and associated peat and colluvium has shown that local timberline from 9.1 to 8.2 ka was at least 60 m, and perhaps more than 130 m, higher than today. Mean growing-season temperature at Castle Peak during this period thus may have been 0.4-0.8°C warmer than at present. This is consistent with theoretical considerations based on Milankovitch forcing of climatic change and is supported by other paleoecological data from the southern Canadian Cordillera and adjacent northwestern United States. A generally warm climate may have persisted until about 5-6 ka, followed by late Holocene cooling.

  9. Policy for metal leaching and acid rock drainage at mine sites in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    One of the major environmental issues facing the provincial government of British Columbia is the prevention of environmental impacts from metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD). The government`s major challenge in regulating ML/ARD is to ensure that all mines are planned and operated in a manner that allows for effective problem detection and mitigation, and that the mines emphasize problem prevention at the outset. This paper reviews the legislated requirements regarding ML/ARD prevention and lists guiding principles for the regulation of ML/ARD in the province. Some of the measures to predict and to mitigate ML/ARD include underwater storage of problematic materials, engineered covers, blending of wastes and drainage collection and treatment. Requirements applicable to construction materials, backfill, geotechnical and hydrological considerations, and security of funds for ML/ARD measures are also discussed.

  10. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium: mine decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The symposium covered a spectrum of reclamation issues relevant to mining in British Columbia. The proceedings contain the twenty-one technical papers presented and a report by the awards subcommittee concerning citations awarded. Papers are included on native species in reclamation, bat conservation, biological removal of selenium, wetland cells for removing heavy metals leachates, end land use plan for a copper mine, environmental projects at Fording Coal, reclamation at a nickel plate tailings facility, forestry for end use, contaminated site legislation, compliance, environmental management considerations, acid rock drainage prediction, granular cover system for tailings management, long-term management of tailings and tailings dams at decommissioned mining properties, mine subsidence risk management, reclaiming subsidence in abandoned mining areas, and reclamation of mine openings. Two papers are abstracted separately.

  11. The use of joint ventures to accomplish aboriginal economic development: Two examples from British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Boyd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available “Aboriginal economic development” differs from other forms of development by emphasizing aboriginal values and community involvement. Joint ventures, while providing business advantages, may not be able to contribute to aboriginal economic development. This paper examines two joint ventures in the interior of British Columbia to examine their ability or inability to contribute the extra dimensions of development desired by aboriginal communities. The AED framework examines business structure; profitability; employment; aboriginal capacity in education, experience, and finance; preservation of traditional values, culture and language; control of forest management over traditional territory; and community support. Established in the context of unresolved land claims, both enterprises partially contribute to aboriginal economic development, but in different ways and with different overall results.

  12. A model simulation of biogeochemical conditions along the British Columbia Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Angelica; Fine, Isaac; Masson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    The British Columbia shelf is at the northern end of the California Current System and is influenced by summer coastal upwelling, mesoscale eddies, and freshwater inputs. A regional coupled circulation-biogeochemical (ROMS) model of this region has been developed to gain a better understanding of the potential impact of climate variability and change on lower trophic levels and the biogeochemistry of the region. A first step to address the impacts of climate variability on marine ecosystem is to develop biophysical models that simulate the present ecosystem state in relation to the climate record and can be used to examine the influence of different forcing acting, at different scales, on ecological processes. This talk will will evaluate the capability of the model to reproduce observations and to respond to main episodic events (seasonal cycle and El Niño events).

  13. Carbon sequestration in British Columbia's forests and management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, T.A.; Jassal, R.S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Faculty of Land and Food Systems; Fredeen, A.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

    2008-11-15

    This paper discussed how the forests in BC can be better managed for maximum economic and environmental benefits. It emphasized the potential of forests in British Columbia to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide and thus mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their economic value, forests provide wildlife habitat, climate regulation, soil protection, water purification, and recreational, cultural and spiritual benefits. As a carbon sink, forests lock up carbon that might otherwise exist in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas. The extent of forest carbon (C) stocks and C sequestration rates were described along with how they are affected by climate change or natural and human-induced disturbances. The conservation and efficient use of forest C stocks and management options for increasing C sequestration rates was also discussed with particular reference to future research needs required for developing an appropriate adaptive management response framework. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Using operations research to plan the british columbia registered nurses' workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieri, Mariel S; Regan, Sandra; Puterman, Martin L; Ratner, Pamela A

    2008-11-01

    The authors explore the power and flexibility of using an operations research methodology known as linear programming to support health human resources (HHR) planning. The model takes as input estimates of the future need for healthcare providers and, in contrast to simulation, compares all feasible strategies to identify a long-term plan for achieving a balance between supply and demand at the least cost to the system. The approach is illustrated by using it to plan the British Columbia registered nurse (RN) workforce over a 20-year horizon. The authors show how the model can be used for scenario analysis by investigating the impact of decreasing attrition from educational programs, changing RN-to-manager ratios in direct care and exploring how other changes might alter planning recommendations. In addition to HHR policy recommendations, their analysis also points to new research opportunities.

  15. Autoimmune liver disease and the Canadian First Nations Aboriginal Communities of British Columbia's Pacific Northwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric M Yoshida; Mark Riley; Laura T Arbour

    2006-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a well-known but uncommon chronic liver disease that is presumed to be of autoimmune etiology. Recently, investigations in British Columbia (BC), a province of Canada situated along the Pacific North-West of North America, have suggested that PBC is not a rare disease amongst BC's Aboriginal (i.e. First Nations) communities. Geographically, BC is adjacent to South East Alaska, an American state that has also reported an increased prevalence of PBC amongst its Aboriginal communities. In this article, the medical evidence supporting a hypothesis of increased risk of PBC amongst BC's First Nations communities is reviewed. Evidence suggesting that autoimmune hepatitis is also more likely amongst BC's First Nations communities is also presented.(C)2006 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  17. The importance of policy in emissions inventory accuracy--a lesson from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Judi

    2009-04-01

    Actual atmospheric emissions in northeast British Columbia, Canada, are much higher than reported emissions. The addition of upstream oil and gas sector sources not included in the year-2000 emissions inventory of Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs) increases annual totals of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compound emissions by 115.1, 89.9, and 109.5%, respectively. These emissions arise from numerous small and unregulated point sources (N = 10,129). CAC summaries are given by source type and source sector. An analysis of uncertainty and reporting policy suggests that inventory omissions are not limited to the study area and that Canadian pollutant emissions are systematically underestimated. The omissions suggest that major changes in reporting procedures are needed in Canada if true estimates of annual pollutant emissions are to be documented.

  18. Freshwater Microbialites of Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada: A Limnological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; McKay, C. P.; Laval, B.; Bird, J.; Cady, S.

    2004-01-01

    Pavillion Lake is 5.7km long and an average of 0.8 km in width, and is located in Marble Canyon in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is a slightly alkaline, freshwater lake with a maximum-recorded depth of 65m. The basin walls of Pavilion Lake are lined with microbialite structures that are oriented perpendicularly to the shoreline, and which are found from depths of 5 meters to the bottom of the photic zone (light levels 1% of ambient; approximately 30m depth). These structures are speculated to have begun formation nearly 11,000 years ago, after the glacial retreat of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet. They are likely a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, which display micromorphologies possibly related to the ancient Epiphyton and Girvanella classes of calcareous organosedimentary structures.

  19. The sex factor: epidemiology and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Pat G; Chaudhry, Munaza; Platt, Howard; Roch, Michael; Road, Jeremy; Sin, Donald; Levy, Robert D

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women have been predicted to overtake that of men within the next decade. These predictions are based in part on data from surveys using self-reports of a COPD diagnosis. Whether these predictions have been realized is unknown. The prevalence and mortality of men and women in British Columbia were compared from fiscal years 1992/1993 to 2003/2004 using administrative health services data. Case definitions for COPD were developed using International Classification of Diseases ninth and 10th revision (ICD-9/10) codes applied to medical and hospital data. Individuals 45 years and older, who had at least two physician visits or one hospitalization for specified COPD ICD-9/10 codes within a 365-day window, were considered to be cases. Cases were ascertained from 1992 to 2004. In 2003/2004, men had a greater prevalence (4.7% versus 4.0% in women) and a higher all-cause mortality rate (5.4% versus 4.1% in women) than women. Both men and women with COPD had low COPD medication use (45%) and low referral for lung function testing (55%). Including the ICD-9 code for 'bronchitis, not specified as acute or chronic' (ICD-9 490) in the case definition resulted in a greater prevalence of COPD in women than in men overall, and in the 45 to 64 year age group. Prevalence and mortality measured with administrative health data do not show evidence of relative increase in the prevalence of COPD for women in British Columbia. However, further analysis of ICD-9 490 may identify an early 'at-risk' group, specifically in women.

  20. Levamisole tainted cocaine causing severe neutropenia in Alberta and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts < 0.5 per 109 cells/L) associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in 2008. Alberta and British Columbia (BC) public health officials issued an advisory and urged health care professionals to report cases to public health. This paper presents the findings of the public health investigations. Methods Cases were identified prospectively through reporting by clinicians and a retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiners data from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2009. Cases were categorized as confirmed, probable or suspect. Only the confirmed and probable cases are included in this paper. Results We compare cases of severe neutropenia associated with tainted cocaine (NATC) identified in Alberta and BC between January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Of the 42 NATC cases: 23(55%) were from Alberta; 19(45%) were from British Columbia; 57% of these cases reported crack cocaine use (93% of those who identified type of cocaine used); 7% reported using cocaine powder; and the main route of cocaine administration was from smoking (72%). Fifty percent of the NATC cases had multiple episodes of neutropenia associated with cocaine use. Cases typically presented with bacterial/fungal infections and fever. One Alberta NATC case produced anti-neutrophil antibodies, and four were positive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). Analysis of two crack pipes and one drug sample obtained from NATC cases confirmed the presence of both cocaine and levamisole. A further 18 cases were identified through the retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiner data in Alberta Interpretation Our findings support a link between neutropenia and levamisole tainted cocaine; particularly from smoking the crack form of cocaine. Some patients may be genetically predisposed to develop levamisole-related neutropenia. Awareness of the

  1. Levamisole tainted cocaine causing severe neutropenia in Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shihe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five cases of severe neutropenia (neutrophil counts 9 cells/L associated with exposure to cocaine and levamisole, an antihelimithic agent no longer available in Canada, were identified in Alberta in 2008. Alberta and British Columbia (BC public health officials issued an advisory and urged health care professionals to report cases to public health. This paper presents the findings of the public health investigations. Methods Cases were identified prospectively through reporting by clinicians and a retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiners data from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2009. Cases were categorized as confirmed, probable or suspect. Only the confirmed and probable cases are included in this paper. Results We compare cases of severe neutropenia associated with tainted cocaine (NATC identified in Alberta and BC between January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009. Of the 42 NATC cases: 23(55% were from Alberta; 19(45% were from British Columbia; 57% of these cases reported crack cocaine use (93% of those who identified type of cocaine used; 7% reported using cocaine powder; and the main route of cocaine administration was from smoking (72%. Fifty percent of the NATC cases had multiple episodes of neutropenia associated with cocaine use. Cases typically presented with bacterial/fungal infections and fever. One Alberta NATC case produced anti-neutrophil antibodies, and four were positive for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA. Analysis of two crack pipes and one drug sample obtained from NATC cases confirmed the presence of both cocaine and levamisole. A further 18 cases were identified through the retrospective review of laboratory and medical examiner data in Alberta Interpretation Our findings support a link between neutropenia and levamisole tainted cocaine; particularly from smoking the crack form of cocaine. Some patients may be genetically predisposed to develop levamisole-related neutropenia. Awareness

  2. Susceptibility of clinical Moraxella catarrhalis isolates in British Columbia to six empirically prescribed antibiotic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandet, Tamara; Whitehead, Sue; Blondel-Hill, Edith; Wagner, Ken; Cheeptham, Naowarat

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a commensal organism of the respiratory tract that has emerged as an important pathogen for a variety of upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Susceptibility testing of M catarrhalis is not routinely performed in most diagnostic laboratories; rather, a comment predicting susceptibility based on the literature is attached to the report. The most recent Canadian report on M catarrhalis antimicrobial susceptibility was published in 2003; therefore, a new study at this time was of interest and importance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates from British Columbia to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. METHODS: A total of 117 clinical M catarrhalis isolates were isolated and tested from five Interior hospitals and two private laboratory centres in British Columbia between January and December 2012. Antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates was characterized using the Etest (E-strip; bioMérieux, USA) according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole. One isolate was intermediately resistant to cefuroxime, representing a 99.15% sensitivity rate to the cephem agent. Cefuroxime minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) inhibiting 50% and 90% of organisms (MIC50 and MIC90) were highest among the antibiotics tested, and the MIC90 (3 μg/mL) of cefuroxime reached the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint of susceptibility. DISCUSSION: The antibiotic susceptibility of M catarrhalis isolates evaluated in the present study largely confirms the findings of previous surveillance studies performed in Canada. Cefuroxime MICs are in the high end of the sensitive range and the MIC50 and MIC90

  3. Comparison of seasonal habitat selection between threatened woodland caribou ecotypes in central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia have been classified into ecotypes based on differences in use of habitat in winter. Although recovery planning focuses on ecotypes, habitat use and selection varies within ecotypes. Our objectives were to compare habitat use and selection among previously identified woodland caribou herds at the transition zone between northern (Moberly, Quintette, and Kennedy herds and mountain (Parsnip herd ecotypes in central British Columbia. We developed selection models for each herd in spring, calving, summer/fall, early and late winter. Topographic models best predicted selection by most herds in most seasons, but importance of vegetation-cover was highlighted by disproportionate use of specific vegetation-cover types by all caribou herds (e.g., in early winter, 75% of Kennedy locations were in pine-leading stands, 84% of Parsnip locations were in fir and fir-leading stands, and 87 and 96% of locations were in alpine for the Moberly and Quintette herds, respectively. Using a combination of GPS and VHF radio-collar locations, we documented some spatial overlap among herds within the year, but use of vegetation-cover types and selection of elevations, aspects, and vegetation-cover types differed among herds and within ecotypes in all seasons. Habitat use and selection were most similar between the two northern-ecotype herds residing on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains. This research indicates that habitat use and selection by caribou herds in all seasons is more variable than ecotype classifications suggest and demonstrates the value of undertaking herd-specific mapping of critical habitat for woodland caribou.

  4. Trends in AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia between 1981 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Viviane D.; Lourenço, Lillian; Yip, Benita; Hogg, Robert S.; Phillips, Peter; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can markedly decrease the risk of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterize the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and in the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods We included data of 3550 HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from different administrative databases in BC. We estimated the relative risk of developing an ADI over time using a Negative Binomial model, and we investigated trends in the percentage of all deaths associated with AIDS using generalized additive models. Findings The number of ADIs has decreased dramatically to its lowest level in 2013. The peak of the AIDS epidemic in BC happened in 1994 with 696 ADIs being reported (rate 42 ADIs per 100 person-years). Since 1997, the number of ADIs decreased from 253 (rate 7 per 100 person-years) to 84 cases in 2013 (rate 1 per 100 person-years) (p-value equals to zero for the trend in the number of ADIs). We have also shown that out of 22 ADIs considered, only PCP maintained its prominent ranking (albeit with much reduced overall prevalence). Finally, we observed that over time very few deaths were related to AIDS-related causes, especially in the most recent years. Interpretation We showed that the number of new ADIs and AIDS-related mortality have been decreasing rapidly over time in BC. These results provide further evidence that integrated comprehensive free programs that facilitate testing, and deliver treatment and care to this population can be effective in markedly decreasing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, thus suggesting that controlling and eventually ending AIDS is possible. Funding The British Columbia Ministry of Health, the US National Institutes of Health, the US National Institute on Drug Abuse, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the Michael Institute for

  5. Standing at the crossroads: Identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Thomas

    Modern technical education in British Columbia has been affected by two societal trends: in industry, engineering technology evolved as a discipline to bridge the increasing chasm between the process-oriented skill sets of tradespersons/technicians, and the declarative knowledge focus of engineering; in education, the provincial college and institute system was created to address the need for a new post-secondary credential situated between trades certificates and university degrees. The Applied Science Technologist arguably forms the intersection of these two concepts. Almost forty years after its inception, it is timely to ask if the original model has matured into a distinct occupational category in industry, education, and in the public mind. The thesis proposes three environments, the Formative, Market and Public Domain, respectively. Interviews, surveys and personal experience afforded insights into the dynamics of these domains with respect to a fledgling occupational category, while the socio-philosophical concepts of culture, habitus and social imaginary provide the tools to interpret the findings. The thesis postulates that an emerging occupational category will not only challenge existing cultures and habitus, but that over time it will influence the imaginaries of each domain and society as a whole. Ultimately, the occupational category will be truly successful only when the general public is able to distinguish it from related disciplines. Charles Taylor's writings on multiculturalism are used to discuss identity and recognition of the Applied Science Technologist in each domain while Pierre Bourdieu's perspectives on the existence of habitus and self-proliferating elites form the framework to examine the relationships between technologists and engineers. Taylor's theory of multiple concurrent social imaginaries guides the comparison of divergent expectations among academic, career and vocational instructors at British Columbia's colleges. The thesis

  6. Critical levels and loads and the regulation of industrial emissions in northwest British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williston, P.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S.; Marmorek, D.; Hall, A.; de la Cueva Bueno, P.; Murray, C.; Henolson, A.; Laurence, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Northwest British Columbia, Canada, a sparsely populated and largely pristine region, is targeted for rapid industrial growth owing to the modernization of an aluminum smelter and multiple proposed liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities. Consequently, air quality in this region is expected to undergo considerable changes within the next decade. In concert, the increase in LNG capacity driven by gas production from shale resources across North America has prompted environmental concerns and highlighted the need for science-based management decisions regarding the permitting of air emissions. In this study, an effects-based approach widely-used to support transboundary emissions policy negotiations was used to assess industrial air emissions in the Kitimat and Prince Rupert airsheds under permitted and future potential industrial emissions. Critical levels for vegetation of SO2 and NO2 and critical loads of acidity and nutrient nitrogen for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were estimated for both regions and compared with modelled concentration and deposition estimates to identify the potential extent and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. The critical level for SO2 was predicted to be exceeded in an area ranging from 81 to 251 km2 in the Kitimat airshed owing to emissions from an existing smelter, compared with acidity for soil ranged from 1 to 28 km2 in Kitimat and 4-10 km2 in Prince Rupert, while the areal exceedance of empirical critical load for nutrient N was predicted to be greater in the Prince Rupert airshed (20-94 km2) than in the Kitimat airshed (1-31 km2). The number of lakes that exceeded the critical load of acidity did not vary greatly across emissions scenarios in the Kitimat (21-23 out of 80 sampled lakes) and Prince Rupert (0 out of 35 sampled lakes) airsheds. While critical loads have been widely used to underpin international emissions reductions of transboundary pollutants, it is clear that they can also play an important role in managing regional

  7. Residence, income and cancer hospitalizations in British Columbia during a decade of policy change

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    Penning MJ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through the 1990s, governments across Canada shifted health care funding allocation and organizational foci toward a community-based population health model. Major concerns of reform based on this model include ensuring equitable access to health and health care, and enhancing preventive and community-based resources for care. Reforms may act differentially relative to specific conditions and services, including those geared to chronic versus acute conditions. The present study therefore focuses on health service utilization, specifically cancer hospitalizations, in British Columbia during a decade of health system reform. Methods Data were drawn from the British Columbia Linked Health Data resource; income measures were derived from Statistics Canada 1996 Census public use enumeration area income files. Records with a discharge (separation date between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1998 were selected. All hospitalizations with ICD-9 codes 140 through 208 (except skin cancer, code 173 as principal diagnosis were included. Specific cancers analyzed include lung; colorectal; female breast; and prostate. Hospitalizations were examined in total (all separations, and as divided into first and all other hospitalizations attributed to any given individual. Annual trends in age-sex adjusted rates were analyzed by joinpoint regression; longitudinal multivariate analyses assessing association of residence and income with hospitalizations utilized generalised estimating equations. Results are evaluated in relation to cancer incidence trends, health policy reform and access to care. Results Age-sex adjusted hospitalization rates for all separations for all cancers, and lung, breast and prostate cancers, decreased significantly over the study period; colorectal cancer separations did not change significantly. Rates for first and other hospitalizations remained stationary or gradually declined over the study period. Area of residence and

  8. Geology and Volcanology of Kima'Kho Mountain, Northern British Columbia: A Pleistocene Glaciovolcanic Edifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.

    2014-12-01

    Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10

  9. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

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    A. A. Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km−2 yr−1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km−2 yr−1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September–April. Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the

  10. Concepts for diamond exploration in "on/off craton" areas—British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, George J.

    2004-09-01

    The tectonic setting of British Columbia (BC) differs from classic diamond-bearing intracratonic regions such as the Northwest Territories and South Africa. Nevertheless, several diamond occurrences have been reported in BC. It is also known that parts of the province are underlain by Proterozoic and possibly Archean basement. Because the continents of today are composites of fragments of ancient continents, it is possible that some of the regions underlain by old crystalline basement in eastern British Columbia were associated with a deep crustal keel. The keel may have predated the break-up of the early Neoproterozoic supercontinent called Rodinia and was preserved possibly until the Triassic. Some of these old continental fragments may have been displaced relative to their position of origin and dissociated from their keel, or the keel may have since been destroyed. Such fragments represent favourable exploration grounds in terms of the "Diamondiferous Mantle Root" model (DMR model) if they were intersected by kimberlites or lamproites prior to displacement or destruction of their underlying deep keel. Therefore, extrapolation of fragments of the diamond-bearing Precambrian basement from the Northwest Territories or Alberta to BC provides a sufficient reason for initiating reconnaissance indicator mineral surveys. The "Eclogite Subduction Zone" model (ES model) predicts formation of diamonds at lower pressure (i.e., depth) than required by the DMR model in convergent tectonic settings. Although not proven, this model is supported by thermal modeling of cold subduction zones and recent discoveries of diamonds in areas characterized by convergent tectonic settings. If the ES model is correct, then the parts of BC with a geological history similar to today's "cold" subduction zones, such as Honshu (Japan), or to continental collision zones, such as Kokchetav massif (Kazakhstan) and the Dabie-Sulu Terrane (east central China), may be diamondiferous. The terranes

  11. Discriminant Analysis of a Spatially Extensive Landsliding Inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, D.; Martin, Y. E.; Jagielko, L.

    2010-12-01

    Gimbarzevsky (1988) collected an exceptional landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia (formerly called the Queen Charlotte Islands). This data base includes more than 8 000 landsliding vectors, with an areal coverage of about 10 000 km2. Unfortunately, this landsliding inventory was never published in the referred literature, despite its regional significance. The data collection occurred prior to widespread use of GIS technologies in landsliding analysis, thus restricting the types of analyses that were undertaken at the time relative to what is possible today. Gimbarzevsky identified the landsliding events from 1:50 000 aerial photographs, and then transferred the landslide vectors to NTS map sheets. In this study, we digitized the landslide vectors from these original map sheets and connected each vector to a digital elevation model. Lengths of landslide vectors were then compared to results of Rood (1984), whose landsliding inventory for the Haida Gwaii relied on larger-scale aerial photographs (~ 1:13 000). A comparison of the two data bases shows that Rood’s inventory contains a more complete record of smaller landslides, whereas Gimbarzevsky’s inventory provides a much better statistical representation of less frequently occurring, medium to large landslide events. We then apply discriminant analysis to the Gimbarzevsky data base to assess which of a set of ten predictor variables, selected on the basis of mechanical theory, best predict failed vs. unfailed locations in the landscape (referred to as the grouping variable in discriminant analysis). Certain predictor variables may be cross-correlated, and any one particular variable may be related to several aspects of mechanical theory (for example, a particular variable may affect various components of shear stress and/or shear strength); it is important to recognize that the significance of particular groupings may reflect this information. Eight of the original variables were found

  12. Policy and Practice Options for Equitable Access to Primary Healthcare for Indigenous Peoples in British Columbia and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josée G. Lavoie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, policy reforms have been geared towards improving quality of care, responsiveness, and equitable access to healthcare services for all social groups in general, and individuals living in marginalizing circumstances in particular. The purpose of this study was to document how primary healthcare services (PHC services are provided in Norway and British Columbia to meet the needs of Indigenous peoples and use this knowledge to critically explore policy alternatives that inform the delivery of PHC for vulnerable populations. Findings show that in British Columbia, Indigenous-specific PHC services have been the preferred mechanism to ensure better care. This is not the case in Norway, where Sámi-centric services exist only in mental health and only in Finnmark.

  13. Influence of bigleaf maple (Acer Macrophyllum Pursh) on soil properties in a conifer forest of southwest British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to detect the influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) on soils in a conifer forest of southwest British Columbia. Forest floor properties were measured beneath bigleaf maple along six transects and on two 36 m x 36 m plots. Wavelet analysis, kriging, spatial autocorrelation analysis, local indicators of spatial association, and parametric statistics were used to explore and confirm bigleaf maple patterns of influence on surrounding soils...

  14. Subglacial processes, glacier dynamics, and deglacial processes and patterns associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet around Okanagan Valley, British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lesemann, Jerome-Etienne

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores subglacial processes, glacier dynamics, and deglacial processes and patterns associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in Okanagan Valley and the neighbouring Thompson Plateau in southern British Columbia. Reconstructions of subglacial processes in an area of streamlined bedforms (drumlins) on Thompson Plateau reveal that sediments within drumlins and in intervening areas record evidence of lodgement, deformation, poreflow, conduit flow, debris flows, and suspension...

  15. Colonizing minds: public education, the textbook Indian, and the struggle for settler hegemony in British Columbia, 1920-1970

    OpenAIRE

    Carleton, Sean Foster Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between public education, the representations of indigenous peoples as the Textbook Indian in secondary school textbooks, and the struggle for settler hegemony in British Columbia between 1920 and 1970. In drawing inspiration from Marxist Theory and critical pedagogy, this work shows how education in general and textbooks in particular were powerful tools of a project of colonizing minds. The colonizing minds project refers to the state’s process of manuf...

  16. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; X Wei

    2012-01-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2) situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of...

  17. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; X Wei

    2012-01-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2), situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hyd...

  18. High incidence and increasing prevalence of multiple sclerosis in British Columbia, Canada: findings from over two decades (1991–2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Elaine; Zhu, Feng; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Fisk, John D; Wolfson, Christina; Warren, Sharon; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Lawrence W Svenson; Jette, Nathalie; Bhan, Virender; Yu, B. Nancy; Elliott, Lawrence; Tremlett, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Province-wide population-based administrative health data from British Columbia (BC), Canada (population: approximately 4.5 million) were used to estimate the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) and examine potential trends over time. All BC residents meeting validated health administrative case definitions for MS were identified using hospital, physician, death, and health registration files. Estimates of annual prevalence (1991–2008), and incidence (1996–2008; allowing a 5-y...

  19. Preliminary identification of fullerenes in the lowermost Jurassic strata, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Haggart, James W.; Ward, Peter D.

    2004-02-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (~200 mya) event is one of the most severe in geologic history. It is also one of the most poorly understood. Few geologic sections containing the TJ boundary interval have been identified globally, and most of those are poorly preserved; the paucity of suitable stratigraphic sections has prevented corroborative geochemical studies of this interval. Recently, fullerene molecules (C60 to C200) have been shown to be present in the mass extinction boundary intervals of the Permian-Triassic (PT) event (~251.4 mya), as well as the well-known "dinosaur" extinction event of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) (~65 mya). The presence of fullerenes in both these extinction intervals has been used to invoke an extraterrestrial impact cause for the extinctions. Preliminary results of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of selected samples from the Kennecott Point TJ boundary section, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, suggest that fullerenes (C60 to ~C200) are present in the section, stratigraphically above the extinction interval (as defined by paleontological and isotopic data), but not actually within the interval itself. The presence of fullerenes may not be diagnostic of an impact event.

  20. Isotopic studies of the diet of the people of the coast of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Henry P; Chisholm, Brian S; Burchell, Meghan

    2014-11-01

    In 1982, Chisholm et al. used δ(13) C data for human burials from shell midden sites widely distributed on the coast of British Columbia (BC) to show the extreme dependence of these individuals on high trophic level marine consumers, principally salmon and marine mammals. Here, we present previously unpublished analyses of δ(15) N for some of the same individuals as well as δ(13) C data for additional individuals. Nitrogen isotope data show that the diet was dominated by high trophic level marine fauna including carnivorous fish and marine mammals. Although most burials were found in shell middens, marine mollusks made up of only a minor component of diet. The data for δ(13) C demonstrate that terrestrial faunal foods are undetectable in the diet of the majority of individuals, and seldom constitute more than 10% of the dietary protein of individuals living on the coast although terrestrial fauna were widely available as a potential source of protein. This dietary pattern of exclusion of land-based animals from their diet persisted for almost 6,000 years along a wide expanse of coastline. In contrast, people from the BC interior (100 km or more from the coast) consumed a mixed diet of terrestrial and marine foods including spawning salmon.

  1. Listeriosis outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, caused by soft ripened cheese contaminated from environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  2. The Effects of Disturbance History on Ground-Layer Plant Community Composition in British Columbia

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    Michael Ton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant communities are sensitive to perturbations and may display alternative recovery pathways depending on disturbance history. In sub-boreal lodgepole pine forests of central interior British Columbia, Canada, fire and logging are two widespread landscape disturbances that overlap in many regions. We asked whether cumulative, short-interval disturbance from logging and fire resulted in different ground-layer plant communities than resulted from fire alone. Using field-collected data, we compared the taxonomic composition and functional traits of 3-year old plant communities that were either harvested 6-to-13 years prior, or not harvested prior to being burned in a large stand-replacing fire. The taxonomic composition diverged between the two treatments, driven primarily by differences in a few key indicator species such as Petasites frigidus and Vaccinium membranaceum. Analysis of individual species’ morphological traits indicated that only a few species vary in size in relation to disturbance history. Our data suggest that a history of forest harvest leaves a subtle footprint on post-fire ground-layer plant communities at early stages of succession.

  3. Does general surgery residency prepare surgeons for community practice in British Columbia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hamish

    2009-06-01

    Preparing surgeons for clinical practice is a challenging task for postgraduate training programs across Canada. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single surgeon entering practice was adequately prepared by comparing the type and volume of surgical procedures experienced in the last 3 years of training with that in the first year of clinical practice. During the last 3 years of general surgery training, I logged all procedures. In practice, the Medical Services Plan (MSP) of British Columbia tracks all procedures. Using MSP remittance reports, I compiled the procedures performed in my first year of practice. I totaled the number of procedures and broke them down into categories (general, colorectal, laparoscopic, endoscopic, hepatobiliary, oncologic, pediatric, thoracic, vascular and other). I then compared residency training with community practice. I logged a total of 1170 procedures in the last 3 years of residency. Of these, 452 were performed during community rotations. The procedures during residency could be broken down as follows: 392 general, 18 colorectal, 242 laparoscopic, 103 endoscopic, 85 hepatobiliary, 142 oncologic, 1 pediatric, 78 thoracic, 92 vascular and 17 other. I performed a total of 1440 procedures in the first year of practice. In practice the break down was 398 general, 15 colorectal, 101 laparoscopic, 654 endoscopic, 2 hepatobiliary, 77 oncologic, 10 pediatric, 0 thoracic, 70 vascular and 113 other. On the whole, residency provided excellent preparation for clinical practice based on my experience. Areas of potential improvement included endoscopy, pediatric surgery and "other," which comprised mostly hand surgery.

  4. Experiences with collaborative climate impacts assessments for regional governments in southwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, S. R.; Murdock, T. Q.

    2016-12-01

    Infrastructure vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning have created demand for detailed information about climate change and extreme events from local and regional governments. Individual communities often have distinct priorities regarding climate change impacts. While projections from climate models are available to investigate these impacts, they are not always applicable or easily interpreted by local agencies. We discuss a series of climate impacts assessments for several regional and local governments in southwestern British Columbia. Each of the assessments was conducted with input from the users on project definition from the start of the process and on interpretation of results throughout each project. To produce sufficient detail for the assessment regions, we produce high-resolution (800m) simulations of precipitation and temperature using downscaled climate model projections. Sets of derived climate parameters tailored to each region are calculated from both standard indices such as CLIMDEX and from an energy-balance snowpack model. Involving user groups from the beginning of the analysis helps to convey the meaning and confidence of each set of climate change parameters to users and also clarifies what projections are feasible or not for impact assessments. We discuss the different levels of involvement and collaboration with each organization, and the resulting decisions implemented following each of the projects.

  5. Genetic diversity of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in southwestern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G Douglas; Duke, Grant M; Goettel, Mark S; Kabaluk, J Todd

    2008-05-01

    The abundance and genetic diversity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, in southwestern British Columbia (BC) and southern Alberta was examined. The fungus was found to be widespread in soil throughout southwestern BC, and was recovered from 56% of 85 sample sites. In contrast to southwestern BC, no M. anisopliae isolates were recovered in southern Alberta. An automated fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was used to examine genetic diversity. In excess of 200 isolates were characterized. The method identified 211 polymorphic amplicons, ranging in size from approximately 92 to 400 base pairs, and it was found to be reproducible with a resolution limit of 86.2% similarity. The AFLP method distinguished Metarhizium from other entomopathogenic fungal genera, and demonstrated considerable genetic diversity (25 genotypes) among the reference strains of M. anisopliae isolates examined (i.e. recovered from various substrates and geographical locations). Although 13 genotypes of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae were recovered from southwestern BC soils, the vast majority of isolates (91%) belonged to one of two closely-related genotypes. Furthermore, these two genotypes predominated in urban, agricultural and forest soils. The reasons for the limited diversity of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae in southwestern BC are uncertain. However, findings of this study are consistent with island biogeography theory, and have significant implications for the development of this fungus for microbial control of pest insects.

  6. Climate change mitigation in British Columbia's forest sector: biophysical impacts and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, C.; Xu, Z.; Lempriere, T.; Rampley, G.; Kurz, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    Managing forests to increase carbon sequestration or reduce carbon emissions, and using wood products and bioenergy to substitute for other carbon-intensive products and fossil fuels, have been shown to be effective ways to tackle climate change in many countries and regions. We examined several mitigation strategies and portfolios related to forest management and wood product uses, at the level of 92 forest management units in the 55 Mha of forest in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A systems approach was used to track changes in greenhouse gas emissions and removals in forest ecosystems, harvested wood products and through the substitution of carbon-intensive products and fossil fuels with wood products and bioenergy. In addition to the biophysical potential, we calculated mitigation costs and developed cost curves to assess the economic potential. Improving the harvest utilization, shifting the commodity mix to longer-lived wood products, and using harvest residues for bioenergy were among the most promising strategies, and generated the mitigation portfolio with the largest greenhouse gas emission reductions. If the strategies that maximize mitigation in the province were chosen in each management unit and implemented very soon, then forest-related mitigation actions could contribute 35% of the province's 2050 emission reduction target (i.e., about 18 MtCO2e), at a cost of less than $100/tCO­2e.

  7. The influence of surface characteristics, topography, and continentality on mountain permafrost in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal offset and surface offset are terms that describe the deviation of the mean annual ground temperature from the mean annual air temperature. These offsets are controlled by surface characteristics and topo-climatic factors on a micro- and meso-scales. Macro-climatic conditions may, however, influence the effectiveness of the responsible processes. Existing knowledge on surface- and topography-specific offsets is not easily transferable and limits the applicability of empirical permafrost distribution models over large areas with macro-climatic gradients. In this paper we describe surface and thermal offsets derived from distributed measurements at seven field sites in British Columbia. Key findings are (i a surprisingly small variation of the surface offsets between different surface types and small thermal offsets in general (excluding wetlands and peat, (ii a clear influence of the micro-topography at wind exposed sites (snow cover erosion, (iii a north–south difference of the surface offset of 4 °C in near-vertical bedrock and of 1.5–3 °C on open (no canopy gentle slopes, (iv only small macro-climatic differences caused by the reverse influence of snow cover thickness and annual air temperature amplitude. These findings suggest, that empirical permafrost models based on topo-climatic variables may be applicable across regions with significant macro-climatic differences.

  8. Competent professionals and modern methods: state medicine in British Columbia during the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Megan J

    2002-01-01

    Little has been written about the formation of state medicine in early-twentieth-century Canada, particularly during the Depression era. Indeed, many historians and policy analysts have assumed that this was a time of stagnation and retrenchment in state health provision. To foster a more nuanced analysis of the formation of the Canadian medical state during the Depression decade, this article focuses on British Columbia and the public health initiatives brought in by the provincial Liberal government of T. D. Pattullo. In B.C., an energetic cadre of policymakers and bureaucrats sought to reform existing services by using professionally educated personnel, centralized administrative hierarchies, community education, and the surveillance of target health populations. Funding from the provincial government and the Rockefeller Foundation permitted considerable expansion in a range of public health sectors that included vital statistics, rural health centers, tuberculosis and venereal disease treatment schemes, and laboratory services. This article tells the story of this important period by bringing together details of the professional and personal lives of key individuals--the majority of whom were men--and exploring the new provincial health programs that were developed in B.C. during the interwar years.

  9. Saskatchewan Joins British Columbia in Introducing an Immunize or Mask Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Zarzeczny

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal influenza is a contagious respiratory infection for which certain populations, particularly seniors in long-term care and medically vulnerable individuals receiving care as in-patients in health care facilities, are at heightened risk for serious complications. Accordingly, annual influenza vaccination is a public health objective. In September 2014, Saskatchewan joined British Columbia and became the second Canadian province to implement a so-called “immunize or mask” policy that applies to individuals in patient care locations including, but not limited to, health care workers. The policy is focused on promoting patient safety by reducing the transmission of influenza in regional health authority facilities. On its face, this policy aligns well with the Ministry of Health’s commitments to patient-centered care, to quality improvement, and to thinking and acting as one system. The policy will be adopted and implemented by each of the 13 regional health authorities and the single cancer agency in the province. Preliminary evaluation is anticipated after this first year of policy implementation.

  10. Glacier change in the Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia, Canada (1952–2005

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    M. J. Beedle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We calculated dimensional change for 33 glaciers in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia for the latter half of the twentieth century. All glaciers receded during the period 1952–2005; area retreat averaged −0.19 ± 0.05% a−1. From 1952 to 1985, nine glaciers advanced. Following 1985, retreat rates accelerated to −0.41 ± 0.12% a−1. Thinning rates likewise accelerated, from −0.14 ± 0.04 m w.e. a−1 (1952–1985 to −0.50 ± 0.07 m w.e. a−1 for the period 1985–2005. Temperatures increased from the earlier to the latter period for the ablation (+0.38 °C and accumulation (+0.87 °C seasons, and average precipitation decreased, particularly in the accumulation season (−32 \\unit{mm}, −3.2%. Our comparison of surface area change with glacier morphometry corroborates previous studies that show primary relations between extent change and surface area. We also find, however, that the strength and sign of these relations varied for different epochs.

  11. Age and significance of earthquake-induced liquefaction near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, J.J.; Naesgaard, E.; Nelson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In late 1994, sand dykes, large sand blows, and deformed strata were exposed in the walls of an excavation at Annacis Island on the Fraser River delta near Vancouver, British Columbia. The features record liquefaction during a large earthquake about 1700 years ago; this was perhaps the largest earthquake to affect the Vancouver area in the last 3500 years. Similar, less well-dated features have been reported from several other sites on the Fraser delta and may be products of the same earthquake. Three radiocarbon ages that closely delimit the time of liquefaction on Annacis Island are similar to the most precise radiocarbon ages on coseismically subsided marsh soils at estuaries in southern Washington and Oregon. Both the liquefaction and the subsidence may have been produced by a single great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone. Alternatively, liquefaction at Annacis Island may have been caused by a large crustal or subcrustal earthquake of about the same age as a plate-boundary earthquake farther west. The data from Annacis Island and other sites on the Fraser delta suggest that earthquakes capable of producing extensive liquefaction in this area are rare events. Further, liquefaction analysis using historical seismicity suggests that current assessment procedures may overestimate liquefaction risk.

  12. Mind the gap : a blueprint for climate action in British Columbia : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailie, A.; Campbell, K.; Horne, M.; Jamison, A.; MacNab, J.; Picketts, I.; Wong, R.

    2007-11-15

    While the premier of British Columbia (BC) has stated that GHG emissions will be cut by 33 per cent by 2020, emissions in the province are continuing to rise. This paper provided recommendations for reducing the province's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by a further 31 million tonnes. The report suggested that in order to achieve its GHG reduction goals, the province must take action by implementing emission pricing through carbon taxes and a trade system within business and industry. Aggressive emission pricing and regulation is required in the oil and gas industry. Efficiency improvements in vehicles must be accompanied by a reduction in driving demand. Energy efficiency and renewable energy programs for residential buildings should be accelerated. The province should also consider imposing stricter regulations on methane in both the waste and agricultural sectors. Innovations in all sectors may contribute up to 16 million tonnes of GHG reductions. It was concluded that strong leadership is required to ensure that GHG reductions in the province are achieved. 14 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Jane A; Skutezky, Trevor; Tu, Andrew W; Waheed, Bilal; Wallace, Alex; Mak, Sunny

    2009-05-29

    Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD) relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC) in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14). Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24%) occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver) were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0%) p = 0.015. Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  14. Hydroclimatic variables and acute gastro-intestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada: A time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.; Parkes, M. W.; Li, L.; Takaro, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Using epidemiologic time series analysis, we examine associations between three hydroclimatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and waterborne acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) in two communities in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The communities were selected to represent the major hydroclimatic regimes that characterize BC: rainfall-dominated and snowfall dominated. Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime, and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatology plays a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI in these settings. Further, this study highlights that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic variability on AGI are different in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime versus a rainfall-dominated regimes. We conclude by proposing that the watershed may be an appropriate context for enhancing our understanding of the complex linkages between hydroclimatic variability and waterborne illness in the context of a changing climate.

  15. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Jane A; Sebastian, Renee; Clearsky, Lorne; Angus, Natalie; Shah, Lena; Lem, Marcus; Spacey, Sian D

    2011-01-21

    An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America.Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74%) of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55%) had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48%) cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents.Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings.

  16. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America. Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74% of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55% had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48% cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents. Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings.

  17. STI service delivery in British Columbia, Canada; providers' views of their services to youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaro Cindy L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about service providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and experiences in relation to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals seeking care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and how they influence the delivery of services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of STI care providers and the ways they approached their practice. Methods We used a qualitative approach drawing on methods used in thematic analysis. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 service providers delivering STI services in youth clinics, STI clinics, reproductive health clinics, and community public health units in British Columbia (BC, Canada. Results Service providers’ descriptions of their activities and roles were shaped by a number of themes including specialization, scarcity, and maintaining the status quo. The analysis suggests that service providers perceive, at times, the delivery of STI care to be inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion Findings from this study identify deficits in the delivery of STI services in BC. To understand these deficits, more research is needed to examine the larger health care structure within which service providers work, and how this structure not only informs and influences the delivery of services, but also how particular structural barriers impinge on and/or restrict practice.

  18. British Columbia's fish health regulatory framework's contribution to sustainability goals related to salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig; Dicicco, Emiliano; Munk, Brandon

    2008-12-01

    Salmon farming is a significant contribution to the global seafood market to which the goal of sustainability is often applied. Diseases related to farms are perhaps the most contentious issues associated with sustainable salmon farming. We reviewed literature and policies in British Columbia, Canada, as well as interviewed key informants to examine how fish health regulations do or could support sustainability goals. We found four main obstacles to the development and application of a sustainability-based health management system. First, salmon farming faced the same challenges as other industries when trying to establish an operational definition of sustainability that captures all stakeholders' interests. Second, there was no program responsible for integrating the various regulations, responsible departments, and monitoring efforts to develop a comprehensive view of sustainability. Third, there was inadequate research base and social consensus on the criteria that should be used to track health outcomes for sustainability purposes. Fourth, the regulatory and management paradigm for salmon farming has been focused on diseases and pathogens as opposed to embracing a more inclusive health promotion model that includes biotic, abiotic, and social determinants of health. A transparent and inclusive participatory process that effectively links expert views with community and industry concerns should serve as the foundation for the next generation of health management regulations for salmon farming.

  19. Smart Oceans BC: Supporting Coastal and Ocean Natural Hazards Mitigation for British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Insua, T. L.; Pirenne, B.; Hoeberechts, M.; McLean, S.

    2014-12-01

    Smart Oceans BC is a new multi-faceted program to support decision-makers faced with responding to natural disasters and hazards in Canada's Province of British Columbia. It leverages the unique capabilities of Ocean Networks Canada's cabled ocean observatories, NEPTUNE and VENUS to enhance public safety, marine safety and environmental monitoring. Smart Oceans BC combines existing and new marine sensing technology with its robust data management and archive system, Oceans 2.0, to deliver information and science for good ocean management and responsible ocean use. Smart Oceans BC includes new ocean observing infrastructure for: public safety, through natural hazard detection for earthquake groundshaking and near-field tsunamis; marine safety, by monitoring and providing alerts on sea state, ship traffic, and marine mammal presence; and environmental protection, by establishing baseline data in critical areas, and providing real-time environmental observations. Here we present the elements of this new ocean observing initiative that are focused on tsunami and earthquake early warning including cabled and autonomous sensor systems, real-time data delivery, software developments that enable rapid detection, analytics used in notification development, and stakeholder engagement plans.

  20. Linking recent observations of cyclic steps from fjords to outcropping stratigraphic products, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, S. M.; Coutts, D. S.; Covault, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Repeated bathymetric surveys of fjord prodeltas in Western Canada track channel erosion and deposition, which is interpreted to result from upstream migrating cyclic steps. Cyclic steps are long-wave (the ratio of wavelength to height is >>1), upstream-migrating bedforms that develop as a result of repeated internal hydraulic jumps in an overriding turbidity current at lee-to-stoss slope breaks. An internal hydraulic jump is the result of a transition from subaqueous densimetric Froude supercritical to subcritical flow. As the supercritical bedforms migrate greater than 90% of the deposits are reworked, making morphology- and facies- based recognition challenging in the depositional record. The objectives of this work are to use predictions of remnant bedform geometry from repeat bathymetric surveys to recognize cyclic step deposits in the stratigraphic record. We compare fjord deposits to Late Cretaceous submarine channel strata of the Nanaimo Group at Gabriola Island, British Columbia. In the Squamish prodelta, sediment accumulation on the stoss side of cyclic steps and erosion on the lee side promotes their up-slope migration. Deposits are modified by overriding turbidity currents, resulting in sedimentary bodies 5-30 m long, 0.5-2 m thick and migrating cyclic step deposits inform a revised interpretation of a high gradient channel setting dominated by supercritical flow in the Nanaimo Group. The outcrop perspective, tied to data from seafloor surveys, offers insights into the stratigraphy and preservation potential of these bedforms.

  1. A study of challenges and opportunities for long-term care dietitians in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Dunham, Rebecca; Kafka, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    While demand for long-term care (LTC) in Canada is expected to grow in the coming years, little is known about the current LTC dietetic workforce or its members' practice-related concerns. A web-based survey was developed and distributed to and subsequently completed by 75 LTC dietitians in British Columbia. The survey was intended to characterize dietitians' demographic characteristics, educational and employment experiences, salaries and benefits, future employment plans, and concerns about current practice. Regression models were used to examine the associations between demographic, educational, and employment characteristics and self-reported hourly wages. The majority of respondents were employed at more than one facility (57%) and did not belong to a union (71%). The mean hourly wage for LTC dietetics positions was $37.50 ± $5.85, and was significantly higher for positions that did not provide additional employee benefits (p < 0.05). Hourly wages were not significantly higher for dietitians with more years of experience or graduate-level education. Concerns were raised about potential implications of revised residential care regulations for workload, and only 36% of respondents reported being committed to working in the area of LTC dietetics in the future. This study highlights practice-related challenges and future opportunities to build the LTC dietetic workforce, and can inform planning for training, recruitment, and retention.

  2. 'Heated political dynamics exist ...': examining the politics of palliative care in rural British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Hanlon, Neil; Schuurman, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care is delivered by a number of professional groups and informal providers across a range of settings. This arrangement works well in that it maximizes avenues for providing care, but may also bring about complicated 'politics' due to struggles over control and decision-making power. Thirty-one interviews conducted with formal and informal palliative care providers in a rural region of British Columbia, Canada, are drawn upon as a case study. Three types of politics impacting on palliative care provision are identified: inter-community, inter-site, and inter-professional. Three themes crosscut these politics: ownership, entitlement, and administration. The politics revealed by the interviews, and heretofore underexplored in the palliative literature, have implications for the delivery of palliative care. For example, the outcomes of the politics simultaneously facilitate (e.g. by promoting advocacy for local services) and serve as a barrier to (e.g. by privileging certain communities/care sites/provider) palliative care provision.

  3. Differentiating sources of dissolved lead in mine waters using lead isotope techniques, Sullivan Mine, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitre, M. E.; Allen, D. M.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the use of Pb isotopes in acid rock drainage studies and outlines a protocol for sampling and analysis of dissolved Pb in mine waters. Groundwaters and surface waters were sampled at the Sullivan Mine, British Columbia, to quantify Pb isotope ratios and to identify possible sources of Pb in mine effluent and back groundwaters, respectively. The Sullivan Deposit is a sediment-hosted Fe-Pb-Zn massive sulphide deposit with a well-defined homogeneous Pb isotopic composition, which provided a suitable end-member for the isotopic study. The Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between the homogeneous Pb isotopic signature of the Sullivan Ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. This end-member may correspond to Pb in the host rocks (Aldridge Formation), Pb from aerosols that have infiltrated the local surficial deposits with recharge, or Pb from the surficial deposits themselves. Further study is needed to more completely characterize the composition of potential isotopic end-members in the study area. The study demonstrates that different source regions for Pb have distinct and measurable isotopic compositions, which enable "fingerprinting" sources of Pb contamination that result from ore deposits or from other sources.

  4. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  5. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  6. Exploring Public Health's roles and limitations in advancing food security in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Barbara A; Lang, Tim M; Caraher, Martin J; Ostry, Aleck S

    2014-07-22

    This research analyzes the roles and limitations of Public Health in British Columbia in advancing food security through the integration of food security initiatives into its policies and programs. It asks the question, can Public Health advance food security? If so, how, and what are its limitations? This policy analysis merges findings from 38 key informant interviews conducted with government and civil society stakeholders involved in the development of food security initiatives, along with an examination of relevant documents. The Population Health Template is used to delineate and analyze Public Health roles in food security. Public Health was able to advance food security in some ways, such as the adoption of food security as a core public health program. Public Health's leadership role in food security is constrained by a restricted mandate, limited ability to collaborate across a wide range of sectors and levels, as well as internal conflict within Public Health between Food Security and Food Protection programs. Public Health has a role in advancing food security, but it also faces limitations. As the limitations are primarily systemic and institutional, recommendations to overcome them are not simple but, rather, require movement toward embracing the determinants of health and regulatory pluralism. The results also suggest that the historic role of Public Health in food security remains salient today.

  7. Investigating 2010 Northern Cascadia ETS Processes With Absolute Gravity & Deformation Measurements Near Port Renfrew, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, J. A.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Kao, H.; Lambert, A.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of subduction zone Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) has been carried out primarily using seismic data for tremor and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) and strain- or tilt-meter observations for transient slip. The regularity of ETS episodes in the forearc of the northern Cascadia Subduction Zone has recently allowed us to schedule a series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to augment these other data and thereby help in understanding the physical processes involved in the generation of ETS. High-precision AG observations are sensitive to vertical motion of the observation site as well as mass redistribution during transient deformation. For the 2010 ETS event in the northern Cascadia, AG observations were carried out at Port Renfrew, British Columbia. The Port Renfrew region was targeted since it has typically had large (~7mm) vertical displacements measured at a nearby GPS site. Additionally this region has experienced large strains during past ETS episodes. The closest PBO borehole strainmeter to Port Renfrew, B004 (Sekiu, WA), typically experiences ETS shear strain transients exceeding 100 nanostrain. In this contribution, we focus on the analysis of the multiple epoch series of AG observations at Port Renfrew during the 2010 ETS event. The ratio of the change of surface gravity (Δg) to vertical displacement (Δh) during the ETS event will also be examined. This ratio provides unique constraints on processes involved in generating observed gravity signals and will help us explore the mechanism of ETS.

  8. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  9. Ecosystem management and the conservation of caribou habitat in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia inhabit a wide variety of forest ecosystems. Numerous research projects have provided information that has been used to develop caribou habitat management recommendations for different areas. Recently, the province has implemented guidelines to protect biodiversity that are based on an ecosystem management strategy of mimicking natural forest conditions. There is a great deal of similarity between caribou management recommendations and biodiversity recommendations within different forest types. In mountain caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining a landscape dominated by old and mature forests, uneven-aged management, small cutblocks, and maintaining mature forest connectivity. In northern caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining some older stands on the landscape (but less than for mountain caribou, even-aged management, and a mosaic of large harvest units and leave areas. The ecosystem management recommendations provide a useful foundation for caribou habitat conservation. More detailed information on caribou and other management objectives can then be used to fine-tune those recommendations.

  10. Bridging research and practice through the Nursing Research Facilitator Program in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Katrina; Ronquillo, Charlene; Axen, Linda; Black, Agnes; Cummings, Lynn; Chakraborty, Bubli

    2013-12-01

    As Canadian health systems transform to meet changing needs, grounding nursing practice in evidence remains an essential goal for providing safe, high-quality care. nursing research facilitators (NRFs) are strengthening the use of evidence in nursing practice across the province of British Columbia. NRFs are nurses with a research background, whose work is focused on supporting people within health systems to use and do research in their practice and decision-making. Since this role was established in 2009, NRFs have provided facilitative support to over 50 funded research projects, led numerous workshops and journal clubs, and conducted more than 600 research-related consultations. In this paper, we discuss the role and offer exemplars of creative ways in which NRFs are strengthening nurses' engagement in doing and using research by developing capacity for research and evidence-informed practice, building meaningful partnerships and cultivating a culture of curiosity among nurses and other healthcare providers. We reflect on factors contributing to the success of this role and some of the challenges of integration. The paper concludes with a comment on the strategic value of the role.

  11. Comparison of breast cancer survival in two populations: Ardabil, Iran and British Columbia, Canada

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    Babaei Masoud

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns in survival can provide information about the burden and severity of cancer, help uncover gaps in systemic policy and program delivery, and support the planning of enhanced cancer control systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the one-year survival rates for breast cancer in two populations using population-based cancer registries: Ardabil, Iran, and British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods All newly diagnosed cases of female breast cancer were identified in the Ardabil cancer registry from 2003 to 2005 and the BC cancer registry for 2003. The International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICDO was used for coding cancer morphology and topography. Survival time was determined from cancer diagnosis to death. Age-specific one-year survival rates, relative survival rates and weighted standard errors were calculated using life-tables for each country. Results Breast cancer patients in BC had greater one-year survival rates than patients in Ardabil overall and for each age group under 60. Conclusion These findings support the need for breast cancer screening programs (including regular clinical breast examinations and mammography, public education and awareness regarding early detection of breast cancer, and education of health care providers.

  12. Feeding site selection by woodland caribou in north-central British Columbia

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    Chris J. Johnson

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the foraging habits of the northern woodland caribou ecotype {Rangifer tarandus caribou at the scale of the individual feeding site. Field data were collected in north-central British Columbia over two winters (Dec 1996-Apr 1998. We trailed caribou and measured vegetation characteristics (species composition and percent cover, snow conditions (depth, density, and hardness, and canopy closure at terrestrial and arboreal feeding sites, and at random sites where feeding had not occurred. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes of feeding sites that were important to predicting fine scale habitat selection in forested and alpine areas. In the forest, caribou selected feeding sites that had a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis and Cladonia spp, lower snow depths, and a lower percentage of debris and moss. Biomass of Bryoria spp. at the 1-2 m stratum above the snow significantly contributed to predicting what trees caribou chose as arboreal feeding sites. In the alpine, caribou selected feeding sites with a greater percent cover of Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria nivalis, Thamnolia spp., and Stereocaulon alpinum as well as lower snow depths.

  13. Different responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors among Shanghai, Hong Kong, and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; He, Dai-Hai; Chiu, Alice PY; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Zhou, Maigeng; Wong, Chit-Ming; Guo, Qing; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-02-01

    Weather factors have long been considered as key sources for regional heterogeneity of influenza seasonal patterns. As influenza peaks coincide with both high and low temperature in subtropical cities, weather factors may nonlinearly or interactively affect influenza activity. This study aims to assess the nonlinear and interactive effects of weather factors with influenza activity and compare the responses of influenza epidemic to weather factors in two subtropical regions of southern China (Shanghai and Hong Kong) and one temperate province of Canada (British Columbia). Weekly data on influenza activity and weather factors (i.e., mean temperature and relative humidity (RH)) were obtained from pertinent government departments for the three regions. Absolute humidity (AH) was measured by vapor pressure (VP), which could be converted from temperature and RH. Generalized additive models were used to assess the exposure-response relationship between weather factors and influenza virus activity. Interactions of weather factors were further assessed by bivariate response models and stratification analyses. The exposure-response curves of temperature and VP, but not RH, were consistent among three regions/cities. Bivariate response model revealed a significant interactive effect between temperature (or VP) and RH (P environmental conditions.

  14. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  15. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in British Columbia grizzly bears: consequence of divergent diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Macdonald, Robie W; Whiticar, Michael; Ross, Peter S

    2005-09-15

    Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures in growing hair reveal that while some British Columbia grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) rely entirely on terrestrial foods, others switch in late summer to returning Pacific salmon (Oncorynchus spp.). Implications for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations and patterns measured in the two feeding groups of grizzly bears were profound. While the bears consuming a higher proportion of terrestrial vegetation ("interior" grizzlies) exhibited POP patterns dominated bythe more volatile organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the heavier polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs: e.g., BDE-209), the bears consuming salmon were dominated by the more bioaccumulative POPs (e.g., DDT, chlordanes, and BDE-47). The ocean-salmon-bear pathway appeared to preferentially select for those contaminants with intermediate partitioning strength from water into lipid (log Kow approximately 6.5). This pattern reflects an optimum contaminant log Kow range for atmospheric transport, deposition into the marine environment, uptake into marine biota, accumulation through the food web, and retention in the bear tissues. We estimate that salmon deliver 70% of all OC pesticides, up to 85% of the lower brominated PBDE congeners, and 90% of PCBs found in salmon-eating grizzly bears, thereby inextricably linking these terrestrial predators to contaminants from the North Pacific Ocean.

  17. After the outbreak: how the British Columbia commercial poultry industry recovered after H7N3 HPAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Victoria A

    2007-03-01

    In spring 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H7N3, occurred in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The active outbreak lasted more than 90 days; 42 commercial poultry farms were identified as infected premises, and more than 17 million birds were culled. Through the depopulation of HPAI-positive farms and the strategic depopulation of adjacent test-negative farms, a total of 410 commercial poultry farms were emptied. The goals for the commercial poultry industry were to expedite restocking, reduce nonproductive downtime, negotiate equitable financial compensation, review and restructure emergency disease response plans, and identify and implement mitigation strategies. After the outbreak, multijurisdictional reviews identified the strengths and weaknesses of the outbreak control strategy. Lessons learned were incorporated into current emergency disease response protocols for both industry and government. The industry-led challenge to initial compensation values, especially for specialty poultry and breeder birds, resulted in a review of the federal Health of Animals Act. The British Columbia poultry industry, in collaboration with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, developed an Enhanced Biosecurity Initiative that included the identification of mandatory on-farm biosecurity standards for commercial producers, an educational biosecurity self-assessment guide, and provisions for a producer self-quarantine to be enacted upon the first suspicion of disease.

  18. Taxonomic review of Hadromerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent waters, with the description of nine new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, William C; Ott, Bruce S; Reiswig, Henry M; Romagosa, Paula; Mcdaniel, Neil G

    2014-06-26

    The history of sponge collecting and systematics in British Columbia is reviewed over the period 1878 to 1966. Recent additions and changes are provided in an on-line species list: www.mareco/org/kml/projects/NEsponges.asp. Hadromerids are the focus of this paper as eight of 19 species in British Columbia are considered new. An additional new species is described from southern California to clarify the status of Tethya californiana in BC. An update is timely for hadromerids in BC as there is new material and renewed interest, while existing descriptions are often inadequate. We describe new species and provide additions to previous descriptions for sponges of the order Hadromerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) in the cold temperate NE Pacific off British Columbia and adjacent waters. We propose one range extension and one new species in Clionaidae; two range extensions and five new species in Polymastiidae; one range extension, two name changes and two new species in Suberitidae; and one new species in Tethyidae. New species include Pione gibraltarensis n.sp., Polymastia piscesae n. sp., Radiella endeavourensis n. sp., Sphaerotylus raphidophora n. sp., Sphaerotylus verenae n. sp., Weberella perlucida n. sp., Prosuberites saanichensis n. sp., Suberites lambei n. sp., and Tethya vacua n. sp..

  19. Arboreal forage lichens in partial cuts – a synthesis of research results from British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The mountain ecotype of the woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou is highly dependent on the arboreal hair lichens Bryoria spp. and Alectoria sarmentosa during winter. In parts of British Columbia, partial-cutting silvicultural systems have been used in an effort to provide continuously usable winter habitat for mountain caribou, while allowing some timber removal. We reviewed available information about the changes in hair lichens after partial cutting in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii – subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa forests of British Columbian and Idaho. Generally, abundance of Bryoria spp. in the lower canopy of individual residual trees increases with increased exposure after partial cutting, until the new regeneration begins to shelter the lower canopy of the residuals. Heavy basal area removal, however, results in low lichen availability at the stand level for many years. Abundance of Bryoria on the regeneration is low, and appears to be limited largely by the structure of the young trees, not by lichen dispersal, although dispersal capability may be limiting in Alectoria. Both distributional and physiological data suggest that Bryoria is intolerant of prolonged wetting, and that increased ventilation, rather than increased light, accounts for enhanced Bryoria abundance in the partial cuts. Alectoria sarmentosa reaches its physiological optimum in the lower canopy of unharvested stands; its growth rates are somewhat reduced in the more exposed environment of partial cuts. Both genera are capable of rapid growth: over a 7-year period, individual thalli of A. sarmentosa and Bryoria spp. (excluding those with a net biomass loss due to fragmentation in an unlogged stand more than tripled their biomass. Calculated growth rates, as well as dispersal potential, are influenced by fragmentation. Bryoria produces more abundant, but smaller, fragments than Alectoria, and fragmentation in both genera increases in partial cuts. In

  20. Risk analysis procedure for post-wildfire natural hazards in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Following a severe wildfire season in 2003, and several subsequent damaging debris flow and flood events, the British Columbia Forest Service developed a procedure for analysing risks to public safety and infrastructure from such events. At the same time, the Forest Service undertook a research program to determine the extent of post-wildfire hazards, and examine the hydrologic and geomorphic processes contributing to the hazards. The risk analysis procedure follows the Canadian Standards Association decision-making framework for risk management (which in turn is based on international standards). This has several steps: identification of risk, risk analysis and estimation, evaluation of risk tolerability, developing control or mitigation strategies, and acting on these strategies. The Forest Service procedure deals only with the first two steps. The results are passed on to authorities such as the Provincial Emergency Program and local government, who are responsible for evaluating risks, warning residents, and applying mitigation strategies if appropriate. The objective of the procedure is to identify and analyse risks to public safety and infrastructure. The procedure is loosely based on the BAER (burned area emergency response) program in the USA, with some important differences. Our procedure focuses on identifying risks and warning affected parties, not on mitigation activities such as broadcast erosion control measures. Partly this is due to limited staff and financial resources. Also, our procedure is not multi-agency, but is limited to wildfires on provincial forest land; in British Columbia about 95% of forest land is in the publicly-owned provincial forest. Each fire season, wildfires are screened by size and proximity to values at risk such as populated areas. For selected fires, when the fire is largely contained, the procedure begins with an aerial reconnaissance of the fire, and photography with a hand-held camera, which can be used to make a

  1. Long-Term Outcomes and Complications in Patients With Craniopharyngioma: The British Columbia Cancer Agency Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Andrea C., E-mail: andrealo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Howard, A. Fuchsia [School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan; Sidhu, Keerat; Abdulsatar, Farah [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Hasan, Haroon [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Goddard, Karen [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We report long-term outcomes and complications of craniopharyngioma patients referred to our institution. Methods and Materials: Between 1971 and 2010, 123 consecutive patients received primary treatment for craniopharyngioma in British Columbia and were referred to our institution. The median age was 30 years (range, 2-80 years). Thirty-nine percent of patients were treated primarily with subtotal resection (STR) and radiation therapy (RT), 28% with STR alone, 15% with gross total resection, 11% with cyst drainage (CD) alone, 5% with CD+RT, and 2% with RT alone. Eight percent of patients received intracystic bleomycin (ICB) therapy. Results: Median follow-up was 8.9 years, and study endpoints were reported at 10 years. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier progression-free survival (PFS) was 46%. Patients treated with STR+RT or CD+RT had the highest PFS (82% and 83%, respectively). There were no significant differences between PFS after adjuvant versus salvage RT (84% vs 74%, respectively; P=.6). Disease-specific survival (DSS) was 88%, and overall survival (OS) was 80%. Primary treatment modality did not affect DSS or OS, while older age was a negative prognostic factor for OS but not DSS. Kaplan-Meier rates for visual deterioration, anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, seizure disorder, and cerebrovascular events (CVE) due to treatment, not tumor progression, were 27%, 76%, 45%, 16%, and 11%, respectively. The CVE rate was 29% in patients who received ICB compared to 10% in those who did not (P=.07). Conclusions: We report favorable PFS in patients with craniopharyngioma, especially in those who received RT after surgery. DSS and OS rates were excellent regardless of primary treatment modality. We observed a high incidence of hypopituitarism, visual deterioration, and seizure disorder. Eleven percent of patients experienced CVEs after treatment. There was a suggestion of increased CVE risk in patients treated with ICB.

  2. Process Monitoring of an HIV Treatment as Prevention Program in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Lillian; Lima, Viviane D.; Heath, Kate; Nosyk, Bohdan; Gilbert, Mark; Colley, Guillaume; Consolacion, Theodora; Barrios, Rolando; Robert, Hogg; Krajden, Mel; Konrad, Stephanie; Murti, Michelle; Nelson, Joanne; May-Hadford, Jennifer; Haggerstone, James; Pick, Neora; Gustafson, Reka; Rusch, Melanie; Day, Irene; Montaner, Julio Sg

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of accumulated scientific evidence of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy, a growing number of jurisdictions worldwide have formally started to implement HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) programs. To date, no gold standard for TasP program monitoring has been described. Here, we describe the design and methods applied to TasP program process monitoring in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods Monitoring indicators were selected through a collaborative and iterative process by an interdisciplinary team including representatives from all five regional health authorities, the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE). An initial set of 36 proposed indicators were considered for inclusion. These were ranked on the basis of eight criteria: data quality, validity, scientific evidence, informative power of the indicator, feasibility, confidentiality, accuracy, and administrative requirement. The consolidated list of indicators was included in the final monitoring report, which was executed using linked population-level data. Results A total of 13 monitoring indicators were included in the BC TasP Monitoring Report. Where appropriate, indicators were stratified by subgroups of interest, including HIV risk group and demographic characteristics. Six Monitoring Reports are generated quarterly: one for each of the regional health authorities and a consolidated provincial report. Conclusions We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. PMID:25072608

  3. Californian forest fire plumes over Southwestern British Columbia: lidar, sunphotometry, and mountaintop chemistry observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. McKendry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Northern California and Oregon were responsible for two significant regional scale aerosol transport events observed in southern British Columbia during summer 2008. A combination of ground based (CORALNet and satellite (CALIPSO lidar, sunphotometry and high altitude chemistry observations permitted unprecedented characterization of forest fire plume height and mixing as well as description of optical properties and physicochemistry of the aerosol. In southwestern BC, lidar observations show the smoke to be mixed through a layer extending to 5–6 km a.g.l. where the aerosol was confined by an elevated inversion in both cases. Depolarization ratios for a trans-Pacific dust event (providing a basis for comparison and the two smoke events were consistent with observations of dust and smoke events elsewhere and permit discrimination of aerosol events in the region. Based on sunphotometry, the Aerosol Optical Thicknesses (AOT reached maxima of ~0.7 and ~0.4 for the two events respectively. Dubovik-retrieval values of reff, f during both the June/July and August events varied between about 0.13 and 0.15 μm and confirm the dominance of accumulation mode size particles in the forest fire plumes. Both Whistler Peak and Mount Bachelor Observatory data show that smoke events are accompanied by elevated CO and O3 concentrations as well as elevated K+/SO4 ratios. In addition to documenting the meteorology and physic-chemical characteristics of two regional scale biomass burning plumes, this study demonstrates the positive analytical synergies arising from the suite of measurements now in place in the Pacific Northwest, and complemented by satellite borne instruments.

  4. Homogenization of Monthly Temperaure Data and Climate Trend Analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Anslow, F. S.; Zwiers, F. W.; Atkinson, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Non-climatic variations (such as changes of instrument, station relocation, changes in observing time and procedure, etc.) in climate data can lead to discontinuities, causing the inaccurate analysis of the climatic characteristics for a given location. Thus, data quality control and homogenization is the crucial first step before properly analyzing climate trend and extremes. In Canada, the most recent Adjusted and Homogenized Canadian Climate Data (AHCCD) from Environment and Climate Change Canada have been produced for four climate variables at various temporal resolution, such as adjusted surface air temperature for 338 locations (Vincent et al., 2012), adjusted precipitation dataset for over 450 locations (Mekis and Vincent, 2011). In British Columbia (B.C.), thousands of stations from non-ECCC networks are available for quality control and homogenization. In this project, homogenization of monthly temperature data for 79 stations (more stations will be included) from three networks (BCHydro, Ministry of Forests Lands and Natural Resource Operations Wildfire Management Branch and the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure) is based on a penalized maximum t-test with Quantile-Matching (QM) algorithm to detect inhomogeneities and make adjustments to the data (Wang et al. 2007, Wang 2008a, Wang 2008b). The homogenized product from the project will be made available to climate researchers through the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium's (PCIC) data portal. Climate trends in the studied region (Northwest of B.C. and Vancouver Island) will be presented from the homogenized dataset and will be compared to those calculated from datasets without homogenization and the AHCCD data. After such evaluation, the results are expected to suggest an improvement in the ability of characterizing climate change with the homogenized datasets.

  5. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 offshore British Columbia-southeastern Alaska and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Ooms, Jonathan G.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The tectonics of the Pacific margin of North America between Vancouver Island and south-central Alaska are dominated by the northwest motion of the Pacific plate with respect to the North America plate at a velocity of approximately 50 mm/yr. In the south of this mapped region, convergence between the northern extent of the Juan de Fuca plate (also known as the Explorer microplate) and North America plate dominate. North from the Explorer, Pacific, and North America plate triple junction, Pacific:North America motion is accommodated along the ~650-km-long Queen Charlotte fault system. Offshore of Haida Gwaii and to the southwest, the obliquity of the Pacific:North America plate motion vector creates a transpressional regime, and a complex mixture of strike-slip and convergent (underthrusting) tectonics. North of the Haida Gwaii islands, plate motion is roughly parallel to the plate boundary, resulting in almost pure dextral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte fault. To the north, the Queen Charlotte fault splits into multiple structures, continuing offshore of southwestern Alaska as the Fairweather fault, and branching east into the Chatham Strait and Denali faults through the interior of Alaska. The plate boundary north and west of the Fairweather fault ultimately continues as the Alaska-Aleutians subduction zone, where Pacific plate lithosphere subducts beneath the North America plate at the Aleutians Trench. The transition is complex, and involves intraplate structures such as the Transition fault. The Pacific margin offshore British Columbia is one of the most active seismic zones in North America and has hosted a number of large earthquakes historically.

  6. Climatic impacts on the runoff generation processes in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loukas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of future climate change on runoff generation processes in two southern British Columbia catchments was explored using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCMa1 to estimate future changes in precipitation, temperature and cloud cover while the U.B.C. Watershed Model was used to simulate discharges and quantify the separate runoff components, i.e. rainfall, snowmelt, glacier melt and groundwater. Changes, not only in precipitation and temperature but also in the spatial distribution of precipitation with elevation, cloud cover, glacier extension, altitude distribution of vegetation, vegetation biomass production and plant physiology were considered. The future climate of the catchments would be wetter and warmer than the present. In the maritime rain-fed catchment of the Upper Campbell, runoff from rainfall is the most significant source of flow for present and future climatic conditions in the autumn and winter whereas runoff from groundwater generates the flow in spring and summer, especially for the future climate scenario. The total runoff, under the future climatic conditions, would increase in the autumn and winter and decrease in spring and summer. In contrast, in the interior snow-covered Illecillewaet catchment, groundwater is the most significant runoff generation mechanism in the autumn and winter although, at present, significant flow is generated from snowmelt in spring and from glacier runoff in summer. In the future scenario, the contribution to flow from snowmelt would increase in winter and diminish in spring while the runoff from the glacier would remain unchanged; groundwater would then become the most significant source of runoff, which would peak earlier in the season. Keywords: climatic change, hydrological simulation, rainfall, snowmelt, runoff processes

  7. The context of illicit drug overdose deaths in British Columbia, 2006

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    Waheed Bilal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit drug overdose deaths (IDD relate to individual drug dose and context of use, including use with other drugs and alcohol. IDD peaked in British Columbia (BC in 1998 with 417 deaths, and continues to be a public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine IDD in 2006 in BC by place of residence, injury and death, decedents' age and sex and substances identified. Methods IDD data was obtained through the BC Coroners Office and entered into SPSS (version 14. Fisher's exact and Pearson's χ2 were used for categorical data; Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous variables. Rates were calculated using 2006 population estimates. Results We identified 223 IDD in BC; 54 (24% occurred in Vancouver. Vancouver decedents (compared to those occurring outside Vancouver were older (mean age 43.9 vs. 39.2 years; p Cocaine was identified in 80.3%, opiates 59.6%, methadone 13.9%, methamphetamine/amphetamine 6.3%, and alcohol in 22.9% of deaths. Poly-substance use was common, 2 substances were identified in 43.8% and 3 or more in 34.5% of deaths. Opiates were more frequently identified in Vancouver compared to outside Vancouver (74.1% vs. 55.0% p = 0.015. Conclusion Collaboration with the Coroner's office allowed us to analyze IDD in detail including place of death; cocaine, opiates and poly-substance use were commonly identified. Poly-substance use should be explored further to inform public health interventions.

  8. A field study of coherent flow structures over low angle dunes: Fraser Estuary, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. W.; Hendershot, M. L.; Venditti, J. G.; Kostaschuk, R. A.; Allison, M. A.; Church, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Aqueous dunes are present in nearly all sand bedded alluvial channels and can significantly influence flow resistance and sediment transport and deposition. The geometry of these bedforms can take on a high angle asymmetrical or low angle symmetrical shape. While advances have been made in understanding the mean and turbulent flow over high angle dunes, far less progress has been made in detailing flow over low angle dunes, commonly observed in large rivers, due to difficulties measuring near the bed and quantifying the turbulence over these bedforms. This field study documents the flow over low angle dunes in the Fraser Estuary, British Columbia, using an acoustic Doppler profiler (aDcp) to measure 3-D flow characteristics and a multi-beam echo sounder (MBES) to provide high-resolution bed topography. Measurements were made over a dune field (~1 km long and ~0.5 wide) through two semi-diurnal tidal cycles during the 2010 freshet. We examine the coupling between the bedform morphology and the generation of coherent flow structures. Bedforms in the dune field range from low-angle symmetric to higher angle asymmetric and vary over tidal cycles; however, none display the classic angle of repose geometry. Mean flow velocity increases on falling tide while it decreases the rising tide. At lower tides, large scale motions caused by topographic forcing emerge on stoss slopes and rise up over the crest producing variations in suspended sediment over the bedforms. Our analysis is intended to contribute insight into what controls the occurrence of low angle bedforms in rivers.

  9. Offshore oil and gas and coastal British Columbia : Aboriginal rights, title and interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D. [First Nations Summit, West Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation discussed the legal duty of offshore proponents in the oil and gas industry to consult with Aboriginal nations. The Crown court's support for Aboriginal title to ocean areas within proposed offshore regions was also discussed, and Aboriginal rights to manage ocean resources were outlined. Haida and Taku River Tlingit legal decisions have confirmed both a constitutional and fiduciary duty for the Crown to consult with Aboriginal nations who assert their rights or title to lands subject to development. Resource rights granted without meaningful consultation with Aboriginal nations can be challenged, which may result in legal and financial liability for resource companies. A consultative process that addresses ownership, capacity and benefit sharing must be developed so that Aboriginal governments can participate in the design and development of appropriate fiscal and regulatory regimes. The developed regime must consider benefit and revenue sharing, as well as the integration of traditional knowledge within western science for the lifetime of any project. All decision-making bodies must include participation from Aboriginal groups. Mechanisms must also be developed to mitigate the environmental and socio-economic consequences of resource development. Impact and benefit agreements must be negotiated with coastal nations. Dissatisfaction with the concept of consultation processes has led first nations to reconsider the role that they must play in ensuring that oil and gas developments in the coastal regions of British Columbia do not negatively impact on their communities. It was noted that Inuit land claims reserve special rights for the Inuit over 18,800 miles of tidal waters. Earlier attempts by Aboriginal societies to assert their right to control their own ocean resources free from governmental interference were also discussed. It was concluded that litigation of Aboriginal rights and title poses serious challenges to offshore oil and gas

  10. Propagule pressure and stream characteristics influence introgression: Cutthroat and rainbow trout in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S.N.; Olson, J.R.; Kershner, J.L.; Corbett, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between introduced and native salmonids threaten the continued persistence of many inland cutthroat trout species. Environmental models have been developed to predict the spread of introgression, but few studies have assessed the role of propagule pressure. We used an extensive set of fish stocking records and geographic information system (GIS) data to produce a spatially explicit index of potential propagule pressure exerted by introduced rainbow trout in the Upper Kootenay River, British Columbia, Canada. We then used logistic regression and the information-theoretic approach to test the ability of a set of environmental and spatial variables to predict the level of introgression between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Introgression was assessed using between four and seven co-dominant, diagnostic nuclear markers at 45 sites in 31 different streams. The best model for predicting introgression included our GIS propagule pressure index and an environmental variable that accounted for the biogeoclimatic zone of the site (r2 = 0.62). This model was 1.4 times more likely to explain introgression than the next-best model, which consisted of only the propagule pressure index variable. We created a composite model based on the model-averaged results of the seven top models that included environmental, spatial, and propagule pressure variables. The propagule pressure index had the highest importance weight (0.995) of all variables tested and was negatively related to sites with no introgression. This study used an index of propagule pressure and demonstrated that propagule pressure had the greatest influence on the level of introgression between a native and introduced trout in a human-induced hybrid zone. ?? 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia's harvest, 1965-2065.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C

    2012-07-24

    The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC's greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC's protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  12. The hydrochemistry of high-elevation lakes in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. SHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available High-elevation lakes are sensitive to acidification from atmospheric deposition owing to their generally small catchment areas, thin soils and low bedrock weathering rates. The Georgia Basin, southwest British Columbia, Canada, receives atmospheric inputs from emissions originating in Vancouver, Victoria, and from marine traffic in the Strait of Georgia. There is growing concern on the influence of this air pollution on high-elevation systems in the region. Water chemistry and catchment characteristics were used to assess the sensitivity of 72 lakes in the Georgia Basin to acidic deposition. Twenty percent of the study lakes had pH levels less than 6, and acid neutralising capacity (ANC concentrations below 20 μeq L–1, which are key thresholds for biological sustainability. Base cation and trace metal concentrations were low, typical of the dilute nature of high-elevation lakes (median conductivity = 7.0 μS cm–1. Nonetheless, concentrations of trace metals (such as lead decreased with distance from major cities. The primary factors influencing the pH and ANC of surface waters were investigated using multiple linear regression; both ANC and pH were related to longitude and the proportion of the catchment dominated by ice and glaciers. Increasing sulphur deposition resulted in decreasing pH. The median critical load of acidity (sulphur for the study lakes was approximately 70 meq m–2 y–1; 18% of the lakes received sulphur deposition (range: 6-81 meq m–2 y–1 for the period 2005-2006 in excess of their critical load.

  13. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

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    Lorna J O'Brien

    Full Text Available Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia. With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length, has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain

  14. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Schultz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances.

  15. Subtidal circulation in a deep-silled fjord: Douglas Channel, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Di; Hannah, Charles G.; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Dosso, Stan

    2017-05-01

    Douglas Channel, a deep fjord on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada, is the main waterway in the fjord system that connects the town of Kitimat to Queen Charlotte Sound and Hecate Strait. A 200 m depth sill divides Douglas Channel into an outer and an inner basin. This study examines the low-frequency (from seasonal to meteorological bands) circulation in Douglas Channel from data collected at three moorings deployed during 2013-2015. The deep flows are dominated by a yearly renewal that takes place from May/June to early September. A dense bottom layer with a thickness of 100 m that cascades through the system at the speed of 0.1-0.2 m s-1, which is consistent with gravity currents. Estuarine flow dominates the circulation above the sill depth, and the observed landward net volume flux suggests that it is necessary to include the entire complex channel network to fully understand the estuarine circulation in the system. The influence of the wind forcing on the subtidal circulation is not only at the surface, but also at middepth. The along-channel wind dominates the surface current velocity fluctuations and the sea level response to the wind produces a velocity signal at 100-120 m in the counter-wind direction. Overall, the circulation in the seasonal and the meteorological bands is a mix of estuarine flow, direct wind-driven flow, and the barotropic and baroclinic responses to changes to the surface pressure gradient caused by the wind stress.

  16. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  17. Methane Emissions from Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Developments in Northeastern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, E. E.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Lavoie, M.; Marshall, A. D.; Werring, J.

    2016-12-01

    If we are to attain the recent North American goals to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, we must understand emission patterns across developments of different types. In this study we quantified the incidence of CH4 emissions from unconventional natural gas infrastructure accessing the Montney play in British Columbia, Canada. We used mobile surveying to collect CH4 and CO2 measurements over 11,000 km of survey campaigns. Our routes brought us past more than 1600 unique well pads and facilities, and we repeated the six routes 7-10 times during summer (2015) and winter (2016) to explore temporal variability. Well pads and facilities were considered probable emission sources only if they were upwind by 500 m or less from the survey vehicle, and on-road concentrations were in excess of local background. In the summer campaigns we found that 47% of individual active production wells emitted CH4-rich plumes, and most of them emitted persistently across repeat surveys. Older infrastructure tended to emit more frequently (per unit), with comparable severity to younger infrastructure in terms of measured excess concentrations on-road. About 26% of abandoned wells were also found to be emitting. Extrapolating our emission incidence values across all abandoned oil and gas infrastructure in the BC portion of the Montney, we estimate that there are more than 550 abandoned wells in this area that could be emitting CH4-rich plumes. The results of this study suggest that analyzing emitting infrastructure by ages and operational differences can help delineate emission trends. Considering the recent industry downturn, our results also highlight the importance of focusing emission reduction efforts on abandoned and suspended infrastructure, as well as active. This is the first bottom-up monitoring study of fugitive emissions in the Canadian energy sector, and the results can be used to inform policy development to reduce energy-related emissions.

  18. A new stalked filter-feeder from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lorna J; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type deposits provide invaluable insights into the early evolution of body plans and the ecological structure of Cambrian communities, but a number of species, continue to defy phylogenetic interpretations. Here we extend this list to include a new soft-bodied animal, Siphusauctum gregarium n. gen. and n. sp., from the Tulip Beds (Campsite Cliff Shale Member, Burgess Shale Formation) of Mount Stephen (Yoho National Park, British Columbia). With 1,133 specimens collected, S. gregarium is clearly the most abundant animal from this locality.This stalked animal (reaching at least 20 cm in length), has a large ovoid calyx connected to a narrow bilayered stem and a small flattened or bulb-like holdfast. The calyx is enclosed by a flexible sheath with six small openings at the base, and a central terminal anus near the top encircled by indistinct openings. A prominent organ, represented by six radially symmetrical segments with comb-like elements, surrounds an internal body cavity with a large stomach, conical median gut and straight intestine. Siphusauctum gregarium was probably an active filter-feeder, with water passing through the calyx openings, capturing food particles with its comb-like elements. It often occurs in large assemblages on single bedding planes suggesting a gregarious lifestyle, with the animal living in high tier clusters. These were probably buried en masse more or less in-situ by rapid mud flow events.Siphusauctum gregarium resembles Dinomischus, another Cambrian enigmatic stalked animal. Principal points of comparison include a long stem with a calyx containing a visceral mass and bract-like elements, and a similar lifestyle albeit occupying different tiering levels. The presence in both animals of a digestive tract with a potential stomach and anus suggest a grade of organization within bilaterians, but relationships with extant phyla are not straightforward. Thus, the broader affinities of S. gregarium remain largely unconstrained.

  19. An epidemiologic study of disease in 32 registered Holstein dairy herds in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, R T; Martin, S W; Shoukri, M M; Noordhuizen, J P; Dekkers, J C

    1999-07-01

    Data recorded in a herd health management system were obtained from 32 registered Holstein dairy herds from British Columbia. Frequencies of disease were described, and the effect of herd, age, year, season, and the interrelationships between diseases within a lactation on the occurrence of disease were evaluated. Lactational incidence rates were computed for diseases with a short period of risk (ie, udder edema, milk fever, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis), whereas for diseases with a longer period of risk (ie, cystic ovaries, mastitis and stable footrot), incidence densities were calculated. Overall, the disease incidence was low and showed an increase in frequency by year, which we attributed to more observing and complete recording by the owner, rather than an actual increase in disease incidence. Most diseases occurred early in lactation and their frequency increased with lactation number; the exception was udder edema, which occurred mainly during the first 2 lactations. An informal path model of disease interrelationships was made conditional on herd. Based on the results we inferred 2 independent pathways: one started by udder edema, and the other by milk fever. Udder edema was directly associated with mastitis occurrence from 0 to 30 d in lactation, metritis, and cystic ovaries. Mastitis from 0-30 d in lactation increased the risk of both mastitis from 31-150 d in lactation and cystic ovaries. Both of these increased the risk of late lactation mastitis. Milk fever was directly related with displaced abomasum, which increased the risk of footrot. In general, diseases that occurred in early lactation tended to increase the risk of other diseases later in lactation.

  20. Dynamics of a gravel bed stream in transition: Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.; Eaton, B. C.; Giles, T.

    2006-12-01

    In August 2003, a forest fire burnt the entire floodplain and most of the contributing drainage basin of Fishtrap Creek, British Columbia. The riparian vegetation, which consisted primarily of mature cottonwoods and redcedar trees, suffered nearly 100% mortality due to the fire: none of the dead trees have since been removed, following the fire. The post-fire riparian vegetation comprises various herbaceous species, as well as some small shrubs and trees. The UBC regime model predicts that such a change in bank vegetation will result in an eventual transition from a narrow, stable, single thread stream channel to an unstable, multiple- thread channel about twice as wide as the original. During the snowmelt freshet of 2006, the first signs of significant channel change were documented in the field. We use three years of repeated cross sectional surveys and low level aerial photography from before and after the freshet to characterize the changes in channel geometry. We also documented the patterns of sediment transfer during the freshet using data from magnetic tracers. The tracers were deployed at four locations throughout the 300 m-long study reach: the distribution of transport distances for each tracer stone population were strongly conditioned by the sequence of morphologic changes occurring along the stream channel. Our results suggest that typical step lengths in gravel bed streams can be much larger than the bar-to-bar spacing and furthermore that they are quite variable, even over short distances. These results are the first stages of a long-term study of stream channel response to, and recovery from, a catastrophic disturbance. The project will eventually allow us to test and calibrate the UBC regime model and to identify the characteristic timescales associated with these sorts of channel adjustments.

  1. Evidence for a trophic cascade on rocky reefs following sea star mass mortality in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Ryan N.; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm population collapses, driven by disease outbreaks and climatic events, may be important drivers of population dynamics, ecological shifts and biodiversity. The northeast Pacific recently experienced a mass mortality of sea stars. In Howe Sound, British Columbia, the sunflower star Pycnopodia helianthoides—a previously abundant predator of bottom-dwelling invertebrates—began to show signs of a wasting syndrome in early September 2013, and dense aggregations disappeared from many sites in a matter of weeks. Here, we assess changes in subtidal community composition by comparing the abundance of fish, invertebrates and macroalgae at 20 sites in Howe Sound before and after the 2013 sea star mortality to evaluate evidence for a trophic cascade. We observed changes in the abundance of several species after the sea star mortality, most notably a four-fold increase in the number of green sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and a significant decline in kelp cover, which are together consistent with a trophic cascade. Qualitative data on the abundance of sunflower stars and green urchins from a citizen science database show that the patterns of echinoderm abundance detected at our study sites reflected wider local trends. The trophic cascade evident at the scale of Howe Sound was observed at half of the study sites. It remains unclear whether the urchin response was triggered directly, via a reduction in urchin mortality, or indirectly, via a shift in urchin distribution into areas previously occupied by the predatory sea stars. Understanding the ecological implications of sudden and extreme population declines may further elucidate the role of echinoderms in temperate seas, and provide insight into the resilience of marine ecosystems to biological disturbances. PMID:27168988

  2. Postglacial relative sea-level history of the Prince Rupert area, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letham, Bryn; Martindale, Andrew; Macdonald, Rebecca; Guiry, Eric; Jones, Jacob; Ames, Kenneth M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a history of relative sea level (RSL) change for the last 15,000 years in the Prince Rupert region on the northern coast of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred twenty-three radiocarbon ages of organic material from isolation basin cores, sediment sequence exposures, and archaeological sites having a recognized relation to past sea levels constrain postglacial RSL. The large number of new measurements relating to past sea-level provides a well constrained RSL curve that differs in significant ways from previously published results. After deglaciation following the Last Glacial Maximum, the region experienced an isostatically-induced rapid RSL drop from as much 50 m asl to as low as -6.3 m asl in as little as a few centuries between 14,500 BP and 13,500 BP. After a lowstand below current sea level for about 2000 years during the terminal Pleistocene, RSL rose again to a highstand at least 6 m asl after the end of the Younger Dryas. RSL slowly dropped through the Holocene to close to its current position by 2000-1500 BP, with some potential fluctuations between 3500 and 1500 BP. This study highlights variation in RSL histories across relatively short distances, which must be accounted for by local RSL reconstructions such as this one. This RSL curve aided in the identification of an 8000-9000 year old archaeological site on a 10-12 m asl terrace, which is currently the earliest dated archaeological site in the area, and it provides guidance for searching for even older archaeological remains. We highlight the utility and potential of this refined RSL history for developing surveys for other archaeological sites associated with paleoshorelines.

  3. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of measurements

  4. Options for sequestration of CO{sub 2} from major stationary point sources, British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danae A. Voormeij; George J. Simandl [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study presents a conceptual overview of the major CO{sub 2} point sources for British Columbia (BC), Canada, and suggests potential geological sinks for the disposal of these emissions. In BC, stationary sources of CO{sub 2} include operations in aluminium and glass manufacturing; cement, chemical and smelting industries; oil and gas processing; coal operations; waste incinerators; pulp and paper mills; and, potentially, thermal power plants. In 2003, these point sources generated approximately 17 Mt of CO{sub 2} equivalent, about 26% of BC's total estimated GHG emissions. Major single stationary point sources or clusters of smaller stationary sources with combined emissions in excess of 500 kt/yr are located in the Vancouver area, Fort Nelson, Campbell River, Kitimat, Fort St. John, and Elkford.. BC is located on a tectonically active continental margin, which consists of a variety of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic lithologies underlain by a crystalline basement. CO{sub 2} sequestration potential in sedimentary basins similar to that in Alberta is applicable only in northeastern BC. Alternate options need to be considered for the rest of BC, including injection of CO{sub 2} into deep coal seams, ocean disposal and mineral carbonation. Matching large stationary point sources to suitable sinks suggests that northeastern BC has potential for injection into deep saline aquifers, depleted gas reservoirs and coal beds. Vancouver Island and southeastern BC are also partly underlain by deep coal beds. Large tracts of ultramafic rocks bearing magnesium silicates indicate that the raw material necessary for the mineral sequestration process exists in sufficient amounts to sequester CO{sub 2} emissions from point sources in the Vancouver and Prince George regions. Offshore sedimentary basins are under a moratorium, which limits sequestration planning for stationary CO{sub 2}-emission sources located along the west coast. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  6. Does general surgery residency prepare surgeons for community practice in British Columbia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hamish

    2009-01-01

    Background Preparing surgeons for clinical practice is a challenging task for postgraduate training programs across Canada. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single surgeon entering practice was adequately prepared by comparing the type and volume of surgical procedures experienced in the last 3 years of training with that in the first year of clinical practice. Methods During the last 3 years of general surgery training, I logged all procedures. In practice, the Medical Services Plan (MSP) of British Columbia tracks all procedures. Using MSP remittance reports, I compiled the procedures performed in my first year of practice. I totaled the number of procedures and broke them down into categories (general, colorectal, laparoscopic, endoscopic, hepatobiliary, oncologic, pediatric, thoracic, vascular and other). I then compared residency training with community practice. Results I logged a total of 1170 procedures in the last 3 years of residency. Of these, 452 were performed during community rotations. The procedures during residency could be broken down as follows: 392 general, 18 colorectal, 242 laparoscopic, 103 endoscopic, 85 hepatobiliary, 142 oncologic, 1 pediatric, 78 thoracic, 92 vascular and 17 other. I performed a total of 1440 procedures in the first year of practice. In practice the break down was 398 general, 15 colorectal, 101 laparoscopic, 654 endoscopic, 2 hepatobiliary, 77 oncologic, 10 pediatric, 0 thoracic, 70 vascular and 113 other. Conclusion On the whole, residency provided excellent preparation for clinical practice based on my experience. Areas of potential improvement included endoscopy, pediatric surgery and “other,” which comprised mostly hand surgery. PMID:19503663

  7. Five-Year Incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in British Columbia (2010-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golby, Riley; Poirier, Brigitte; Fabros, Marife; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Yousefi, Masoud; Cashman, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative neurological disease with significant effects on quality of life. International studies continue to provide consistent incidence values, though complete case ascertainment remains a challenge. The Canadian population has been understudied, and there are currently no quantitative data on the incidence of ALS in British Columbia (BC). The objectives of this study were to determine the five-year incidence rates of ALS in BC and to characterize the demographic patterns of the disease. The capture-recapture method was employed to estimate ALS incidence over a five-year period (2010-2015). Two sources were used to identify ALS cases: one database from an ALS medical centre and another from a not-for-profit ALS organization. During this time period, there were 690 incident cases within the two sources. The capture-recapture method estimated 57 unobserved cases, corresponding to a crude five-year incidence rate of 3.29 cases per 100,000 (CI 95%=3.05-3.53). The mean age of diagnosis was 64.6 (CI 95%=59.7-69.4), with 63.5 (CI 95%=56.9-70.1) for men and 65.7 (CI 95%=58.6-72.7) for women. There was a slight male preponderance in incidence, with a 1.05:1 ratio to females. Peak numbers in incidence occurred between the ages of 70 and 79. The incidence of ALS in BC was found to be consistent with international findings though nominally higher than that in other Canadian provinces to date.

  8. Seasonal habitat use and selection by grizzly bears in Northern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milakovic, B.; Parker, K.L.; Gustine, D.D.; Lay, R.J.; Walker, A.B.D.; Gillingham, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    We defined patterns of habitat use and selection by female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Besa-Prophet watershed of northern British Columbia. We fitted 13 adult females with Geographic Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars and monitored them between 2001 and 2004. We examined patterns of habitat selection by grizzly bears relative to topographical attributes and 3 potential surrogates of food availability: land-cover class, vegetation biomass or quality (as measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), and selection value for prey species themselves (moose [Alces alces], elk [Cervus elaphus], woodland caribou [Rangifer tarandus], Stone's sheep [Ovis dalli stonei]). Although vegetation biomass and quality, and selection values for prey were important in seasonal selection by some individual bears, land-cover class, elevation, aspect, and vegetation diversity most influenced patterns of habitat selection across grizzly bears, which rely on availability of plant foods and encounters with ungulate prey. Grizzly bears as a group avoided conifer stands and areas of low vegetation diversity, and selected for burned land-cover classes and high vegetation diversity across seasons. They also selected mid elevations from what was available within seasonal ranges. Quantifying relative use of different attributes helped place selection patterns within the context of the landscape. Grizzly bears used higher elevations (1,595??31 m SE) in spring and lower elevations (1,436??27 m) in fall; the range of average elevations used among individuals was highest (500 m) during the summer. During all seasons, grizzly bears most frequented aspects with high solar gain. Use was distributed across 10 land-cover classes and depended on season. Management and conservation actions must maintain a diverse habitat matrix distributed across a large elevational gradient to ensure persistence of grizzly bears as levels of human access increase in the northern Rocky Mountains

  9. A synthesis of scale-dependent ecology of the endangered mountain caribou in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Serrouya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mountain caribou are an endangered ecotype of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou that live in highprecipitation, mountainous ecosystems of southeastern British Columbia and northern Idaho. The distribution and abundance of these caribou have declined dramatically from historical figures. Results from many studies have indicated that mountain caribou rely on old conifer forests for several life-history requirements including an abundance of their primary winter food, arboreal lichen, and a scarcity of other ungulates and their predators. These old forests often have high timber value, and understanding mountain caribou ecology at a variety of spatial scales is thus required to develop effective conservation strategies. Here we summarize results of studies conducted at three different spatial scales ranging from broad limiting factors at the population level to studies describing the selection of feeding sites within seasonal home ranges of individuals. The goal of this multi-scale review is to provide a more complete picture of caribou ecology and to determine possible shifts in limiting factors across scales. Our review produced two important results. First, mountain caribou select old forests and old trees at all spatial scales, signifying their importance for foraging opportunities as well as conditions required to avoid alternate ungulates and their predators. Second, relationships differ across scales. For example, landscapes dominated by roads and edges negatively affect caribou survival, but appear to attract caribou during certain times of the year. This juxtaposition of fine-scale behaviour with broad-scale vulnerability to predation could only be identified through integrated multi-scale analyses of resource selection. Consequently we suggest that effective management strategies for endangered species require an integrative approach across multiple spatial scales to avoid a focus that may be too narrow to maintain viable

  10. Small Sawmills Persevere While the Majors Close: Evaluating Resilience and Desirable Timber Allocation in British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn W. Pinkerton; Jordan Benner

    2013-01-01

    We compared the resilience to economic shocks--such as the downturn of the U.S. housing market--of commodity sawmills, which tend to be large, and value-added specialty sawmills, which tend to be small or medium in size, that are located in one region of the province of British Columbia, Canada, as measured by their average days in operation over the last decade and during the 2007-2009 recession. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures, we then examined three behavioral ...

  11. Measuring Maturity of Use for Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) in British Columbia: The Physician Information Technology Office (PITO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Carol; Hagens, Simon; Baldwin, Anne; Anderson, Carol J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines British Columbia (BC)'s Physician Information Technology Office's efforts to measure and improve the use of electronic medical records (EMRs) by select practices in BC with an assessment of their progress using a maturity model, and targeted support. The follow-up assessments showed substantial increases in the physicians' scores resulting from action plans that comprised a series of tailored support activities. Specifically, there was an increase from 21% to 83% of physicians who could demonstrate that they used their EMRs as the principal method of record-keeping.

  12. Flow and suspended sediment transport through the gravel-sand transition in the Fraser River, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Fraser River, British Columbia is a large alluvial channel that features an abrupt gravel-sand transition that occurs due to a dramatic slope change and the ocean base-level control. There have been no previous observations of the sediment dynamics through transitions in rivers of this scale. I examine the spatial and temporal changes in flow and the suspended sediment transport regime through the transition using hydro-acoustics in an attempt to test the hypothesis that sand in the grave...

  13. Renovating the built environment for dementia care: lessons learned at the Lodge at Broadmead in Victoria, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaedinger, Nancy; Robinson, Janice; Sudbury, Fiona; Dutchak, Merv

    2007-01-01

    Major renovations were carried out in occupied dementia care units at the Lodge at Broadmead, Victoria, British Columbia. A 32-bed lodge was divided into two, requiring the relocation of three sets of doors. Home-like kitchens and living and dining rooms were built and furnished in each unit. A silent resident call system was installed. Nursing stations were moved off the unit. Murals added atmosphere and camouflaged exit doors. The process, while challenging, was successful due to comprehensive planning, careful phasing, the contractor's daily presence, the education of construction workers about residents, constant communication among key people and cooperation of lodge staff. Preliminary results are positive.

  14. Health Care Workers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Behaviors Regarding Antineoplastic Drugs: Survey From British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Teschke, Kay; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Although nurses are knowledgeable regarding the risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, they often do not adhere with safe work practices. However, the knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of other health care job categories at risk of exposure has yet to be determined. This study aimed to survey a range of health care workers from British Columbia, Canada about their knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding antineoplastic drugs. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to participants querying the degree of contact with antineoplastics, knowledge of risks associated with antineoplastics, perceptions of personal risk, previous training with respect to antineoplastics, and safe work practices. Subjects were recruited from health care facilities in and around Vancouver. Fisher's exact tests were performed to ascertain whether there were differences in responses between job categories. We received responses from 120 participants representing seven different job categories. Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses were more knowledgeable regarding risks than other job categories examined (statistically significant difference). Although 80% of respondents were not afraid of working with or near antineoplastics, there were concerns about the suitability of current control measures and practices employed by co-workers. Only half of respondents felt confident that they could handle all situations where there was a potential for exposure. Only one of the perception questions, self-perceived risk of exposure to antineoplastic drugs, differed significantly between job categories. Not all respondents always wore gloves when directly handling antineoplastic drugs. Further, hand hygiene was not regularly practiced after glove usage or after being in an area where antineoplastic drugs are handled. The majority of responses to questions related to safe work practices differed significantly between job categories. Our results suggest that knowledge regarding risks

  15. British Columbia Hospitals: examination and assessment of payment reform (B-CHeaPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barer Morris L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accounting for 36% of public spending on health care in Canada, hospitals are a major target for cost reductions through various efficiency initiatives. Some provinces are considering payment reform as a vehicle to achieve this goal. With few exceptions, Canadian provinces have generally relied on global and line-item budgets to contain hospital costs. There is growing interest amongst policy-makers for using activity based funding (ABF as means of creating financial incentives for hospitals to increase the 'volume' of care, reduce cost, discourage unnecessary activity, and encourage competition. British Columbia (B.C. is the first province in Canada to implement ABF for partial reimbursement of acute hospitalization. To date, there have been no formal examinations of the effects of ABF policies in Canada. This study proposal addresses two research questions designed to determine whether ABF policies affect health system costs, access and hospital quality. The first question examines the impact of the hospital funding policy change on internal hospital activity based on expenditures and quality. The second question examines the impact of the change on non-hospital care, including readmission rates, amount of home care provided, and physician expenditures. Methods/Design A longitudinal study design will be used, incorporating comprehensive population-based datasets of all B.C. residents; hospital, continuing care and physician services datasets will also be used. Data will be linked across sources using anonymized linking variables. Analytic datasets will be created for the period between 2005/2006 and 2012/2013. Discussion With Canadian hospitals unaccustomed to detailed scrutiny of what services are provided, to whom, and with what results, the move toward ABF is significant. This proposed study will provide evidence on the impacts of ABF, including changes in the type, volume, cost, and quality of services provided. Policy

  16. Carbonate-hosted nonsulphide Zn-Pb mineralization of southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Suzanne; Keevil, Halley; Simandl, George J.; Raudsepp, Mati

    2015-12-01

    Many carbonate-hosted sulphide deposits in the Salmo district of southern British Columbia have near-surface Zn- and Pb-bearing iron oxide-rich gossans. The gossans formed when carbonate-hosted, base metal sulphides were subjected to intense supergene weathering processes and metals were liberated by the oxidation of sulphide minerals. Two types of supergene carbonate-hosted nonsulphide deposits, direct replacement (`red ore') and wallrock replacement (`white ore'), are present in the Salmo district. The direct replacement deposits formed by the oxidation of primary sulphides; the base metals passed into solution and were redistributed and trapped within the space occupied by the oxidized portion of the sulphide protore. Depending on the extent of replacement of the sulphides by Zn-, Pb- and Fe-bearing oxides, silicates, carbonates and phosphates, the resulting ore can be called `mixed' (sulphides and nonsulphides) or simply `nonsulphide'. The wallrock replacement deposits formed when base metals liberated by the oxidation of sulphides were transported by circulating supergene solutions down and/or away from the sulphides to form wallrock replacement deposits. The direct replacement nonsulphide zones of the Salmo district overlay the sulphide bodies in which they replaced the sulphides and carbonates, forming large irregular replacement masses, encrustations and open-space fillings. They consist predominantly of hematite, goethite, hemimorphite [Zn4Si2O7(OH)2·H2O], minor hydrozincite [Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6], cerussite [PbCO3] and traces of willemite [Zn2SiO4]. The wallrock replacement zones consist mainly of hemimorphite with local occurrences of iron oxides, hopeite [Zn3(PO4)2·4H2O] and tarbuttite [Zn2(PO4)(OH)]. No remnants of sulphides were observed in the replacement zones. The Salmo nonsulphide deposits were formed by prolonged weathering of Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) mineralization that underwent dissolution and oxidation of the pyrite, sphalerite and galena

  17. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over Coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brigode

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia Coastal region (Canada and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March, which is the period of heavy precipitation events in Coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño Southern Oscillations significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two Coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, MEWP heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy rainfall behaviour between Niño and Niña winters. However, the WP approach captures the

  18. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brigode

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC coastal region (Canada and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March, which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy

  19. Equilibrium and kinetics in metamorphism of pelites in the Nelson aureole, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, D. R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of metapelitic mineral assemblages in the Nelson aureole, British Columbia, generally conforms to what is predicted from phase equilibria. However, in detail, the mineral textures, mineral compositions and zoning, and sequence and spacing of isograds do not. Two of the main disequilibrium features in the aureole are: (1) delay in the onset and progress of several reactions, ie, thermal overstepping; and (2) unreactivity of staurolite and especially garnet porphyroblasts when they are reactants in higher grade reactions. The thermal overstepping is ascribed primarily to difficulty of nucleation of the product porphyroblasts and sluggishness of dissolution of reactant porphyroblasts required for product mineral growth. The extent to which these barriers to nucleation and growth delay the onset of reaction is related to the reaction affinity of each reaction, which for thermally activated reactions is, in turn, related to the entropy change of the reaction. For a given overstep in temperature, reactions that release large quatities of H2O, such as chlorite-consuming reactions, have a high reaction affinity compared to those which release little or no H2O, such as the chlorite-free staurolite-consuming reaction. Thermal overstepping is consequently expected to be less for the former than for the latter, as was observed in the aureole where ca. 30 °C overstepping was required for garnet growth from a muscovite+chlorite-bearing precursor and ca. 70 °C overstepping was required for growth of Al2SiO5 from a staurolite-bearing, chlorite-free precursor. In all cases reaction progress was strongly influenced by presence or absence of fluid, with fluid presence dramatically lowering kinetic barriers to nucleation and growth, and therefore thermal overstepping. Textural features of rocks from the nearly coincident garnet, staurolite and andalusite isograds are suggestive of a fluid-catalyzed ‘cascade effect' in which reaction took place rapidly and several

  20. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  1. Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arelia T. Werner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005, to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998 and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001 from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more

  2. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm(-3) average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM3, PM10, and PM20, respectively. In addition, for PM10 and PM20, concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm(-3). Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a significant

  3. Numerical modelling study of gully recharge and debris flows in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Yvonne; Johnson, Edward; Chaikina, Olga

    2015-04-01

    In high mountains, debris flows are a major process responsible for transferring sediment to more downstream fluvial reaches. This sediment transfer begins on mountain hillslopes where various mass wasting processes move sediment from hillslopes to uppermost reaches of the channel system (these reaches are herein referred to as gullies and only experience water flow during high intensity precipitation events). Sediment recharge into gullies, which has received minimal attention in the scientific literature, refers to the transfer of sediment and other debris from surrounding hillslopes into gullies (Jakob and Oden, 2005). Debris flow occurrence and debris flow volumes depend on some precipitation threshold as well as volumes of material contained in the particular gully. For example, if one debris flow has removed all of the accumulated material from the gully, then any subsequent debris flow will be smaller if enough time has not yet passed for notable sediment recharge. Herein, we utilize the numerical model of landscape development, LandMod (Martin, 1998; Dadson and Church, 2005; Martin, 2007), to explore connections between hillslope processes, gully recharge rates, and transfer of sediment to downstream channel reaches in the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Hillslope processes in the model include shallow landsliding, bedrock failures and weathering. The updated debris flow algorithm is based on extensive field data available for debris flows in Haida Gwaii (e.g., Rood, 1984; Oden, 1994; Jakob and Oden, 2005), as well as theoretical considerations based on debris flow studies. The most significant model extension is the calculation of gully recharge rates; for each gully, the total accumulated sediment in gullies at each time step is determined using a power-law relation for area-normalized recharge rate versus elapsed time since the last debris flow. Thus, when the stochastic driver for debris flow occurrence triggers an event, the amount of stored material is

  4. Development of an agricultural job-exposure matrix for British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David; Astrakianakis, George; Lang, Barbara; Le, Nhu; Bert, Joel

    2002-09-01

    Farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada have been shown to have unexplained elevated proportional mortality rates for several cancers. Because agricultural exposures have never been documented systematically in BC, a quantitative agricultural Job-exposure matrix (JEM) was developed containing exposure assessments from 1950 to 1998. This JEM was developed to document historical exposures and to facilitate future epidemiological studies. Available information regarding BC farming practices was compiled and checklists of potential exposures were produced for each crop. Exposures identified included chemical, biological, and physical agents. Interviews with farmers and agricultural experts were conducted using the checklists as a starting point. This allowed the creation of an initial or 'potential' JEM based on three axes: exposure agent, 'type of work' and time. The 'type of work' axis was determined by combining several variables: region, crop, job title and task. This allowed for a complete description of exposures. Exposure assessments were made quantitatively, where data allowed, or by a dichotomous variable (exposed/unexposed). Quantitative calculations were divided into re-entry and application scenarios. 'Re-entry' exposures were quantified using a standard exposure model with some modification while application exposure estimates were derived using data from the North American Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database (PHED). As expected, exposures differed between crops and job titles both quantitatively and qualitatively. Of the 290 agents included in the exposure axis; 180 were pesticides. Over 3000 estimates of exposure were conducted; 50% of these were quantitative. Each quantitative estimate was at the daily absorbed dose level. Exposure estimates were then rated as high, medium, or low based on comparing them with their respective oral chemical reference dose (RfD) or Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). This data was mainly obtained from the US Environmental

  5. Preliminary age, growth and maturity estimates of spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J. R.; McPhie, R. P.

    2015-05-01

    The spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) is a chimaeroid ranging from southeast Alaska to Baja California and found at depths of up to 1029 m. Despite being widespread and ubiquitous, few biological parameter estimates exist for spotted ratfish due to a lack of suitable ageing structures to estimate age and growth. We present preliminary results of age, growth and maturity estimates based on a new method in which tritor ridges are counted on the vomerine tooth plate. We also provide a method for estimating the number of worn tritor ridges based on tooth plate diameter measurements for the spotted ratfish. The tritor ridges are distinct bumps that are easy to identify and precision estimates between readers suggests that this method is transferable. Tritor ridges are a potential structure for estimating age in H. colliei and we provide recommendations for future research to improve the method. We sampled 269 spotted ratfish captured in trawl surveys off the coast British Columbia ranging in size from 74 to 495 mm in precaudal length (PCL). The estimated ages ranged from 2 to 16 years for males and from 2 to 21 years for females. The von Bertalanffy, von Bertalanffy with known size at birth, Gompertz and logistic growth models were fitted to the data. Based on Akaike information criterion corrected for sample size and number of parameters estimated, the logistic growth curve was selected as most suitable. The logistic growth model yielded the following parameter estimates: Linf=407.22 mm (PCL), k=0.23 year-1, t0=-7.06 years for males; L∞=494.52 mm (PCL), k=0.26 year-1, t0=-8.35 years for females. Estimated ages at 50% maturity were 12 and 14 years for males and females, respectively. Correspondingly, the size at 50% maturity estimates was smaller for males (302 mm, PCL) than females (393 mm, PCL). Both estimates are larger than those made for spotted ratfish off of California indicating regional differences in life history traits for this species. Our preliminary

  6. Time on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery in British Columbia, Canada, 1991 – 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Robert

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In British Columbia, Canada, all necessary medical services are funded publicly. Concerned with growing wait lists in the mid-1990s, the provincial government started providing extra funding for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG operations annually. Although aimed at improving access, it is not known whether supplementary funding changed the time that patients spent on wait lists for CABG. We sought to determine whether the period of registration on wait lists had an effect on time to isolated CABG and whether the period effect was similar across priority groups. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we studied the wait-list time before and after supplementary funding became available. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of patients in synthetic cohorts defined by five registration periods in the 1990s. Results Overall, 9,231 patients spent a total of 137,126 person-weeks on the wait lists. The time to surgery increased by the middle of the decade, and decreased toward the end of the decade. Relative to the 1991–92 registration period, the conditional weekly probabilities of undergoing surgery were 30% lower among patients registered on the wait lists in 1995–96, hazard ratio (HR = 0.70 (0.65–0.76, and 23% lower in 1997–98 patients, HR = 0.77 (0.71–0.83, while there were no differences with 1999–2000 patients, HR = 0.94 (0.88–1.02, after adjusting for priority group at registration, comorbidity, age and sex. We found that the effect of registration period was different across priority groups. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that time to CABG shortened after supplementary funding was provided on an annual basis to tertiary care hospitals within a single publicly funded health system. One plausible explanation is that these hospitals had capacity to increase the number of operations. At the same time, the effect was not uniform across

  7. British Columbia hospitals: examination and assessment of payment reform (B-CHeaPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jason M; McGrail, Kimberlyn M; Law, Michael R; Barer, Morris L; Crump, R Trafford

    2011-06-24

    Accounting for 36% of public spending on health care in Canada, hospitals are a major target for cost reductions through various efficiency initiatives. Some provinces are considering payment reform as a vehicle to achieve this goal. With few exceptions, Canadian provinces have generally relied on global and line-item budgets to contain hospital costs. There is growing interest amongst policy-makers for using activity based funding (ABF) as means of creating financial incentives for hospitals to increase the 'volume' of care, reduce cost, discourage unnecessary activity, and encourage competition. British Columbia (B.C.) is the first province in Canada to implement ABF for partial reimbursement of acute hospitalization. To date, there have been no formal examinations of the effects of ABF policies in Canada. This study proposal addresses two research questions designed to determine whether ABF policies affect health system costs, access and hospital quality. The first question examines the impact of the hospital funding policy change on internal hospital activity based on expenditures and quality. The second question examines the impact of the change on non-hospital care, including readmission rates, amount of home care provided, and physician expenditures. A longitudinal study design will be used, incorporating comprehensive population-based datasets of all B.C. residents; hospital, continuing care and physician services datasets will also be used. Data will be linked across sources using anonymized linking variables. Analytic datasets will be created for the period between 2005/2006 and 2012/2013. With Canadian hospitals unaccustomed to detailed scrutiny of what services are provided, to whom, and with what results, the move toward ABF is significant. This proposed study will provide evidence on the impacts of ABF, including changes in the type, volume, cost, and quality of services provided. Policy- and decision-makers in B.C. and elsewhere in Canada will be

  8. Linking ENSO and heavy rainfall events over coastal British Columbia through a weather pattern classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigode, P.; Mićović, Z.; Bernardara, P.; Paquet, E.; Garavaglia, F.; Gailhard, J.; Ribstein, P.

    2013-04-01

    Classifications of atmospheric weather patterns (WPs) are widely used for the description of the climate of a given region and are employed for many applications, such as weather forecasting, downscaling of global circulation model outputs and reconstruction of past climates. WP classifications were recently used to improve the statistical characterisation of heavy rainfall. In this context, bottom-up approaches, combining spatial distribution of heavy rainfall observations and geopotential height fields have been used to define WP classifications relevant for heavy rainfall statistical analysis. The definition of WPs at the synoptic scale creates an interesting variable which could be used as a link between the global scale of climate signals and the local scale of precipitation station measurements. We introduce here a new WP classification centred on the British Columbia (BC) coastal region (Canada) and based on a bottom-up approach. Five contrasted WPs composed this classification, four rainy WPs and one non-rainy WP, the anticyclonic pattern. The four rainy WPs are mainly observed in the winter months (October to March), which is the period of heavy precipitation events in coastal BC and is thus consistent with the local climatology. The combination of this WP classification with the seasonal description of rainfall is shown to be useful for splitting observed precipitation series into more homogeneous sub-samples (i.e. sub-samples constituted by days having similar atmospheric circulation patterns) and thus identifying, for each station, the synoptic situations that generate the highest hazard in terms of heavy rainfall events. El Niño-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) significantly influence the frequency of occurrence of two coastal BC WPs. Within each WP, ENSO seem to influence only the frequency of rainy events and not the magnitudes of heavy rainfall events. Consequently, heavy rainfall estimations do not show significant evolution of heavy rainfall

  9. Nitrate release from waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fazilatun N; Barbour, S Lee; Kennedy, C; Hendry, M Jim

    2017-12-15

    The origin, distribution and leaching of nitrate (NO3(-)) from coal waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada were defined using chemical and NO3(-) isotope analyses (δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-)) of solids samples of pre- and post-blast waste rock and from thick (up to 180m) unsaturated waste rock dump profiles constructed between 1982 and 2012 as well as water samples collected from a rock drain located at the base of one dump and effluent from humidity cell (HC) and leach pad (LP) tests on waste rock. δ(15)N- and δ(18)O-NO3(-) values and NO3(-) concentrations of waste rock and rock drain waters confirmed the source of NO3(-) in the waste rock to be explosives and that limited to no denitrification occurs in the dump. The average mass of N released during blasting was estimated to be about 3-6% of the N in the explosives. NO3(-) concentrations in the fresh-blast waste rock and recently placed waste rock used for the HC and LP experiments were highly variable, ranging from below detection to 241mg/kg. The mean and median concentrations of these samples ranged from 10-30mg/kg. In this range of concentrations, the initial aqueous concentration of fresh-blasted waste rock could range from approximately 200-600mg NO3(-)-N/L. Flushing of NO3(-) from the HCs, LPs and a deep field profile was simulated using a scale dependent leaching efficiency (f) where f ranged from 5-15% for HCs, to 35-80% for the LPs, to 80-90% for the field profile. Our findings show aqueous phase NO3(-) from blasting residuals is present at highly variable initial concentrations in waste rock and the majority of this NO3(-) (>75%) should be flushed by recharging water during displacement of the first stored water volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  11. Patterns of analgesic use to relieve tooth pain among residents in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Jamie; Farmer, Julie; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    The use of prescription opioids has increased dramatically in Canada in recent decades. This rise in opioid prescriptions has been accompanied by increasing rates of opioid-related abuse and addiction, creating serious public health challenges in British Columbia (BC), one of Canada's most populated provinces. Our study explores the relationship between dental pain and prescription opioid use among residents in BC. We used data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), which asked respondents about their use of specific analgesic medications, including opioids, and their history of tooth pain in the past month. We used logistic regression, controlling for potential confounding variables, to identify the predictive value of socioeconomic factors, oral health-related variables, and dental care utilization indicators. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated to assess the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in the use of particular analgesics by incorporating income-derived ridit values into a binary logistic regression model. Our results showed that conventional non-opioid based analgesics (such as aspirin or Tylenol) and opioids were more likely to be used by those who had experienced a toothache in the past month than those who did not report experiencing a toothache. The use of non-opioid painkillers to relieve tooth pain was associated with more recent and more frequent dental visits, better self-reported oral health, and a greater income. Conversely, a lower household income was associated with a preference for opioid use to relieve tooth pain. The RII for recent opioid use and conventional painkiller use were 2.06 (95% CI: 1.75-2.37) and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.35-0.91), respectively, among those who experienced recent tooth pain, suggesting that adverse socioeconomic conditions may influence the need for opioid analgesics to relieve dental pain. We conclude that programs and policies targeted at improving the dental health of the poor may

  12. Upper-crustal structure beneath the strait of Georgia, Southwest British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, R.K.; Spence, G.D.; Riedel, M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Brocher, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model for the upper-crustal structure beneath the Strait of Georgia, southwestern British Columbia based on non-linear tomographic inversion of wide-angle seismic refraction data. Our study, part of the Georgia Basin Geohazards Initiative (GBGI) is primarily aimed at mapping the depth of the Cenozoic sedimentary basin and delineating the near-surface crustal faults associated with recent seismic activities (e.g. M = 4.6 in 1997 and M = 5.0 in 1975) in the region. Joint inversion of first-arrival traveltimes from the 1998 Seismic Hazards Investigation in Puget Sound (SHIPS) and the 2002 Georgia Basin experiment provides a high-resolution velocity model of the subsurface to a depth of ???7 km. In the southcentral Georgia Basin, sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous Nanaimo Group and early Tertiary rocks have seismic velocities between 3.0 and 5.5 km s-1. The basin thickness increases from north to south with a maximum thickness of 7 (??1) km (depth to velocities of 5.5 km s-1) at the southeast end of the strait. The underlying basement rocks, probably representing the Wrangellia terrane, have velocities of 5.5-6.5 km-1 with considerable lateral variation. Our tomographic model reveals that the Strait of Georgia is underlain by a fault-bounded block within the central Georgia Basin. It also shows a correlation between microearthquakes and areas of rapid change in basin thickness. The 1997/1975 earthquakes are located near a northeast-trending hinge line where the thicknesses of sedimentary rocks increase rapidly to the southeast. Given its association with instrumentally recorded, moderate sized earthquakes, we infer that the hinge region is cored by an active fault that we informally name the Gabriola Island fault. A northwest-trending, southwest dipping velocity discontinuity along the eastern side of Vancouver Island correlates spatially with the surface expression of the Outer Island fault. The Outer Island

  13. The Great British Columbia ShakeOut - Seismology and kinaesthetic learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P.

    2011-12-01

    By the time this paper is presented British Columbia will have experienced two, province wide ShakeOut drills. In the first drill over 10% of the population (470,000 people) participated in the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" drill. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) was one of several federal, provincial, municipal, non-governmental and private sector agencies who organized the drill under the auspices of the BC Earthquake Alliance. The BC drill followed the Great California ShakeOut model (which is coordinated by the Earthquake Country Alliance) and received tremendous support from the Southern California Earthquake Center. NRCan is responsible for the monitoring and research of earthquakes in Canada and is a science-based department. The ShakeOut drill afforded us an opportunity to take our authoritative science straight to the people and help them better understand the seismic hazard in the province. Universities, public schools, daycares, and entire offices participated in the drill and it became the subject of dinner-time conversations across the province. The drill prompted questions like: "How worried should we be about earthquakes?" "How prepared are we as a family or as a work place?" "What else do we need to do, to be prepared?". The kinaesthetic aspect of the drill, physically dropping to the ground, taking cover, and holding on makes it memorable - you end up in a bit of a silly position, so there are lots of giggles. Being memorable is important because in a real earthquake the natural instinct is to run - the very thing you must not do. The drill provides an opportunity for people to attain a body-memory, to practice appropriate behaviour so they know what to do, without thinking, in a real earthquake. The first drill was on January 26th, 2011 the date of the last Cascadia megathrust earthquake. That date conflicted with province wide high school exams, so almost no high schools participated in the drill - they represent an important target demographic

  14. Geodetic And Seismic Signatures of Episodic Tremor And Slip Beneath Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragert, H.; Rogers, G.; Wang, K.

    2004-05-01

    Slip events with an average duration of about 10 days and effective total slip displacements of several centimetres have been detected on the deeper (25 to 45 km) part of the northern Cascadia subduction zone plate interface by a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites. The slip events occur down-dip from the currently locked, seismogenic portion of the plate interface, and, for the geographic region around Victoria, British Columbia, repeat at 13 to 16 month intervals. These episodes of slip are accompanied by distinct, low frequency, non-earthquake tremors, similar to those reported in the forearc region of southern Japan, prompting the naming of this phenomenon as Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS). The tremor-like seismic signals have now been identified beneath most of Vancouver Island. For northern Vancouver Island, where plate convergence is at a much slower rate, return periods of about 14 months were also observed for significant (duration exceeding 7 days) tremor sequences, but about 6 months out of phase with southern Vancouver Island. Slip associated with northern island tremors has not been resolved clearly enough to allow modeling because of sparse GPS coverage, but 3 to 4 mm surface displacements coincident with the most recent tremors were observed at two newer GPS stations located on the northwest coast of Vancouver Island. The total amount of tremor activity, and by inference slip activity, appears to be the same in northern and southern Vancouver Island and therefore independent of plate convergence rate. ETS activity is observed to migrate along the strike of the subduction zone at speeds of 5 to 15 km/day and this migration does not appear to be impeded by the Nootka Fault Zone that marks the change in subduction rates. It is strongly suspected that the youth of the subducting plate and the release of fluids from slab dehydration are key factors contributing to the episodic, semi-brittle behaviour of the ETS zone. It

  15. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  16. PUBLIC ATTITUDES, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONSEQUENCES OF DRINKING AND DRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. DESAPRIYA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the ninth most common cause of premature death worldwide and the third most common cause of years lived with disability. Many early deaths are related to motor vehicle crashes (MVC's: each year, MVC's kill 1.2 million people (3,242 deaths/day and injure or disable 20–50 million more. The Global Burden of Disease Study, conducted in the early 1990s, predicted that traffic-related injuries will become the third largest contributor to global death and disability by the year 2020. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. The substantial effect of alcohol on road safety has long been recognized, and a variety of important initiatives to combat this problem have been introduced with some measurable success. Canadians have rated drinking and driving as one of the most important social issues facing them today, placing it ahead of other prominent issues, including health care, pollution, and the state of the economy. Two factors that have contributed strongly to motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in British Columbia (BC and Canada are alcohol-impaired driving and failure to use seat belts. Drivers who operated motor vehicles after drinking were less likely to wear seat belts, and so they continue to be a major traffic safety concern. When compared to restrained occupants, unrestrained occupants were almost 5 times more likely to die (Odds Ratios (OR 4.70, or be injured (OR 4.66. Fractures (OR 10.70, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.35–15.5, lacerations (OR 7.50, CI 5.55-10.15 bleeding (OR 7.14, CI 4.97–10.26 and concussions (OR 5.49, CI 2.71-11.12, were the more common types of injuries experienced by unrestrained occupants compared to the restrained occupants. Laws mandate the use of safety belts by motor vehicle occupants, and driving under the influence of alcohol is a generic term for a series of offences under the Canadian Criminal Code. Violation of

  17. A ride to care--a non-emergency medical transportation service in rural British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, J

    2011-01-01

    Access to healthcare services is a chronic problem for rural communities throughout the world. The vast geography of Canada has exacerbated the problem for many northern and remote communities that are hundreds of kilometers away from healthcare centers. As a policy response to this problem, in 2006 the Northern Health Authority of the province of British Columbia (BC) initiated 'Connections', a unique medical transportation service. This service has provided subsidized non-emergency transportation for residents in rural and remote northern communities to reach healthcare centers in neighboring cities. The objectives of this study were to examine the reach of the Connections service in enhancing rural and northern BC communities' access to healthcare services, and to determine the factors that contribute to greater frequency of using this service. The study focused on the demographic, socioeconomic, and health profiles of a random sample of 297 service users. The information on the users' profiles was obtained through a survey questionnaire that was administered by a combination of mail correspondence, computer-assisted phone interviews, and en-route while using the service. Both descriptive and inferential methods are used to analyze the data. The inferential method is the Tobit model for censored ordered dependent variable, which is used to estimate the effects of users' profiles in predicting the frequency of using the service. The descriptive findings of the study suggest that users are typically of older age (>80% aged at least 40 years, 48% at least 60 years), and the majority are women (62%), have low socioeconomic status (61% had income<$30,000, 73% were economically inactive) and self-reported poor health (<52% had poor or fair health, 76% had at least one health problem). Among the various users' attributes, older age, higher level of education, lower employment status, and greater number of health problems were found to be statistically significant (p

  18. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Kelly

    2014-10-01

    Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation.

  19. Field study of growth and calcification rates of three species of articulated coralline algae in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Martone, P T

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising atmospheric CO₂ is predicted to negatively impact growth and calcification rates of coralline algae. Decreases in coralline abundance may have cascading effects on marine ecosystems and on carbon sequestration worldwide. In this study, we measured growth and calcification rates of three common species of articulated coralline algae (Bossiella plumosa, Calliarthron tuberculosum, and Corallina vancouveriensis) at an intertidal field site in British Columbia. Linear growth rates measured in the field were slow, although Bossiella grew significantly faster (0.22 cm mon⁻¹) than Calliarthron and Corallina (0.17 and 0.15 cm mon⁻¹, respectively). Growth rates in the field were generally slower than growth rates in the laboratory, suggesting that data generated in the laboratory may not be representative of natural field conditions. Growth rates did not decrease as fronds approached their maximum observed size, suggesting that maximum frond size might be determined not by intrinsic factors but by external factors such as wave-induced drag forces. Using growth data, we estimate that the largest observed Bossiella frond (20 cm²) and Calliarthron frond (40 cm²) were about 4- and 11-years-old, respectively, and had deposited approximately 1 and 6 g CaCO₃ in that time. Given the great abundance of coralline algae along the coast of British Columbia, deposition rates of CaCO₃ are expected to play a significant but poorly characterized role in carbon sequestration.

  20. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles gravel (sediment particles >2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p Sound British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  1. Offloading social care responsibilities: recent experiences of local voluntary organisations in a remote urban centre in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Rosenberg, Mark; Clasby, Rachael

    2007-07-01

    Services offered by voluntary organisations are an integral but often overlooked component of health and social care. Of late, there has been a renewed interest in voluntary welfare provision as a viable alternative to state and market. Recent developments in welfare provision in Canada appear to have brought greater social care roles for the voluntary sector at the same time as new and arguably more restrictive funding and accountability mechanisms are being imposed by different arms of the state. To explore these issues more closely, the present paper examines the impressions and experiences of voluntary and formal sector providers of services for senior citizens and people with disabilities in a remote urban centre (population less than 100 000) in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Two important operational pressures provide the context of the analysis: (1) reform of provincial government funding and regulation of voluntary services; and (2) the restructuring of welfare provision, especially in the areas of health care and social services. The authors found evidence of an escalating incursion of the state into local voluntary sector affairs that needs to be understood in the context of long-standing institutional links between government and 'professional' voluntary welfare provision in British Columbia. The results point to three important directions in contemporary local voluntary provision: (1) an emerging ethos of accountability, efficiency and competition in voluntary provision; (2) increasing pressure to centralise volunteer services; and consequently, (3) the potential erosion of flexibility and personalisation that are seen to characterise the voluntary sector.

  2. Using ultrasound measurements of rump fat to assess nutritional condition of woodland caribou in northern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Gustine

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Body reserves (fat and protein of cervids are important to the reproductive success of individuals, and therefore may limit productivity of populations. We used a portable ultrasound machine to measure thickness of rump fat for 39 woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou captured in the winters (January–February of 2003 and 2004. We compared thickness of rump fat between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals in the Besa-Prophet drainage of northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-eight of the 39 females captured in British Columbia were adults and 34 of the adult caribou were pregnant (89.5 ± 5.1%, x– ± binomial SE. Pregnant individuals had more rump fat (0.60 ± 0.067 cm than nonpregnant animals (0.20 ± 0.029 cm. Recognizing that deposition and mobilization of fat vary with age and possibly across the winter season, ultrasonography can be used as a non-invasive technique in the field to assist in estimating body fat of caribou.

  3. A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People: The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,18961942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past.

  4. Conservancies in Coastal British Columbia: A New Approach to Protected Areas in the Traditional Territories of First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stronghill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In British Columbia (BC, Canada, the provincial government and First Nations have recently created an innovative new form of collaboratively managed protected area. Designated as ′Conservancies′ under the BC Park Act or the Protected Areas of British Columbia Act, these protected areas are intended to provide a variety of sustainable uses, while maintaining biodiversity and recreational values and prohibiting large-scale commercial or industrial development. Conservancies evolved out of a desire to increase the protected area land base in the province, but also to accommodate traditional Aboriginal land uses and low-impact economic development. The Conservancy designation was created in 2006, and since then 156 Conservancies have been established in BC, covering a total of approximately 2,999,000 ha managed in collaboration with more than 30 First Nations. In this article, we describe the history and management framework of Conservancies, and compare the Conservancy model with international principles for governance of protected areas involving Indigenous people. Despite potential challenges involving integrated management, capacity, allocation of permits among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal users, and treaty negotiations, Conservancies appear to align well with international norms and offer a promising model for flexible protected areas.

  5. A multi proxy reconstruction of paleoproductivity of Cleland Lake British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihindukulasooriya, L. N.; Pompeani, D. P.; Ortiz, J. D.; Steinman, B. A.; Abbott, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    In small closed-basin lakes in semi arid regions, variations in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance affect the physical, biological, and chemical composition of the lake water and sediment. This study presents color reflectance, XRF derived elemental concentrations and δ18O values of carbonates (δ18Ocarb) in sediment cores from Cleland Lake, British Columbia to provide insight into paleolimnological variations during the past 7500 years. Principal Component (PC) 1 of the reflectance data, i.e, Illite+ sphalerite is used as a clay mineral proxy, and PC 4, diatoms+ cyanobacteria, is used as a paleoproductivity proxy. Lake paleoproductivity history is divided into three temporal periods, 400 to 2500 (denoted as P1), 2500 to 5000 (P2) and 5000 to 7500 (P3) calibrated years before present (Cal yr BP). Fe and Mn concentrations gradually increase during P3, reach high values during P2 and rapidly drop to the lowest values after 2600 Cal yr BP. Diatom abundances have a positive correlation with illite (r= 0.79, n=73 α=0.01) throughout the record. In contrast, negative correlations (table 1) exists between δ18Ocarb and diatom abundances during P2 and P3, indicating higher diatom abundance during wet periods. After 3000 cal yr BP, the correlation reverses (table 1), indicating low diatom abundance during wet periods. Variability in diatom abundances is greater than that of the δ18Ocarb values, indicating that factors other than the P/E balance affects phytoplankton abundance. P 1 is characterized by three periods (centered at 2500, 2100 and 1400 Cal yr BP) of predominantly low diatom abundance that occur simultaneously with low Mn and Cr concentrations. Low Mn and Cr levels may indicate intense reducing conditions, while the observed peaks in Ni and Cu concentration might indicate reducing conditions resulting from high rates of organic matter decomposition (Tribovillard et al., 2006). Contemporaneous with the abrupt δ18Ocarb depletion around 2600 Cal yr BP, trace

  6. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  7. Chronic disease prevention policy in British Columbia and Ontario in light of public health renewal: a comparative policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anita; Gore, Dana; MacDonald, Marjorie; Bursey, Gayle; Allan, Diane; Scarr, Jennifer

    2013-10-08

    Public health strategies that focus on legislative and policy change involving chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity have the potential to prevent chronic diseases and improve quality of life as a whole. However, many public health policies introduced as part of public health reform have not yet been analyzed, such as in British Columbia and Ontario. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a descriptive, comparative analysis of public health policies related to the Healthy Living Core Program in British Columbia and Chronic Disease Prevention Standard in Ontario that are intended to prevent a range of chronic diseases by promoting healthy eating and physical activity, among other things. Policy documents were found through Internet search engines and Ministry websites, at the guidance of policy experts. These included government documents as well as documents from non-governmental organizations that were implementing policies and programs at a provincial level. Documents (n = 31) were then analysed using thematic content analysis to classify, describe and compare policies in a systematic fashion, using the software NVivo. Three main categories emerged from the analysis of documents: 1) goals for chronic disease prevention in British Columbia and Ontario, 2) components of chronic disease prevention policies, and 3) expected outputs of chronic disease prevention interventions. Although there were many similarities between the two provinces, they differed somewhat in terms of their approach to issues such as evidence, equity, and policy components. Some expected outputs were adoption of healthy behaviours, use of information, healthy environments and increased public awareness. The two provincial policies present different approaches to support the implementation of related programs. Differences may be related to contextual factors such as program delivery structures and different philosophical approaches underlying

  8. Variation in Surface and Crown Fire Hazard With Stand Age in Managed Coastal Western Hemlock Zone Forests in Southwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Feller; Stefanie L. Pollock

    2006-01-01

    Surface and crown fuels were measured in 186 stands ranging in age from 0 years after clearcutting to old-growth forests > 300 years old in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) – western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) – western redcedar (Thuja plicata) – dominated forests in southwestern British Columbia. Indexes...

  9. New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and northeastern Washington State, United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pigg, Kathleen B.; Dillhoff, Richard M.; DeVore, Melanie L.; Wehr, Wesley C.

    2007-01-01

    Newly recognized fossil infructescences and leaves of the Trochodendraceae are described from the Early/ Middle Eocene McAbee and One Mile Creek sites of British Columbia, Canada, and Republic, eastern Washington State, United States. Trochodendron drachukii Pigg, Dillhoff, DeVore, & Wehr sp. nov.,

  10. Politics and partnerships: challenges and rewards of partnerships in workplace health research in the healthcare sector of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassi, Annalee; Tomlin, Katrina; Sidebottom, Claire; Rideout, Karen; De Boer, Henrietre

    2004-01-01

    In British Columbia (BC), Canada, a partnership of researchers, healthcare employers, and healthcare unions reduced high injury rates through examining determinants of healthy workplaces and designing, implementing, and evaluating interventions. Over 51 million dollars (Canadian) was saved from the BC healthcare budget over two years, largely attributable to the collaborative effort. Challenges and rewards of the process were determined from interviews and workshops with researchers and community stakeholders, and by obtaining direct input to this report. Challenges included maintaining communication and trust between partners, preserving partnerships during restructuring and labor disputes, and maintaining involvement and support of front-line workers and senior management. As all partners recognized the importance of the research agenda, the stakeholders remained committed to working through the challenges, and have consequently achieved considerable success.

  11. Potential near-future carbon uptake overcomes losses from a large insect outbreak in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vivek K.; Peng, Yiran; Kurz, Werner A.; Fyfe, John C.; Hawkins, Barbara; Werner, Arelia T.

    2016-03-01

    The current capacity of northern high-latitude forests to sequester carbon has been suggested to be undermined by the potential increase in fire and insect outbreaks. Here we investigate the response of the terrestrial ecosystems in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada, to the recent large mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak that started in 1999 as well as changing climate and continually increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration up to 2050, in a combined framework, using a process-based model. Model simulations suggest that the recent MPB outbreak results in BC's forests accumulating 328 Tg less carbon over the 1999-2020 period. Over this same period changing climate and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, however, yield enhanced carbon uptake equal to a cumulative sink of around 900-1060 Tg C, depending on the future climate change scenario, indicating that the reduced carbon uptake by land due to the MPB disturbance may already be surpassed by 2020.

  12. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  13. Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

    2009-04-01

    This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

  14. Immunoglobulin (GM and KM) allotypes and relation to population history in native peoples of British Columbia: Haida and Bella Coola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, L L; Gofton, J P; Kinsella, T D

    1988-06-01

    Differences in the frequencies of GM haplotypes among native peoples of the Americas support the hypothesis that there were three distinct waves of migration from northeast Asia into the Americas: Paleo-Indian, Na-Dene, and Inuit (Eskimo)-Aleut (Salzano and Steinberg: Am. J. Hum. Genet. 17:273-279, 1965; Sukernik and Osipova: Hum. Genet. 61:148-153, 1982; Williams et al.:Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 66:1-19, 1985; Szathmary: In R Kirk and E Szathmary (eds): Out of Asia: Peopling of the Americas and the Pacific. Canberra: The Journal of Pacific History, Canberra Australian National University, pp. 79-104, 1985). We studied GM allotypes in two linguistically unique populations of Canadian west coast native peoples, the Haida and the Bella Coola, and compared them to GM frequencies in populations that are supposed descendants of the three migrations, in order to investigate the possible genetic relationships of these British Columbia (BC) groups to other native populations. We also estimated the amount of European admixture from the frequency of the Caucasian haplotype, Gm3;5. Results showed that the frequencies in both BC populations of the three common native haplotypes (Gm1,17;21, Gm1,2,17;21, and Gm1,17;15,16), were intermediate between the frequencies in supposed descendants of Paleo-Indian and Na-Dene. These genetic findings are consistent with the controversial hypothesis of archeologist C. Borden (Science 203:963-971, 1979) that, following deglaciation about 13,000 years ago, British Columbia was repopulated by peoples from the north (?Na-Dene) and by culturally distinct peoples from the south (?Paleo-Indian). Caucasian admixture estimates suggested that the Haida and Bella Coola have also experienced moderate amounts (12-20%) of genetic input from European-originating peoples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. THE RISK OF INJURY AND VEHICLE DAMAGE SEVERITY IN VEHICLE MISMATCHED SIDE IMPACT CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediriweera DESAPRIYA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As occupant protection offered by new passenger vehicles has improved, there has been growing concern about the harm that some vehicle designs may inflict on occupants of other vehicles with which they collide. Preceding analyses of crash statistics have clearly demonstrated the incompatibility between passenger sedan cars (PS and pick-up trucks (PU involved in side impact crashes in British Columbia. A comparison of light truck and passenger car crashes in previous literature reveals that light truck vehicles inflict greater harm than passenger cars for a number of reasons including their greater weight, stiffer structure, and higher ride height. These features place occupants of passenger cars at a disadvantage should they be involved in a collision with a light truck vehicle. The injury risk for passenger sedan car occupants is greater than the risk for pick-up truck occupants in two-vehicle crashes (Odds Ratio (OR 1.87; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.38-2.52. In addition, the risk of vehicle damage severity was increased for passenger cars compared with pick-up trucks (write off vehicle-OR 5.35; 95% CI 3.75-7.63, severely damaged vehicles-OR 5.87; 95% CI 4.79–7.19, moderately damaged vehicles-OR 2.86; 95% CI 2.44–3.36. There is strong justification for injury prevention experts and policy makers to step up motor vehicle crash injury prevention advocacy by implementing evidence-based policies to reduce rates of injury as a result of passenger sedan cars and pick-up trucks involved in side impact crashes in the province of British Columbia.

  16. Identifying sources and biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in biota from mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Bendell-Young, Leah I; Elliott, John E

    2005-10-15

    We assessed whether biota occupying mountain streams accumulate and biomagnify remotely derived organic pollutants originating from atmospheric inputs to snowpack and glacial runoff and from marine sources introduced by migrating anadromous salmon. Several persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor were commonly detected in benthic invertebrates, salmon fry (Oncorhynchus spp.), and eggs of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) from the Chilliwack River watershed, British Columbia, Canada. Total PCBs and several organochlorines (OCs) biomagnified from benthic invertebrate composites to salmon fry to dipper eggs. Invertebrate samples generally did not differ significantly in contaminant burdens between the river main stem where salmon are more abundant and higher-elevation tributaries where the salmon density is lower. Concentrations of total OCs and total PCBs in dipper eggs were positively related to drainage basin area and collection year but not to elevation. No differences in PCB congener patterns existed between dipper egg samples from the Chilliwack watershed and other watersheds in southwestern British Columbia. However, principal component analysis revealed significant spatial differences in egg PCB congener patterns between the main Chilliwack River and the higher-elevation tributaries. This difference was primarily due to a greater occurrence of lower chlorinated PCB congeners (66 and 105) in dipper eggs collected from the tributaries and higher loadings of the more stable and persistent congeners (153, 138, 130, and 128) in eggs from the river main stem. The results suggest that atmospheric sources are the main contributor of contaminants detected in biota from the region and that biomagnification is a common pathway for accumulation in lotic predators such as the American dipper.

  17. Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Michael; Bradfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Forests are being clearcut over extensive areas of western North America, but plant community response to harvesting and slashburning under varying climatic conditions in central British Columbia, Canada is still largely unknown. Evaluation of resilience is hampered by the short history of logging, lack of long-term experiments and methodological limitations. To test the effect of clearcut logging, prescribed burning and reforestation on forest resilience, we recorded vascular plant cover repeatedly after treatment between 1981 and 2008 in 16 permanent research installations in three biogeoclimatic zones: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir, Interior Cedar-Hemlock and Sub-Boreal Spruce. We created a plant-trait dataset for the 181 recorded species to define plant functional types representing groups of plants that behave in similar ways and/or produce similar ecological outcomes. These plant functional types, along with taxonomic analysis of diagnostic and indicator species, were then used to evaluate plant community response to disturbance. Twenty years post-treatment, species diversity increased in all zones and plant abundance was greatest in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock. Cover of understory plant functional types associated with mature conifer forests increased in all zones, constituting a significant proportion (> 40%) of the vegetation community by year 20. Response patterns varied by zone and with time. Understory species diagnostic of mature forests were present in all zones by year 20, but we identified indicator species sensitive to slashburning or requiring more time for recovery, including white-flowered rhododendron (Rhododendron albiflorum) and devil's club (Oplopanax horridus). Overall, loss of compositional or functional diversity following harvest and site remediation was not detected, suggesting that montane and subalpine forests in British Columbia are resilient to this treatment. However, because these forests can be slow to recover from disturbance

  18. To the Application of LiDAR to Detect the Geological Structures in Sulphurets Property, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohzare, A.; Rezaeian, M.; McIntosh, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Kerr Sulphurets property in North Western British Columbia has been explored primarily as a placer gold holding since the 1880s; and, potentially includes one of Canada's largest gold deposits (e.g. the Mitchell Zone). The Sulphurets camp has been classified by Taylor in 2007 as a prominent global epithermal high-sulphidation subtype with 10 million tonnes of ore (reserves + production) containing approximately 10 g/t gold. The geological and geophysical observations of this deposit indicate intrusion- related mineralized veins which are known to overlap as the result of structural complexities. Faulting predates mineralization and alteration and dramatically dominates the location of the mineralization for this porphyry- epithermal high-sulphidation deposit (Britton and Alldrick 1988, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1992; Margolis, 1993). However, the surface trace of these structures and lineaments within the site is obscured by vegetation, glacial cover and steep topographic relief. We used high resolution LiDAR airborne bare-earth sensing (vegetative data deleted) in an effort to detect the surface geological features and lineaments in the Kerr Sulphurets site. The LiDAR flight was designed to acquire high density data with 2 points per square meter using a 150 kHz multipulse system. High resolution LiDAR data provides a level of detail not achievable by other digital terrain modelling techniques, whether extracted from aerial photography, low-resolution topographic contour maps, 10-30 meter USGS, or SRTM digital elevation models. LiDAR bare-earth data spectacularly revealed hidden geological structures within the property district, which in turn assisted in identifying the high potential zones for mineralization in Sulphurets.

  19. Rethinking ``Yellowstone in Yukon'' and Baja British Columbia: Paleomagnetism of the Late Cretaceous Swede Dome stock, northern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, P. J. A.; Symons, D. T. A.; Hart, C. J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from the 69.8 Ma Swede Dome stock, emplaced into the pericratonic Yukon Tanana Terrane (YTT) west of Dawson, Yukon, indicate a minimal northward translation of 360 ± 575 km and a clockwise rotation of 20° ± 23° with respect to North America, in accord with the displacement of 425 km along the nearby Tintina Fault. Coeval Carmacks Group volcanics in contrast have previously indicated ˜1900 km northward translation and minimal rotation and have been proposed to be a displaced manifestation of the fixed Yellowstone hot spot, thus providing an independent estimate of the Late Cretaceous paleoposition of the "Baja British Columbia" terranes of western North America. A compilation of recent mid and Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic results from the YTT and Intermontane Belt (IMB) terranes reveals that the Carmacks Group paleomagnetic result is anomalous. The YTT and IMB terranes, which form the bulk of Baja British Columbia, appear instead to have experienced <1000 km northward translation with respect to North America since 70 Ma, consistent with geological estimates of motion along plausible accommodating faults. In addition, past mobility of the Hawaii-Emperor hot spot implies that the Pacific hot spots may have experienced ˜1200 km of southward motion from 81 to 47 Ma. If so, then the paleoposition of the Yellowstone hot spot if it existed at 70 Ma would likely have produced the Carmacks magmatism ˜1000 km north of Yellowstone's current latitude, consistent with a "moderate" (<1000 km) post-70 Ma northward translation of the YTT and IMB terranes to their present position in North America.

  20. Gully recharge rates and debris flows: A combined numerical modeling and field-based investigation, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Yvonne E.; Johnson, E. A.; Chaikina, Olga

    2017-02-01

    Rainfall, snowmelt and/or other mass movements are possible triggers to initiate debris flows. In supply-limited landscapes, clastic and organic materials (together termed debris) accumulate in the gully via various geomorphic processes that occur on gully sidewalls. The conceptualization of this phenomenon has been termed the gully recharge rate, with several recent field studies measuring such rates in coastal British Columbia. In the present study, a simple numerical model is introduced to estimate debris flow volumes in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia based on debris flow recurrence intervals, gully recharge rates and factors affecting deposition of debris flow material. Debris flow volumes obtained in model runs are somewhat lower than field-based values by about half, which is a reasonable result for this exploratory study. The annual erosion rate (clastic material) for debris flows in the model run is 0.031 mm yr- 1. This value is about 0.57 × of the field-based value and is lower than the erosion rate for debris slides in Haida Gwaii of 0.1 mm yr- 1. Deposition of debris flows in the model occurs in 60% of cases due to a decrease in channel gradient, with deposition resulting from high stream junction angles being less common. Locations for initiation of debris flow deposition were situated in stream orders 3 and 4 in 60% of cases. Sensitivity analysis shows that in comparison to other model variables, recharge rate has the greatest effect on the statistics and frequency distributions of debris flow volumes and total debris flow volume (summation of all debris activity in a basin) over the study time period.

  1. Ambient nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations over a region of natural gas production, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S. M. Nazrul; Jackson, Peter L.; Aherne, Julian

    2016-10-01

    The Peace River district of Northeastern British Columbia, Canada is a region of natural gas production that has undergone rapid expansion since 2005. In order to assess air quality implications, Willems badge passive diffusive samplers were deployed for six two-week exposure periods between August and November 2013, at 24 sites across the region to assess the ambient concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The highest concentrations of both species (NO2: 9.1 ppb, SO2: 1.91 ppb) during the whole study period (except the 1st exposure period), were observed in Taylor (Site 14), which is consistent with its location near major industrial sources. Emissions from industrial activities, and their interaction with meteorology and topography, result in variations in atmospheric dispersion that can increase air pollution concentrations in Taylor. However, relatively high concentrations of NO2 were also observed near the center of Chetwynd (site F20), indicating the importance of urban emissions sources in the region as well. Observations of both species from the other study sites document the spatial variability and show relatively high concentrations near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, where unconventional oil and gas development activities are quite high. Although a few sites in Northeastern British Columbia recorded elevated concentrations of NO2 and SO2 during this investigation, the concentrations over the three-month period were well below provincial annual ambient air quality objectives. Nonetheless, given the limited observations in the region, and the accelerated importance of unconventional oil and gas extraction in meeting energy demands, it is imperative that monitoring networks are established to further assess the potential for elevated ambient concentrations associated with industrial emissions sources in the Peace River region.

  2. Contrasting landscape influences on sediment supply and stream restoration priorities in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and coastal British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jordan; Hogan, Daniel; Palm, Daniel; Lundquist, Hans; Nilsson, Christer; Beechie, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and land use affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Land-use impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of in-stream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Land-use impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting land-use impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional land-use impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  3. Mixed-severity fire history at a forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jill E; Smith, Dan J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2017-09-01

    This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses. Widespread fires occurred during warm, dry years and were preceded by multiple anomalously dry, warm years. Localized fires that affected only grassland-proximal forests were more frequent than widespread fires. These localized fires showed a lagged, positive relationship with wetter conditions. The landscape pattern of forest structure provided further evidence of complex fire activity with multiple plots shown to have experienced low-, mixed-, and/or high-severity fires over the last four centuries. We concluded that this forest-grassland ecotone was characterized by fires of mixed severity, dominated by frequent, low-severity fires punctuated by widespread fires of moderate to high severity. This landscape-level variability in fire-climate relationships and patterns in forest structure has important implications for fire and grassland management in west central British Columbia and similar environments elsewhere. Forest restoration techniques such as prescribed fire and thinning are oftentimes applied at the forest-grassland ecotone on the basis that historically high frequency, low-severity fires defined the character of past fire activity. This study provides forest managers and policy makers with important information on mixed-severity fire activity at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone, a crucial prerequisite for the effective

  4. The Politics of Curriculum Reform in Canada: The Case of Technology Education in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates the case of technology education in British Colombia and discusses its invulnerability of teachers to curriculum reform. Draws on historical and survey data related to school practices and Ministry of Education enrollment data disaggregated by sex. Casts these data into a politics of curriculum framework informed by the work of…

  5. Miliary pulmonary cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shane; Marriott, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old HIV positive male presents with fevers and a non-productive cough. Initial X-ray and subsequent computerised tomography of the chest shows a bilateral miliary pattern of pulmonary infiltration highly suggestive of disseminated tuberculosis. However subsequent results were consistent with disseminated cryptococcosis, including pulmonary involvement, with cryptococcus identified on transbronchial tissue biopsy, and on blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Imaging features of pulmonary cryptococcosis are generally of well-defined pleural-based nodules and less commonly alveolar infiltrates, lymphadenopathy, pleural effusions or cavitating lesions. Miliary pulmonary infiltrates are an exceptionally rare presentation. PMID:25379393

  6. The perspectives of educators, regulators and funders of massage therapy on the state of the profession in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff Farah M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Registered Massage Therapists (RMTs are valuable members of the healthcare team who assist in health promotion, disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and palliation. RMT visits have increased across Canada over the past decade with the highest increase in British Columbia (BC. Currently, RMTs are private practitioners of healthcare operating within a largely publicly funded system, positioning them outside of the dominant system of healthcare and making them an important case study in private healthcare. In another paper we examined the perspectives of RMTs themselves. Here, we offer perspectives of regulators, educators and funders of Massage Therapy (MT on advancement of the profession. Methods We interviewed 28 stakeholders of MT in BC – including members of the MT regulatory board, representatives from MT colleges in BC and public and private health insurers. Results All three groups identified research, particularly on efficacy of MT, as playing a vital role in enhancing the professional credibility of MT. However, participants noted that presently research is not a large feature of the current MT curricula and we analyze why this may be and how it can improve. Finally, conferral of baccalaureate degree status could assist RMTs in gaining recognition with the general public and other healthcare professionals. Conclusion RMTs have potential to ameliorate population health in a cost-effective manner. Their role in British Columbia’s healthcare landscape could be expanded if they produce more research and earn degree status.

  7. Impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions: Prevalence and associations among persons living with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braitstein Paula

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To measure the prevalence of and associations among impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions in persons living with HIV in British Columbia to inform support and care programs, policy and research. Methods A cross-sectional population-based sample of persons living with HIV in British Columbia was obtained through an anonymous survey sent to members of the British Columbia Persons With AIDS Society. The survey addressed the experience of physical and mental impairments, and the experience and level of activity limitations and participation restrictions. Associations were measured in three ways: 1 impact of types of impairment on social restriction; 2 impact of specific limitations on social restriction; and 3 independent association of overall impairments and limitations on restriction levels. Logistic regression was used to measure associations with social restriction, while ordinal logistic regression was used to measure associations with a three-category measure of restriction level. Results The survey was returned by 762 (50.5% of the BCPWA participants. Over ninety percent of the population experienced one or more impairments, with one-third reporting over ten. Prevalence of activity limitations and participation restrictions was 80.4% and 93.2%, respectively. The presence of social restrictions was most closely associated with mental function impairments (OR: 7.0 for impairment vs. no impairment; 95% CI: 4.7 – 10.4. All limitations were associated with social restriction. Among those with ≤ 200 CD4 cells/mm3, odds of being at a higher restriction level were lower among those on antiretrovirals (OR: 0.3 for antiretrovirals vs. no antiretrovirals; 95% CI: 0.1–0.9, while odds of higher restriction were increased with higher limitation (OR: 3.6 for limitation score of 1–5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 0.9–14.2; OR: 24.7 for limitation score > 5 vs. no limitation, 95%CI: 4.9–125.0. Among those

  8. l681np.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity L-6-81-NP in Off British Columbia and Washington, Northern Pacific from 05/31/1981 to 06/07/1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity L-6-81-NP in Off British Columbia and...

  9. Key issues in relation to local human and technical resources in developing exploration and production in oil and gas, offshore British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayne, J.M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Jacques Whitford has been involved in nearly all of the geotechnical work associated with offshore development on the eastern coast of Canada from its early beginnings in 1972. It has built a national presence from an Atlantic corporate office. The company employs 900 people and operates from coast to coast in Canada, the northeast US and in several other countries around the world. The success of Jacques Whitford and Associates Limited in offshore Atlantic Canada can be attributed to strategic partnerships, international positioning, and multi-sectoral opportunities. The author describes how the same business philosophy can be applied to the offshore exploration and development in British Columbia. The operator's requirements before commencing offshore exploration in British Columbia are also examined with emphasis on the following 3 key issues: (1) a clear integrated federal-provincial framework governing the activity, (2) all related First Nations land claims must be resolved, and (3) all ecologically sensitive areas must be identified in advance and set aside. The following marine protected areas have been identified for British Columbia: 4 marine ecological reserves, 14 Class A parks, 2 Class R parks, 5 wildlife reserves, and the Kitlope Heritage Conservatory. The author concludes that there are already companies located in British Columbia with expertise in offshore oil and gas, but a supportive regulatory framework is required to ensure that the local expertise can benefit from the lifting of the moratorium on offshore oil and gas development. He emphasized that there is a need to set up the BC equivalent of the Atlantic Petroleum Boards (the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board and the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board) to administer the approval process for offshore BC oil and gas exploration and production.

  10. Prevalence and Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus in Hemodialysis Patients in British Columbia: Follow-up after a Possible Breach in Hemodialysis Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Tu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A possible breach of the transducer protector in specific dialysis machines was reported in June 2004 in British Columbia (BC, which led to testing of hemodialysis patients for hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and HIV. This testing provided an opportunity to examine HCV incidence, prevalence and coinfection with HBV and HIV, and to compare anti-HCV and HCV polymerase chain reaction (PCR.

  11. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Lacroix; Garrett Richards

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC) has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially...

  12. Lian-Sheng Ma, Editor-in-Chief of WJG, warmly meets Professor Hugh J Freeman from the University of British Columbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lian-Sheng Ma, Editor-in-Chief of World Journal of Gastroenterology (WJG), warmly met Professor Hugh J Freeman from the University of British Columbia at Peninsula Hotel in Beijing on August 28, 2007. Professor Hugh J Freeman gave much helpful advice toward the further development of WJG. He will serve as series editor for a new column called OBSERVER which will start in WJG in 2008.

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of dispersal of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in nectarine orchards in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, I A; Myers, J H

    2001-08-01

    Thrips were sampled from six nectarine orchards in the Dry Central Interior, British Columbia, Canada, between April and June 1993 using yellow sticky cards on posts spaced around the perimeter of each orchard. Although 12 identified species of thrips were captured, >90% of individuals were the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). The flight patterns and abundances of western flower thrips were compared between orchards located in two differently oriented valleys (N-S and E-W) and between orchards located close to or far from areas of wild land. Results indicate that densities of western flower thrips entering orchards, and their direction of movement, were related more to the external vegetation than either location within the two different valleys or general wind flow patterns. Western flower thrips tended to move into orchards close to ground level in early spring (late April and early May) but flew higher as ground cover grew taller and temperatures increased. Densities of western flower thrips at ground level were highest in an orchard with the densest dandelion ground cover. We conclude that the location of nectarine orchards in relation to wild areas is a major determinate of western flower thrips densities.

  14. Stigma management? The links between enacted stigma and teen pregnancy trends among gay, lesbian, and bisexual students in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Poon, Colleen S.; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to “enacted stigma,” or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in the community. An unexpected health disparity for lesbia n, gay and bisexual youth is their significantly higher risk of teen pregnancy involvement (between two and seven times the rate of their heterosexual peers), especially in light of declining trends in teen pregnancy across North America since the early 1990s. What is behind this higher risk? Is it getting better or worse? Using the province-wide cluster-stratified British Columbia Adolescent Health Surveys from 1992, 1998, and 2003, this paper explores the trends in pregnancy involvement, related sexual behaviours, and exposure to forms of enacted stigma that may help explain this particular health disparity for gay, lesbian and bisexual youth in Canada. PMID:19293941

  15. Comparing functional similarity between a native and an alien slug in temperate rain forests of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano A. Rodriguez-Cabal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of invasive alien species are greatest when they become dominant members of a community, introduce novel traits, and displace native species. Invasions by alien mollusks represent a novel context by which to compare trait differences between generalist native and introduced herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we determined the abundance, habitat, feeding preferences, as well as the metabolic rate of the native Pacific banana slug (Ariolimax columbianus and the alien black slug (Arion rufus in the coastal forests of British Columbia, Canada. Through a series of observational and experimental studies, we found that alien slugs are more abundant, differ in their habitat preferences, and consumed more fungi (mushrooms than native banana slugs. Conversely, in an enclosures experiment we found that herbivory damage by native slugs was higher compared to enclosures with alien only and control enclosures. Finally, metabolic rates were similar for both slug species. These results suggest that alien black slugs possess a suite of traits that make them functionally different from native banana slugs.

  16. Logistics of supplying biomass from a mountain pine beetle-infested forest to a power plant in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammadhossein; Sowlati, Taraneh (Depts. of Wood Science, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Sokhansanj, Shahab (Chemical and Biological Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    2009-03-15

    The search for alternative energy sources has increased the interest in forest biomass. During the past few years, the severe infestation of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) within the forests of interior British Columbia (BC) has led to huge volumes of dead wood that exceed the capacity of the lumber industry. One way to make the most value of the surplus wood is to use it as the feedstock for bioenergy. The high costs associated with harvest and transport, and uncertainty in supply logistics are issues related to forest biomass utilization. This paper presents the development of a forest biomass supply logistics simulation model and its application to a case of supplying MPB-killed biomass from Quesnel timber supply area (one of the most infested areas in the interior BC) to a potential 300 MW power plant adjacent to the city of Quesnel. It provides values of quantity, cost and moisture content of biomass which are important factors in feasibility study of bioenergy projects. In the case of a conventional harvesting system, the biomass recovered from roadside residues in 1 year will meet only about 30% of the annual demand of the power plant with an estimated delivered cost of Can $45 per oven-dry tonne of woodchips. Sensitivity analyses were also performed

  17. British Columbia S-2000 monitoring project. Volume 1: Performance summary interim report for the period June 1993 to December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuch, P.D.; Harrison, S.J

    1994-02-01

    The Canadian S-2000 program was established to provide utilities with comprehensive field trials of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) heating systems, which have been identified as potentially able to provide significant energy savings. The main objective of S-2000 is to promote cooperation between governments and electrical utilities interested in evaluating whether SDHW systems are suited to utility load management goals, particularly the reduction of peak demand levels and pollutant emission control through cost-effective energy displacement. Current activity in the program consists of cooperative government/utility pilot projects to install and monitor several SDHW systems across Canada. As a first step to demonstrate the potential of SDHW in British Columbia, eight systems were purchased by provincial utilities, installed at private residences, and monitored. The monitoring results over the June-December 1993 period are summarized. Six of the systems are functioning as expected and show an average solar fraction of 42.2% over the monitoring period. These systems show good agreement with predicted results, but the two remaining systems are operating below projected levels due to equipment malfunctions. Only three of the systems had a daily load greater than the 239 l/d average for a typical Canadian family. Calculations indicate that a home using 350 l/d of hot water and a properly oriented collector should get 45.7% of the hot water heating load from solar energy (11.1 GJ of the 27.3 GJ total annual load). 4 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Development of ammonia emission factors for the land application of poultry manure in the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.K. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Bittman, S.; Hunt, D.E. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agassiz, BC (Canada). Pacific Agricultural Research Centre

    2008-07-01

    An estimated 6 per cent of all Canadian ammonia emissions can be attributed to land application of poultry manure. Poultry production in British Columbia (BC) constitutes 15 per cent of the total production in Canada, most of it concentrated in the Lower Fraser Valley, generating about 300,000 tonnes of manure each year. The losses of ammonia must be quantified in order to predict local deposition, nitrogen balances and impact on air quality, particularly the formation of secondary fine particulate matter less than 2.5 mm which is often composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. This study investigated ammonia emissions associated with manure application from various types of poultry operations. After manure application, ammonia emission rates were determined using wind tunnels, capturing the emitted ammonia with acid traps. For all trials, the highest emissions occurred within the first day, and gradually declined over the next 2-3 weeks. Cumulative ammonia emission in all treatments did not exceed the initial amount of ammonia nitrogen present in manure. Ammonia emission rates were significantly different among the manure types. The percent total loss of ammonia with time was positively correlated with manure pH. Ammonia emission rates were typically higher in the spring trials than the fall trial. These data will be used to update ammonia emission factors for BC and Canada. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. The impact of changes in social policies on household food insecurity in British Columbia, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2016-12-01

    As concerns about food insecurity in high income countries grow, there is a need to better understand the impact of social policy decisions on this problem. In Canada, provincial government actions are particularly important because food insecurity places substantial burden on provincial health care budgets. This study was undertaken to describe the socio-demographic and temporal patterning of food insecurity in British Columbia (BC) from 2005 to 2012 and determine the impact of BC's one-time increase in social assistance and introduction of the Rental Assistance Program (RAP) on food insecurity rates among target groups. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Surveys, logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify trends and assess changes in food insecurity among subgroups differentiated by main source of income and housing tenure. Models were run against overall food insecurity, moderate and severe food insecurity, and severe food insecurity to explore whether the impact of policy changes differed by severity of food insecurity. Overall food insecurity rose significantly among households in BC between 2005 and 2012. Following the increase in social assistance benefits, overall food insecurity and moderate and severe food insecurity declined among households on social assistance, but severe food insecurity remained unchanged. We could discern no effect of the RAP on any measure of food insecurity among renter households. Our findings indicate the sensitivity of food insecurity among social assistance recipients to improvements in income and highlight the importance of examining severity of food insecurity when assessing the effects of policy interventions.

  20. Temporal and geographic shifts in urban and nonurban cocaine-related fatal overdoses in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Galea, Sandro; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Illicit drug overdose is a leading cause of premature mortality. We sought to examine fatal overdose trends from 2001 to 2005 in urban and nonurban areas of British Columbia, Canada. We conducted a review of all provincial coroner files in which drug overdose was the cause of death between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2005. We compared cocaine and non-cocaine-related overdoses and examined temporal changes in cocaine-related mortality rates in urban and nonurban areas. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to determine the independent risk factors for cocaine-related death. Spatial analyses were conducted to identify clusters of these cases. During the study period, 904 illicit drug overdoses were recorded, including 369 (40.8%) in nonurban areas and 532 (58.9%) related to cocaine consumption. In a multilevel model, we observed a significant interaction (p = .010) between population density and year, indicating a considerable and differential increase in the likelihood of cocaine-related deaths in nonurban areas. Cocaine-related deaths were clustered in the southeast region of the province. Cocaine-related overdoses in nonurban areas should be a public health concern. Evidence-based interventions to reduce the risks associated with cocaine consumption and reach drug users in nonurban settings are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G G Foreman

    Full Text Available Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

  2. The significance of an Early Jurassic (Toarcian) carbon-isotope excursion in Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands), British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, Andrew H.; Gröcke, Darren R.; Smith, Paul L.

    2011-07-01

    During the Early Toarcian there was a significant disruption in the short-term active carbon reservoir as revealed by carbon-isotope records, which show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a large 5-7‰ negative excursion (δ 13C org). Carbon-isotope excursion co-occurs with the deposition of organic-rich shales in many areas. This perturbation in carbon isotopes is thought to be indicative of severe climate change and marine anoxia. The two leading hypotheses as to the cause of this event invoke either global or regional controls. Here we present carbon-isotope data from Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada showing a significant perturbation within a temporally constrained Early Toarcian succession that was deposited in the northeastern paleo-Pacific Ocean. These data reinforce the concept that the short-term active carbon reservoir was affected globally, and assist with the correlation of ammonite zonal schemes between western North America and Europe. The δ 13C org data show a broad positive shift that is interrupted by a sharp and pronounced negative excursion of 7‰ (8.5‰ in δ 13C wood) in the Early Toarcian Kanense Zone. This negative excursion also coincides with increasing total organic carbon (TOC) from ~ 0.4% to ~ 1.2%. These data suggest that the Early Toarcian carbon-isotope perturbation was indeed global and imprinted itself on all active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric).

  3. Occurrence and characterization of Listeria spp. in ready-to-eat retail foods from Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Jovana; Mesak, Lili R; Allen, Kevin J

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in retail RTE meat and fish products in Vancouver, British Columbia (B.C.) was investigated. To assess potential consumer health risk, recovered L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Conventional methods were used to recover Listeria spp. from deli meat (n = 40) and fish (n = 40) samples collected from 17 stores. Listeria spp. were recovered only from fish samples (20%); 5% harboured Listeria innocua, 5% had L. monocytogenes and 10% contained Listeria welshimeri. L. monocytogenes isolates serotyped as 1/2a and 1/2b, possessed dissimilar PFGE patterns, and had full-length InlA. Three 1/2a clonal isolates encoded the 50 kb genomic island, LGI1. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiling showed all Listeria spp. possessed resistance to cefoxitin and nalidixic acid. L. monocytogenes were resistant to clindamycin, two were resistant to streptomycin, and one to amikacin. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was seen in all L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and three L. welshimeri isolates. Reduced susceptibility to amikacin and chloramphenicol was also observed in one L. monocytogenes and three L. welshimeri isolates, respectively. Recovery of L. monocytogenes in fish samples possessing AMR, full-length InlA, LGI1, and serotypes frequently associated with listeriosis suggest B.C. consumers are exposed to high-risk strains.

  4. Use of beta regression for statistical downscaling of precipitation in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sohom; Srivastav, Roshan K.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2016-07-01

    Impacts of global climate change on water resources systems are assessed by downscaling coarse scale climate variables into regional scale hydro-climate variables. In this study, a new multisite statistical downscaling method based on beta regression (BR) is developed for generating synthetic precipitation series, which can preserve temporal and spatial dependence along with other historical statistics. The beta regression based downscaling method includes two main steps: (1) prediction of precipitation states for the study area using classification and regression trees, and (2) generation of precipitation at different stations in the study area conditioned on the precipitation states. Daily precipitation data for 53 years from the ANUSPLIN data set is used to predict precipitation states of the study area where predictor variables are extracted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data set for the same interval. The proposed model is applied to downscaling daily precipitation at ten different stations in the Campbell River basin, British Columbia, Canada. Results show that the proposed downscaling model can capture spatial and temporal variability of local precipitation very well at various locations. The performance of the model is compared with a recently developed non-parametric kernel regression based downscaling model. The BR model performs better regarding extrapolation compared to the non-parametric kernel regression model. Future precipitation changes under different GHG (greenhouse gas) emission scenarios also projected with the developed downscaling model that reveals a significant amount of changes in future seasonal precipitation and number of wet days in the river basin.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  6. Valutazione dell’impatto delle politiche del prezzo di riferimento sul mercato degli H2-antagonisti nella British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutchmie Narine

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assess the implementation and impact of reference-based pricing (RBP in British Columbia (BC, Canada, and other OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development jurisdictions within an evaluative framework. This was accomplished by conducting a review of prior studies and an analysis of secondary utilization and cost data. Our review of previous work found the introduction of RBP in other OECD jurisdictions was followed by a temporary reduction in pharmaceutical expenditure growth but the rate of growth soon returned to those of previous years. Early results from the BC experience show similar declines in expenditures within reference drug categories, but it remains to be seen if this will continue in the long term. Although early results suggest RBP in BC may be achieving its goals, more work is needed before it can be declared a success. A more balanced evaluation will need to address nonmonetary issues such as impact on the quality of patient care or extent of cost shifting to other areas of the health system. The policy questions raised in this study indicate decision makers should be cautious when thinking of any wider application of referencebased pricing.

  7. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  8. Zyzzyzus rubusidaeus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Tubulariidae), a new species of anthoathecate hydroid from the coast of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann-Voss, Anita; Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    Zyzzyzus rubusidaeus, sp. nov., is described from inshore waters near the northern tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Specimens were collected on rocky bottoms amongst barnacles, sponges, and compound ascidians at a depth of 18 m in Weynton Passage, Broughton Strait, during March, July, and October 2012. Polyps tend to grow in dense aggregations, often covering several square centimetres. Hydroids of Z. rubusidaeus most closely resemble those of Z. robustus Petersen, 1990 from Greenland, but differ in having aboral tentacles that are scattered in a narrow band around the base of the hydranth rather than occurring in a single whorl, thin and transparent instead of thick and stiff perisarc around hydrocaulus and tubers, and gonophores that arise from simple pedicels instead of short, stout branches. Possible embryos were present in female gonophores, although structures recognizable as actinula larvae have not been observed. The cnidome comprises small and large stenoteles, desmonemes, microbasic euryteles, basitrichs, and isorhizas. Polyps are a raspberry colour in life, a hue that has faded but little in our formalin-preserved material. Discovery of this hydroid brings the number of species currently recognized in genus Zyzzyzus Stechow, 1921 to seven.

  9. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions.

  10. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  11. Relationship between food insecurity and mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranka Anema

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the potential impact of food insecurity on mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We examined the potential relationship between food insecurity and all-cause mortality among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART across British Columbia (BC. METHODS: Cross-sectional measurement of food security status was taken at participant ART initiation. Participants were prospectively followed from June 1998 to September 2011 within the fully subsidized ART program. Cox proportional hazard models were used to ascertain the association between food insecurity and mortality, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 254 IDU, 181 (71.3% were food insecure and 108 (42.5% were hungry. After 13.3 years of median follow-up, 105 (41.3% participants died. In multivariate analyses, food insecurity remained significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.53, after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive IDU reporting food insecurity were almost twice as likely to die, compared to food secure IDU. Further research is required to understand how and why food insecurity is associated with excess mortality in this population. Public health organizations should evaluate the possible role of food supplementation and socio-structural supports for IDU within harm reduction and HIV treatment programs.

  12. Peer engagement in harm reduction strategies and services: a critical case study and evaluation framework from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Alissa M; Luchenski, Serena A; Amlani, Ashraf A; Lacroix, Katie; Burmeister, Charlene; Buxton, Jane A

    2016-05-27

    Engaging people with drug use experience, or 'peers,' in decision-making helps to ensure harm reduction services reflect current need. There is little published on the implementation, evaluation, and effectiveness of meaningful peer engagement. This paper aims to describe and evaluate peer engagement in British Columbia from 2010-2014. A process evaluation framework specific to peer engagement was developed and used to assess progress made, lessons learned, and future opportunities under four domains: supportive environment, equitable participation, capacity building and empowerment, and improved programming and policy. The evaluation was conducted by reviewing primary and secondary qualitative data including focus groups, formal documents, and meeting minutes. Peer engagement was an iterative process that increased and improved over time as a consequence of reflexive learning. Practical ways to develop trust, redress power imbalances, and improve relationships were crosscutting themes. Lack of support, coordination, and building on existing capacity were factors that could undermine peer engagement. Peers involved across the province reviewed and provided feedback on these results. Recommendations from this evaluation can be applied to other peer engagement initiatives in decision-making settings to improve relationships between peers and professionals and to ensure programs and policies are relevant and equitable.

  13. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

    2014-06-01

    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  14. The Queen Charlotte Fault, British Columbia: seafloor anatomy of a transform fault and its influence on sediment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Harris, Peter T.

    2013-08-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ) off western Canada is the northern equivalent to the San Andreas Fault Zone, the Pacific-North American plate boundary. Geomorphologic expression and surface processes associated with the QCFZ system have been revealed in unprecedented detail by recent seabed mapping surveys. Convergence of the Pacific and North American plates along northern British Columbia is well known, but how the QCFZ accommodates this convergence is still a subject of controversy. The multibeam sonar bathymetry data reveal, for the first time, evidence of a fault valley with small depressions on the upper slope, offshore central Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands). The depressions form where strike-slip right-step offsets have realigned the fault due to oblique convergence. Core stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating of sediments within the fault valley and small depressions suggest that these features are recent in origin. In addition, the development of the fault valley and dislocation of submarine canyons control sediment migration from the continental shelf through to the lower slope. This interpretation of the geomorphic expression of major plate tectonic processes along the QCFZ can now be tested with new surveys subsequent to the October 2012 magnitude 7.7 earthquake.

  15. Disparities in Paediatric Injury Mortality between Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations in British Columbia, 2001–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Amram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. Significant disparities in injury mortality rates have been observed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, but little is known about the age-, sex-, and mechanism-specific patterns of injury causing death. This study examines paediatric mortality in British Columbia from 2001 to 2009 using comprehensive vital statistics registry data. We highlight important disparities in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mortality rates, and use the Preventable Years of Life Lost (PrYLL metric to identify differences between age groups and the mechanisms of injury causing death. A significantly greater age-adjusted mortality rate was observed among Aboriginal children (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.41, 3.06, and significantly higher rates of death due to assault, suffocation, and fire were detected for specific age groups. Mapped results highlight regional disparities in PrYLL across the province, which may reflect higher Aboriginal populations in rural and remote areas. Crucially, these disparities underscore the need for community-specific injury prevention policies, particularly in regions with high PrYLL.

  16. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  17. Numerical simulation of the landslide-generated tsunami in Kitimat Arm, British Columbia, Canada, 27 April 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, A.; Bornhold, B.

    2007-06-01

    It remains challenging to predict and estimate potential damage from tsunamis using computer models. One of the approaches to validate models is to compare their results with site observations. We carried out numerical modeling for both the underwater landslide and the associated tsunami that occurred near Kitimat, British Columbia, Canada on 27 April 1975. A few observations of high water marks along the coastline indicated 8.2 m tsunami waves. Previous survey results of the seafloor showed that a landslide traveled about 5 km down the axis of the fjord from its source areas on the sidewall of the fjord, near the head of the inlet, and on the lower Kitimat River delta. We modeled the subaqueous slope failure as a Bingham visco-plastic fluid (debris flow) based on previous geotechnical investigations at the site, and numerically solved the landslide-generated tsunami wave and debris flow equations using a finite-volume Godunov-type scheme. This method resolves abrupt wave and landslide front interactions and remains oscillation-free. The computed motion of the debris flow is generally consistent with observations; simulations indicate that the failure propagated approximately 4.5 km down the fjord axis from its inception point. We have found that computed amplitudes for the tsunami wave crest at the coast of Kitimat Arm were between 6 and 11 m; these values are somewhat higher than previous simplistic solitary wave theory estimates of 6.3 m and observations of 8.2 m.

  18. Simulation of the water balance of boreal watersheds of northeastern British Columbia, Canada using MIKE SHE, an integrated hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadzadesahraei, S.; Déry, S.; Rex, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Northeastern British Columbia (BC) is undergoing rapid development for oil and gas extraction, largely depending on subsurface hydraulic fracturing (fracking), which relies on available freshwater. Even though this industrial activity has made substantial contributions to regional and provincial economies, it is important to ensure that sufficient and sustainable water supplies are available for all those dependent on the resource, including ecological systems. Further, BC statistics predict that the northeastern region's population will increase by 30% over the next 25 years, thereby amplifying the demands of domestic and industrial water usage. Hence, given the increasing demands for surface water in the complex wetlands of northeastern BC, obtaining accurate long-term water balance information is of vital importance. Thus, this study aims to simulate the 1979-2014 water balance at two boreal watersheds using the MIKE SHE model. More specifically, this research intends to quantify the historical, and regional, water budgets and their associated hydrological processes at two boreal watersheds—the Coles Lake and Tsea Lake watersheds—in northeastern BC. The development of coupled groundwater and surface water model of these watersheds are discussed. The model setup, calibration process, and results are presented, focusing on the water balance of boreal watersheds. Hydrological components within these watersheds are quantified through a combination of intensive fieldwork, observational data, analysis and numerical modeling. The output from the model provides important information for decision makers to manage water resources in northeastern BC. Keywords: Northeastern BC; boreal watershed; water balance; MIKE SHE hydrological model.

  19. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

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    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  20. Formation of a Volunteer Harmful Algal Bloom Network in British Columbia, Canada, Following an Outbreak of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning

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    Nicola Haigh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for shellfish toxin illness in British Columbia (BC on the west coast of Canada can be traced back to 1793. For over two hundred years, domestically acquired bivalve shellfish toxin illnesses in BC were solely ascribed to paralytic shellfish poisonings caused by algal blooms of Alexandrium. This changed in 2011, when BC experienced its first outbreak of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP. As a result of this outbreak, Canada’s first DSP symposium was held in November, 2012, in North Vancouver, BC. Three of the objectives of the symposium were to provide a forum to educate key stakeholders on this emerging issue, to identify research and surveillance priorities and to create a DSP network. The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about shellfish poisoning in BC and to describe a novel volunteer network that arose following the symposium. The newly formed network was designed for industry shellfish growers to identify harmful algae bloom events, so that they may take actions to mitigate the effects of harmful blooms on shellfish morbidity. The network will also inform public health and regulatory stakeholders of potentially emerging issues in shellfish growing areas.

  1. Exploring the distribution of food stores in British Columbia: associations with neighbourhood socio-demographic factors and urban form.

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    Black, Jennifer L; Carpiano, Richard M; Fleming, Stuart; Lauster, Nathanael

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have identified disparities in access to food retailers among urban neighbourhoods with varied socio-demographic characteristics; but few studies have examined whether key zoning and siting mechanisms described in the urban planning literature explain differences in food store access. This study assessed associations between socio-demographic and urban planning variables with the availability of large supermarkets and stores selling fresh food within one kilometre buffers from residential addresses and the proximity to the closest food stores across 630 census tracts in British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate regression results indicated that neighbourhoods with higher median household income had significantly decreased access to food stores. Inclusion of urban planning factors in multivariate models, particularly housing and transportation considerations, explained much of the relation between area income and food store access, and were significant predictors of food store availability and proximity. Public health research and practice addressing food availability would benefit by incorporating theoretical perspectives from urban planning theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

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    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  3. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

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    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  4. E/I corrected paleolatitudes for the sedimentary rocks of the Baja British Columbia hypothesis

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    Krijgsman, Wout; Tauxe, Lisa

    2006-02-01

    Paleomagnetic inclinations from sediments of the western terranes of Canada are consistently too shallow for their reconstructed paleogeographic positions. Two contradicting explanations for these discrepancies are: (1) terranes have been displaced northward with respect to the stable American craton by several thousands of kilometres between the Late Cretaceous (˜ 75 Ma) and the Eocene (˜50 Ma) and (2) sedimentary inclination error has caused a shallow bias in the paleomagnetic directions. Here, we apply the elongation/inclination (E/I) method to paleomagnetic data sets from sedimentary rocks of supposedly allochtonous terranes of western North America to correct for inclination flattening. Our results indicate that the paleomagnetic directions from the continental Silverquick sediments (95-92 Ma) of southern British Colombia are not seriously affected by inclination error, because the magnetic signal most likely concerns a chemical remanent magnetisation (CRM). In contrast, the marine sediments of the Nanaimo Group (84-72 Ma) of Vancouver Island region appear seriously affected by inclination flattening ( f = 0.7) and the E/I corrected mean inclinations are about 9° steeper than the original data. We arrive at corrected inclinations/paleolatitudes of I** = 57°/ λ = 38°N for the Silverquick and I** = 55°/ λ = 36°N for the Nanaimo sediments. Our corrected paleolatitudes indicate that the Canadian terranes were indeed located adjacent to the Baja Californian margin during the Late Cretaceous, thus supporting the Baja BC hypothesis.

  5. Climate Change Induced Precipitation Effects on Water Resources in the Peace Region of British Columbia, Canada

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    Gopal Chandra Saha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change would significantly affect the temporal pattern and amount of annual precipitation at the regional level, which in turn would affect the regional water resources and future water availability. The Peace Region is a critical region for northern British Columbia’s social, environmental, and economic development, due to its potential in various land use activities. This study investigated the impacts of future climate change induced precipitation on water resources under the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2020–2040 in a study area along the main river of the Kiskatinaw River watershed in the Peace Region as a case study using the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA modeling system. The simulation results showed that climate change induced precipitation changes significantly affect monthly, seasonal and annual stream flows. With respect to the mean annual stream flow of the reference period (2000–2011, the mean annual stream flow from 2020 to 2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to increase by 15.5% and 12.1%, respectively, due to the increased precipitation (on average 5.5% in the A2 and 3.5% in the B1 scenarios and temperature (on average 0.76 °C in the A2 and 0.57 °C in the B1 scenarios predicted, with respect to that under the reference period. From the seasonal point of view, the mean seasonal stream flow during winter, spring, summer and fall from 2020 to 2040 under the A2 scenario is expected to increase by 10%, 16%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. On the other hand, under the B1 scenario these numbers are 6%, 15%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. Increased precipitation also resulted in increased groundwater discharge and surface runoff. The obtained results from this study will provide valuable information for the study area in the long-term period for seasonal and annual water extractions from the river and allocation to the stakeholders for future water supply, and help develop a

  6. Radar facies and architecture of alluvial fans and related sediments in high-energy alpine environments, British Columbia

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    Ekes, Csaba

    2000-08-01

    It is widely recognized that the dominant depositional processes on alluvial fans include rock falls, rock slides, rock avalanches, debris flows, sheetfloods and incised-channel floods. A fundamental question addressed in this thesis is: Can ground penetrating radar (GPR) differentiate between the sediments associated with these processes? Do these individual deposits have characteristic radar reflection signatures? The dissertation is divided into two parts. In part one, a calibration exercise conducted in southern British Columbia, it was demonstrated that GPR was able to obtain good penetration and resolution in rock fall, rock slide, fluvial and alluvial fan sediments, and that a characteristic radar reflection pattern (or radar facies) can be assigned to these deposits. Bedrock reflection pattern is characterised by a discontinuous radar signal and by stacked diffractions. The radar facies for rock slide and rock avalanche sediments, where boulders constitute the predominant clast size, is characterized by discontinuous, high amplitude, macro-scale, hyperbolic reflections that are different from diffractions generated by bedrock. Alluvial fans dominated by debris flow processes produce a chaotic and discontinuous radar pattern; diffractions in these patterns are attributed to boulders. Alluvial fans dominated by sheetflood processes are likely to produce surface-parallel, gently dipping, more or less continuous radar patterns. Large-scale meandering-river radar-patterns are characterized by high amplitude, continuous, dipping clinoforms. Braided-river radar facies, based on data collected on the Kicking Horse braidplain, are characterized by predominantly horizontally continuous reflections with few identifiable features. Based solely on GPR data, it was possible to distinguish between sediments of meandering and braided rivers. Analysis of over 95 km GPR data suggests that alluvial fan radar-reflection patterns are distinctly different from those observed in

  7. The crustal structure, deformation from GPS, and seismicity related to oblique convergence along the Queen Charlotte margin, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Amanda M. M.

    Tectonic processes and seismic hazard along the west coast of British Columbia result from oblique convergence between the continental North America plate and the oceanic Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates. This dissertation integrates seismic and geodetic techniques to examine the tectonic interaction along these plate boundaries. The Queen Charlotte Fault zone is the transpressive boundary between the North America and Pacific plates along the northwestern margin of British Columbia. Two models have been suggested for the accommodation of the ˜20 mm/yr of convergence along the fault boundary: (1) underthrusting; (2) internal crustal deformation. Strong evidence supporting an underthrusting model is provided in this dissertation by a teleseismic receiver function analysis that defines the underthrusting slab. Forward and inverse modelling techniques were applied to receiver function data calculated at two permanent and six temporary seismic stations within the Islands. The modelling reveals a ˜10 km thick low-velocity zone dipping eastward at 28° interpreted to be underthrusting oceanic crust. The oceanic crust, which may be anisotropic, is located beneath a thin (28 km) westward shallowing (10°) continental margin. The majority of seismicity along the Queen Charlotte Fault zone plots within the modelled underthrusting crust, suggesting that these earthquakes are occurring on faults that extend down into the slab or they might be intraslab events. None of the earthquakes within the Queen Charlotte Basin have occurred deep enough to be intraslab earthquakes. The Wadati-Benioff seismicity may be inhibited beneath the basin by the hot young oceanic crust or by the short distance of underthrusting. GPS measurements have been recorded within the Queen Charlotte Islands during 8 years of campaign surveys. The crustal velocity field derived from the GPS data indicates northward margin-oblique motion of 10--15 mm/yr. Comparisons of the observed velocities with elastic

  8. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    The channel network on a fluvial fan distributes sediment across the fan surface and determines fan development. We present a method to characterize fan channel networks (FCNs) so that the effect of controls (e.g., sediment supply) on the FCN can be evaluated. We then do a preliminary test of the method using three fans in coastal British Columbia. The method uses a set of three measures: 1) the spatial extent of hydrogeomorphic activity, measured as the percentage of the contemporary fan surface area occupied by active channels; 2) the topologic structure, using node counts to measure channel network complexity; and 3) a sediment budget to indicate the proportion of sediment that is stored on the fan, loosely characterized by comparing the second-largest clast size of sediment at the fan apex or intersection point with the second-largest clast at the toe of the fan. These measures were applied to two fan deltas and one partial fan delta in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using channel surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. All three fans are located within 30 km of each other, have similar climatic, physiographic, and vegetation settings, and have natural channel networks. Each fan has perennial channel flow at the fan apex. Watershed areas range from 19.5 to 35.6 km 2, and contemporary fan areas range from 0.2 to 0.7 km 2. The Melton Relative Relief ratio ranges from 0.24 to 0.30 and none of the fans show evidence of debris floods or debris flows. In addition to testing the efficacy of the FCN measures, we use these fans to explore the question of whether fans in similar geomorphic settings and with similar controls develop similar FCNs. Results show the fans have between 4.7-8.5 % of the contemporary fan surface occupied by the active channel network. Topologic node counts indicate that the two fan deltas have a similar level of channel complexity, with 42-54 nodes in total. The partial fan delta channel network is approximately half as complex, with

  9. Trends in precipitation and streamwater chemistry in East Creek watershed in southwestern British Columbia, 1971–2008

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    Michael C. FELLER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk precipitation and streamwater in a small, undisturbed, forested watershed in southwestern British Columbia were sampled regularly and analyzed for dissolved chemical constituents from 1971 to 2008. Concentrations and fluxes of most chemicals in precipitation and streamwater have exhibited considerable yearly variation. Temporal trends, when they have occurred, have rarely been consistent for the entire 1972–2008 time period. Precipitation has exhibited a decline in electrical conductivity, a decline in NH4, inorganic-N, and total-N concentrations and fluxes since the 1980s, an increase in pH, a decline in acid H fluxes since ~1990, and a decrease in SO4 concentrations and fluxes from 1980 until the late 1990s. Streamwater has exhibited an increase in NO3 concentrations and fluxes until the late 1990s, an increase in pH and decrease in acid H fluxes since the early 1990s, a decrease in SO4 concentrations and fluxes from ~1980 until ~2000, and increases in Na and Cl concentrations and fluxes until ~2000. Critical precipitation SO4 and inorganic-N loads have probably been exceeded for most years. East Ck. watershed has continuously experienced net inflows of all forms of N and acid H, and net outflows of dissolved Si, Na, Mg, and Ca. Net inflows of inorganic forms of N and total-N have decreased since the early 1980s. Net acid H inflows have decreased since the early 1990s, while net Na and Cl outflows increased until ~2000. The contribution of nutrient cycling processes within the watershed to the changes is currently unknown.

  10. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

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    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  11. An ice core record of net snow accumulation and seasonal snow chemistry at Mt. Waddington, southwest British Columbia, Canada

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    Neff, P. D.; Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; McConnell, J. R.; Pettit, E. C.; Menounos, B.

    2011-12-01

    We recovered a 141 m ice core from Combatant Col (51.39°N, 125.22°W, 3000 m asl) on the flank of Mt. Waddington, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Aerosols and other impurities in the ice show unambiguous seasonal variations, allowing for annual dating of the core. Clustered melt layers, originating from summer surface heating, also aid in the dating of the core. Seasonality in water stable isotopes is preserved throughout the record, showing little evidence of diffusion at depth, and serves as an independent verification of the timescale. The annual signal of deuterium excess is especially well preserved. The record of lead deposition in the core agrees with those of ice cores from Mt. Logan and from Greenland, with a sharp drop-off in concentration in the 1970s and early 1980s, further validating the timescales. Despite significant summertime melt at this mid-latitude site, these data collectively reveal a continuous and annually resolved 36-year record of snow accumulation. We derived an accumulation time series from the Mt. Waddington ice core, after correcting for ice flow. Years of anomalously high or low snow accumulation in the core correspond with extremes in precipitation data and geopotential height anomalies from reanalysis data that make physical sense. Specifically, anomalously high accumulation years at Mt. Waddington correlate with years where "Pineapple Express" atmospheric river events bring large amounts of moisture from the tropical Pacific to western North America. The Mt. Waddington accumulation record thus reflects regional-scale climate. These results demonstrate the potential of ice core records from temperate glaciers to provide meaningful paleoclimate information. A longer core to bedrock (250-300 m) at the Mt. Waddington site could yield ice with an age of several hundred to 1000 years.

  12. Small Sawmills Persevere While the Majors Close: Evaluating Resilience and Desirable Timber Allocation in British Columbia, Canada

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    Evelyn W. Pinkerton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the resilience to economic shocks - such as the downturn of the U.S. housing market - of commodity sawmills, which tend to be large, and value-added specialty sawmills, which tend to be small or medium in size, that are located in one region of the province of British Columbia, Canada, as measured by their average days in operation over the last decade and during the 2007-2009 recession. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative measures, we then examined three behavioral characteristics contributing to their different degrees of resilience: flexibility, diversity, and orientation to place. We found that the specialty mills had greater resilience over the decade because they (a contributed more jobs per volume of wood consumed and produced, (b had greater flexibility to operate further below their capacity, (c produced more diverse primary and secondary (value-added wood products, (d targeted more diverse markets, and (e did more log sorting and trading in logs of different species with other specialty mills and with local commodity mills, with whom they acted as a resilient cluster. Although all these activities resulted in more logs flowing toward their highest value use, we found that the specialty mills lacked a secure and adequate timber supply, while the major timber tenures held by the commodity mills went largely unused during the downturn. This finding suggests that, in addition to contributing to resilience within the forest products sector, more access to timber tenure by the specialty mills, or having a greater portion of timber on the open market, would result in more value being produced from publicly owned timber.

  13. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

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    Fleming, Sean W.; Hood, Eran; Dalhke, Helen; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  14. Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada.

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    Wendy Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity of a shortened (10-item depression scale used among HIV-positive patients enrolled in the Drug Treatment Program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: The 10-item CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was examined among 563 participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART between August 1, 1996 and June 30, 2002. Internal consistency of the scale was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Using the original CES-D 20 as primary criteria, comparisons were made using the Kappa statistic. Predictive accuracy of CES-D 10 was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values. Factor analysis was also performed to determine if the CES-D 10 contained the same factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D. RESULTS: The correlation between the original and the shortened scale is very high (Spearman correlation coefficient  =0.97 (P<0.001. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the CES-D 10 were satisfactory (Cronbach α=0.88. The CES-D 10 showed comparable accuracy to the original CES-D 20 in classifying participants with depressive symptoms (Kappa=0.82, P<0.001. Sensitivity of CES-D 10 was 91%; specificity was 92%; and positive predictive value was 92%. Factor analysis demonstrates that CES-D 10 contains the same underlying factors of positive and negative affect found in the original development of the CES-D 20. CONCLUSION: The 10-item CES-D is a comparable tool to measure depressive symptoms among HIV-positive research participants.

  15. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.

  16. Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in marine plankton from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Heloise; Dangerfield, Neil; Macdonald, Robie W.; Galbraith, M.; Crewe, Norman; Shaw, Patrick; Mackas, David; Ross, Peter S.

    2013-08-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a large, deep, fjord-like estuary on the southern coast of British Columbia which is subject to local and atmospheric inputs of persistent environmental contaminants. We measured 204 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 61 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) seasonally in water (two depths; dissolved and particle-bound) and plankton (vertical tow) samples collected at two stations. Principal components analysis clearly distinguished the dissolved and particulate water fractions and plankton samples, with the latter two compartments associated more with heavier congeners. Bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for PCBs and PBDEs in plankton were best described by parabolic relationships against octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log Kow), peaking at a log Kow of 5-7, underscoring the important role of physico-chemical properties in driving the uptake of these persistent contaminants by plankton from water. The estimated total quantity of PCBs (annual average of 0.61 ± SEM 0.12 kg) and PBDEs (annual average of 0.64 ± 0.19 kg) in Strait of Georgia plankton biomass were remarkably similar, highlighting the emergence of currently-used PBDEs as a priority concern. The estimated total of 52.1 ± 8.41 kg of PCBs in water (dissolved + particle-bound) was higher than the estimated 26.8 ± 5.20 kg of PBDEs (dissolved + particle-bound), reflecting the dichotomous use histories for these two contaminant classes. Results provide insight into the biological availability of PCBs and PBDEs to the Strait of Georgia food web, and describe an important initial partitioning process by which the region's endangered killer whales have become highly contaminated.

  17. Acute gastro-intestinal illness and its association with hydroclimatic factors in British Columbia, Canada: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rising global temperatures and expected shifts in regional hydroclimatology in a changing climate are likely to influence the risk of infectious waterborne illness. This study examines the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of waterborne gastro-intestinal illness and contributes to our currently limited understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health. Using time-series regression analysis, we examine the associations between three hydroclimatic factors (monthly temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and the monthly occurrence of AGI illness in two communities in the province of British Columbia, Canada. The two communities were selected as study sites to represent the dominant hydroclimatic regimes that characterize the province of BC: the rainfall-dominated hydroclimatic regime and snowmelt-dominated hydroclimatic regime Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatic factors play a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI illness in this setting. Further, this study has highlighted that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic factors on waterborne illness vary across different hydroclimatic settings. We conclude that the watershed may be an appropriate context within which we can and should enhance our understanding of water-related climate change impacts on health. Examining the role of hydroclimatology as an underlying driver of the epidemiology of infectious disease is key to understanding of the possible ecosystem-mediated impacts of climate change on health and developing appropriate adaptation responses.

  18. Future human resources development in British Columbia's offshore oil and gas industry : preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothen, K. [Human Capital Strategies, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2004-06-28

    Since 2001, three major studies have concluded that there are no apparent scientific or technological impediments to lifting a longstanding moratorium on West Coast oil and gas exploration and development. Over 300 occupations are involved in offshore oil and gas activity, and should the moratorium be lifted, labour demand is projected to reach 27,000 new employment openings. This report presents a preliminary analysis of factors that may facilitate offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia (BC), with specific reference to human resources. The report also highlights the broader planning environment of BC offshore oil and gas development and the potential impacts of economic, social, demographic and political factors. Potential gaps in regional training resources were identified within the context of a general overview of education training programs currently available elsewhere. Demand pressures on the supply of skilled labour for future development were considered. Interviews with key industry and stakeholder representatives were conducted. Additionally, a comparison of labour demand from oil and gas development on the east coast revealed a significant employment multiplier impact of offshore activities, averaging 3 jobs per 1 offshore job. An outline of previous employment growth patterns were provided for future reference. It was concluded that early planning and development of educational and training programs is essential in addressing eventual skills shortages. In addition to training measures, a range of public policy options should be considered, including retention measures to remove regulatory disincentives and innovative local agreements. Steps to rectify shortages in trades workers, technicians and experienced production workers is advisable, as these shortages are already evident in current onshore oil and gas activities elsewhere in Canada. A detailed description of offshore oil and gas occupations was provided, as well as questionnaires

  19. Individual and contextual determinants of regional variation in prescription drug use: an analysis of administrative data from British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing attention is being paid to variations in the use of prescription drugs because their role in health care has grown to the point where their use can be considered a proxy for health system performance. Studies have shown that prescription drug use varies across regions in the US, UK, and Canada by more than would be predicted based on age and health status alone. In this paper, we explore the determinants of variations in the use of prescription drugs, drawing on health services theories of access to care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using population-based administrative health care data for British Columbia (BC, Canada. We used logistic and hierarchical regressions to analyze the effects of individual- and area-level determinants of use of prescriptions overall and rates of purchase of prescriptions from five therapeutic categories representing a range of indications: antihypertensives, statins, acid reducing drugs, opioid drugs, and antidepressants. To indicate the relative scale of regional variations and the importance of individual- and area-level variables in explaining them, we computed standardized rates of utilization for 49 local health areas in BC. RESULTS: We found that characteristics of individuals and the areas in which they live affect likelihood of prescription drug purchase. Individual-level factors influenced prescription drug purchases in ways generally consistent with behavioral models of health services use. Contextual variables exerted influences that differed by type of drug studied. Population health, education levels, and ethnic composition of local areas were associated with significant differences in the likelihood of purchasing medications. Relatively modest regional variations remained after both individual-level and area-level determinants were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that individual- and area-level factors should be considered

  20. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC. METHODS: We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85% of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67 of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52 abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30 medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. CONCLUSIONS: Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4% for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  1. Geochemistry of arsenic in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock. However, in aged waste rock the As is associated with both primary pyrites and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of pyrite in waste rock dumps was reflected by the presence of high concentrations of SO4(2-) in porewater and oxidation rims of Fe oxyhydroxides around pyrite grains. Acid released from pyrite oxidation to Fe oxyhydroxides is neutralized by carbonate mineral dissolution that buffers the pH in the waste rock to circumneutral values. Adsorption of As onto secondary Fe oxyhydroxides provides an internal geochemical control on As release during pyrite oxidation and porewater flushing from the dump, resulting in the low As concentrations observed in porewater (median: 9.91μg/L) and rock-drain effluent (median: 0.31μg/L). Secondary Fe oxyhydroxides act as a long-term sink for As under present day hydrologic settings in waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley.

  2. The landslide response of alpine basins to post-Little Ice Age glacial thinning and retreat in southwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kris; Bovis, Michael; Jakob, Matthias

    2004-02-01

    The role of post-Little Ice Age (LIA) Neoglacial retreat on landslide activity is investigated in 19 alpine basins along the upper Lillooet River Valley, British Columbia. We examine how Neoglacial scouring and glacial recession have modified hillslope form and slope stability, and construct a decision-making flowchart to identify landslide hazards associated with glacial retreat. This work is based on field mapping, GIS analysis, statistical associations between landslides and terrain attributes, and a comparison between Neoglaciated and non-Neoglaciated terrain within each basin. The bedrock landslide response to glacial retreat varies appreciably according to lithology and the extent of glacial scour below the LIA trimline. Valleys carved in weak Quaternary volcanics show significant erosional oversteepening and contain deep-seated slope movement features, active rock fall, rock slides, and rock avalanches near glacial trimlines. Basins in stronger granitic rock rarely show increased bedrock instability resulting from post-LIA retreat, except for shallow-seated rock slides along some trimlines and failures on previously unstable slopes. In surficial materials, landslides associated with post-LIA retreat originate in till or colluvium, as debris slides or debris avalanches, and are concentrated along lateral moraines or glacial trimlines. Significant spatial association was also observed between recent catastrophic failures, gravitational slope deformation, and slopes that were oversteepened then debuttressed by glacial erosion. Eight out of nine catastrophic rock slope failures occurred just above glacial trimlines and all occurred in areas with a previous history of deep-seated gravitational slope movement, implying that this type of deformation is a precursor to catastrophic detachment.

  3. Distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Rosa, Luciano; Ford, John K. B.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2012-03-01

    Humpback whales are common in feeding areas off British Columbia (BC) from spring to fall, and are widely distributed along the coast. Climate change and the increase in population size of North Pacific humpback whales may lead to increased anthropogenic impact and require a better understanding of species-habitat relationships. We investigated the distribution and relative abundance of humpback whales in relation to environmental variables and processes in BC waters using GIS and generalized additive models (GAMs). Six non-systematic cetacean surveys were conducted between 2004 and 2006. Whale encounter rates and environmental variables (oceanographic and remote sensing data) were recorded along transects divided into 4 km segments. A combined 3-year model and individual year models (two surveys each) were fitted with the mgcv R package. Model selection was based primarily on GCV scores. The explained deviance of our models ranged from 39% for the 3-year model to 76% for the 2004 model. Humpback whales were strongly associated with latitude and bathymetric features, including depth, slope and distance to the 100-m isobath. Distance to sea-surface-temperature fronts and salinity (climatology) were also constantly selected by the models. The shapes of smooth functions estimated for variables based on chlorophyll concentration or net primary productivity with different temporal resolutions and time lags were not consistent, even though higher numbers of whales seemed to be associated with higher primary productivity for some models. These and other selected explanatory variables may reflect areas of higher biological productivity that favor top predators. Our study confirms the presence of at least three important regions for humpback whales along the BC coast: south Dixon Entrance, middle and southwestern Hecate Strait and the area between La Perouse Bank and the southern edge of Juan de Fuca Canyon.

  4. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  5. Barriers to rural induced abortion services in Canada: findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V; Soon, Judith A; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians.

  6. Effect of sociodemographic factors on surgical consultations and hip or knee replacements among patients with osteoarthritis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Mushfiqur; Kopec, Jacek A; Sayre, Eric C; Greidanus, Nelson V; Aghajanian, Jaafar; Anis, Aslam H; Cibere, Jolanda; Jordan, Joanne M; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2011-03-01

    To quantify the effect of demographic variables and socioeconomic status (SES) on surgical consultation and total joint arthroplasty (TJA) rates among patients with osteoarthritis (OA), using population-based administrative data. A cohort study was conducted in British Columbia using population data from 1991 to 2004. From April 1996 to March 1998, we documented 34,420 new patients with OA and these patients were followed to March 2004 for their first surgical consultation and TJA. Effects of age, sex, and SES were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for comorbidities and pain medication used. During a mean 5.5-year followup period, 7475 patients with OA had their first surgical consultations and 2814 patients received TJA within a 6-year mean followup period. Crude hazards ratio (HR) for men compared to women was 1.25 (95% CI 1.20-1.31) for surgical consultation and was 1.14 (95% CI 1.06-1.23) for TJA. The interaction between sex and SES was significant. Stratified analysis showed among men an HR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.27-1.58) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.26-1.83) for surgical consultations and TJA, respectively, for the highest SES compared with the lowest SES quintiles. Similarly significant results were observed among women. Differential access to the healthcare system exists among patients with OA. Women with OA were less likely than men to see an orthopedic surgeon as well as to obtain TJA. Patients with higher SES consulted orthopedic surgeons more frequently and received more TJA than those with the lowest SES.

  7. Preliminary investigation of bird and human movements and disease-management practices in noncommercial poultry flocks in southwestern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Kelton, David; Ribble, Carl; Stephen, Craig

    2011-09-01

    Understanding normal movement patterns and husbandry practices of poultry production systems is important for understanding the dynamics of disease spread, and for controlling outbreaks of highly infectious diseases, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. To learn about these patterns in the noncommercial or "backyard" poultry-keeping sector, an open-ended questionnaire was administered to 18 backyard-flock owners in British Columbia, Canada, and responses were analyzed descriptively. Six participants reported that they visited premises that were part of the commercial poultry system in the last year; however, bird movements between commercial and noncommercial farms were always unidirectional, from commercial to backyard. Bird movements into and out of participants' flocks occurred multiple times per month (two flocks), three times per year (five flocks), once or twice a year (nine flocks) and every 3-5 yr (two flocks). Visitors had direct contact with three participants' flocks multiple times per week; for other flocks, visitors had direct contact three times or less per year. Fourteen participants rarely had direct contact with other backyard flocks, three had contact more than once per week, and one had contact every 3 mo. Participants stated that the health of their birds was excellent (7), very good (3), good (6), O.K. (1), and all right (1), and used a median of two biosecurity practices to maintain health in their flock. Our findings suggest that bird movements are not likely to transmit disease from backyard to commercial flocks; however, human movements between backyard and commercial premises could transmit diseases. Within the backyard-flock sector, the majority of small flocks appear to pose little risk of disease transmission because they are maintained in semi-isolation from other flocks; however, a minority of flocks has high contact levels with other flocks and could be important in disease spread.

  8. History of foster care among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia: a precursor to trajectories of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2015-02-26

    It is well documented that a disproportionate number of homeless adults have childhood histories of foster care placement(s). This study examines the relationship between foster care placement as a predictor of adult substance use disorders (including frequency, severity and type), mental illness, vocational functioning, service use and duration of homelessness among a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. We hypothesize that a history of foster care predicts earlier, more severe and more frequent substance use, multiple mental disorder diagnoses, discontinuous work history, and longer durations of homelessness. This study was conducted using baseline data from two randomized controlled trials in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who responded to a series of questions pertaining to out-of-home care at 12 months follow-up (n = 442). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; vocational functioning; and service use. In multivariable regression models, a history of foster care placement independently predicted incomplete high school, duration of homelessness, discontinuous work history, less severe types of mental illness, multiple mental disorders, early initiation of drug and/or alcohol use, and daily drug use. This is the first Canadian study to investigate the relationship between a history of foster care and current substance use among homeless adults with mental illness, controlling for several other potential confounding factors. It is important to screen homeless youth who exit foster care for substance use, and to provide integrated treatment for concurrent disorders to homeless youth and adults who have both psychiatric and substance use problems. Both trials are registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and were assigned ISRCTN57595077 (Vancouver At Home Study: Housing First plus

  9. The 2007 Nazko, British Columbia, earthquake sequence: Injection of magma deep in the crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J.F.; Balfour, N.; Hickson, C.; Kao, H.; White, Rickie; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Mazzotti, S.; Rogers, Gary C.; Al-Khoubbi, I.; Bird, A.L.; Esteban, L.; Kelman, M.; Hutchinson, J.; McCormack, D.

    2011-01-01

    On 9 October 2007, an unusual sequence of earthquakes began in central British Columbia about 20 km west of the Nazko cone, the most recent (circa 7200 yr) volcanic center in the Anahim volcanic belt. Within 25 hr, eight earthquakes of magnitude 2.3-2.9 occurred in a region where no earthquakes had previously been recorded. During the next three weeks, more than 800 microearthquakes were located (and many more detected), most at a depth of 25-31 km and within a radius of about 5 km. After about two months, almost all activity ceased. The clear P- and S-wave arrivals indicated that these were high-frequency (volcanic-tectonic) earthquakes and the b value of 1.9 that we calculated is anomalous for crustal earthquakes but consistent with volcanic-related events. Analysis of receiver functions at a station immediately above the seismicity indicated a Moho near 30 km depth. Precise relocation of the seismicity using a double-difference method suggested a horizontal migration at the rate of about 0:5 km=d, with almost all events within the lowermost crust. Neither harmonic tremor nor long-period events were observed; however, some spasmodic bursts were recorded and determined to be colocated with the earthquake hypocenters. These observations are all very similar to a deep earthquake sequence recorded beneath Lake Tahoe, California, in 2003-2004. Based on these remarkable similarities, we interpret the Nazko sequence as an indication of an injection of magma into the lower crust beneath the Anahim volcanic belt. This magma injection fractures rock, producing high-frequency, volcanic-tectonic earthquakes and spasmodic bursts.

  10. Extent and bioavailability of trace metal contamination due to acid rock drainage in Pennask Creek, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, L. D.; Li, L. Y.; Hall, K. J.

    2010-05-01

    Pennask Creek is one of the most important rainbow trout producing streams in British Columbia (BC). Much of the Pennask Creek watershed is located within a BC Parks Protected Area, which was set aside to protect the spawning and rearing habitat of this wild rainbow trout population. Construction of Highway 97C, which bisects the Pennask Creek watershed, resulted in the exposure of a highly pyritic rock formation, which began releasing acid rock drainage and causing metals to be leached into Highway Creek, a tributary of Pennask Creek. Previous studies commissioned by the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure indicate that Highway Creek yields fewer invertebrates and elevated levels of some metals in the water when compared with downstream sites in Pennask Creek. This study examines the impacts of this acid rock drainage and metal leaching by determining the extent of trace metal contamination in the water and sediments of the Pennask Creek watershed and determining the bioavailability of these trace metals. Preliminary results indicate concentrations of Al, Cu, and Zn in the water as well as levels of total As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the sediments that are above the BC Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. The highest level of trace metal contamination is found in Highway Creek, downstream of Highway 97C, with concentrations generally returning to near background levels downstream of the confluence with Pennask Creek. Levels of Cu in the water and Zn in the sediments appear to be of greatest concern in areas furthest from the highway.

  11. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2, situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbance (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation, cumulated over space and time in the watershed. The cumulative ECA peaked at 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (i.e. time series analysis and graphic method (modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr−1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was 35.5 mm yr−1. The opposite changes in directions and magnitudes clearly suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7% overriding that from climate variability (42.3%. Forest disturbance also produced significant positive effects on low flow and dry season (fall and winter mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  12. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wei, X.

    2012-03-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2) situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbances (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation) cumulated over space and time in the studied watershed. The cumulative ECA was up to 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (time series analysis) with modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr-1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was -35.5 mm yr-1. The opposite change directions and magnitudes clearly suggest offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7%) overriding that from climate variability (42.3%). Forest disturbances also produced significant positive effect on low flow and dry season (fall and winter) mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  13. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2 situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbances (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation cumulated over space and time in the studied watershed. The cumulative ECA was up to 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (time series analysis with modified double mass curve was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr−1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was −35.5 mm yr−1. The opposite change directions and magnitudes clearly suggest offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7% overriding that from climate variability (42.3%. Forest disturbances also produced significant positive effect on low flow and dry season (fall and winter mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  14. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wei, X.

    2012-07-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2), situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hydrological recovery following various types of disturbance (wildfire, logging and MPB infestation), cumulated over space and time in the watershed. The cumulative ECA peaked at 62.2% in 2009. A combined approach of statistical analysis (i.e. time series analysis) and graphic method (modified double mass curve) was employed to evaluate the impacts of forest disturbance on hydrology. Our results showed that severe forest disturbance significantly increased annual mean flow. The average increment in annual mean flow caused by forest disturbance was 48.4 mm yr-1, while the average decrease in annual mean flow caused by climatic variability during the same disturbance period was 35.5 mm yr-1. The opposite changes in directions and magnitudes clearly suggest an offsetting effect between forest disturbance and climatic variability, with the absolute influential strength of forest disturbance (57.7%) overriding that from climate variability (42.3%). Forest disturbance also produced significant positive effects on low flow and dry season (fall and winter) mean flow. Implications of our findings for future forest and water resources management are discussed in the context of long-term watershed sustainability.

  15. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  16. Calls to the British Columbia Drug and Poison Information Centre: A summary of differences by health service areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah B; Kent, Debra; Kosatsky, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Poison control centres provide information on the management of poisoning incidents. The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre recently implemented an electronic database system for recording case information, making it easier to use case data as a potential source of population-based information on health services usage and health status. This descriptive analysis maps poisoning case rates in BC, highlighting differences in patient age, substance type, medical outcome, and caller location. Methods There were 50,621 human exposure cases recorded during 2012 and 2013. Postal code or city name was used to assign each case to a Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA). Case rates per 1,000 person-years were calculated, including crude rates, age-standardized rates, age-specific rates, and rates by substance type, medical outcome, and caller location. Results The lowest case rate was observed in Richmond, a city where many residents do not speak English as a first language. The highest rate was observed in the Northwest region, where the economy is driven by resource extraction. Pharmaceutical exposures were elevated in the sparsely populated northern and eastern areas. Calls from health care facilities were highest in the Northwest region, where there are many remote Aboriginal communities. Conclusions Case rates were generally highest in the primarily rural northern and eastern areas of the province. Considering these results alongside contextual factors informs further investigation and action: addressing cultural and language barriers to accessing poison centre services, and developing a public health surveillance system for severe poisoning events in rural and remote communities. PMID:25379127

  17. Barriers to Rural Induced Abortion Services in Canada: Findings of the British Columbia Abortion Providers Survey (BCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Wendy V.; Soon, Judith A.; Maughn, Nanamma; Dressler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural induced abortion service has declined in Canada. Factors influencing abortion provision by rural physicians are unknown. This study assessed distribution, practice, and experiences among rural compared to urban abortion providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC). Methods We used mixed methods to assess physicians on the BC registry of abortion providers. In 2011 we distributed a previously-published questionnaire and conducted semi-structured interviews. Results Surveys were returned by 39/46 (85%) of BC abortion providers. Half were family physicians, within both rural and urban cohorts. One-quarter (17/67) of rural hospitals offer abortion service. Medical abortions comprised 14.7% of total reported abortions. The three largest urban areas reported 90% of all abortions, although only 57% of reproductive age women reside in the associated health authority regions. Each rural physician provided on average 76 (SD 52) abortions annually, including 35 (SD 30) medical abortions. Rural physicians provided surgical abortions in operating rooms, often using general anaesthesia, while urban physicians provided the same services primarily in ambulatory settings using local anaesthesia. Rural providers reported health system barriers, particularly relating to operating room logistics. Urban providers reported occasional anonymous harassment and violence. Conclusions Medical abortions represented 15% of all BC abortions, a larger proportion than previously reported (under 4%) for Canada. Rural physicians describe addressable barriers to service provision that may explain the declining accessibility of rural abortion services. Moving rural surgical abortions out of operating rooms and into local ambulatory care settings has the potential to improve care and costs, while reducing logistical challenges facing rural physicians. PMID:23840578

  18. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jancowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  19. Comparison of rainfall and stemflow peak intensities and infiltration patterns for a mature coastal forest in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meerveld, Ilja; Spencer, Sheena

    2017-04-01

    Most studies on stemflow have focused on the amount of stemflow in different forests or for different rainfall events. So far, few studies have looked at how stemflow intensity varies during rainfall events and how peak stemflow intensities compare to peak rainfall intensities. High stemflow intensities at the base of the tree, where roots and other preferential flow pathways are prevalent, may lead to faster and deeper infiltration of stemflow than rainfall and thus affect soil moisture dynamics and potentially also subsurface stormflow generation. We measured stemflow intensities for three Western hemlock, two Western red cedar, two Douglas-fir and one Birch tree in a mature coniferous forest in coastal British Columbia to determine how stemflow intensities were related to rainfall intensity. We sprayed a blue dye tracer on two Western hemlock trees (29 and 52 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)) to determine how stemflow water flows through the soil and to what depth it infiltrates. We also applied the blue dye tracer to an area between the trees to compare infiltration of stemflow with rainfall. Stemflow increased linearly with event total precipitation for all trees. The larger trees almost exclusively had funneling ratios (i.e. the volume of stemflow per unit basal area divided by the rainfall) smaller than one, regardless of species and event size. The funneling ratios for the small trees were generally larger for larger events (up to a funneling ratio of 20) but there was considerable scatter in this relation. Trees with a DBH clay layer but where roots were able to penetrate the clay layer, the infiltrating water flowed deeper into the soil and (almost) reached the soil-bedrock interface. Stemflow appeared to infiltrate deeper (122 cm) than rainfall (85 cm) but this difference was in part due to variations in maximum soil depth. These results suggest that even though stemflow is only a minor component of the water balance, the double funnelling of stemflow

  20. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

  1. Holocene environmental change in the subarctic alpine treeline in northern British Columbia and the southern Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisaric, M.F.J.

    2001-07-01

    Compilations of temperature data show that compared to the last several hundred years, the temperature in many parts of the world has been very high. This warmer temperature is believed to be caused by an increase in anthropogenically derived greenhouse gases. It was argued that instrumental temperature records are not adequate for assessing the impact of human activity on climate because they are very short, and a knowledge of past climatic variations is needed for longer time scales to accurately assess the natural variability of climate. Past climatic variations can also be used to see how vegetation will respond to additional warming in the coming century. This study examined the relationship between modern vegetation and pollen and stomate dispersal with particular reference to treeline dynamics and vegetation-climate relationships in the subalpine treeline in northwestern Canada. The study examined whether major vegetation assemblages can be distinguished from one another through pollen and stomate characteristics. It also investigated postglacial treeline fluctuations in the northern Rocky Mountains to see if they are driven by seasonal and latitudinal changes in distribution of solar radiation, or if they are driven by disturbance factors such as fire. Lastly, the study examined whether the twentieth century temperature increases in northeastern British Columbia and the Yukon have exceeded the natural variability of temperature in the region during the past centuries. Results suggest that climate-growth relationships are complex and the factors controlling them change with time, but it was determined that vegetation development is related to both climate change and higher fire activity. The higher temperatures in the past century most probably reflect increased levels of greenhouse gases.

  2. The influence of water quality on the embryonic survivorship of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, René; Dushenko, William T; vanAggelen, Graham; Bishop, Christine A

    2008-05-20

    In Canada, the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) is a critically endangered species with only three known populations and an estimated breeding population of less than 400 located in isolated sites in the extreme south-west corner of British Columbia. Floating Nitex cages were used to assess embryonic survivorship in two populations of Oregon spotted frogs from 2002-2005. One population, near Aldergrove, BC experienced declines in population size while the other population, at Maria Slough, increased during the period 1997-2001. During embryo development, we measured trace metals, nutrients and physical parameters in the water at each site. These were used to test the hypothesis that water quality parameters were correlated with embryonic survivorship. During the study period in the declining population at Aldergrove R. pretiosa bred at two distinct sub sites (A and B) located 500 m apart within the wetland. Mean embryonic survivorship varied from 9% to 36% at sub site A and from 78% to 88% at sub site B whereas in the population in Maria Slough, the mean embryonic survivorship varied from 77% to 84%. Sulphate was the only water chemistry variable that differed significantly between the two study sites and was the highest at Maria Slough. A weak significant positive correlation was found between chloride and embryonic survivorship and conductivity and embryonic survivorship. A multiple regression model found conductivity was the only significant variable. We concluded that natural water chemistry conditions of low chloride and consequently low conductivity may be contributing to low embryonic survivorship in the population of R. pretiosa at MD Aldergrove, BC.

  3. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krueger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. Methods: We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sexspecific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. Results: The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion. While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion in economic burden could be avoided annually. Conclusion: There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region’s attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs.

  4. Is worst-case scenario streamflow drought underestimated in British Columbia? A multi-century perspective for the south coast, derived from tree-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, Bethany; Smith, Dan J.; Meko, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent streamflow droughts in south coastal British Columbia have had major socioeconomic and ecological impacts. Increasing drought severity under projected climate change poses serious water management challenges, particularly in the small coastal watersheds that serve as primary water sources for most communities in the region. A 332-year dendrohydrological record of regionalized mean summer streamflow for four watersheds is analyzed to place recent drought magnitudes in a long-term perspective. We present a novel approach for optimizing tree-ring based reconstructions in small watersheds in temperate environments, combining winter snow depth and summer drought sensitive proxies as model predictors. The reconstruction model, estimated by regression of observed flows on Tsuga mertensiana ring-width variables and a tree-ring derived paleorecord of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, explains 64% of the regionalized streamflow variance. The model is particularly accurate at estimating lowest flow events, and provides the strongest annually resolved paleohydrological record in British Columbia. The extended record suggests that since 1658 sixteen natural droughts have occurred that were more extreme than any within the instrumental period. Flow-duration curves show more severe worst-case scenario droughts and a higher probability of those droughts in the long-term reconstruction than in the hydrometric data. Such curves also highlight the value of dendrohydrology for probabilistic drought assessment. Our results suggest current water management strategies based on worst-case scenarios from historical gauge data likely underestimate the potential magnitudes of natural droughts. If the low-flow magnitudes anticipated under climate change co-occur with lowest possible natural flows, streamflow drought severities in small watersheds in south coastal British Columbia could exceed any of those experienced in the past ∼350 years.

  5. ‘Communities are where it all happens’: Tracing discourses of sustainability in the destatisation of adult literacy education in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Smythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using tools of critical discourse analysis and the concept of ‘strategic ambiguity’ (Eisenburg, 1984; Leitch & Davenport, 2007, the author traces the keyword ‘sustainability’ across the textual landscape of a literacy policy project in British Columbia, arguing that the ambiguity of the term sustainability allowed for consensus to coalesce around a policy project oriented to the destatisation (Jessop, 2002 of adult literacy education. The case suggests implications for how policy networks are “discourse-driven” and the importance for literacy educators and those in less powerful positions in a policy network to attend carefully to how words are used to gain consensus for controversial policy projects.

  6. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

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    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  7. Ablation from calving and surface melt at lake-terminating Bridge Glacier, British Columbia, 1984-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernos, M.; Koppes, M.; Moore, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Bridge Glacier is a lake-calving glacier in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia and has retreated over 3.55 km since 1972. The majority of this retreat has occurred since 1991. This retreat is substantially greater than what has been inferred from regional climate indices, suggesting that it has been driven primarily by calving as the glacier retreated across an overdeepened basin. In order to better understand the primary drivers of ablation, surface melt (below the equilibrium line altitude, ELA) and calving were quantified during the 2013 melt season using a distributed energy balance model (DEBM) and time-lapse imagery. Calving, estimated using areal change, velocity measurements, and assuming flotation were responsible for 23 % of the glacier's ablation below the ELA during the 2013 melt season and were limited by modest flow speeds and a small terminus cross-section. Calving and surface melt estimates from 1984 to 2013 suggest that calving was consistently a smaller contributor of ablation. Although calving was estimated to be responsible for up to 49 % of the glacier's ablation for individual seasons, averaged over multiple summers it accounted between 10 and 25 %. Calving was enhanced primarily by buoyancy and water depths, and fluxes were greatest between 2005 and 2010 as the glacier retreated over the deepest part of Bridge Lake. The recent rapid rate of calving is part of a transient stage in the glacier's retreat and is expected to diminish within 10 years as the terminus recedes into shallower water at the proximal end of the lake. These findings are in line with observations from other lake-calving glacier studies across the globe and suggest a common large-scale pattern in calving-induced retreat in lake-terminating alpine glaciers. Despite enhancing glacial retreat, calving remains a relatively small component of ablation and is expected to decrease in importance in the future. Hence, surface melt remains the primary driver of ablation at Bridge

  8. Chronically ill Canadians’ experiences of being unattached to a family doctor: a qualitative study of marginalized patients in British Columbia

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    Crooks Valorie A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unattached patients do not have a regular primary care provider. Initiatives are being developed to increase attachment rates across Canada. Most existing attention paid to patient unattachment has focused on quantifying the problem and health system costs. Our purpose is to qualitatively identify the implications of chronically ill patients’ experiences of unattachment for health policy and planning to provide policy-relevant insights for Canadian attachment initiatives. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with marginalized chronically ill individuals residing in a mid-sized city in British Columbia who are unattached to a family doctor. We use the term marginalized as a descriptor to acknowledge that by virtue of their low socio-economic status and lack of attachment the participants are marginalized in Canada’s health care system Focus groups were structured as an open conversation organized around a series of probing questions. They were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was employed. Results Twenty-six individuals participated in the focus groups. The most common chronic illnesses reported were active drug addiction or recovery (and their associated symptoms, depression, arthritis, and hepatitis C. Participants identified life transitions as being the root cause for not having a family doctor. There was a strong sense that unsuccessful attempts to get a family doctor reflected that they were undesirable patients. Participants wanted to experience having a trusting relationship with a regular family doctor as they believed it would encourage greater honesty and transparency. One of the main health concerns regarding lack of access to a regular family doctor is that participants lacked access to preventative care. Participants were also concerned about having a discontinuous medical record due to unattachment. Conclusions Participants perceived that there are many benefits to be had

  9. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

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    Aaron C. Hill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal British Columbia - a large (3186 km2 and undeveloped temperate rainforest ecosystem with legislated protected status. In comparison with other pristine Pacific Rim salmon rivers we studied, the Kitlope is characterized by abundant and complex habitats for salmon that should contribute to high resilience. However, biological productivity in this system is constrained by naturally cold, light limited, ultra-oligotrophic growing conditions; and the mean (± SD density of river-rearing salmonids is currently low (0.32 ± 0.27 fish per square meter; n = 36 compared to our other four study rivers (grand mean = 2.55 ± 2.98 fish per square meter; n = 224. Existing data and traditional ecological knowledge suggest that current returns of adult salmon to the Kitlope, particularly sockeye, are declining or depressed relative to historic levels. This poor stock status - presumably owing to unfavorable conditions in the marine environment and ongoing harvest in coastal mixed-stock fisheries - reduces the salmon-mediated transfer of marine-derived nutrients and energy to the system's nutrient-poor aquatic and terrestrial food webs. In fact, Kitlope Lake sediments and riparian tree leaves had marine nitrogen signatures (δ15N among the lowest recorded in a salmon ecosystem. The protection of the Kitlope watershed is undoubtedly a conservation success story. However, "salmon strongholds" of pristine watersheds may not adequately sustain salmon populations and foster

  10. Origin of gem corundum in calcite marble: The Revelstoke occurrence in the Canadian Cordillera of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikowski, Tashia J.; Cempírek, Jan; Groat, Lee A.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Giuliani, Gaston

    2014-06-01

    The calcite marble-hosted gem corundum (ruby, sapphire) occurrence near Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada, occurs in the Monashee Complex of the Omineca Belt of the Canadian Cordillera. Corundum occurs in thin, folded and stretched layers with green muscovite + Ba-bearing K-feldspar + anorthite (An0.85-1) ± phlogopite ± Na-poor scapolite. Other silicate layers within the marble are composed of: (1) diopside + tremolite ± quartz and (2) garnet (Alm0.7-0.5Grs0.2-0.4) + Na-rich scapolite + diopside + tremolite + Na,K-amphiboles. Non-silicate layers in the marble are either magnetite- or graphite-bearing. Predominantly pink (locally red or purple) opaque to transparent corundum crystals have elevated Cr2O3 (≤ 0.21 wt.%) and variable amounts of TiO2; rare blue rims on the corundum crystals contain higher amounts of TiO2 (≤ 0.53 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (≤ 0.07 wt.%). The associated micas have elevated Cr, V, Ti, and Ba contents. Petrography of the silicate layers show that corundum formed from muscovite at the peak of metamorphism (~ 650-700 °C at 8.5-9 kbar). Because the marble is almost pure calcite (dolomite is very rare), the corundum was preserved because it did not react with dolomite to spinel + calcite during decompression. The scapolite-bearing assemblages formed during or after decompression of the rock at ~ 650 °C and 4-6 kbar. Gem-quality corundum crystals formed especially on borders of the mica-feldspar layers in an assemblage with calcite. Whole rock geochemistry data show that the corundum-bearing silicate (mica-feldspar) layers formed by mechanical mixing of carbonate with the host gneiss protolith; the bulk composition of the silicate layers was modified by Si and Fe depletion during prograde metamorphism. High element mobility is supported by the homogenization of δ18O and δ13C values in carbonates and silicates for the marble and silicate layers. The silicate layers and the gneiss contain elevated contents of Cr and V due to the volcanoclastic

  11. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO3(-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-)) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO3(-) and Cl(-)) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO4(2-) concentrations increased proportionally with NO3(-) and Cl(-) to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO3(-) and Cl(-) concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO4(2-) due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multibeam Mapping of Active Slope Instability Features: Examples from the Fraser River and Squamish River Deltas, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam mapping of the coastal waters of British Columbia has immensly improved our ability to identify and assess submarine landslide and tsunami hazard. This paper will present analysis of high-resolution images of slope instability features from two delta slopes where recent slope failure can be documented through repetitive multibeam mapping and/or comparison with previous single-beam hydrographic soundings. Numerous mass movement features characterize the slope of the Fraser River delta, all the recent features being located at the mouths of distributary channels. Engineering works have maintained the main channel in a fixed position since the 1930's, contributing to over-steepening of the slope and development of a network of submarine channels. Repetitive multibeam mapping shows that recent slope failures have occurred in numerous locations around the main channel lobe, some at the head of a large submarine channel system and others as isolated small failures that form the headwalls of small submarine channels. The scalloped morphology and association with channels, together with volume estimates derived from repetitive multibeam mapping, indicate that these features result from shallow, small volume liquefaction failures. Smaller scale, shallow slides are present on the very shallow water slope area adjacent to the channels, raising the possibility of groundwater seepage as an influence on slope stability. The slide masses from these failures are rapidly transformed into gravity flows that carve the submarine channels. Slides and channels of a similar scale are found at the mouth of a secondary distributary channel and an abandoned distributary channel. The multibeam imagery allows discrimination between recent slide features and relict features, the latter showing infilling or reworking by bottom currents. An area of undulatory seafloor, located on the flank of the main distributary channel lobe, has been cited as a possible creep displacement feature

  13. Stratigraphic evolution of a long-lived submarine channel system in the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Heather A.; Hubbard, Stephen M.

    2016-05-01

    Submarine canyons and slope channel systems are important conveyers of sediment from uplifted catchments to oceanic sedimentary sinks. Long-lived conduits can be established through deep incision of submarine canyons, with bathymetric relief of hundreds of meters to greater than a kilometer in many instances. Alternatively, a combination of erosion of the continental slope and aggradation of levees can yield a broadly comparable stratigraphic product through evolution of channels with more subdued bathymetric relief. Despite differences in formative geomorphic elements on the paleo-seafloor, differentiating the stratigraphic architecture amongst these systems is challenging, particularly in outcrop datasets. Accurate stratigraphic interpretation has significant implications for understanding the frequency and magnitude of controlling processes such as mountain building and denudation or eustatic sea-level fluctuations. In this study, deep-water channel strata of the Late Cretaceous Nanaimo Group are examined at Hornby and Denman islands, British Columbia, Canada. Evidence for a long-lived submarine conduit records the history of sediment transfer at multiple temporal and spatial scales. The composite submarine channel system deposit is 19.5 km wide and 1500 m thick, which formed and filled over ~ 15 Ma. Facies scale analyses highlight conglomeratic channel fill juxtaposed against thin-bedded out-of-channel deposits. Erosional surfaces are commonly mantled by mass-transport deposits, which provide evidence for conduit wall reworking and maintenance. At a larger scale, a series of composite, conglomerate-prone channelform bodies are observed to stratigraphically stack in two distinct phases: (1) early persistence of laterally offset (migrated) channels; and (2) later vertically aligned and aggraded channels. This stratigraphic trend is comparable to composite, multi-phase degradational-aggradational submarine channel complexes observed globally. As such, we consider

  14. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of sulfur and iron in coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M Jim; Dynes, James J; Hu, Yongfeng; Biswas, Ashis; Lee Barbour, S; Day, S

    2017-02-12

    Exposure of coal waste rock to atmospheric oxygen can result in the oxidation of sulfide minerals and the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and associated trace elements (e.g., Se, As, Cd, and Zn) to groundwaters and surface waters. Similarly, reduced iron minerals such as siderite, ankerite, and the sulfide, pyrite, present in the waste rock can also undergo oxidation, resulting in the formation of iron oxyhydroxides that can adsorb trace elements released from the oxidation of the sulfide minerals. Characterization and quantification of the distribution of sulfide and iron minerals, their oxidation products, as well as leaching rates are critical to assessing present-day and future impacts of SO4(2-) and associated trace elements on receiving waters. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopic analysis of coal waste rock samples from the Elk Valley, British Columbia showed Fe present as pyrite (mean 6.0%), siderite (mean 44.3%), goethite (mean 35.4%), and lepidocrocite (mean 14.3%) with S present as sulfide (mean 26.9%), organic S (mean 58.7%), and SO4(2-) (mean 14.4%). Squeezed porewater samples from dump solids yielded mean concentrations of 0.28mg/L Fe and 1246mg/L SO4(2-). Geochemical modeling showed the porewaters in the dumps to be supersaturated with respect to Fe oxyhydroxides and undersaturated with respect to gypsum, consistent with solids analyses. Coupling Fe and S mineralogical data with long-term water quality and quantity measurements from the base of one dump suggest about 10% of the sulfides (which represent 2% of total S) in the dump were oxidized over the past 30years. The S from these oxidized sulfides was released to the receiving surface water as SO4(2-) and the majority of the Fe precipitated as secondary Fe oxyhydroxides (only 3.0×10(-5)% of the Fe was released to the receiving waters over the past 30years). Although the data suggest that the leaching of SO4(2-) from the waste rock dump could continue for about 300years

  15. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Large, Complex Slope Instability: Case study of Downie Slide, British Columbia, Canada. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenchuk, K. S.; Hutchinson, D.; Diederichs, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Downie Slide, one of the world's largest landslides, is a massive, active, composite, extremely slow rockslide located on the west bank of the Revelstoke Reservoir in British Columbia. It is a 1.5 billion m3 rockslide measuring 2400 m along the river valley, 3300m from toe to headscarp and up to 245 m thick. Significant contributions to the field of landslide geomechanics have been made by analyses of spatially and temporally discriminated slope deformations, and how these are controlled by complex geological and geotechnical factors. Downie Slide research demonstrates the importance of delineating massive landslides into morphological regions in order to characterize global slope behaviour and identify localized events, which may or may not influence the overall slope deformation patterns. Massive slope instabilities do not behave as monolithic masses, rather, different landslide zones can display specific landslide processes occurring at variable rates of deformation. The global deformation of Downie Slide is extremely slow moving; however localized regions of the slope incur moderate to high rates of movement. Complex deformation processes and composite failure mechanism are contributed to by topography, non-uniform shear surfaces, heterogeneous rockmass and shear zone strength and stiffness characteristics. Further, from the analysis of temporal changes in landslide behaviour it has been clearly recognized that different regions of the slope respond differently to changing hydrogeological boundary conditions. State-of-the-art methodologies have been developed for numerical simulation of large landslides; these provide important tools for investigating dynamic landslide systems which account for complex three-dimensional geometries, heterogenous shear zone strength parameters, internal shear zones, the interaction of discrete landslide zones and piezometric fluctuations. Numerical models of Downie Slide have been calibrated to reproduce observed slope behaviour

  16. The 3D distribution of cordierite and biotite in hornfels from the Bugaboo contact aureole (British Columbia, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidies, Fred; Petley-Ragan, Arianne; Pattison, David

    2016-04-01

    The size, abundance, shape and spatial distribution of metamorphic minerals bears important information on the rates and mechanisms of fundamental processes that take place during metamorphic crystallization. X-ray computed tomography (XR-CT) has become the method of choice to study the three-dimensional (3D) disposition of minerals in rocks as it allows investigation of relatively large sample volumes at sufficiently high resolution required for statistically meaningful analyses, and as its non-destructive fashion permits further studies such as mineral chemical, isotopic or crystallographic analyses of select grains identified through XR-CT. We present results obtained through the quantification of the 3D disposition of cordierite and biotite crystals in a hornfels from the contact aureole of the Bugaboo Batholith (British Columbia, Canada) using XR-CT and global as well as scale-dependent pattern statistics (Petley-Ragan et al., 2016). The results demonstrate a random distribution of cordierite and biotite crystal sizes for all scales across the entire rock volume studied indicative of interface-controlled prograde metamorphic reaction kinetics. We show that the common approach to approximate the shape of crystals as spherical underestimates the influence of the Strauss hard-core process on rock texture which may be misinterpreted to reflect ordering of crystal sizes by inhibition of nucleation and growth commonly associated with diffusion-controlled reaction kinetics. According to our findings, Strauss hard-core ordering develops at length scales equal to and less than the average major axis of the crystal population. This is significantly larger than what is obtained if a spherical crystal geometry would be assumed, and increases with deviation from sphericity. For the cordierite and biotite populations investigated in this research, Strauss hard-core ordering developed at length scales of up to ˜2.2 and 1.25 mm, respectively, which is almost 1 mm longer than

  17. Canadian Medical Education Journal Survey evaluations of University of British Columbia residents’ education and attitudes regarding palliative care and physician assisted death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, David; Paul, Sonia; Tang, Tom; Chen, Charlie; Chase, Jocelyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Little prior research has been conducted regarding resident physicians’ opinions on the subject of Physician Assisted Death (PAD), despite past surveys ascertaining the attitudes of practicing physicians towards PAD in Canada. We solicited British Columbia residents’ opinions on the amount of education they receive about palliative care and physician assisted death, and their attitudes towards the implementation of PAD. Methods We conducted a cross sectional, anonymous online survey with the resident physicians of British Columbia, Canada. Questions included: close-ended questions, graded Likert scale questions, and comments. Results Among the respondents (n=299, response rate 24%), 44% received ≥5 hours of education in palliative care, 40% received between zero and four hours of education, and 16% reported zero hours. Of all respondents, 75% had received no education about PAD and the majority agreed that there should be more education about palliative care (74%) and PAD (85%). Only 35% of residents felt their program provided them with enough education to make an informed decision about PAD, yet 59% would provide a consenting patient with PAD. Half of the respondents believed PAD would ultimately be provided by palliative care physicians. Interpretation Residents desire further education about palliative care and PAD. Training programs should consider conducting a thorough needs assessment and implementing structured education to meet this need. PMID:28344712

  18. Hepatitis A outbreak in British Columbia, Canada: the roles of established surveillance, consumer loyalty cards and collaboration, February to May 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, H M; Kuo, M; Embree, G; Andonov, A; Henry, B; Buxton, J A

    2014-05-08

    Non-travel-related hepatitis A is rare in Canada. We describe a hepatitis A outbreak investigation in British Columbia in February to May 2012 in which exposure history was collected from nine confirmed non-travel-related cases. Suspected foods were tested for hepatitis A virus (HAV): a frozen fruit blend was identified as a common exposure for six of the nine cases using supermarket loyalty cards. Consumption of the product was confirmed in each case. Genetic analysis confirmed HAV genotype 1B in the six exposed cases. Of the three non-exposed cases, the virus could not be genotyped for two of them; the virus from the other case was found to be genotype 1A and this case was therefore not considered part of the outbreak. HAV was detected by PCR from pomegranate seeds, a component of the identified frozen fruit blend. Historically low levels of HAV infection in British Columbia triggered early recognition of the outbreak. Loyalty card histories facilitated product identification and a trace-back investigation implicated imported pomegranate seeds.

  19. Proceedings of the 33. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : selenium, reclamation of coal mines and general aspects of mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Gardner, W.; McLaren, G.; Bittman, K.; Fraser, C.; Wambolt, T.; Stewart, C.; Pomeroy, K.; Howe, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This annual conference fostered the exchange of information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation (TRCR) was launched in the early 1970 to address the need for greater communication between industry and government regarding environmental protection and mine reclamation in order to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. The Acid Mine Drainage Task Force was recently amalgamated with the TRCR to ensure that acid rock drainage issues are fully addressed. The conference was attended by members of the mining industry, consultants, students, all levels of government, non government organizations, and other interested parties from within British Columbia and around the world. The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed along with new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "A Powerful Protector of the Japanese People": The History of the Japanese Hospital in Steveston, British Columbia, Canada,1896-1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Helen

    2017-01-01

    From 1896 to 1942, a Japanese hospital operated in the village of Steveston, British Columbia, Canada. For the first 4 years, Japanese Methodist missionaries utilized a small mission building as a makeshift hospital, until a larger institution was constructed by the local Japanese Fishermen's Association in 1900. The hospital operated until the Japanese internment, after the attack on Pearl Harbor during World War II. This study offers important commentary about the relationships between health, hospitals, and race in British Columbia during a period of increased immigration and economic upheaval. From the unique perspective of Japanese leaders, this study provides new insight about how Japanese populations negotiated hospital care, despite a context of severe racial discrimination. Japanese populations utilized Christianization, fishing expertise, and hospital work to garner more equitable access to opportunities and resources. This study demonstrates that in addition to providing medical treatment, training grounds for health-care workers, and safe refuge for the sick, hospitals played a significant role in confronting broader racialized inequities in Canada's past.

  2. Paragenesis and chemistry of multistage tourmaline formation in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed petrographic study, scanning electron microscope imaging, and electron microprobe analyses of tourmalines from the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag massive sulfide deposit (British Columbia, Canada) document multiple paragenetic stages and large compositional variations. The tourmalines mainly belong to two common solid-solution series: dravite-schorl and dravite-uvite. Ca- and Fe-rich feruvite and alkali-deficient tourmalines are present locally. Products of tourmaline-forming stages include (from oldest to youngest): (1) rare Fe-rich dravite-schorl within black tourmalinite clasts in footwall fragmental rocks; (2) widespread Mg-rich, very fine grained, felted dravite in the footwall (the main type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe); (3) recrystallized, Fe-rich dravite-schorl (locally Ca-Fe feruvite) in the tourmalinite pipe, which preferentially occurs near postore gabbroic intrusions; (4) Mg-rich dravite or uvite associated with chlorite-pyrrhotite and chlorite-albite-pyrite-altered rocks in the shallow footwall and hanging wall; (5) discrete Mg-rich tourmaline grains associated with chlorite and discordant Mg-rich tourmaline rims which occur on disseminated Fe-rich schorl in the bedded Pb-Zn-Ag ores. The timing of rare Fe-rich schorl in the bedded ores is uncertain, but it most likely occurred during or between stages 2 and 3. The different paragenetic stages and their respective tourmaline compositions are interpreted in terms of a multistage evolution involving contributions from: (1) variable mixtures of synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids and entrained seawater; (2) postore, Fe-rich, gabbro-related hydrothermal fluids; and (3) postore metamorphic reactions. Early synsedimentary, Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids which contained little or no entrained seawater formed Fe-rich black tourmalinite clasts locally in the footwall. The major type of tourmaline in the footwall tourmalinite pipe is Mg rich, recording seawater entrainment under high water

  3. Personal characteristics and experiences of long-term allied health professionals in rural and northern British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Candice M; Hardy, Cindy L; MacLeod, Martha L P

    2009-01-01

    Health sciences programs are being designed to attract students who are likely to stay and practice in rural and northern Canada. Consequently, student recruitment and screening are increasingly including assessment of suitability for rural practice. Although retention factors among rural physicians and nurses have been investigated, little is known about factors that contribute to the retention of other healthcare professionals who work in rural areas. The primary objective of this project was to identify the personal characteristics and experiences of allied health professionals who have worked long term in northern British Columbia (BC), Canada. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Six speech language pathologists, four psychologists, four occupational therapists, eight social workers, and four physiotherapists practicing long term in northern BC were recruited, using a convenience sample and the snowball technique, to participate in semi-structured telephone interviews. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis identified the motivations for their decision to begin or stay working in northern communities, the reasons for choosing rural or northern education and key themes concerning personal characteristics and experiences. A process of member checking and an external audit validated the analysis and findings. There were two major themes for choosing rural and northern education. For some, selection of rural or northern training was based on accessibility to health education programs; all participants who chose rural and northern education had already decided that they were going to practice rurally. Generally, participants identified past positive experiences and rural background as influencing their practice location decision. Participants named the community's need for healthcare professionals, career advancement opportunities, welcoming employers, peer support, as well as promises of continuing

  4. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  5. Locating hidden channels for placer gold exploration in the Cariboo District, British Columbia, Canada: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Detlef; Bastian, Dennis; Ebel, Norbert; Schwarz, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    During the past 150 years, most of the modern day creeks were the target of miners roaming the Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia, in the search for placer gold. In these days, the probability to locate new placer gold occurrence in recent river beds is therefore substantially reduced. New, promising exploration targets appear to be channels mostly buried under alluvial cover sediments. It is airborne geophysical methods that can reveal hidden channels fast and cost-effectively as these penetrate the sub-surface contactless and reflect physical properties of the sub-surface, such as electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility or magnetization, respectively. We applied the airborne geophysical exploration approach on four exploration areas in the Cariboo gold district. Helicopter-borne transient electromagnetic (TEM) and magnetic data were flown using the SkyTEM system. To our knowledge, it has been innovatory to apply high resolution, high density airborne geophysics in the search for placer gold deposited in pre-Holocene sedimentary channel fills of the Cariboo Mountains. A particular effort of our studies aimed at the Mary creek claims which straddle the boundary of the Quesnel and Kootenay terranes of the Canadian Cordillera and include the dormant Toop mine situated in the Mary creek area known for many finds of coarse nugget from the pre-glacial buried Toop channel. Our objective was to locate the southbound extension of the channel buried in Pleistocene sediments of the Toop plateau. Careful analysis of the airborne geophysical data sets provided indications from both the TEM and magnetic data sets favouring the existence of a hidden channel beneath the plateau. The evaluation of seven reverse circulation (RC) drill holes sunk into a promising elongated narrow conductor beneath the plateau was not conclusive as not clearly showing the sedimentary pattern of a channel with gravels typically at its bottom. Only electric conductivity-depth sections

  6. Biology and Conservation of the Common Murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural History and Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara S.; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management. Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western

  7. The Community College in Comparative and Historial Perspective: The Development of the College Concept in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, John D.

    1979-01-01

    The community college as it has developed in Britsh Columbia is examined with special attention to the social and historical context, the forces which lead to its establishment, and the particular form of institution which emerged. How the college attains its objectives and major problems and issues for the future are discussed. (JMF)

  8. Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2010 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (34th, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, May 21-25, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljedahl, Peter, Ed.; Oesterle, Susan, Ed.; Allan, Darien, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims…

  9. Factors Associated with Mood Disorder Diagnosis Among a Population Based Cohort of Men and Women Living With and Without HIV in British Columbia Between 1998 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Osborne, Chuck; Smith, Danielle M; Kesselring, Sarah; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Card, Kiffer; Sereda, Paul; Jabbari, Shahab; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Ahmed, Tareq; Gabler, Karyn; Patterson, Thomas; Hull, Mark; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2017-06-13

    Using data from the Comparison of Outcomes and Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study we examined factors associated with mood disorder diagnosis (MDD) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative individuals in British Columbia, Canada. MDD cases were identified between 1998 and 2012 using International Classification of Disease 9 and 10 codes. A total of 491,796 individuals were included and 1552 (23.7%) and 60,097 (12.4%) cases of MDD were identified among the HIV-positive and HIV-negative populations, respectively. Results showed HIV status was associated with greater odds of MDD among men and lower odds among women. Among PLHIV, MDD was significantly associated with: identifying as gay, bisexual or other men who have sex with men compared to heterosexuals; higher viral load; history of injection drug use; and concurrent anxiety, dysthymia, and substance use disorders. Findings highlight the need for comprehensive and holistic HIV and mental health care.

  10. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K

    1996-07-01

    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  11. Proceedings of the 34. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium and 35. annual Canadian Land Reclamation Association meeting : reclamation from planning to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Wambolt, T.; Van Zyl, D.; Riordan, B.; Hargreaves, J.; Pomeroy, K.; Beckett, P.; Giasson, M.; Polster, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The reclamation of lands disturbed by mineral extraction and processing or by other industrial activity is aimed at returning the land to a level that is equivalent to its pre-industrial activity. The environmental impacts of mine development were discussed along with opportunities to rehabilitate disturbed lands using new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. A broad range of reclamation, restoration and remediation methods for oil sand mining, coal mining and metals in soils were also discussed. The conference featured 30 presentations, including posters, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Differences in heat-related mortality across four ecological regions with diverse urban, rural, and remote populations in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Sarah B; Wan, Victoria; Kosatsky, Tom

    2013-09-01

    Temperature-mortality analyses are challenging in rural and remote communities with small populations, but this information is needed for climate change and emergency planning. The geographic health areas of British Columbia, Canada were aggregated into four ecoregions delineated by microclimatic conditions. Time series models were used to estimate the effect of maximum apparent temperature on daily non-traumatic mortality. The population of the coldest ecoregion was most sensitive to hot weather, while the population of the hottest ecoregion was least sensitive. The effects were consistently strongest in decedents aged less than 75 years. A province-wide total of 815 deaths was attributed to hot weather over the 25-year study period, with 735 deaths in the most populous ecoregion. The framework described could be adapted to other climatically variable regions with urban, rural, and remote populations.

  13. Soil Characteristics and Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Performance Two Decades after Disk Trenching of Unburned and Broadcast-Burned Plots in Subboreal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob O. Boateng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of low-impact broadcast-burning and disk-trenching planting position (control, hinge, trench on soil characteristics and lodgepole pine foliar nutrition and growth over two decades at a subboreal site in British Columbia, Canada. Broadcast burning had virtually no effect on either the bulk density or chemical properties of soil. In contrast, significant reductions in soil bulk density and increases in soil nutrient availability persisted for 20 years in hinge position soils relative to undisturbed (control soil between trenches. These effects on bulk density and nutrient availability are associated with significant differences in pine size by year 6. Burning and planting positions interacted significantly in their effect on pine height, diameter, and stem volume for at least 19 years. Pine survival was high regardless of burning or planting position. Neither broadcast burning nor planting position significantly affected lodgepole pine foliar nutrient status in this study.

  14. Framing Indigenous–Settler Relations within British Columbia's Modern Treaty Context: A Discourse Analysis of the Maa-nulth Treaty in Mainstream Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sloan Morgan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Media plays an integral role in (reproducing our social construction of reality. When viewed in light of Canada’s colonial legacy, media’s power has undoubtedly been implicated in circumscribing Indigenous peoples and Indigenous–settler relations. Employing a discourse analysis of mainstream media covering the recent (2011 implementation of a comprehensive land claims agreement in British Columbia, this study investigates how media has framed contemporary Indigenous–settler relations within the Canadian state. Findings indicate that mainstream media predominantly relies on stereotypes of Indigenous peoples and tends to neglect historical and current political complexities, thereby perpetuating stagnant Indigenous–settler relations. Concluding with empirically derived recommendations, this article points to education reform to create more robust mainstream media able to address stagnated (reconstructions of Indigenous–settler relations.

  15. Prostatic cryptococcosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a systemic mycosis usually affecting immunodeficient individuals. In contrast, immunologically competent patients are rarely affected. Dissemination of cryptococcosis usually involves the central nervous system, manifesting as meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Prostatic lesions are not commonly found. A case of prostate cryptococcal infection is presented and cases of prostatic cryptococcosis in normal and immunocompromised hosts are reviewed. A fifty-year-old HIV-negative man with urinary retention and renal insufficiency underwent prostatectomy due to massive enlargement of the organ. Prostate histopathologic examination revealed encapsulated yeast-like structures. After 30 days, the patient's clinical manifestations worsened, with headache, neck stiffness, bradypsychia, vomiting and fever. Direct microscopy of the patient's urine with China ink preparations showed capsulated yeasts, and positive culture yielded Cryptococcus neoformans. This fungus was later isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures, demonstrating thus its dissemination. The patient was discharged after 27 days in hospital and, despite a regimen of amphotericin B, he died four months later. This case points to cryptococcosis as a possible cause of prostatic disease and reinforces the importance of communication between the medical team and pathology and microbiology laboratories aiming at a more accurate diagnosis and successful treatment.

  16. Atmospheric River impacts in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest on 22-24 January 2015 during the CalWater 2015 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggini, N. G.; Spackman, J. R.; Neiman, P. J.; White, A. B.; Fairall, C. W.; Barnet, C.; Gambacorta, A.; Hughes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Over 30 dropsonde transects were performed across atmospheric rivers (ARs) over the eastern Pacific during CalWater 2015. An event in late January allowed first-of-its-kind coordinated dropsonde transects of an AR using the NOAA G-IV aircraft in tandem with the NOAA Ronald H. Brown (RHB), which observed the marine boundary layer during the passage of this major AR. Dropsonde data collected on 22 January 2015 sampled the early stages of the AR, when the AR began making landfall near Vancouver Island, British Columbia. At the same time the RHB collected precipitation and oceanic moisture flux measurements on the warm side of the AR. A second flight on 24 January 2015 sampled the later stages of the AR, again passing over the RHB stationed beneath the AR. During this later period, the AR axis of moisture shifted north-northeast and fanned out along the coast, affecting regions from Northern Washington to Southern Alaska. Multi-day landfalling AR conditions led to flooding in British Columbia and northern Washington. The influence of the coastal orography combined with the shift in AR orientation is examined to understand the orographic control of precipitation that triggered the flooding. In addition, cross section analysis of the AR using dropsonde and reanalysis data are used to better understand the synoptic influences, water vapor transport, and moisture evolution during the lifecycle of the AR. To gain greater insight into AR development and prolonged AR conditions that led to enhanced flooding, a comparison of aircraft and ship data from CalWater 2015 and NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) retrievals (integrated water vapor, vertical temperature and moisture profiles, and an experimental ATMS-only rain rate product) will be compared for the 22-24 January period.

  17. Comparison of coniferous forest carbon stocks between old-growth and young second-growth forests on two soil types in central British Columbia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredeen, A.L.; Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T.; Sanborn, P.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies

    2005-06-01

    More than half of the world's terrestrial organic soil and vegetation carbon (C) currently resides in forests, with one half of this in boreal forests alone. Forests therefore represent significant reservoirs of carbon. A study was conducted at the Aleza Lake Research Forest (ALRF) near Prince George, British Columbia to compare the C stocks in 4 old-growth sub-boreal spruce (SBS) forests with 4 corresponding young, planted second-growth stands in soils of contrasting textures. The 2 dominant soil textures were coarse and fine grained soils over a total of 16 plots. The C stocks were assessed for hybrid interior spruce-dominated upland forests within the ALRF. For each plot, the carbon content of tree biomass was estimated using the measured values of Lamlom and Savidge. All woody debris stocks including tree stumps were also evaluated and soil C stocks were sampled according to modified National Forest Inventory Sampling Guidelines. C stocks were also tested for mineral soil texture, age-class and their interaction effects. The average total C stocks for old-growth stands ranged from 423 Mg C per hectare to 324 Mg C per hectare, between Pacific Northwest temperate forest and upland boreal forests. It was concluded that sub-boreal forests of central British Columbia are intermediate in terms of aboveground and total carbon stocks between the wetter and more productive coastal forests to the south and west and the less productive boreal stands to the north and east. It was concluded that conservation of non-biomass C stocks in old-growth forests is important in minimizing greenhouse gas emissions resulting from sub-boreal forest management activities. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Contrasting total carbon and nitrogen stocks between ecological site types in a Sub-Boreal research forest in central British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program; Sanborn, P.T.; Fredeen, A.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program]|[Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration and carbon stocks within managed and natural forests have become topical issues since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. A multi-year study was conducted to evaluate the total C stocks present in a 10 km{sup 2} area of University of British Columbia's Aleza Lake Research Forest located 60 km east of Prince George in the Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of east-central British Columbia. The purpose was to address gaps in knowledge about forest C budgets, total pool sizes, dynamics of forest floor and mineral soil carbon by studying the effects of forest management. Sampling plots were chosen randomly within strata composed of the dominant ecological site classes, soil textures and management histories. The study involved the creation of 137 plots, of which 108 and 29 were located on fine and coarse textured soils, respectively. Sampling was reduced in these strata due to a shortage of middle-aged stands and the near lack of coarse textured soils. Data collection and sampling methodology were adapted from the National Forest Inventory Ground Sampling Guidelines of the Canadian Forest Service. Carbon stocks were measured in forest floor and mineral soil to a depth of 1 metre. The Dumas-combustion method was used to determine C and nitrogen (N) concentrations. It was determined that stand age did not decidedly change the forest floor or mineral soil total C and N in either fine or coarse textured soil plots. However, forest floor C and N were considerably higher in coarse textured soils compared to C and N measured in fine soil plots. Mineral soil C concentration decreased methodically with depth from 4.6 per cent C at 0 cm to 0.2 per cent at 100 cm. The paper also addressed the breakdown of forest floor and mineral soil C and N pools according to ecological site series.

  19. British Columbia Healthy Connections Project process evaluation: a mixed methods protocol to describe the implementation and delivery of the Nurse-Family Partnership in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Susan M; Sheehan, Debbie; Gonzalez, Andrea; MacMillan, Harriet L; Catherine, Nicole; Waddell, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The Nurse-Family Partnership is a home visitation program for first-time, socially and economically disadvantaged mothers. The effectiveness of this public health intervention has been well established in the United States; however, whether the same beneficial outcomes will be obtained within the Canadian context is unknown. As part of the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project, which includes a trial comparing Nurse-Family Partnership's effectiveness with existing services in British Columbia, we are conducting a process evaluation to describe and explain how the intervention is implemented and delivered across five regional Health Authorities. A convergent parallel mixed methods research design will be used to address the process evaluation objectives. The principles of interpretive description will guide all sampling, data collection and analytic decisions in the qualitative component of the study. The full population of public health nurses and supervisors (n = 71) will discuss their experiences of implementing and delivering the program in interviews (or focus groups). Managers (n = 5-15) responsible for this portfolio will also be interviewed annually. Fidelity reports with quantitative data on the reach and the dose of the intervention will be collected and analyzed. Summaries of team meetings and supervisory sessions will be analyzed. Data will be used to compare, corroborate and explain results and variances across the five regional Health Authorities. The process evaluation results will be of immediate instrumental use to the program implementers to inform intervention delivery. Findings will contribute to the emerging body of evidence surrounding: 1) professional nurse home visitation practice issues; 2) best practices for meeting the needs of families living in rural and remote communities; 3) a deeper understanding of how health and social issues such as mental health problems including substance misuse and exposure to intimate partner

  20. Health-adjusted life expectancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men and women in British Columbia, Canada: a population-based observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert S; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Collins, Alexandra B; Zhang, Wendy; Jabbari, Shahab; Hull, Mark W; Lima, Viviane Dias; Ahmed, Tareq; Kendall, Claire E; Althoff, Keri N; Justice, Amy C; Barrios, Rolando; Shoveller, Jeannie; Montaner, Julio S G

    2017-06-01

    We sought to understand whether people living with HIV (PLHIV) ever on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow a pattern where morbidity is compressed into the last years of life or lessened as people age. We aimed to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) among adults living with and without HIV, and examine dependency between causes of comorbidities. The Comparative Outcomes and Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study is a retrospective cohort of adults (≥20 years) including all known PLHIV and a 10% random sample of the general population of British Columbia, and with longitudinal data spanning from April 1, 1996, to Dec 31, 2012. We determined the prevalence of select comorbidities (cardiovascular, respiratory, liver, and renal diseases, and non-AIDS defining cancers because of their high prevalence among PLHIV) by age and sex by use of case-finding algorithms. Deaths were obtained from a vital event registry from British Columbia, Canada. Comorbid-specific HALE was estimated from 20 years of age by HIV status and sex. For each comorbidity, a healthy state was defined as the proportion of life expectancy comorbid-free, and was adjusted on the probability of occurrence of other different comorbidities. The sensitivity of HALE estimates was assessed to the sequencing of select comorbidities for the dependent comorbidity adjustments. Our sample consisted of electronic health records from 9310 HIV-infected and 510 313 uninfected adults over the period April 1, 1996, to Dec 31, 2012. These individuals contributed 49 605 deaths and 5 576 841 person-years over the study period. At exactly age 20 years, HALE was about 31 years (SD 0·16) among men living with HIV and 27 years (0·16) among women living with HIV. In the HIV-negative population, HALE was around 58 years (SD 0·02) for men and 63 years (0·02) for women. These results seem independent of ordering. However, PLHIV, particularly women living with HIV, had much shorter overall

  1. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Yew, Ann C; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-02-11

    Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. As part of the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutrition Program, 773 British Columbia fifth-and sixth-grade school children (Mean age 11.3 years; range 10.3-12.5) and their parents were surveyed to determine FV consumption and overall dietary intake. Students completed a web-based 24-hour dietary food recall, and a student measure of socio-economic status (The Family Affluence Scale). Parents completed a self-administered survey about their education, income, home environment and perceptions of their neighbourhood and children's eating habits. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association between SES, parental and home environment factors and FV consumption. Approximately 85.8% of children in this study failed to meet minimum Canadian guidelines for FV intake (6 servings). Parent income and education were not significantly associated with child FV consumption but were associated with each other, child-reported family affluence, neighbourhood environment, access to FV, and eating at the table or in front of the television. Significant positive associations were found between FV consumption and child-reported family affluence, meal-time habits, neighbourhood environment and parent perceptions of the healthiness of their child's diet; however, these correlations were weak (ranging from .089-.115). Multiple regression analysis showed that only child-reported family affluence significantly predicted FV consumption (std-β = 0.096 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.27). The majority of children in

  2. THE INJURY SEVERITY RATE DIFFERENCES IN PASSENGER CARS AND PICK UP TRUCKS RELATED TWO VEHICLE INVOLVED MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of large vehicle involvement on motor vehicle crash (MVC rates and severity has long been a concern in MVC analysis literature. Injuries in drivers and occupants are related to several key factors: the mass of the case vehicle and mass of its collision partner and speed of case vehicle and collision partner at the time of the crash. Objective: To evaluate the relative risk of injury occurrence in collisions between picks up trucks (PU and passenger sedan cars (PS. Methods: Data from the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC crash data base was used to determine MVC rates and injury occurrence. Descriptive characteristics of the injury location and injury type were analyzed comparing the Odds Ratios and chi-squares. Results: PS occupants received more injuries; Odds Ratio was 2.49 (95% confidence interval: 2.15–2.88. Conclusion: Occupants in PS which collide with PU were at twice the risk of injuries. Concussion, whiplash, lacerations and abrasion were more frequent in PS drivers and occupants than in PU drivers and occupants. Overall, PS drivers/occupants experienced greater injuries than PU drivers/occupants in PU-PS collisions. In this paper, results are shown as odds ratios comparing occupants injuries in PS (case group with occupant injuries in PU (control group.

  3. Associations of antimicrobial uses with antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli from pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the associations between antimicrobial use and other management practices in pigs and antimicrobial resistance in generic Escherichia coli recovered from feces of weaner and finisher pigs on 39 purposefully selected farrow-to-finish farms in Ontario and 8 in British Columbia. Antimicrobials (n = 13), most frequently penicillins and tetracycline, were administered to different age groups of pigs on study farms through various routes of administration. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors to antimicrobial resistance in fecal E. coli of pigs for the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, apramycin, carbadox, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole). Use of antimicrobials in weaner pigs compared with use in finisher pigs was associated with resistance in most models. There was phenotypic evidence of different mechanisms of resistance selection, including direct selection [use of carbadox was associated with carbadox resistance (OR = 6.48)]; cross-resistance [use of spectinomycin was associated with streptomycin resistance (OR = 2.29)]; and possible co-selection [ceftiofur use was associated with tetracycline resistance (OR = 6.12)]. These results provide further evidence that use of antimicrobials in pigs selects for resistance among fecal E. coli within and between classes of antimicrobials. PMID:18505211

  4. Reflections on the use of indigenous place-names in curriculum from research conducted with Tl´azt´en Nation, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Heikkilä

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Apart from conventional understandings of its utilitarian function as spatial labels (often eponymous in character, toponymy is seldom appreciated as palimpsest or for the layers of meaning it assumes, conveyed in place-name etymologies and local knowledge associated with the named places. Over the years, a growing body of literature has emerged on the use of toponymy in several research fields: the range spans from linguistic investigations into place-names and naming practices to the use of place-names in tracking environmental change, locating places of archaeological interest, and understanding the knowledge possessed by local communities about the natural environment. The latter focus describes place-names research with Tl’azt’en Nation, the Dakelh-speaking people whose territory lies in the Stuart-Trembleur watershed of central British Columbia, Canada. From the perspective that indigenous place-names communicate knowledge about the natural world, indigenous language and(oral history, this paper will draw upon examples of Dakelh place-names to demonstrate the value of indigenous toponymy in education.

  5. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  6. The impact of clinical, demographic and risk factors on rates of HIV transmission: a population-based phylogenetic analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Art F Y; Joy, Jeffrey B; Woods, Conan K; Shurgold, Susan; Colley, Guillaume; Brumme, Chanson J; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2015-03-15

    The diversification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is shaped by its transmission history. We therefore used a population based province wide HIV drug resistance database in British Columbia (BC), Canada, to evaluate the impact of clinical, demographic, and behavioral factors on rates of HIV transmission. We reconstructed molecular phylogenies from 27,296 anonymized bulk HIV pol sequences representing 7747 individuals in BC-about half the estimated HIV prevalence in BC. Infections were grouped into clusters based on phylogenetic distances, as a proxy for variation in transmission rates. Rates of cluster expansion were reconstructed from estimated dates of HIV seroconversion. Our criteria grouped 4431 individuals into 744 clusters largely separated with respect to risk factors, including large established clusters predominated by injection drug users and more-recently emerging clusters comprising men who have sex with men. The mean log10 viral load of an individual's phylogenetic neighborhood (composed of 5 other individuals with shortest phylogenetic distances) increased their odds of appearing in a cluster by >2-fold per log10 viruses per milliliter. Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Debolt Formation oil-source systems: 1. Crude oil families in the Dunvegan-Blueberry area of Alberta and British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, L. R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Beauvilain, J. C. [Rigel Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Davies, G. R. [Graham Davies Geological Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-06-01

    Eleven crude oils from three families of oils and eleven oil-stained core samples fron various areas of northwest Alberta and northeastern British Columbia have been subjected to geochemical analysis. The Dunvegan Debolt family of oils was found to be similar to oils derived from the Winnepegosis Formation in Saskatchewan, characterized by a moderate pristane/phytane ratio, significant amounts of C-34 homohopane biomarker and low concentrations of tricyclic triterpenoids. These oils were probably derived from a source rock deposited under hypersaline, carbonate-evaporite conditions. The Royce Debolt family has characteristics similar to oils derived from the Exshaw Formation. They include no homohopanes, only moderate concentrations of tricyclic triterpenes and low concentrations of the C-24 tetracyclic terpane. The Blueberry Debolt oils are unusual in that they are devoid of polycyclic biomarker compounds. They are suspected to have an unusual source rock, and/or complex generation, entrapment and preservation history. The absence of cyclic biomarkers has been associated with very high thermal maturity samples such as condensates. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Striving for Sustainability and Resilience in the Face of Unprecedented Change: The Case of the Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Burton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive insect outbreak in the public forests of central British Columbia (Canada poses a serious challenge for sustainable forest management planning. Tree mortality caused by natural disturbances has always been a part of wild and managed forests, but climate change is accentuating the uncertainty around such losses. Policy responses to accelerate overall timber harvesting levels to prevent further tree mortality and to aggressively salvage value from dead wood before it deteriorates can be disruptive and even counter-productive in the long run. Current alternatives are to strategically redirect existing timber harvesting quotas to the most vulnerable areas, minimize overall uplifts in cutting activity, prolong the period over which harvested timber can be processed, avoid the harvesting of mixed species stands or those with good advance regeneration, employ more partial cutting or “selective logging” techniques, and relax standards for acceptable species and inter-tree spacing during post-disturbance stand recovery. At the same time, careful attention to species composition and evolving landscape risk profiles may facilitate adaptation to anticipated climate change and reduce vulnerability to future disturbances. Harvest levels must be set conservatively over the full planning horizon if it is important to assure continuity of the timber supply with few disruptions to regional socio-economics and less stress to ecosystems. Broader lessons in sustainability include the option to emphasize persistence, continuity and flexibility over the long term, though at the expense of maximized production and full resource utilization in the short term.

  9. Constraints on the depth of generation and emplacement of a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton in the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Andronicos, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Petrology and P-T estimates indicate that a magmatic epidote-bearing quartz diorite pluton from Mt. Gamsby, Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia, was sourced at pressures below ???1.4 GPa and cooled nearly isobarically at ???0.9 GPa. The P-T path indicates that the magma was within the stability field of magmatic epidote early and remained there upon final crystallization. The pluton formed and crystallized at depths greater than ???30 km. REE data indicate that garnet was absent in the melting region and did not fractionate during crystallization. This suggests that the crust was less than or equal to ???55 km thick at 188 Ma during the early phases of magmatism in the Coast Plutonic Complex. Late Cretaceous contractional deformation and early Tertiary extension exhumed the rocks to upper crustal levels. Textures of magmatic epidote and other magmatic phases, combined with REE data, can be important for constraining the P-T path followed by magmas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Fang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method: A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results: Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion: The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer.

  11. Source rock analytic of the Lower Jurassic Nordegg Member and oil-source rock correlations, northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riediger, C.L. (Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada)); Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R.; Goodarzi, F.; Brooks, P.W. (Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The Nordegg Member, tentatively correlated to Nordegg outcrops in Alberta, comprises dark grey to black, variably phosphatic limestone and calcareous mudstone, and is easily identified in the subsurface of Alberta and British Columbia by a high gamma-ray log response. Analyses of more than 200 samples yielded total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 28%, hydrogen index (HI) values up to 800 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC, and thermal maturity temperature values of 430 to {gt} 460{degree}C. A plot of HI vs oxygen index indicates Type I/II kerogen in the Nordegg Member. Petrographic analyses indicate a high abudance of amorphous material (bituminite) and alginite, which is typical of Type I/II kerogen. Inertinite, phosphate, and framboidal pyrite are less abundant. Thermal maturity increases to the southwest, in a pattern that generally parallels the edge of the disturbed belt. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry analysis of Nordegg core extracts yielded low pristane/phytane ratios, low diasteranes/regular steranes and a predominance of hopanes over steranes. The biomarker signatures and lithotypes of the Nordegg indicate an anoxic, and possibly hypersaline, carbonate depositional environment. On the basis of these data, and also of tectonic evidence indicating that terrane obduction was occurring to the west during Early Jurassic time, it is suggested that the Nordegg was deposited in a silled basin with restricted oceanic circulation. Biomarker signatures of Nordegg extracts are positively correlated with some oils contained in Upper Triassic reservoirs. 43 refs., 17 figs.

  12. Theories of the deep: combining salience and network analyses to produce mental model visualizations of a coastal British Columbia food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Levine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arriving at shared mental models among multiple stakeholder groups can be crucial for successful management of contested social-ecological systems (SES. Academia can help by first eliciting stakeholders' initial, often tacit, beliefs about a SES, and representing them in useful ways. We demonstrate a new recombination of techniques for this purpose, focusing specifically on tacit beliefs about food webs. Our approach combines freelisting and sorting techniques, salience analysis, and ultimately network analysis, to produce accessible visualizations of aggregate mental models that can then be used to facilitate discussion or generate further hypotheses about cognitive drivers of conflict. The case study we draw upon to demonstrate this technique is Clayoquot Sound UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, on the west coast of British Columbia, Canada. There, an immanent upsurge in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris population, which competes with humans for shellfish, has produced tension among government managers, and both First Nations and non-First Nations residents. Our approach helps explain this tension by visually highlighting which trophic relationships appear most cognitively salient among the lay public. We also include speculative representations of models held by managers, and pairs of contrasting demographic subgroups, to further demonstrate potential uses of the method.

  13. Overview of cancer incidence and mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS in British Columbia, Canada: Implications for HAART use and NADM development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Connie G; Smith, Danielle; Salters, Kate A; Zhang, Wendy; Kanters, Steve; Milan, David; Montaner, Julio S G; Coldman, Andy; Hogg, Robert S; Wiseman, Sam M

    2017-04-14

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the incidence of non-AIDS defining malignancies (NADMs) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in British Columbia, focusing on clinical correlates, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use, and survival, in order to elucidate mechanisms for NADM development. A retrospective population based analysis was carried out for individuals with HIV/AIDS that began their treatment between 1996 and 2008. There were 145 (2.95%) NADMs and 123 (2.50%) AIDS defining malignancies (ADMs) identified in 4918 PLWHA in the study population. NADMs were represented by a range of cancer types including, most commonly, lung cancer, followed by anal, breast, head/neck, prostate, liver, rectal, and renal cancers. PLWHA had a SIR of 2.05 (CI:1.73, 2.41) for the development of NADMs compared to individuals without an HIV/AIDS diagnosis in the general population. Independent factors significantly associated with a NADM were: male gender, older age, lower CD4 cell counts, previous NADM, absence of HAART (non-HAART versus HAART) and treatment during the early-HAART era (before 2000 versus after 2000). NADMs represent an important source of morbidity for PLWHA. Use of HAART with its associated improvement in immune-restoration, and tailored targeted cancer screening interventions, may be beneficial and improve outcomes in this unique patient population.

  14. Volatiles in basaltic glasses from a subglacial volcano in northern British Columbia (Canada): Implications for ice sheet thickness and mantle volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J.E.; Filiberto, J.R.; Moore, J.G.; Hickson, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved H2O, CO2, S and Cl concentrations were measured in glasses from Tanzilla Mountain, a 500 m-high, exposed subglacial volcano from the Tuya-Teslin region, north central British Columbia, Canada. The absence of a flat-topped subaerial lava cap and the dominance of pillows and pillow breccias imply that the Tanzilla Mountain volcanic edifice did not reach a subaerial eruptive phase. Lavas are dominantly tholeiitic basalt with minor amounts of alkalic basalt erupted at the summit and near the base. Tholeiites have roughly constant H2O (c.0.56 ?? 0.07 wt%), CO2 (ice thicknesses of 400 to 900 m. Maximum calculated ice thickness (c. 1 km) is at the lower end of the range of predicted maximum Fraser glaciation (c. 1-2 km), and may indicate initiation of volcanism during the waning stages of glaciation. Temporal evolution from tholeiitic to alkalic compositions may reflect compositional gradients within a melting column, instead of convective processes within a stratified magma chamber. The mantle source region for the subglacial volcanoes is enriched in incompatible elements similar to that for enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalt (e.g. Endeavour Ridge) and does not contain residual amphibole. Thus, metasomatic enrichment most likely reflects small degree partial melts rather than hydrous fluids.

  15. Effects of rainfall on oil droplet size and the dispersion of spilled oil with application to Douglas Channel, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongsheng; Hannah, Charles G; Thupaki, Pramod; Mo, Ruping; Law, Brent

    2017-01-15

    Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area. With the use of chemical dispersants, our results indicate that a heavy rainfall (rain rate>20mmh(-1)) can produce the maximum droplet size of 300μm for light oil and 1000μm for heavy oils, and it can disperse the light oil with fraction of 22-45% and the heavy oils of 8-13%, respectively. Heavy rainfalls could be a factor for the fate of oil spills in Douglas Channel, especially for a spill of light oil and the use of chemical dispersants.

  16. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  17. Early diagenesis in a reducing fjord, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia. I. Chemical and isotopic changes in major components of interstitial water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Presley, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1979-01-01

    Water and interstitial water from the reducing fjord of Saanich Inlet, British Columbia were analyzed for their major element composition, ammonia, phosphate and silica contents, and for stable isotope composition of sulfur and carbon species. Ca was the only major element to show a significant change with depth (a 75 per cent decrease in some cases). Ammonia and phosphate are highly enriched in the interstitial water (IW), concentrations reaching 250 ppM and 39 ppM, respectively. Total dissolved CO/sub 2/ in IW increases strongly with depth (20 to 30 times that in overlying sea-water) and it becomes enriched in C/sup 13/ (deltaC/sub PDB//sup 13/ approx. = 17.8%). Both sulfate and dissolved sulfide decreased with depth to a complete disappearance of all sulfur species from the interstitial water. The dissolved sulfide is highly enriched in S/sup 34/ (deltaS/sup 34/ approx. = + 18%). All these changes are attributed to strong biological activity in the sediments.

  18. Recent results and activities of the integrated petroleum resource potential and geoscience studies of the Bowser and Sustut Basins Project, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenchik, C.A. [Geological Survey of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ferri, F. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada). Oil and Gas Emerging Opportunities; Mustard, P.S. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Earth Sciences; McMechan, M.; Osadetz, K.G.; Stasiuk, L.; Wilson, N.S.F. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Enkin, R.J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Hadlari, T. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences; McNicoll, V.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Continental Geosciences Division

    2003-07-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project aimed at increasing the economic opportunities of northern Canada by providing better geoscience knowledge and data that will promote renewed private sector investment. Previous petroleum assessment work of north-central British Columbia identified a significant petroleum potential. This study presents the results of recent research on energy resource potential of the Bowser and Sustut basins. The research involves identifying effective petroleum systems, increasing geographic coverage of thermal maturity data, initiating paleomagnetic studies, and geological mapping. New field work and sample analysis has characterized crude oil occurrences from the following four locations in Bowser and Sustut basins: (1) Tsatia Mountain, a breeched oil field in the Bowser Lake Group, (2) Tango Creek Formation in the Sustut Group, (3) Eaglenest deltaic assemblage of the Bowser Lake Group in the footwall of the Crescent Fault near the Buckinghorse Creek, and (4) south of Oweegee Dome, where an Amoco Ritchie well shows extensive oil stains. Analysis of the molecular composition of the oil stains and seepages has identified two distinct compositional families of crude oil. The report also identifies Stikinia sources and possible reservoirs in the Hazelton Group. New mapping in McConnell Creek area has revised the distribution of Upper Hazelton Group clastic rocks, and assigns lithofacies assemblages to the Bowser Lake Group strata. It also modifies Sustut Group map distribution. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  19. A Method for Estimating the Extent of Regional Food Self-Sufficiency and Dietary Ill Health in the Province of British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck Ostry

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We outline in this paper a suite of methods, and illustrate their use, to empirically determine food self-sufficiency at a relatively small (Local Health Areas level of geography. Further we have, after identifying regions of lowest food self-sufficiency in British Columbia (BC superimposed these on regions whose populations have relatively poor dietary ill health. Approximately one third of Local Health Areas in BC have both poor local food self-sufficiency and populations suffering from poor dietary health. These are located mainly (but not entirely in poor under-developed rural regions of the province regions which require attention from health and food planners to improve local food security. Finally, we have demonstrated a methodological way forward to empirically determine regions in the province of BC most at risk for food insecurity. This information should be of interest to health and food planners within the province. These methods may also be useful for researchers and planners in other jurisdictions.

  20. Monitoring rainwater and seaweed reveals the presence of (131)I in southwest and central British Columbia, Canada following the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, A; Starosta, K; Andreoiu, C; Ashley, R; Barton, A; Brodovitch, J-C; Brown, M; Domingo, T; Janusson, C; Kucera, H; Myrtle, K; Riddell, D; Scheel, K; Salomon, A; Voss, P

    2013-10-01

    Detailed analysis of (131)I levels in rainwater and in three species of seaweed (Fucus distichus Linnaeus, Macrocystis pyrifera, and Pyropia fallax) collected in southwest British Columbia and Bella Bella, B.C., Canada was performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011. Maximum (131)I activity was found to be 5.8(7) Bq/L in rainwater collected at the campus of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C. nine days after the accident. Concomitantly, maximum observed activity in the brown seaweed F. distichus Linnaeus was observed to be 130(7) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected in North Vancouver 11 days following the accident and 67(6) Bq/kg dry weight in samples collected from the Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre on Vancouver Island 17 days following the accident. The (131)I activity in seaweed samples collected in southwest B.C. following the Fukushima accident was an order of magnitude less than what was observed following Chernobyl. Iodine-131 activity in F. distichus Linnaeus remained detectable for 60 days following the accident and was detectable in each seaweed species collected. The Germanium Detector for Elemental Analysis and Radioactivity Studies (GEARS) was modeled using the Geant4 software package and developed as an analytical tool by the Nuclear Science group in the Simon Fraser University Department of Chemistry for the purpose of these measurements.

  1. Evaluate ERTS imagery for mapping and detection of changes of snowcover on land and on glaciers. [Washington, Alaska, British Columbia, and U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The standard error of measurement of snow covered areas in major drainage basins in the Cascade Range, Washington, using single measurements of ERTS-1 images, was found to range from 11% to 7% during a typical melt season, but was as high as 32% in midwinter. Many dangerous glacier situations in Alaska, Yukon, and British Columbia were observed on ERTS-1 imagery. Glacier dammed lakes in Alaska are being monitored by ERTS-1. Embayments in tidal glaciers show changes detectable by ERTS-1. Surges of Russell and Tweedsmuir Glaciers, now in progress, are clearly visible. The Tweedsmuir surge is likely to dam the large Alsek River by mid-November, producing major floods down-river next summer. An ERTS-1 image of the Pamir Mountains, Tadjik S.S.R., shows the surging Medvezhii (Bear) Glacier just after its surge of early summer which dammed the Abdukagor Valley creating a huge lake and later a flood in the populous Vanch River Valley. A map was compiled from an ERTS-1 image of the Lowell Glacier after its recent surge, compared with an earlier map compiled from pain-stakingly compiled from a mosaic of many aerial photographs, in a total elapsed time of 1.5 hours. This demonstrates the value of ERTS-1 for rapid mapping of large features.

  2. Trends and Determinants of Prescription Drug Use during Pregnancy and Postpartum in British Columbia, 2002-2011: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smolina

    Full Text Available To describe trends, patterns, and determinants of prescription drug use during pregnancy and postpartum.This is a retrospective, population-based study of all women who gave birth between January 2002 and 31 December 2011 in British Columbia, Canada. Study population consisted of 225,973 women who had 322,219 pregnancies. We examined administrative datasets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions, hospitalizations, and medical services. Main outcome measures were filled prescriptions during pregnancy and postpartum. We used logistic regressions to examine associations between prescription drug use and maternal characteristics.Approximately two thirds of women filled a prescription during pregnancy, increasing from 60% in 2002 to 66% in 2011. The proportion of pregnant women using medicines in all three trimesters of pregnancy increased from 20% in 2002 to 27% in 2011. Use of four or more different types of prescription drug during at least one trimester increased from 8.4% in 2002 to 11.7% in 2011. Higher BMI, smoking during pregnancy, age under 25, carrying multiples, and being diagnosed with a chronic condition all significantly increased the odds of prescription drug use during pregnancy.The observed increase in the number of prescriptions and number of different drugs being dispensed suggests a trend in prescribing practices with potentially important implications for mothers, their neonates, and caregivers. Monitoring of prescribing practices and further research into the safety of most commonly prescribed medications is crucial in better understanding risks and benefits to the fetus and the mother.

  3. A Health and Nutritional Evaluation of Changes in Agriculture in the Past Quarter Century in British Columbia: Implications for Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleck Ostry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes change in local food production in British Columbia with a focus on changes in the production of foods recommended for increased consumption by nutritionists. We determine, in one of the most productive agricultural provinces in Canada, whether secular trends in agricultural land use and food production, over the past quarter century, have resulted in increased production of foods recommended by nutritionists as more healthy and nutritious. In particular we are concerned with estimating the extent to which changes in agriculture and food production are congruent with official nutrition advice to avoid less healthy foods and to consume more vegetables, fruit, and whole grains. We demonstrate, using regularly collected agricultural census data, in spite of nutritionists’ advocacy for improved access to locally produced fruits, vegetables, and grains, since 1986, that BC agriculture is moving firmly in the opposite direction with greater production of animal fats, and hay and grain for animal feed and much reduced production of traditional fruits, vegetables, and grains designed mainly for human consumption. While nutritionists advise us to increase consumption especially of whole grains, vegetables and fruit, local production capacity of these foods in BC has decreased markedly between 1986 and 2006. In conclusion, there is a structural disconnect between the kinds of foods produced in BC and the nutritional needs of the population.

  4. A river to ruin : why are Americans fighting so hard to protect British Columbia's Flathead River from a strip mine?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.

    2008-06-15

    The Cline Mining Corporation has proposed an open-pit mine to extract 2 million tonnes of coal annually in the Flathead Valley of British Columbia (BC). The Flathead Valley is known internationally for the richness of its flora and fauna. After the Flathead River crosses the border into Montana, it is managed under the most restrictive environmental protection laws available in the United States. The project is expected to be the first in a series of energy projects that will ravage the valley in the near future. Major energy companies are planning to open mines at sites within the Flathead River flood plain. The low quality coal obtained from the valley will be used to supply the unregulated economies of China, India, and Brazil. The valley is situated at the convergence of several biogeoclimatic zones and is home to a rich mix of plants and animals, including the highest concentration of grizzly bears in North America. The BC government's regulatory mechanism is not able to prevent exploitation of the region. Scientists from around the world have unanimously agreed that the mine should not be opened. Tailings from other mines currently draining into the Flathead River are now beginning to alter the river's chemistry. The federal government has been unsuccessful in its bid to create a national park in the region. It was concluded that unless land use regulations for the area are changed, the valley will inevitably be developed. 13 figs.

  5. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, R. H.; Friele, P.; Allstadt, K.; Roberts, N.; Evans, S. G.; Delaney, K. B.; Roche, D.; Clague, J. J.; Jakob, M.

    2012-05-01

    A large rock avalanche occurred at 03:27:30 PDT, 6 August 2010, in the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex southwest British Columbia. The landslide initiated as a rock slide in Pleistocene rhyodacitic volcanic rock with the collapse of the secondary peak of Mount Meager. The detached rock mass impacted the volcano's weathered and saturated flanks, creating a visible seismic signature on nearby seismographs. Undrained loading of the sloping flank caused the immediate and extremely rapid evacuation of the entire flank with a strong horizontal force, as the rock slide transformed into a debris flow. The disintegrating mass travelled down Capricorn Creek at an average velocity of 64 m s-1, exhibiting dramatic super-elevation in bends to the intersection of Meager Creek, 7.8 km from the source. At Meager Creek the debris impacted the south side of Meager valley, causing a runup of 270 m above the valley floor and the deflection of the landslide debris both upstream (for 3.7 km) and downstream into the Lillooet River valley (for 4.9 km), where it blocked the Lillooet River river for a couple of hours, approximately 10 km from the landslide source. Deposition at the Capricorn-Meager confluence also dammed Meager Creek for about 19 h creating a lake 1.5 km long. The overtopping of the dam and the predicted outburst flood was the basis for a night time evacuation of 1500 residents in the town of Pemberton, 65 km downstream. High-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery obtained on 16 October 2010 was used to create a post-event digital elevation model. Comparing pre- and post-event topography we estimate the volume of the initial displaced mass from the flank of Mount Meager to be 48.5 × 106 m3, the height of the path (H) to be 2183 m and the total length of the path (L) to be 12.7 km. This yields H/L = 0.172 and a fahrböschung (travel angle) of 9.75°. The movement was recorded on seismographs in British Columbia and Washington State with the initial impact, the debris flow

  6. A population-based evaluation of a publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada: parental factors associated with HPV vaccine receipt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ogilvie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on factors that influence parental decisions for actual human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine receipt in publicly funded, school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls is limited. We report on the level of uptake of the first dose of the HPV vaccine, and determine parental factors associated with receipt of the HPV vaccine, in a publicly funded school-based HPV vaccine program in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All parents of girls enrolled in grade 6 during the academic year of September 2008-June 2009 in the province of British Columbia were eligible to participate. Eligible households identified through the provincial public health information system were randomly selected and those who consented completed a validated survey exploring factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to calculate adjusted odds ratios to identify the factors that were associated with parents' decision to vaccinate their daughter(s against HPV. 2,025 parents agreed to complete the survey, and 65.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63.1-67.1 of parents in the survey reported that their daughters received the first dose of the HPV vaccine. In the same school-based vaccine program, 88.4% (95% CI 87.1-89.7 consented to the hepatitis B vaccine, and 86.5% (95% CI 85.1-87.9 consented to the meningococcal C vaccine. The main reasons for having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were the effectiveness of the vaccine (47.9%, advice from a physician (8.7%, and concerns about daughter's health (8.4%. The main reasons for not having a daughter receive the HPV vaccine were concerns about HPV vaccine safety (29.2%, preference to wait until the daughter is older (15.6%, and not enough information to make an informed decision (12.6%. In multivariate analysis, overall attitudes to vaccines, the impact of the HPV vaccine on sexual practices, and childhood vaccine history were predictive of parents having

  7. The 6 August 2010 Mount Meager rock slide-debris flow, Coast Mountains, British Columbia: characteristics, dynamics, and implications for hazard and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Guthrie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A large rock avalanche occurred at 03:27:30 PDT, 6 August 2010, in the Mount Meager Volcanic Complex southwest British Columbia. The landslide initiated as a rock slide in Pleistocene rhyodacitic volcanic rock with the collapse of the secondary peak of Mount Meager. The detached rock mass impacted the volcano's weathered and saturated flanks, creating a visible seismic signature on nearby seismographs. Undrained loading of the sloping flank caused the immediate and extremely rapid evacuation of the entire flank with a strong horizontal force, as the rock slide transformed into a debris flow. The disintegrating mass travelled down Capricorn Creek at an average velocity of 64 m s−1, exhibiting dramatic super-elevation in bends to the intersection of Meager Creek, 7.8 km from the source. At Meager Creek the debris impacted the south side of Meager valley, causing a runup of 270 m above the valley floor and the deflection of the landslide debris both upstream (for 3.7 km and downstream into the Lillooet River valley (for 4.9 km, where it blocked the Lillooet River river for a couple of hours, approximately 10 km from the landslide source. Deposition at the Capricorn–Meager confluence also dammed Meager Creek for about 19 h creating a lake 1.5 km long. The overtopping of the dam and the predicted outburst flood was the basis for a night time evacuation of 1500 residents in the town of Pemberton, 65 km downstream. High-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery obtained on 16 October 2010 was used to create a post-event digital elevation model. Comparing pre- and post-event topography we estimate the volume of the initial displaced mass from the flank of Mount Meager to be 48.5 × 106 m3, the height of the path (H to be 2183 m and the total length of the path (L to be 12.7 km. This yields H/L = 0.172 and a fahrböschung (travel angle of 9.75°. The movement was recorded on seismographs in British

  8. Is prostate cancer screening cost-effective? A microsimulation model of prostate-specific antigen-based screening for British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Reka; Gulati, Roman; Etzioni, Ruth; Black, Peter; Chi, Kim N; Coldman, Andrew J; Pickles, Tom; Tyldesley, Scott; Peacock, Stuart

    2014-08-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer may reduce mortality, but it incurs considerable risk of over diagnosis and potential harm to quality of life. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PSA screening, with and without adjustment for quality of life, for the British Columbia (BC) population. We adapted an existing natural history model using BC incidence, treatment, cost and mortality patterns. The modeled mortality benefit of screening derives from a stage-shift mechanism, assuming mortality reduction consistent with the European Study of Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer. The model projected outcomes for 40-year-old men under 14 combinations of screening ages and frequencies. Cost and utility estimates were explored with deterministic sensitivity analysis. The incremental cost-effectiveness of regular screening ranged from $36,300/LYG, for screening every four years from ages 55 to 69 years, to $588,300/LYG, for screening every two years from ages 40 to 74 years. The marginal benefits of increasing screening frequency to 2 years or starting screening at age 40 years were small and came at significant cost. After utility adjustment, all screening strategies resulted in a loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); however, this result was very sensitive to utility estimates. Plausible outcomes under a range of screening strategies inform discussion of prostate cancer screening policy in BC and similar jurisdictions. Screening may be cost-effective, but the sensitivity of results to utility values suggests individual preferences for quality versus quantity of life should be a key consideration.

  9. Relative utility of foraminifera, diatoms and macrophytes as high resolution indicators of paleo-sea level in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. Timothy; Dalby, Andrew P.; Roe, Helen M.; Guilbault, Jean-Pierre; Hutchinson, Ian; Clague, John J.

    2005-10-01

    A multiproxy analysis was carried out on diatom, foraminiferal and macrophyte assemblages across the saltmarsh at Zeballos, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. To determine which group, or combination of groups provided the most accurate elevational zonations, 36 stepwise multiple linear regressions (SMLR) were carried out using a variety of data transformations on an elevational training set. Adjusted R2 values yielded statistically significant results in all analyses as follows: foraminifera (0.658-0.870); diatoms (0.888-0.974); macrophytes (0.671-0.844); foraminifera/diatoms (0.941-0.981); foraminifera/diatoms/macrophytes (0.958-0.993). The most realistic SMLR results were obtained when data transformations comprised of (ln) normalized fractional abundance data was carried out on species present in statistically significant numbers (NrfaEQ). Of the individual proxies assessed, diatoms yielded the most significant adjusted R2 results, with the low marsh diatom Achnanthes hauckiana being one of the most important predictor variables (pv's). Amongst the foraminifera, the low marsh species Miliammina fusca and high marsh Balticammina pseudomacrescens were determined to be the most significant pv's. For macrophytes, the low marsh species Carex lyngbyei, the high marsh species Juncus balticus, Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (SDI) and absence of plant cover on the tidal flat were the most important pv's. As SMLR analysis of all individual groups and combinations of groups yielded statistically significant results, the choice of proxies, or combinations of proxies that are suitable for paleo-sea level research is at the discretion of the researcher.

  10. Efficacy of "Verbenone Plus" for protecting ponderosa pine trees and stands from Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack in British Columbia and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Dabney, Christopher P; Huber, Dezene P W; Lait, Cameron G; Fowler, Donald L; Borden, John H

    2012-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, mortality in much of western North America. We review several years of research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component semiochemcial blend [acetophenone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol + (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (-)-verbenone] that inhibits the response of D. brevicomis to attractant-baited traps, and examine the efficacy of Verbenone Plus for protecting individual trees and forest stands from D. brevicomis infestations in British Columbia and California. In all experiments, semiochemicals were stapled around the bole of treated trees at approximately equal to 2 m in height. (-)-Verbenone alone had no effect on the density of total attacks and successful attacks by D. brevicomis on attractant-baited P. ponderosa, but significantly increased the percentage of pitchouts (unsuccessful D. brevicomis attacks). Verbenone Plus significantly reduced the density of D. brevicomis total attacks and D. brevicomis successful attacks on individual trees. A significantly higher percentage of pitchouts occurred on Verbenone Plus-treated trees. The application of Verbenone Plus to attractant-baited P. ponderosa significantly reduced levels of tree mortality. In stand protection studies, Verbenone Plus significantly reduced the percentage of trees mass attacked by D. brevicomis in one study, but in a second study no significant treatment effect was observed. Future research should concentrate on determining optimal release rates and spacings of release devices in stand protection studies, and expansion of Verbenone Plus into other systems where verbenone alone has not provided adequate levels of tree protection.

  11. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  12. Injury hospitalizations due to unintentional falls among the Aboriginal population of British Columbia, Canada: incidence, changes over time, and ecological analysis of risk markers, 1991-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Andrew; Lalonde, Christopher E; Brussoni, Mariana; McCormick, Rod; George, M Anne

    2015-01-01

    Aboriginal people in British Columbia (BC) have higher injury incidence than the general population. Our project describes variability among injury categories, time periods, and geographic, demographic and socio-economic groups. This report focuses on unintentional falls. We used BC's universal health care insurance plan as a population registry, linked to hospital separation and vital statistics databases. We identified Aboriginal people by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations. We identified residents of specific Aboriginal communities by postal code. We calculated crude incidence and Standardized Relative Risk (SRR) of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury, standardized for age, gender and Health Service Delivery Area (HSDA), relative to the total population of BC. We tested hypothesized associations of geographic, socio-economic, and employment-related characteristics with community SRR of injury by linear regression. During 1991 through 2010, the crude rate of hospitalization for unintentional fall injury in BC was 33.6 per 10,000 person-years. The Aboriginal rate was 49.9 per 10,000 and SRR was 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.85-1.94). Among those living on reserves SRR was 2.00 (95% CI 1.93-2.07). Northern and non-urban HSDAs had higher SRRs, within both total and Aboriginal populations. In every age and gender category, the HSDA-standardized SRR was higher among the Aboriginal than among the total population. Between 1991 and 2010, crude rates and SRRs declined substantially, but proportionally more among the Aboriginal population, so the gap between the Aboriginal and total population is narrowing, particularly among females and older adults. These community characteristics were associated with higher risk: lower income, lower educational level, worse housing conditions, and more hazardous types of employment. Over the years, as socio-economic conditions improve, risk of hospitalization due to unintentional fall injury has

  13. The Cedar Project: impacts of policing among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Stephen W; Christian, Chief Wayne M; Pearce, Margo E; Blair, Alden H; Jongbloed, Kate; Zhang, Hongbin; Teegee, Mary; Thomas, Vicky; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2013-09-01

    Policing has profound health implications for people who use illicit drugs. Among Aboriginal communities, distrust of police is common, due partly to legacies of colonial policing. In response to the paucity of research among Aboriginal people who use drugs, this paper aims to: (1) Describe the policing experiences of young Aboriginal people who use drugs; (2) Identify policing activities associated with unsafe injection practices; and (3) Elucidate barriers to positive police relations. The Cedar Project is a cohort study involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. This mixed-methods study (N=372) used period prevalence from 2007 to 2010 to describe policing experiences, mixed effects regression models to identify correlates of policing activities, and thematic qualitative analysis to assess attitudes to police relations. Many participants were stopped by police (73%), experienced physical force by police (28%), had drug equipment confiscated (31%), and changed location of drug use because of police (43%). Participants who reported dealing drugs (40%) were significantly more likely to experience police engagement. Among participants in Prince George, 4% reported to have had non-consensual sex with members of the criminal justice system. Policing activity was significantly associated with syringe sharing, rushed injection, and reused syringe. Due to personal experience, practical concerns, and intergenerational legacies of unfair policing practices, most participants did not want a positive relationship with police (57%). Desire for a positive relationship with police was directly associated with being helped by police, and inversely associated with being stopped by police and experiencing physical force by police. Policing activities may be impacting the well-being of Aboriginal people who use drugs. Due to focused prosecution of street-level drug dealing, some police may favor enforcement over harm

  14. Molecular study of free-ranging mule deer and white-tailed deer from British Columbia, Canada, for evidence of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, V A; Gajadhar, A A; Al-Adhami, B; Schwantje, H M

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-three free-ranging white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) and six mule deer (MD; Odocoileus hemionus) from south-central British Columbia, Canada, were tested for Anaplasma marginale by msp5 gene-specific PCR and Ehrlichia spp. by 16S rRNA or citrate synthase (gltA) gene-specific PCR, as well as by PCR with universal 16S rRNA primers detecting a wide range of bacteria. No deer tested positive for A. marginale. Amplification with universal 16S rRNA primers followed by sequencing of cloned fragments detected an Anaplasma sp. in one of 23 (4.3%) WTD and six of six (100%) MD and Bartonella sp. in four of 23 (17.4%) WTD. The Anaplasma sp. was genetically distinct from A. marginale and all other recognized members of the genus. Four of six (66.7%) MD and 0 of 23 (0%) WTD were Ehrlichia positive by PCR with primers for 16S rRNA and gltA genes. The sequences of gltA PCR fragments were identical to each other and to the respective region of the gltA gene of an Ehrlichia sp. which we detected previously in naturally infected cattle from the same area, suggesting the possibility of biological transmission of this rickettsia between cattle and wild cervids. Antibodies reactive with the MSP5 protein of A. marginale were detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in two of six (33.3%) MD, but not in WTD. The two seropositive MD were PCR positive for both the Anaplasma sp. and Ehrlichia sp. detected in this study, suggesting a reaction of antibodies against one or both of these rickettsias with the MSP5 antigen. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2011.

  15. Assessing Hepatitis C Burden and Treatment Effectiveness through the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC: Design and Characteristics of Linked and Unlinked Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Zafar Janjua

    Full Text Available The British Columbia (BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC was established to assess and monitor hepatitis C (HCV epidemiology, cost of illness and treatment effectiveness in BC, Canada. In this paper, we describe the cohort construction, data linkage process, linkage yields, and comparison of the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.The BC-HTC includes all individuals tested for HCV and/or HIV or reported as a case of HCV, hepatitis B (HBV, HIV or active tuberculosis (TB in BC linked with the provincial health insurance client roster, medical visits, hospitalizations, drug prescriptions, the cancer registry and mortality data using unique personal health numbers. The cohort includes data since inception (1990/1992 of each database until 2012/2013 with plans for annual updates. We computed linkage rates by year and compared the characteristics of linked and unlinked individuals.Of 2,656,323 unique individuals available in the laboratory and surveillance data, 1,427,917(54% were included in the final linked cohort, including about 1.15 million tested for HCV and about 1.02 million tested for HIV. The linkage rate was 86% for HCV tests, 89% for HCV cases, 95% for active TB cases, 48% for HIV tests and 36% for HIV cases. Linkage rates increased from 40% for HCV negatives and 70% for HCV positives in 1992 to ~90% after 2005. Linkage rates were lower for males, younger age at testing, and those with unknown residence location. Linkage rates for HCV testers co-infected with HIV, HBV or TB were very high (90-100%.Linkage rates increased over time related to improvements in completeness of identifiers in laboratory, surveillance, and registry databases. Linkage rates were higher for HCV than HIV testers, those testing positive, older individuals, and females. Data from the cohort provide essential information to support the development of prevention, care and treatment initiatives for those infected with HCV.

  16. High Resolution Modelling of Climate Change Impacts on Water Supply and Demand, Crop Nutrient Usage and GHG emissions, Similkameen Watershed, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmasoudi, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Kroebel, R.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.; McKenzie, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Similkameen watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada is expected to warm substantially in the coming decades. A higher proportion of winter rain to snow and an earlier onset of spring snowmelt are likely to result in lower spring stream flow peaks. The reduction in winter water storage, combined with longer, warmer, and drier summers, poses a challenge for water resources in an irrigation-based agricultural watershed. There are already substantial irrigation developments, and water demands are expected to increase to maintain current agricultural production, further stressing a shrinking summer water supply. Agriculture releases significant amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2O to the atmosphere, accounting for approximately 8% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada, excluding CO2 emissions from fuels. Agricultural GHG fluxes are complex but the active management of agricultural systems offers possibilities for mitigating GHG emissions. Although GHG emissions derived from soil have been researched for several decades, there are still geographic regions and agricultural systems that have not been well characterized. This work will address a series of questions for the Similkameen watershed. For a range of climate scenarios, we will: (i) use the GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model to simulate historical and future water supplies; (ii) link GENESYS and AquaCrop models to assess climate driven changes in water requirement and associated crop productivity; and (iii) link GENESYS and HOLOS (whole-farm model and software program that estimates GHG emissions) to estimate farm and regional level GHG emissions and seasonal nutrient balance for the crops in the watershed.

  17. Modelling the Impacts of Changing Land Cover/Land Use and Climate on Flooding in the Elk River Watershed, British Columbia

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    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; Hopkinson, C.; MacDonald, R. J.; Johnson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Elk River is a mountain watershed located along the eastern border of British Columbia, Canada. The Elk River is confined by railway bridges, roads, and urban areas. Flooding has been a concern in the valley for more than a century. The most recent major flood event occurred in 2013 affecting several communities. River modifications such as riprapped dykes, channelization, and dredging have occurred in an attempt to reduce inundation, with limited success. Significant changes in land cover/land use (LCLU) such as natural state to urban, forestry practices, and mining from underground to mountaintop/valley fill have changed terrain and ground surfaces thereby altering water infiltration and runoff processes in the watershed. Future climate change in this region is expected to alter air temperature and precipitation as well as produce an earlier seasonal spring freshet potentially impacting future flood events. The objective of this research is to model historical and future hydrological conditions to identify flood frequency and risk under a range of climate and LCLU change scenarios in the Elk River watershed. Historic remote sensing data, forest management plans, and mining industry production/post-mining reclamation plans will be used to create a predictive past and future LCLU time series. A range of future air temperature and precipitation scenarios will be developed based on accepted Global Climate Modelling (GCM) research to examine how the hydrometeorological conditions may be altered under a range of future climate scenarios. The GENESYS (GENerate Earth SYstems Science input) hydrometeorological model will be used to simulate climate and LCLU to assess historic and potential future flood frequency and magnitude. Results will be used to create innovative flood mitigation, adaptation, and management strategies for the Elk River with the intent of being wildlife friendly and non-destructive to ecosystems and habitats for native species.

  18. Trace element and isotopic composition of apatite in carbonatites from the Blue River area (British Columbia, Canada) and mineralogy of associated silicate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Roger; Chudy, Thomas; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Apatites from the Verity, Fir, Gum, Howard Creek and Felix carbonatites of the Blue River (British Columbia, Canada) area have been investigated with respect to their paragenesis, cathodoluminescence, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition. Although all of the Blue River carbonatites were emplaced as sills prior to amphibolite grade metamorphism and have undergone deformation, in many instances magmatic textures and mineralogy are retained. Attempts to constrain the U-Pb age of the carbonatites by SIMS, TIMS and LA-ICP-MS studies of zircon and titanite were inconclusive as all samples investigated have experienced significant Pb loss during metamorphism. The carbonatites are associated with undersaturated calcite-titanite amphibole nepheline syenite only at Howard Creek although most contain clasts of disaggregated phoscorite-like rocks. Apatite from each intrusion is characterized by distinct, but wide ranges, in trace element composition. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions define an array on a 87Sr/86Sr vs²Nd diagram at 350 Ma indicating derivation from depleted sub-lithospheric mantle. This array could reflect mixing of Sr and Nd derived from HIMU and EM1 mantle sources, and implies that depleted mantle underlies the Canadian Cordillera. Although individual occurrences of carbonatites in the Blue River region are mineralogically and geochemically similar they are not identical and thus cannot be considered as rocks formed from a single batch of parental magma at the same stage of magmatic evolution. However, a common origin is highly probable. The variations in the trace element content and isotopic composition of apatite from each occurrence suggest that each carbonatite represents a combination of derivation of the parental magma(s) from mineralogically and isotopically heterogeneous depleted mantle sources coupled with different stages of limited differentiation and mixing of these magmas. We do not consider these carbonatites as primary direct

  19. Marine sediment-derived Streptomyces bacteria from British Columbia, Canada are a promising microbiota resource for the discovery of antimicrobial natural products.

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    Doralyn S Dalisay

    Full Text Available Representatives of the genus Streptomyces from terrestrial sources have been the focus of intensive research for the last four decades because of their prolific production of chemically diverse and biologically important compounds. However, metabolite research from this ecological niche had declined significantly in the past years because of the rediscovery of the same bioactive compounds and redundancy of the sample strains. More recently, a new picture has begun to emerge in which marine-derived Streptomyces bacteria have become the latest hot spot as new source for unique and biologically active compounds. Here, we investigated the marine sediments collected in the temperate cold waters from British Columbia, Canada as a valuable source for new groups of marine-derived Streptomyces with antimicrobial activities. We performed culture dependent isolation from 49 marine sediments samples and obtained 186 Streptomyces isolates, 47 of which exhibited antimicrobial activities. Phylogenetic analyses of the active isolates resulted in the identification of four different clusters of bioactive Streptomyces including a cluster with isolates that appear to represent novel species. Moreover, we explored whether these marine-derived Streptomyces produce new secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Chemical analyses revealed structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including four new antibacterial novobiocin analogues. We conducted structure-activity relationships (SAR studies of these novobiocin analogues against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In this study, we revealed the importance of carbamoyl and OMe moieties at positions 3" and 4" of novobiose as well as the hydrogen substituent at position 5 of hydroxybenzoate ring for the anti-MRSA activity. Changes in the substituents at these positions dramatically impede or completely eliminate the inhibitory activity of novobiocins against MRSA.

  20. Trends in asthma-related direct medical costs from 2002 to 2007 in British Columbia, Canada: a population based-cohort study.

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    Pierrick Bedouch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma-related health resource use and costs may be influenced by increasing asthma prevalence, changes to asthma management guidelines, and new medications over the last decade. The objective of this work was to analyze direct asthma-related medical costs, and trends in total and per-patient costs of hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications. METHODS: A cohort of asthma patients from British Columbia (BC, Canada, was created. Asthma patients were identified using a validated case definition. Costs for hospitalizations, physician visits, and medications were calculated from billing records (in 2008 Canadian dollars. Trends in total and per-patient costs over the study period were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models. RESULTS: 398,235 patients satisfied the asthma case definition (mid-point prevalence 8.0%. Patients consumed $315.9 million (M in direct asthma-related health resources between 2002 and 2007. Hospitalizations, physician visits, and medication costs accounted for 16.0%, 15.7% and 68.2% of total costs, respectively. Cost of asthma increased from $49.4 M in 2002 to $54.7 M in 2007. Total annual costs attributable to hospitalizations and physician visits decreased (-39.8% and -25.5%, respectively; p<0.001, while medication costs increased (+38.7%; p<0.001. INTERPRETATION: This population-based analysis shows that the total direct cost of asthma in BC has increased since 2002, mainly due to a rise in asthma prevalence and cost of medication. Combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting beta-agonists has become a significant component of the cost of asthma. Although billing records capture only a fraction of the true burden of asthma, the simultaneous increase in medication costs and reductions in hospitalization and physician visit costs provides valuable insight for policy makers into the shifts in asthma-related resource use.

  1. Do women spend longer on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery? Analysis of a population-based registry in British Columbia, Canada

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    Kuramoto Lisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown patients who are delayed for surgical cardiac revascularization are faced with increased risks of symptom deterioration and death. This could explain the observation that operative mortality among persons undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG is higher among women than men. However, in jurisdictions that employ priority wait lists to manage access to elective cardiac surgery, there is little information on whether women wait longer than men for CABG. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether higher operative mortality among women is due to biological differences or to delayed access to elective CABG. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we compared the wait-list time between women and men in British Columbia (BC between 1990 and 2000. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of women and men, after adjusting for priority, comorbidity and age. Results In BC in the 1990s, 9,167 patients aged 40 years and over were registered on wait lists for CABG and spent a total of 136,071 person-weeks waiting. At the time of registration for CABG, women were more likely to have a comorbid condition than men. We found little evidence to suggest that women waited longer than men for CABG after registration, after adjusting for comorbidity and age, either overall or within three priority groups. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that higher operative mortality during elective CABG operations observed among women is not due to longer delays for the procedure.

  2. The impact of Action Schools! BC on the health of Aboriginal children and youth living in rural and remote communities in British Columbia

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    Dona Tomlin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term impact of a 7-month whole-school physical activity and healthy eating intervention (Action Schools! BC over the 2007–2008 school year for children and youth in 3 remote First Nations villages in northwestern British Columbia. Study design: A pre-experimental pre/post design was conducted with 148 children and youth (77 males, 71 females; age 12.5±2.2 yrs. Methods: We evaluated changes in obesity (body mass index [wt/ht2] and waist circumference z-scores: zBMI and zWC, aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle run, physical activity (PA; physical activity questionnaire and accelerometry, healthy eating (dietary recall and cardiovascular risk (CV risk. Results: zBMI remained unchanged while zWC increased from 0.46±1.07 to 0.57±1.04 (p<0.05. No change was detected in PA or CV risk but aerobic fitness increased by 22% (25.4±15.8 to 30.9±20.0 laps; p<0.01. There was an increase in the variety of vegetables consumed (1.10±1.18 to 1.45±1.24; p<0.05 but otherwise no dietary changes were detected. Conclusions: While no changes were seen in PA or overall CV risk, zWC increased, zBMI remained stable and aerobic fitness improved during a 7-month intervention.

  3. Static stress drop of the largest recorded M 4.6 hydraulic fracturing induced earthquake and its aftershock pattern in the northern Montney Play, British Columbia, Canada

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    Wang, B.; Harrington, R. M.; Liu, Y.; Kao, H.

    2016-12-01

    The largest suspected fracking-induced earthquake to date occurred near Fort St. John, British Columbia on August 17, 2015, with a reported magnitude of Mw 4.6. Here we estimate the static stress released by the mainshock and the five cataloged aftershocks using new data from eight broadband seismometers installed approximately 50km from the hypocenter of the mainshock, at distances much closer than the Natural Resources Canada regional seismic stations. The estimated cross-correlation coefficient among the 5 cataloged earthquakes is 0.35 or greater. We will present seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (fc) values estimated using both individual earthquake spectra and spectral ratios to correct for travel-path attenuation and site effects. Static stress drop and scaled energy value calculations based on the estimated moment and corner frequency values will be presented, as well as focal mechanisms for the largest events with adequate station coverage. We will also use a multi-station matched-filter approach to detect additional uncataloged earthquakes on continuous waveforms for a period of two months after the mainshock. Using the results of the matched-filter approach, we will present the aftershock magnitude distribution and locations. The results of our detection and location calculations will be compared to reported fracking parameters, such as fluid injection pressure and duration, to determine their correlation with the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks. The objective of this study is to relate operational parameters to earthquake occurrence in order to help to develop procedures to understand the mechanisms responsible for fracking induced earthquakes, their relation to the maximum induced magnitude, and to reduce potential hazards of anthropogenically induced seismic activity.

  4. The Physical, Geochemical and Microbial Conditions and Processes in the Hyporheic Zone of a Large Tidally Influenced River: The Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

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    Bianchin, M.; Roschinski, T.; Ross, K.; Leslie, S.; William, M.; Beckie, R.

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the physical, chemical and biological conditions and processes that occur in the hyporheic zone of the lower Fraser River, British Columbia. The large flows of between 2000 and 10000 cubic meters per second, the 10 15 m deep, 250 m wide channel, the 1 m tidal fluctuations, the localized scour and redeposition of sediments during freshet and the strong geochemical contrast between groundwater and surface water distinguish this investigation from studies on smaller channels and streams and required the development of novel characterization tools and strategies. The geochemistry of water samples collected with a push-in profiler, bulk electrical conductivity (EC) measurements collected with a push-in tool and hydraulic head measurements indicate that groundwater principally discharges into the river approximately 100 m offshore in a 10 m wide band. River water and groundwater mix to a maximum depth of between 0.75 and 1.5 m. While hydraulic heads show strong tidal reversals, bulk EC profiles show only moderate changes during the tidal cycle. It was hypothesized that high iron (10's mg/L of Fe(II)) in reduced groundwater would precipitate from solution as secondary iron-oxide phases in the zone where groundwater mixes with aerobic river water. Sediments were collected with a freeze-shoe corer and depth profiles through the hyporheic zone and into the underlying aquifer were analyzed by selective extractions. The 15-30 mg/g of total extractable iron in both the aquifer and hyporheic zone is relatively high. The lack of noticeable iron accumulation in the hyporheic zone may indicate that iron precipitates on shallow sediments that are subsequently scoured from the river bed during freshet. Microbial DNA from sediments was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and showed a relatively diverse community structure but an overall low biomass.

  5. Monotropa uniflora: morphological and molecular assessment of mycorrhizae retrieved from sites in the sub-boreal spruce biogeoclimatic zone in central British Columbia.

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    Young, B W; Massicotte, H B; Tackaberry, L E; Baldwin, Q F; Egger, K N

    2002-04-01

    Plant species in the subfamily Monotropoideae are achlorophyllous and have developed a complex mode of nutrition, receiving photosynthates from neighboring trees via shared fungi. To explore the mycorrhizal associations of Monotropa uniflora in central British Columbia (B.C.), plants were sampled from three sites: a Betula-dominated site and two sites with a mixture of conifer and hardwood trees. Fifteen M. uniflora root-clusters were sampled (five per site) and the mycorrhizal diversity was assessed using morphological and molecular (PCR-RFLP analysis and DNA sequencing) methods. Both methods showed that root-clusters (often comprising several hundred mycorrhizal tips) belonging to the same plant appeared to involve fungus monocultures in the family Russulaceae. All mycorrhizae exhibited typical Russula morphology and had mantle cystidia. Two root-clusters, one each from sites 1 and 3, lacked one of the two types of cystidia present on all other root-clusters. PCR-RFLP analysis resulted in three fragment patterns for the 15 root clusters. One molecular fragment pattern included the two root-clusters displaying the single cystidium type plus an additional root-cluster with both cystidia types. DNA sequencing of a portion of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA suggests that the three variants represent different species; two of the variants clustered with the hypogeous fungi Martellia and Gymnomyces. The study provides increased evidence of low diversity and high specificity in the Monotropa-fungus relationship and suggests that M. uniflora associates uniquely with fungi in the family Russulaceae in central B.C.

  6. Geochemical constraints on the origin of the Kicking Horse and Monarch Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc ore deposits, southeast British Columbia, Canada

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    Vandeginste, Veerle; Swennen, Rudy; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Ellam, Rob M.; Osadetz, Kirk; Roure, François

    2007-11-01

    Two Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits, Kicking Horse and Monarch, have been studied with the aim of comparing the ores at the two localities and to characterize the origin of the mineralizing fluids and the ore formation process(es). Both deposits are hosted by the Middle Cambrian Cathedral Formation carbonate host rocks, Kicking Horse on the north and Monarch on the south flank of the Kicking Horse valley near Field (SE British Columbia). The ore bodies are situated at the transition of (western) basinal to (eastern) shallow-water strata of the paleo-Pacific passive margin succession in the Cordilleran Foreland Province of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Both deposits are related spatially to normal faults. In both localities, the ore minerals are dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Dolomite, minor quartz, and calcite are also present in close association with the ores. The salinity (21-30 wt% NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures (63-182°C) measured in fluid inclusions in carbonate, quartz, and sphalerite lie within the typical range of MVT fluid conditions. The good stoichiometry (50-53 mol% CaCO3), low δ18O values (-21 to -14‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) and relatively high homogenization temperatures (>95°C) of the dolomite suggest the dolomites were formed under burial diagenesis. The ore-forming fluids probably interacted with siliciclastic units, based on elevated Li contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which are highest in the dolomite type after the main ore stage. We propose that the ores formed from the mixing of a downward-infiltrating, sulfur-bearing halite-dissolution fluid with an upward-migrating, metal-rich evaporated seawater fluid, which had already undergone minor mixing with a dilute fluid.

  7. Taphonomy of Early Triassic fish fossils of the Vega-Phroso Siltstone Member of the Sulphur Mountain Formation near Wapiti Lake, British Columbia, Canada

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    Karen Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taphonomy of fishes living in lacustrine environments has been extensively studied in both the laboratory and the fossil record; the taphonomy of marine fishes, however, is poorly known. Triassic marine fishes with heavy ganoid and cosmoid scales, which provided protection from rapid taphonomic loss, offer a means to examine marine fish taphonomy in the fossil record. Four genera of Early Triassic fishes (the ray-finned actinopterygians Albertonia, Bobasatrania, Boreosomus, and the lobe-finned coelacanth (sarcopterygian, Whiteia from the Wapiti Lake, British Columbia locality of the Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation were examined in order to gain a better understanding of the taphonomy of fish in marine environments, determine ambient environmental conditions in the region during the Early Triassic, and ascertain the habitat and mode of life of the fish. Results indicate that environmental conditions that contributed to the preservation of the fossil fishes of the current study included deposition in deep, quiet waters, which reduced the odds of disarticulation, colder waters under higher pressure, which slowed decay and limited postmortem floatation, and waters that were anoxic, which discouraged predators and scavengers. In addition, the thickness of the primitive ganoid and cosmoid scales of the fossil fishes also increased their preservation potential. Taphonomic, physiological and environmental indicators suggest that Whiteia, Albertonia, and possibly Bobasatrania lived in deep, cold waters near the oxygen minimum zone, while Boreosomus lived higher in the water column. While the anatomical and physiological characteristics of modern fishes will likely continue to inhibit marine taphonomy studies, examination of ancient fish, particularly those with ganoid or cosmoid scales, may provide future avenues of research to gain a better understanding of marine fish taphonomy and provide a powerful tool to examine ancient fish behavior

  8. Scenario-based climate change modelling for a regional permafrost probability model of the southern Yukon and northern British Columbia, Canada

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    P. P. Bonnaventure

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Scenario-based climate change modelling for equilibrium conditions was applied to a Regional Model of permafrost probability for the southern Yukon and northwestern British Columbia. Under a −1 K cooling scenario, permafrost area expands from 58% (present day of the 490 000 km2 to 76%, whereas warming scenarios of +1 K, +2 K and +5 K decrease the terrain underlain by permafrost to 38%, 24% and 9% respectively. The morphology of permafrost gain/loss under these scenarios is controlled by the Surface Lapse Rate (SLR, which varies across the region below and above treeline. The SLR is an air temperature elevation gradient that that is noticeably different across the study region. As a result of this attribute three distinct patterns of loss morphology can be identified. Areas that are more maritime exhibit SLRs characteristically similar above and below treeline resulting in low probabilities of permafrost in valley bottoms. Consequently, a loss front moves to upper elevations when warming scenarios are applied (Simple Unidirectional Spatial Loss. Areas where SLRs are gentle below treeline (but normal/negative and normal above treeline show lower permafrost probabilities with a loss front moving up mountain according to two separate SLRs (Complex Unidirectional Spatial Loss. Finally areas that display high continentally exhibit Bidirectional Spatial Loss where the loss front of lower permafrost probabilities moves up mountain above treeline and down mountain below treeline. Areas that are most affected by permafrost loss are zones with SLRs close to 0 K km−1 where permafrost is extensive, whereas the least susceptible areas to changes in MAAT are above treeline and are highly elevation dependent.

  9. Instability in eight sub-basins of the Chilliwack River Valley, British Columbia, Canada: A comparison of natural and logging-related landslides

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    Wolter, Andrea; Ward, Brent; Millard, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Logging causes increased landslide frequency in British Columbia. In this study, the slope, type, initiation location, aspect, rate, bedrock geology, and size of mass movements located in eight logged tributary valleys of the Chilliwack River Valley are investigated. A landslide inventory was created by digitizing landslides identified on aerial photographs dating from 1941 to 2002. This database was analysed using qualitative observations and simple statistical tests, and a comparison between natural and logging-related landslides was made. Slope tests displayed a significant difference between natural and logging-related events, indicating that, on average, logging-related landslides require lower slope gradients to initiate than natural events. Although aspect, initiation location, and landslide type did not show a significant relationship between natural and logging-related landslides, they do suggest subtle differences. Landslide rate was calculated and compared for natural and logging-related landslides. It was significantly higher for logging-related events, attaining a maximum of 31 times the natural rate in 1978 and an overall average increase of nine times the natural rate. Logging-related landslides were on average smaller than natural landslides but this nevertheless resulted in a 3.1 times increase in area affected by logging-related landslides compared to natural landslides. Geology may influence landslide frequency as well; it appears to be higher over the less resistive sedimentary rocks of the Cultus Formation and Chilliwack Group and lower in granodioritic areas. Finally, roads affected slope stability more than clearcuts in the early decades of the study, but this effect decreased over time, suggesting a correlation with improved road construction.

  10. Associations between polypharmacy and treatment intensity for hypertension and diabetes: a cross-sectional study of nursing home patients in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Rita; McCormack, James; McGregor, Margaret J; Wong, Sabrina T; Garrison, Scott

    2017-08-11

    Describe nursing home polypharmacy prevalence in the context of prescribing for diabetes and hypertension and determine possible associations between lower surrogate markers for treated hypertension and diabetes (overtreatment) and polypharmacy. Cross-sectional study. 6 nursing homes in British Columbia, Canada. 214 patients residing in one of the selected facilities during data collection period. Polypharmacy was defined as ≥9 regular medications. Overtreatment of diabetes was defined as being prescribed at least one hypoglycaemic medication and a glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤7.5%. Overtreatment of hypertension required being prescribed at least one hypertension medication and having a systolic blood pressure ≤128 mm Hg. Polypharmacy prescribing, independent of overtreatment, was calculated by subtracting condition-specific medications from total medications prescribed. Data gathering was completed for 214 patients, 104 (48%) of whom were prescribed ≥9 medications. All patients were very frail. Patients with polypharmacy were more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension (p=0.04) or congestive heart failure (p=0.003) and less likely to have a diagnosis of dementia (p=0.03). Patients with overtreated hypertension were more likely to also experience polypharmacy (Relative Risk (RR))1.77 (1.07 to 2.96), p=0.027). Patients with overtreated diabetes were prescribed more non-diabetic medications than those with a higher HbA1c (11.0±3.7vs 7.2±3.1, p=0.01). Overtreated diabetes and hypertension appear to be prevalent in nursing home patients, and the presence of polypharmacy is associated with more aggressive treatment of these risk factors. The present study was limited by its small sample size and cross-sectional design. Further study of interventions designed to reduce overtreatment of hypertension and diabetes is needed to fully understand the potential links between polypharmacy and potential of harms of condition-specific overtreatment.

  11. Comparison of carbon-stock changes, eddy-covariance carbon fluxes and model estimates in coastal Douglas-fir stands in British Columbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin JFerster; JA TonYTrofymow; Nicholas C Coops; Baozhang Chen; Thomas AndreWBlack

    2015-01-01

    Background:The global network of eddy-covariance (EC) flux-towers has improved the understanding of the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, however, the network has a relatively limited spatial extent compared to forest inventory data and plots. Developing methods to use inventory-based and EC flux measurements together with modeling approaches is necessary evaluate forest C dynamics across broad spatial extents. Methods:Changes in C stock change (ΔC) were computed based on repeated measurements of forest inventory plots and compared with separate measurements of cumulative net ecosystem productivity (ΣNEP) over four years (2003–2006) for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi var menziesi ) dominated regeneration (HDF00), juvenile (HDF88 and HDF90) and near-rotation (DF49) aged stands (6, 18, 20, 57 years old in 2006, respectively) in coastal British Columbia.ΔC was determined from forest inventory plot data alone, and in a hybrid approach using inventory data along with litter fall data and published decay equations to determine the change in detrital pools. TheseΔC-based estimates were then compared withΣNEP measured at an eddy-covariance flux-tower (EC-flux) and modelled by the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) using historic forest inventory and forest disturbance data. Footprint analysis was used with remote sensing, soils and topography data to evaluate how well the inventory plots represented the range of stand conditions within the area of the flux-tower footprint and to spatial y scale the plot data to the area of the EC-flux and model based estimates. Results:The closest convergence among methods was for the juvenile stands while the largest divergences were for the regenerating clearcut, followed by the near-rotation stand. At the regenerating clearcut, footprint weighting of CBM-CFS3ΣNEP increased convergence with EC fluxΣNEP, but not forΔC. While spatial scaling and footprint weighting did not increase convergence forΔC, they did

  12. How does gully recharge affect sediment transfers by debris flows? A numerical modelling study in steep mountainous terrain, coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Chaikina, O.

    2014-12-01

    Debris flows are a major process responsible for transferring sediment from high mountain locations to more downstream fluvial reaches. This sediment transfer begins on mountain hillslopes where various mass wasting processes move sediment from hillslopes to uppermost reaches of the channel system (these reaches are herein referred to as gullies and only experience water flow during high intensity precipitation events). Sediment recharge into gullies, which has received minimal attention in the scientific literature, refers to the transfer of sediment and other debris from surrounding hillslopes into gullies (Jakob and Oden, 2005). Debris flow occurrence and debris flow volumes depend on some precipitation threshold as well as volumes of material contained in the particular gully. For example, if one debris flow has removed all of the accumulated material from the gully, then any subsequent debris flow will be smaller if enough time has not yet passed for notable sediment recharge. Herein, we utilize the numerical model of landscape development, LandMod (Martin, 1998; Dadson and Church, 2005; Martin, 2007), to explore connections between hillslope processes, gully recharge rates, and transfer of sediment to downstream channel reaches in the Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Hillslope processes in the model include shallow landsliding, bedrock failures and weathering. The updated debris flow algorithm is based on extensive field data available for debris flows in Haida Gwaii (e.g., Rood, 1984; Oden, 1994; Jakob and Oden, 2005), as well as theoretical considerations based on debris flow studies. The most significant model extension is the calculation of gully recharge rates; for each gully, the total accumulated sediment in gullies at each time step is determined using a power-law relation for area-normalized recharge rate versus elapsed time since the last debris flow. Thus, when the stochastic driver for debris flow occurrence triggers an event, the amount of stored

  13. Income inequities in end-of-life health care spending in British Columbia, Canada: A cross-sectional analysis, 2004-2006

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    Hanley Gillian E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to measure the income-related inequalities and inequities - the inequalities that remain after accounting for differences in health need - in expenditure on fully publicly covered (hospital and ambulatory and partially publicly covered (prescription drugs services for those in their last year of life in the province of British Columbia (B.C., Canada. We focused on a decedent population for three reasons: to minimize unmeasured need differences among our cohort and therefore isolate income effects; to explore inequities for a high-spending window of health care use; and, because previous studies have found conflicting relationships between income and decedent health care spending, to further quantify this relationship. Methods We used linked administrative databases to describe spending on health services by income for all 58,820 deaths of B.C. residents 65 and older from 2004 to 2006. Regression analyses examined the association between income and health care spending, adjusting for age, sex, health status, cause of death, and other relevant factors. We then used concentration indexes to measure both inequalities and inequities separately for three key types of services. Analyses were also run separately for men and women. Results On average, per capita expenditure on acute health care in the last year of life was $20,705 (CDN2006. In need-adjusted regression analyses, we found decedents in the highest income quintile had 11% lower hospital expenditures, 15% higher specialist expenditures and 23% higher prescription drug expenditures than decedents in the lowest income quintile. Concentration index analysis suggested that spending for all types of care was concentrated among those with higher income before adjusting for need. Need-adjusted equity results mirrored regression findings and suggested patterns of inequities that were more pronounced among male decedents than females. Conclusions Despite the

  14. Magmatic and structural controls on porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization at Kemess South, Toodoggone District of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Rowins, Stephen M.; McKinley, Bradley S. M.; Dickinson, Jenni M.; Diakow, Larry J.; Kim, Young-Seog; Creaser, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Kemess South is the only Cu-Au-Mo mine in the Toodoggone district and a major Cu and Au producer in British Columbia. Porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is mainly hosted by the tabular, SW-plunging, 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma Maple Leaf granodiorite, which intrudes tightly folded, SW-dipping, Permian Asitka Group siltstone and limestone and homogeneous Triassic Takla Group basalt. Southwest-dipping 194.0 ± 0.4-Ma Toodoggone Formation conglomerate, volcaniclastic, and epiclastic rocks overlie the granodiorite and Asitka Group rocks. Minor Cu-Au-Mo mineralization is hosted by the immediate Takla Group basalt country rock, whereas low-tonnage high-grade Cu zones occur beneath a 30-m-thick leached capping in supergene-altered granodiorite and in exotic positions in overlying Toodoggone Formation conglomerate. Granodiorite has an intrusive contact with mineralized and altered Takla Group basalt but displays a sheared contact with unmineralized and less altered Asitka Group siltstone. The North Block fault is a deposit-scale, E-striking, steeply S-dipping normal fault that juxtaposes the granodiorite/basalt ore body against unmineralized Asitka Group rocks. Younger NW- and NE-striking normal-dextral faults cut all rock types, orebodies, and the North Block fault with displacements of up to 100 m and result in the graben-and-horst-style block faulting of the stratigraphy and ore body. Both basalt and granodiorite host comparable vein sequence and alteration histories, with minor variations in hydrothermal mineral assemblages caused by differing protolith chemistry. Early potassic alteration (and associated early-stage Cu ± Au ± Mo mineralization) is partly replaced by phyllic and intermediate argillic alteration associated with main-stage Cu-Au-Mo mineralization. Two main-stage veins have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 201.3 ± 1.2 and 201.1 ± 1.2 Ma. These mineralization ages overlap the 199.6 ± 0.6-Ma U-Pb zircon crystallization age for the Maple Leaf granodiorite. Late

  15. Stabilization of garnet in metamorphosed altered turbidites near the St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, southeastern British Columbia: Equilibrium and kinetic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, David R. M.; Seitz, JennaLee D.

    2012-03-01

    The St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, near Moyie, southeastern British Columbia, is a Mesoproterozoic vein deposit hosted by metaturbidites of the 1.5-1.4 Ga Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The regional metamorphic grade of the rocks is biotite zone, with the age of metamorphism being Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.35 Ga). The vein system is enveloped by a metamorphosed alteration zone of increasing intensity as the vein is approached. Thin argillaceous tops of turbidite beds away from the vein are garnet-free, whereas those in the inner alteration zone are garnet-bearing. Compared to rocks away from the vein, those near the vein are enriched in Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, with proportional reduction in other compositional parameters. Thermodynamic modeling of three rocks across the alteration gradient predicts increasing stabilization of garnet with increasing degree of alteration. Predicted and observed modes of garnet in the samples are in close agreement. In the most altered rock, the garnet-in line is displaced down-temperature by ~ 100 °C relative to the least altered rock. Approximately 2/3 of the garnet stabilization is accounted for by increase in Mn content and the rest by increase in Fe/(Fe + Mg). Kinetic factors played a role in the development of the mineral assemblages, including metastable persistence of zoisite, and disequilibrium (overstepped) initial growth of garnet. Estimates of peak pressure-temperature conditions from mineral assemblage constraints and from compositional isopleths are complicated by the kinetic effects but yield similar results: 490-510 °C and 3.6-4.0 kbar. The pressure-temperature estimates imply an average linear geothermal gradient of ~ 35 °C/km, broadly consistent with burial metamorphism in the Belt-Purcell extensional basin. However, the estimated pressure, equivalent to a depth of 13-15 km, is greater than the estimated ~ 8 km (~ 2.2 kbar) of stratigraphic overburden at the time of metamorphism. The results of this study support the idea that

  16. Get Checked… Where? The Development of a Comprehensive, Integrated Internet-Based Testing Program for Sexually Transmitted and Blood-Borne Infections in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Haag, Devon; Hottes, Travis Salway; Bondyra, Mark; Elliot, Elizabeth; Chabot, Cathy; Farrell, Janine; Bonnell, Amanda; Kopp, Shannon; Andruschak, John; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2016-09-20

    Testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI) is an effective public health strategy that can promote personal control of one's health and prevent the spread of these infections. Multiple barriers deter access to testing including fear of stigmatization, inaccurate health care provider perceptions of risk, and reduced availability of clinic services and infrastructure. Concurrent increases in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates and demands on existing clinical services make this an even more pressing concern. Web-based testing offers several advantages that may alleviate existing clinical pressures and facilitate appropriate testing access. This paper describes the planning, development, and usability testing of a novel Web-based testing service, GetCheckedOnline (GCO), as a complementary testing option integrated within existing sexual health services within British Columbia (BC). From 2009 to 2014, we engaged a multidisciplinary team in the design and development of GCO. We conducted 3 initial research studies to ascertain the opinions of youth, men who have sex with men (MSM), and STI clinic clients regarding Web-based testing and elicited perspectives of sexual health care providers through focus groups. We developed an informed consent process, risk assessment questions, and test recommendations based on provincial and national guidelines and evaluated these through consultations with clinical and community stakeholders. We also conducted a preliminary health equity impact assessment whose findings also informed the GCO program mode. Finally, from April 2011 to December 2012 we gathered qualitative data from 25 participants on the functionality and usability of a GCO prototype and incorporated their recommendations into a final model. GCO launched in the fall of 2014 across 6 pilot sites in Vancouver, BC. The service involves 3 main steps: (1) create an account, complete an assessment, and print a laboratory requisition, (2

  17. Comparing field-based and numerically modelled reconstructions of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet deglaciation over the Thompson Plateau, southern interior British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy; Seguinot, Julien; Perkins, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoglaciological and palaeoclimate reconstructions of the deglaciation of the last Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) over British Columbia (BC), Canada, are limited by the relative lack of understanding of the late-glacial ice sheet margins and dynamics. Deglaciation of the last CIS over the southern Interior Plateau of BC has been characterised as proceeding via stagnation and downwasting into dead ice lobes in valleys where ice was thickest. This conceptual model explains the apparent lack of moraines, which may otherwise imply active recession, and known palaeo-glacial lakes are explained as being dammed by these dead ice lobes. However, downwasting alone is at odds with coeval ice sheets which receded systematically towards their interiors. Presented here is a comparison between a new field-based reconstruction of the deglaciation of the northern Thompson Plateau, and ice sheet model results of the same area. Glacioisostatic tilts, reconstructed using mapped shoreline elevations, rise to the north-northwest at around 1.8 m/km, implying an ice surface slope, and likely active recession, towards the Coast Mountains. New reconstructions of the stages of glacial Lake Nicola (gLN), utilising field and aerial photographic mapping of shorelines, and sedimentology and geophysical surveys on ice-marginal and glaciolacustrine landforms, largely support this interpretation; the lake expanded and lowered to the north-northwest as progressively lower outlets were opened during ice retreat in this direction. Fields of newly discovered glaciotectonised moraines, grounding-line deposits and overridden glacial lake sediments record ice margin oscillations and minor readvances within gLN; the general alignment of these features further supports recession to the north-northwest. Numerical simulations of deglaciation of the area results in ice retreat to the north-northeast, which is inconsistent with the north-north-westward evolution of gLN. Excess precipitation over the eastern

  18. Gender inequities in quality of care among HIV-positive individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in British Columbia, Canada (2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Carter

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We measured gender differences in "Quality of Care" (QOC during the first year after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and investigated factors associated with poorer QOC among women. DESIGN: QOC was estimated using the Programmatic Compliance Score (PCS, a validated metric associated with all-cause mortality, among all patients (≥19 years who initiated ART in British Columbia, Canada (2000-2010. METHODS: PCS includes six indicators of non-compliance with treatment initiation guidelines at baseline (not having drug resistance testing before treatment; starting on a non-recommended regimen; starting therapy at CD4<200 cells/mm3 and during first-year follow-up (receiving <3 CD4 tests; receiving <3 viral load tests; not achieving viral suppression within six months. Summary scores range from 0-6; higher scores indicate poorer QOC. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to measure if female gender was an independent predictor of poorer QOC and factors associated with poorer QOC among women. RESULTS: QOC was determined for 3,642 patients (20% women. At baseline: 42% of women (34% men did not have resistance testing before treatment; 17% of women (9% men started on a non-recommended regimen (all p<0.001. At follow-up: 17% of women (11% men received <3 CD4; 17% of women (11% men received <3 VL; 50% of women (41% men did not achieve viral suppression (all p<0.001. Overall, QOC was better among men (mean PSC = 1.54 (SD = 1.30 compared with women (mean = 1.89 (SD = 1.37; p<0.001. In the multivariable model, female gender (AOR = 1.16 [95% CI: 0.99-1.35]; p = 0.062 remained associated with poorer QOC after covariate adjustment. Among women, those with injection drug use history, of Aboriginal ancestry, from Vancouver Island, and who initiated ART in earlier years were more likely to have poorer QOC. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer QOC among women, especially from marginalized communities, demands that barriers

  19. Application and validation of case-finding algorithms for identifying individuals with human immunodeficiency virus from administrative data in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Nosyk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define a population-level cohort of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in the province of British Columbia from available registries and administrative datasets using a validated case-finding algorithm. METHODS: Individuals were identified for possible cohort inclusion from the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (CfE drug treatment program (antiretroviral therapy and laboratory testing datasets (plasma viral load (pVL and CD4 diagnostic test results, the BC Centre for Disease Control (CDC provincial HIV surveillance database (positive HIV tests, as well as databases held by the BC Ministry of Health (MoH; the Discharge Abstract Database (hospitalizations, the Medical Services Plan (physician billing and PharmaNet databases (additional HIV-related medications. A validated case-finding algorithm was applied to distinguish true HIV cases from those likely to have been misclassified. The sensitivity of the algorithms was assessed as the proportion of confirmed cases (those with records in the CfE, CDC and MoH databases positively identified by each algorithm. A priori hypotheses were generated and tested to verify excluded cases. RESULTS: A total of 25,673 individuals were identified as having at least one HIV-related health record. Among 9,454 unconfirmed cases, the selected case-finding algorithm identified 849 individuals believed to be HIV-positive. The sensitivity of this algorithm among confirmed cases was 88%. Those excluded from the cohort were more likely to be female (44.4% vs. 22.5%; p<0.01, had a lower mortality rate (2.18 per 100 person years (100PY vs. 3.14/100PY; p<0.01, and had lower median rates of health service utilization (days of medications dispensed: 9745/100PY vs. 10266/100PY; p<0.01; days of inpatient care: 29/100PY vs. 98/100PY; p<0.01; physician billings: 602/100PY vs. 2,056/100PY; p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The application of validated case-finding algorithms and subsequent

  20. Climate change adaptation planning for the Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada: A combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Matthews, R.; Sydneysmith, R.; Tesluk, J.; Piggot, G.; Robinson, D. C.; Brinkman, D.; Marmorek, D.; Cohen, S.; McPherson, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Skeena region of British Columbia, Canada is among the world's most important commercial forest production areas, a key transportation corridor, and provides critical habitat for salmon and other wildlife. Climate change compounds threats to the region from other local environmental and social challenges. To aid local communities in adaptive planning for future climate change impacts, our project combined biophysical modelling, social science, and community engagement in a participatory approach to build regional capacity to prepare and respond to climate change. The sociological aspect of our study interviewed local leaders and resource managers (both First Nations and settlers groups in three communities) to examine how perceptions of environmental and socioeconomic issues have changed in the recent past, and the values placed on diverse natural resources at the present. The three communities differed in their perception of the relative value and condition of community resources, such as small business, natural resource trade, education and local government. However, all three communities regarded salmon as their most important and threatened resource. The most important future drivers of change in the study region were perceived to be: "aboriginal rights, title and treaty settlements", "availability of natural resources", "natural resource policies", and the "global economy". Climate change, as a potential driver of change in the region, was perceived as less important than other socio-economic factors; even though climate records for the region already demonstrate warmer winters, decreased snowfall, and decreased spring precipitation over the last half century. The natural science component of our project applies a regional-scale dynamic vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) to simulate the potential future of forest ecosystems, with a focus on how climate change and management strategy interact to influence forest productivity, disturbance frequency, species

  1. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  2. Two cases of cutaneous cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiujiao, Xia; Ai'e, Xu

    2005-07-01

    We report two cases of cutaneous cryptococcosis in male patients without underlying disease. Case 1 had a granulomatous mass on his right neck, gradually enlarging for 3 months. After the mass was debrided surgically in a hospital, the incision wound gradually developed into a severe ulceration. Mycological examination revealed Cryptococcus neoformans infection. It was significant that histopathology of both pre-surgery granuloma and post-surgery ulceration revealed thick-walled spores with thick capsule. Chest X-ray revealed a shadow in the left lower lung. After treatment with amphotec for 21 days, the lesion healed. Case 2 had an approximately 2 x 2 cm solitary dull nodule on his right thigh, which had been present for 8 months. Mycological examination confirmed that the lesion was caused by C. neoformans. The patient's ratio of peripheral blood CD4(+) cell was slightly reduced. After 14 days of treatment with oral fluconazole, followed by oral itraconazole for 2 months, mycological and clinical cure were achieved. The two isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C and C. neoformans var. grubii serotype A.

  3. Cutaneous Cryptococcosis: a marker of life threatening disseminated cryptococcosis in HIV AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Kishan Kumar Yadalla

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by a ubiquitous encapsulated yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans. Affects 5 – 10 % of patients with HIV worldwide. Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the AIDS defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Upto 20% of patients with disseminated disease can have skin involvement. Cutaneous lesions in disseminated cryptococcosis are seldom pathognomonic and portent neurological involvement. The significance of skin lesions may provide the first evidence of dissemination and indicate a poor prognosis, however, earlier recognition and treatment would improve survival. Herein we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis with skin lesions in a HIV seropositive patient.

  4. "Ghost river": The Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This perspective piece examines the history and geography of the Columbia River and some current ecosystem management issues related to hydroelectric development on the river. Once the greatest salmon producer in the word, the Columbia has, according to the author, become a "ghost river," with its salmon runs reduced to remnants, and its ecological integrity hanging in the balance. The author suggests that British Columbians have much to lose, both biologically and cul...

  5. Cryptococcus and cryptococcosis in Cuba. A minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illnait-Zaragozi, María T; Martínez-Machín, Gerardo F; Fernández-Andreu, Carlos M; Perurena-Lancha, Mayda R; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-12-01

    Cryptococcosis has emerged as an important public health problem in Africa, Asia and the Americas due to the increasing numbers of persons at risk of this infection and the adaptation of its aetiological agents to new environments. The proper management requires early recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex infection, familiarity with the use and limitations of diagnostic tests and knowledge of the available treatment options. This review will address these issues with the goal of providing sufficient information to suspect, diagnose and treat patients with cryptococcosis based on Cuban data and review of the literature.

  6. Growing a professional network to over 3000 members in less than 4 years: evaluation of InspireNet, British Columbia's virtual nursing health services research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Noreen; Atherton, Pat; Borycki, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Grace; Cordeiro, Jennifer; Novak Lauscher, Helen; Black, Agnes

    2014-02-21

    Use of Web 2.0 and social media technologies has become a new area of research among health professionals. Much of this work has focused on the use of technologies for health self-management and the ways technologies support communication between care providers and consumers. This paper addresses a new use of technology in providing a platform for health professionals to support professional development, increase knowledge utilization, and promote formal/informal professional communication. Specifically, we report on factors necessary to attract and sustain health professionals' use of a network designed to increase nurses' interest in and use of health services research and to support knowledge utilization activities in British Columbia, Canada. "InspireNet", a virtual professional network for health professionals, is a living laboratory permitting documentation of when and how professionals take up Web 2.0 and social media. Ongoing evaluation documents our experiences in establishing, operating, and evaluating this network. Overall evaluation methods included (1) tracking website use, (2) conducting two member surveys, and (3) soliciting member feedback through focus groups and interviews with those who participated in electronic communities of practice (eCoPs) and other stakeholders. These data have been used to learn about the types of support that seem relevant to network growth. Network growth exceeded all expectations. Members engaged with varying aspects of the network's virtual technologies, such as teams of professionals sharing a common interest, research teams conducting their work, and instructional webinars open to network members. Members used wikis, blogs, and discussion groups to support professional work, as well as a members' database with contact information and areas of interest. The database is accessed approximately 10 times per day. InspireNet public blog posts are accessed roughly 500 times each. At the time of writing, 21 research teams

  7. Mineral chemistry and shrimp U-Pb Geochronology of mesoproterozoic polycrase-titanite veins in the sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Belkin, H.E.; Fanning, C.M.; Ransom, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    Small polycrase-titanite veins 0.1-2 mm thick cut the tourmalinite feeder zone in the deep footwall of the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, southeastern British Columbia. Unaltered, euhedral crystals of polycrase and titanite 50-100 ??m in diameter are variably replaced by a finer-grained alteration-induced assemblage composed of anhedral polycrase and titanite with local calcite, albite, epidote, allanite, and thorite or uranothorite (or both). Average compositions of the unaltered and altered polycrase, as determined by electron-microprobe analysis, are (Y0.38 REE0.49 Th0.10 Ca0.04 Pb0.03 Fe0.01U0.01) (Ti1.48 Nb0.54 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6 and (Y0.42 REE0.32 Th0.15 U0.06 Ca0.04 Pb0.01 Fe0.01) (Ti1.57 Nb0.44 W0.04 Ta0.02)O6, respectively. The unaltered titanite has, in some areas, appreciable F (to 0.15 apfu), Y (to 0.40 apfu), and Nb (to 0.13 apfu). SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of eight grains of unaltered polycrase yields a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 1413 ?? 4 Ma (2??) that is interpreted to be the age of vein formation. This age is 50-60 m.y. younger than the ca. 1470 Ma age of synsedimentary Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Sullivan deposit, which is based on combined geological and geochronological data. SHRIMP ages for altered polycrase and titanite suggest later growth of minerals during the ???1370-1320 Ma East Kootenay and ???1150-1050 Ma Grenvillian orogenies. The 1413 ?? 4 Ma age for the unaltered polycrase in the veins records a previously unrecognized post-ore (1370 Ma) mineralizing event in the Sullivan deposit and vicinity. The SHRIMP U-Pb age of the polycrase and high concentrations of REE, Y, Ti, Nb, and Th in the veins, together with elevated F in titanite and the absence of associated sulfides, suggest transport of these high-field-strength elements (HFSE) by F-rich and S-poor hydrothermal fluids unrelated to the fluids that form