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Sample records for british coal industry

  1. British coal-down to the line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The long-running saga of British Coal's decline is in its final stages with virtually no change from last October when the British government announced plants to close 31 of the 50 remaining mines. That announcement produced a political outcry but having privatized the electricity industry in 1990 the government had effectively left itself up the creek without a paddle. It had no powers to force the generators to buy more coal. The status of the British coal industry is discussed

  2. Undermining capitalism - state ownership and the dialectic of control in the British coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The first section of this publication considers state ownership and contradictions of bureaucratic management with regard to the National Coal Board (NCB). Wages policy is discussed in terms of national rationalization, in particular the 1966 National Power Loading Agreement (NPLA). The second section outlines the effects of wage policy and structure upon production and also assesses the effects of work rules which determine organization of labour, division of tasks, norms for co-operation between team and shift groups etc. The third section discusses changes in power and labour relations and demonstrates distinctive regional patterns in the politics of productivity under piece-rate and time-based wage structures. Subsequent sections comprise colliery studies in County Durham and Nottinghamshire. The concluding chapter summarizes the arguments put forward in the preceding sections and discusses the relationship between organizational structure and class power.

  3. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  4. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  6. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  7. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  8. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  9. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  10. Coal industry annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993

  11. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  12. The Indonesian coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.; Daulay, B.

    2000-01-01

    In this comprehensive article the authors describe the origins and progress of the Indonesian coal industry and the role it plays, and will play, in the domestic energy scene and world coal trade. In the '80s, the Indonesian coal industry laid the basis for major expansion such that coal production rose from under a million tonnes in 1983 to 10.6 million tonnes in 1990, 50.9 million tonnes by 1996 and 61.2 million tonnes in 1992. At the same time, exports have increased from 0.4 million tonnes to 44.8 million tonnes. Current export levels are higher than originally expected, due in part to a slow down in the construction of electric power stations and a partial switch to natural gas. This has slowed the rate at which domestic coal demand has built up. The majority of coals currently exported are low rank steam coals, but some of the higher rank and very low ash coals are used for blast furnace injection, and a very small proportion may even be used within coking blends, even though they have poor coking properties. The Indonesian coal industry has developed very rapidly over the last six years to become a significant exporter, especially within the ASEAN context. The resources base appears to be large enough to support further increases in production above those already planned. It is probable that resources and reserves can be increased above the current levels. It is likely that some reserves of high value coals can be found, but it is also probable that the majority of additions to reserves will be lower in rank (and therefore quality) compared with the average of coals currently being mined. Reserves of qualities suitable for export will support that industry for a considerable period of time. However, in the longer term, the emphasis of production will increasingly swing to the domestic market

  13. Indian coal industry: Growth perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Growth perspective of Indian coal industry and their environmental aspects, are discussed. The complete coal chain comprises of mining including preparation and processing, transport, usage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Proper environmental protection measures are therefore, required to be integrated at every stage. At mining stage, land reclamation, restoration of surface damaged by subsidence and proper treatment of effluents are the minimum requirement for effective environmental protection. Since coal will continue to be the major source of commercial energy in coming decades initiative will have to be taken in making coal a clean fuel from the point of view of its usage in different industries. Washing of high ash coals for reducing the ash content will go a long way in reducing the atmospheric pollution through better plant performance and reduced environmental pollution at the power plants. (author)

  14. Australia's coal industry bottoms out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The last decade has been a tough period for the Australian coal industry, despite increases in production, productivity and exports. Profitability has fallen, mines have closed and ownerships have changed hands. The start of the new millennium seems to be heralding in a welcome change of fortune for the Australian coal industry, with signs that a recovery is finally arriving. Coal provides around 26% of global primary energy needs (compared with oil at 40%, gas at 24%, nuclear at 7% and renewables at 3%) and generates about 37% of the world's electricity (compared with renewables at 21%, nuclear at 17%, gas at 16% and oil at 9%). This is in spite of the adverse publicity that coal has been receiving regarding its contribution to the Greenhouse Effect, even relative to other fossil fuels, principally natural gas

  15. Australian coal industry continues expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent saleable Australian black coal production figures are given along with trends in development of new operations and new technology aiming to provide a sound basis for the continuing expansion of the Australian coal industry. Export prices from 1982 to 1991 to Japan (Australia's major export market) are provided, together with Australian dollar return to exporters at the exchange rate prevailing at the start of each contract year. An increased demand for steaming coal is expected, thus maintaining Australia's position as the world's larger exporter. 4 tabs

  16. British Coal Corporation report and accounts 1995/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report reviews the year at British Coal and summarises its financial performance for the year ended 30 March 1996. For the first time it records no direct contribution from coal mining in the UK, although it remained responsible at the beginning of the year for employing some 3,500 people in activities ranging from fuel distribution to pensions administration. Achievements included the sale or outsourcing of 10 business and various property sales, bringing the total amount generated from the privatisation of British Coal by May 1996 to over 1.2 billion pounds. The corporation has continued to provide a mine rescue service for which a new company was formed in March 1996. An occupational health service was continued until December 1995. A number of research projects initiated prior to privatisation, sponsored by ECSC, or carried out by the Coal Technology Development Division have continued. The Non-Operational Collieries Group completed the task of managing mine closures. Restoration work on 12 of the 14 former opencast sites has been completed. Responsibility for certain employee benefits and liabilities remains administered by British Coal until the end of 1997.

  17. Observations of coal cleat in British coalfields

    OpenAIRE

    Ellison, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This technical report presents the observations made during a study into cleat and joint directions, largely in the Pennine Basin. Field work was carried out under the BGS Research and Development programme in 199 1 - 1992. Interpretation of these observations will be made elsewhere. Cleat is the term widely in use to describe joints in coals. It is generally developed perpendicular to the bedding and there is normally one dominant set, known as the main cleat and a subsidiary, mo...

  18. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about British Columbia, about its area (947,800 sq.km), capital (Victoria), population (4.009,922 in 1998), major industries (forestry, wood and paper, petroleum and mining, tourism, agriculture, fishing, manufacturing), revenue from natural resources ($ 350 million from oil and natural gas in 1998-1999, or about 20 per cent of total provincial government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in British Columbia, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (wood products, pulp and paper products, machinery and equipment, coal, petroleum products, electricity) and upstream industry expenditures in British Columbia (in excess of $ 1 billion). map, pie-chart, figs

  19. Industry at odds over export coal prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarwood, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    The United Mine Workers' Union claims that Australia is not getting enough for its coal. Moreover, coal company executives argue that the open market policy was failing the industry and that the export customers were manipulating Australian producers. Consequently, the unions are calling for Federal Government intervention and support the establishment of a national coal authority to co-ordinate the marketing of coal and investment in the industry. ills

  20. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  1. The Environmental Impacts Of The Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtsev, Sergey; Efimov, Viktor; Korchagina, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article analyzes the main indicators of the Russian coal industry's impact on the environment: the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere for the year 2016 compared with 2015. It also identifies actual values of the environmental safety targets of the coal industry and the main investments in the nature protection. For prevention, restriction and minimization the negative impact on the environment, the coal industry has proposed the packages of managerial and technical measures.

  2. Private landlord-tenant relationship in British coal and American oil: a theory of mineral leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommer, Bernard.

    1997-01-01

    Case studies are presented of British coal and American oil as the only two, big examples of modern extractive industries that have been based on private leases. Depletion has played a decisive role in both cases in bringing about the convergence of the contractually defined groundrents to minimum levels called reservation groundrents. There were, however, two significant differences. In the first place, there was never a class of landlords in the USA, thus the legal framework has been able to adapt to the economic and technological requirements of petroleum production. This was not possible in coal mining in Britain where the landlords were politically powerful. Secondly, it was much easier to keep up with technological developments in the pumping of a liquid product, oil, than in the mining of solid coal. These factors led to the breakdown of the landlord-tenant relationship and the nationalisation of British coal but there is no likelihood of anything similar happening in the case of American oil. The case studies are prefaced by a theoretical framework and consideration of Ricardian rent theory and royalties. (UK)

  3. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  4. Coal industry defies recession with record exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Denis.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the worldwide recession which has adversely affected many commodities, the New South Wales coal industry achieved record production and exports during 1992-93. Although saleable coal production increased by only a modest 0.7%, experts rose by an impressive 7.1% to 57.4 million tonnes. Coking coal jumped by 14.6% to 23.6 million tonnes while thermal coal increased by 2.7% to 33.8 million tonnes. The value of coal experts amounted at $3.1 million. 1 tab

  5. The New South Wales coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The New South Wales coal industry contributes about $3.3 billion, or 43%, to Australia's coal export income. It is stated that the industry has made many changes in its 200 years history and prepares to adjust to new circumstances and practices. Among the changes outlined has been the move from hand mining to advanced technology and in the new approach to minesite rehabilitation

  6. The restructuring of the international coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.; Welham, K.

    2000-01-01

    The international coal industry is now becoming a global industry emerging from a history of production for national purposes and isolated regional markets. The participants in the market are also changing; the oil companies have come and gone and production is now in the hands of specialist mining companies. This has implications for the way the industry is organized. Deregulation in the electricity market means that coal mining companies face the challenge of entering into the new millennium in a more competitive market but companies may also have the opportunity to differentiate their product through risk management. (orig.)

  7. Miners' lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur McIvor; Ronald Johnston

    2007-02-15

    The authors explore the experience of coal miners' lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Contents are: General editor's preface; Introduction. Part 1 Interpretations and Context: Methodology and historiography; Work and the body in coalmining. Part 2 Advancing Medical Knowledge on Dust Disease: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: discovery and denial; Social medicine and pioneering epidemiology; The last gasp: bronchitis and emphysema. Part 3 The Industrial Politics of Miners' Lung: 'Enlightened management'? The NCB, the state and dust; The trade unions and dust. Part 4 Miners' Testimonies: Dust and Disability Narratives: Workplace culture: risk and masculinity; Breathless men: living and dying with dust disease. Conclusion. 3 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  8. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  9. Industrial natural gas supply options in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Information is provided on the availability and cost of natural gas in British Columbia for use by firms interested in establishing gas-intensive industrial facilities in the province. British Columbia has an abundant supply of natural gas, originating mainly from deposits in the westernmost part of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in the northeast part of the province. Recoverable resources in British Columbia are estimated at 1,000-1,400 billion m 3 . Over 200 producers compete to sell natural gas for both domestic and export markets. Gathering, processing, and transmission of the gas is undertaken mainly by the Westcoast Energy pipeline system, and distribution is undertaken by several distribution utilities. At present, all large industrial gas users buy their firm gas requirements directly from gas producers, often using gas marketers or brokers to assist in purchasing. Regulation of the gas industry is performed by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, which sets rules for energy supply contracts, and by the National Energy Board, which sets tolls for gathering, processing, and transporting gas. Factors affecting gas pricing are discussed, with reference to both the wellhead price and the cost of gathering, processing, and transportation. Firm gas costs for two hypothetical industrial loads in British Columbia are illustrated. Potential intensive uses of natural gas in the province are outlined, including power generation, liquefaction for export, manufacturing, production of direct reduced iron, and as petrochemical feedstocks. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Australia's export coal industry: a project of the Coal Australia Promotion Program. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet presents an overview of the Australian coal industry, emphasises the advantages of using Australian coal and outlines government policies, both Commonwealth and State, which impact on coal mine development, mine ownership and coal exports. It also provides information on the operations and products of each producer supplying coal and coke to export markets and gives contact details for each. The emphasis is on black coal, but information on coal briquettes and coke is also provided. Basic information on the rail networks used for the haulage of export coal and on each of the bulk coal loading terminals is also included.(Author). 3 figs., photos

  11. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  12. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  13. An example of change - the end of apartheid in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This publication reports on a visit by four British MPs to the South African Coal Industry (SACI), made under the auspices of the SACI Committee which represents all the major coal exporting companies of South Africa. It is a private industry which operates independently of both the Government and the Chamber of Mines and does not benefit from any Government Subsidies. The aim of the visit was to investigate the SACI against a background of international pressure against an industry which appears to be a major example of change in South Africa. The visit programme included presentations on the South African coal industry in general, industrial relations and safety and research in the mining industry. Visits were made to both an underground mine and an opencast mine, a collieries training college, hospital, school, mine village and a coal terminal. At the end of the visit the delegation drew the conclusions that the South African coal industry is now organised on a totally non-discriminatory basis, offering employment and promotion opportunities to all workers regardless of their race and that there is therefore no justification for singling out this industry as a victim of sanctions policy.

  14. Measurement of the Industrial Collaboration of the Diversified Coal Industry: China Coal Energy Company as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Mao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the diversified development of coal enterprises in China, the industries related to coal, including coal chemical, electric power, transportation, and building materials, have witnessed rapid development. There is a collaboration relation between the coal industries and most of the aforementioned industries. Based on the synergy theory and the theory of industrial cooperation, the collaboration among coal industries is assessed in this research. Examining China Coal Energy Company as an example, this research divides the compound enterprise system into subsystems such as coal-electric, coal-chemical, and coal-equipment. Next, collaboration indices, including market, scale, and management, are created for each subsystem. Then, the overall collaboration degree of the China Coal Energy Company since it was listed was calculated by standardizing data and estimating the order degree of order parameters and subsystems. Thus, a model measuring the industrial collaboration degree of coal enterprises was established to quantitatively reflect the collaboration degree between various industries. At the same time, the factors influencing the collaboration effect between various industries were analyzed so as to improve this effect, which then can provide a decision basis for enterprises.

  15. China’s Strategic Choice of the Coal Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Niu, Dongxiao; Wang, Daojuan

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining industry is one of the most influential industries on environment pollution. In recent years, most studies have shown that green and circular economy is the way to solve the deteriorative environment issue. After introducing green economy theory, including background, concept...... of circular economy model, promoting coal industrial technological progress, improving management and security technological innovation....

  16. E-commerce and the coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolza, D.

    2000-01-01

    Industry observers currently peg the share of 'spot' contracts in Australia's black coal export market (valued at $9 billion a year) at 15%, compared with only 5% of market share four years ago. This quantum shift in purchasing habits is being driven largely by abundant coal supplies, a multi-source availability of coal, and falling prices - a scenario that is expected to remain unchanged for at least the next three to five years. Contracts are not only becoming shorter, they are also dealing with lower tonnages. And, unlike under older long term contracts, where prices are reset every one to two years, under the modern versions prices are being reset every three to six months. As buyers push to achieve more competitive pricing outcomes and maximise the supply of competitively priced fuel, this forces everyone associated with operating power plants to look for ways to reduce costs and implement higher levels of efficiency, by saving time and paperwork. Net-based trading in coal is happening. The major buyers and sellers operate most of the existing sites. Buyers see the Net as a means of reducing the cost of their fuel; sellers see it as a means of better displaying the product they offer. The use of the Net is seen as providing improved market intelligence, greater transparency, better marketing and service levels and enhanced efficiencies. The one-to-one approach remains a fixture and its future is assured. However, whether the Net will ultimately support independent trading sites similar to those whose income will come from brokering deals is hard to judge. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Energy Technology and Exploration and Mining

  17. Discussion on Wastewater Treatment Process of Coal Chemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Lun, Weijie; Wei, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    Coal chemical wastewater has such characteristics as high concentration of oil, ammonia nitrogen and COD. In this paper, treatment process of coal chemical industry is described mainly, such as pretreatment process, biochemical treatment process and polishing process. Through the recovery of phenol and ammonia and the treatment of wastewater from abroad, the new technology of wastewater treatment in coal chemical industry was expounded. Finally, The development of coal chemical wastewater treatment technology is prospected, and the pretreatment technology is emphasized. According to the diversification and utilization of water, zero discharge of coal chemical wastewater will be fulfilled.

  18. One coal miner's perspective on the present United States coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.E. [Murray Energy Corp., Pepper Pike, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The President and CEO of the Murray Energy Corporation presented his observations on and concerns about the coal and energy industries in the USA, as a coal miner and an energy trader. He outlines the coal mining operations of the Murray Energy Corporation. He offers critical comments about, for example, some unscrupulous energy trading activities, the future of Powder River Basin coal (which he believes may be curtailed by the introduction of clean coal technologies), the lack of expertise in coal mining, the need to revise the law concerning coal company bankruptcies, the need for the government to provide a means to secure bonds, the need to liberalize black lung disease benefits, and the factors deterring improvement of the performance of the eastern coal industry. He criticises current policy and puts forward some recommendations.

  19. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts : British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary of British Columbia's petroleum industry is presented. The industry injects more than one billion dollars annually into the BC economy. The province is the second largest natural gas producer in Canada. Seven thousand people are engaged in upstream activities such as exploration, production and development, while the downstream sector of the industry employs about 25,000 people in refining, pipeline transportation, natural gas distribution and retail gasoline operations. There is an extensive pipeline network with nearly 24,000 kilometres of pipeline serving local, national and international markets. From 1993 to 1997, the number of oil and gas wells drilled in BC nearly doubled from 324 wells to 616 wells. More than half of the natural gas produced in BC is exported, mostly to the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Some gas also goes to eastern Canada, the U.S. midwest and California. 3 figs

  20. Technical note: Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established in literature that the environmental impacts associated with the coal industry are numerous. In respect of South Africa's groundwater resources the major impact of the coal industry is a reduction in groundwater quantity and quality. There is therefore a need to proactively prevent or minimise these ...

  1. Internships, Workfare, and the Cultural Industries: A British Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While media work has long been characterized as being structurally dependent on internships, “work experience,” and other forms of free labour (Banks 2007; Hesmondhalgh and Baker 2010, the recent shift towards internships has served to normalize what has become known as the media industries “dirty little secret” (Silver 2005. This article contextualizes internship culture within the British cultural industries against a wider political and social frame. Internships and other modes of “apprenticeship” across the British economy reflect a continuation and transformation of national workfare policies, which seek to avert inflationary pressures by coercing people to work or risk losing their welfare benefits. Internship culture has been highly pronounced in the cultural industries and other attractive white-collar sectors such as law and finance (Perlin 2012. Yet, the provision of internships to young people in previously unimaginable contexts such as fast food, retail, and other low-pay service sectors represents a significant shift in policy, compounded by increasingly draconian demands on young people to comply in order to receive state benefits. Discursively, unpaid media work is now seen as an opportunity for the lucky few, rather than a mode of exploitation servicing corporate gain. This has particular relevance for battles over equality and exploitation which have been fought in these sectors, which this discursive shift makes appear increasingly archaic.

  2. An imbalanced development of coal and electricity industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    China's coal and electricity industries have a strong reliance on each other, however, because of excessive invasion of government, it is difficult for these two industries to form a stable, reasonable, and transaction cost-saving relationships, but long-run disputes and quarrels. This paper discusses the pricing policies and transaction relationship between these two industries from the historical perspective. It begins with the discussion of coal. Coal market has become competitive since 1980 due to the system of dual track approach, but coal sold to electricity was still tightly controlled by government-guided pricing. Then the paper examines electricity investment and tariff reform. Unlike coal, entry to electricity generation sector was gradually relaxed but generation and retailing tariffs are still strictly regulated. As energy demand and prices soared after 2002, coal and electricity enterprises are all unsatisfied with the rule of price setting of coal sold to electricity industry. This paper concludes that the deliberate low coal price policy does protect electricity industry from fuel cost fluctuation but harm coal industry. Allocative and productive efficiency are difficult to achieve in the long run

  3. NSW coal industry overview and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Australia is the fourth-largest coal producer in the world, after China, the USA and India. In 2001, Australia produced some 257 Million tonnes (Mt) of hard coal, with almost 45% of this coming from NSW. Australia is the world's largest exporter of hard coal. In 2001, Australia exported some 193 Mt of hard coal, well ahead of its nearest rival, China, at 91 Mt and South Africa and Indonesia at 69 and 66 Mt respectively. Of the total coal exports from Australia in 2001, nearly 40% came from NSW. Trade in coal is forecast to continue its growth, particularly for thermal coal. Substantial growth in Asian demand for thermal coal is forecast over the next decade. Asian demand is expected to increase from 193 Mt in 2000 to 333 Mt in 2020. By 2020, Asian demand is expected to make up 62% of world seaborne thermal coal trade

  4. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The international coal market trends are outlined and the place of Australian coal industry is discussed. It is shown that while the world supply and demand for coal has begun to tighten, the demand for coal is expected to remain strong in both Asia and Europe. Consequently, in 1991-1992 Australian black coal production and export returns are forecast to rise by 4% and 7% respectively. 1 fig

  5. Promoting coal industry in China through innovative financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Geng

    1997-01-01

    Since energy has constituted itself a bottleneck in the economic development in China, the development of energy has long become an important element of the country's policies on the industry. Policies and credit operations of the state development bank in support of coal development in China are discussed. To support the coal industrial growth of the country, the State Development Bank has been engaging itself in the coal credit operations. At present in China, 90 % of the funds for the large and medium-sized coal projects are loans from the state banks with the rest 10 % being foreign investment. Actions to attract more foreign investment for China are discussed. (R.P.)

  6. The Philippine coal industry its challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, Francisco B.

    1997-01-01

    The demand for energy has been increasing over the years especially with the country's accelerated economic growth as we move closer its vision of industrialization by the turn of the century. Pursuant to this, the Department of Energy (DOE) was mandated to ensure the country's energy supply availability at affordable costs with due consideration to environmental concerns. Likewise, our organization, the Philippine Chamber of Coal Mines, Inc. (PHILCOAL), an association of local coal producers has taken the role of continuing its task of promoting the development and growth of the coal industry and to cooperate with the governmental agencies in their program of accelerating the development; growth and stability of the energy's coal sector. This paper will present a brief overview of the current situation of the coal industry, citing among others the country's coal reserves, quality, the industry's performance and the coal supply and demand projected for a five-year period. This paper shall also briefly discuss the government's plan to intensify coal exploration efforts so as to ensure the expansion of the country's production capabilities, the establishment of more terminals and infrastructures and accelerate the implementation of mine-mouth power generation and co-regeneration projects in potential coal areas. The implementation of the government's plan for the coal sector will require substantial capital and this paper will cite the principal areas where local and foreign project can come in. Finally this paper conclusively state that the country will remain a net importer of coal on account of the inability of local coal producers to meet increasing rate and coal demand. (author)

  7. Coal chemical industry and its sustainable development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kechang; Li, Wenying; Zhao, Wei

    2010-01-01

    China is rich in coal resource, which is vital for energy security in this country. In early 21st century, the coal chemical industry in China will be oriented to the development of high efficiency, safety, cleanliness, and optimum utilization. In this review, the authors present an introduction to the utilization status of primary energy production and consumption in China. Since 2005, fundamental research studies, supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Chinese National Basic Research Program, have been carried out at Taiyuan University of Technology. The Ministry stresses that the new coal chemical industry should be developed in a sustainable manner to realize effective utilization of energy. Moreover, upgrading the high technology to improve actively the recycling processes of coal chemical engineering is of strategic importance to realize the modern coal chemical engineering.

  8. A note on the market potential of low-volatile bituminous coal, Willow Creek property, northeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry Ryan; Ted Todoschuk; Bob Lane [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The international coking coal market is very competitive and is segmented into many non inter changeable coal products. Two products, that are more in demand than many are, low-volatile bituminous high rank coking coal for blends into coke ovens, and low-volatile bituminous coal for pulverization and injection into blast furnaces (PCI coal). The Willow Creek property contains coal that may be suitable for these two markets. The higher priced market is the low-volatile coking coal market where up to 30% of this coal can be added into coal blends for coke ovens. This is a higher priced market than the PCI market and it is advantageous for mines if possible to switch from the low-volatile PCI market to the low-volatile coking coal market. Low-volatile coking coal is also in short supply as reserves in the US and other countries are running out. This note looks at the possible use of 7 Seam from the Willow Creek property in northeastern British Columbia as a low-volatile component in a standard coke oven blend. The Willow Creek property is located 40 kilometres west of Chetwynd and overlies seams in the Gething Formation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Clean coal technologies in Japan: technological innovation in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    This brochure reviews the history clean coal technologies (CCT) in Japan and systematically describes the present state of CCT insofar. The brochure contains three parts. Part 1. CCT classifications; Part 2. CCT overview; and Part 3. Future outlook for CCT. The main section is part 2 which includes 1) technologies for coal resources development; 2) coal-fired power generation technologies - combustion technologies and gasification technologies; 3) iron making and general industry technologies; 4) multi-purpose coal utilization technologies - liquefaction technologies, pyrolysis technologies, powdering, fluidization, and co-utilisation technologies, and de-ashing and reforming technologies; 5) Environmental protection technologies - CO{sub 2} recovery technologies; flue gas treatment and gas cleaning technologies, and technologies to effectively use coal has; 6) basic technologies for advanced coal utilization; and 7) co-production systems.

  10. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  11. Chances of coal in European power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszczyk, Zygmunt; Badura, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union has reduced the remnants of import barriers. Moreover, the consolidation and commercialization of the energy sector, the implementation of climate package elements and a whole host of other determinants have caused hard coal mining to begin functioning in a highly competitive market, and its negotiating position, as well as the possibility of survival, depends not only on the level of coal prices in international markets, but also on internal competition. This paper discusses the position of power coal on international markets and presents some current problems concerning the functioning of particular segments of the hard coal market in the European Union and Poland in terms of opportunities and threats that are a result of climate and energy policy.

  12. Crowding-out effect of coal industry investment in coal mining area: taking Shanxi province in China as a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wu, Sanmang; Yan, Dan; Chen, Jiabin

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of coal industry in Shanxi province in China has important effects on its economic development. A large amount of money has been invested into the coal industry and other related industries during the recent years. However, research on the investment effect of Shanxi's coal industry was rare. In order to analyze the investment effect of coal industry, based on the crowding-out effect model, cointegration test, and the data available in Shanxi Statistical Yearbooks, this paper calculates the effect between coal industry investment and other 17 industry investment. The results show that the investment of coal industry produces crowding-out effect on food industry, building materials industry, and machinery industry. Increasing 1% of the coal industry investment can reduce 0.25% of the food industry investment, or 0.6% of building materials industry investment, or 0.52% of the machinery industry investment, which implies that Shanxi province should adjust coal industrial structure, promote the balance development of coal industry and other industries, so as to promote its economic growth.

  13. Indian coal industry for a quantum jump ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhary, S.K. (Coal India Ltd., Calcutta (India))

    1992-12-01

    A broad overview is presented by India's coal industry with special reference to Coal India Ltd. (CIL) which contributes about 90% of total coal production. Coal is by far the most abundant energy source in India. Figures show the increase in production from opencast and underground mining (roughly in the ratio 2:1) since 1980, and projections for continued production in 2001-02. Technologies needed to realize the projected growth are discussed. Improved equipment, haulage facilities and communications systems should continue to contribute to the production capacity of large opencast mines. Mechanisation of the bord and pillar system is envisaged as the key to rapid growth in underground production. A vast potential has been identified in the beneficiation of non-coking coal to meet demands for use of power coal power generation. Several new technologies are being tried at CIL to aid exploration, and computerization is being applied in several areas within the industry. A COALNET Plan is being implemented to establish an integrated information management system covering operations throughout the company. Improvements are being made in the rail transport, distribution and quality control of coal. Attention is being paid to the environmental impacts of coal mining. 5 tabs., 3 photos.

  14. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  15. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  16. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Roger

    2013-01-01

    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  17. Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara M.; Horsley, J. Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores crisis management/communication practices within the coal industry through the lens of high reliability organization (HRO) concepts and sensemaking theory. In-depth interviews with industry executives and an analysis of an emergency procedures manual were used to provide an exploratory examination of the status of crisis…

  18. Cause-specific mortality in British coal workers and exposure to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; MacCalman, L. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coal workers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18 000 men from 10 British collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the collieries were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. This paper adds to the evidence on the long-term effects of exposure to coalmine dust on mortality from respiratory diseases.

  19. Cause-specific mortality in British coal workers and exposure to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian G Miller; Laura MacCalman [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coal workers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18?000 men from 10 British collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the collieries were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. This paper adds to the evidence on the long-term effects of exposure to coalmine dust on mortality from respiratory diseases.

  20. Impact of coal-carrying trains on particulate matter concentrations in South Delta, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, K; McKendry, I; Saxton, J; Cottle, P W

    2017-04-01

    Transport of coal by train through residential neighborhoods in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada may increase the possibility of exposure to particulate matter at different size ranges, with concomitant potential negative health impacts. This pilot study identifies and quantifies train impacts on particulate matter (PM) concentrations at a single location. Field work was conducted during August and September 2014, with the attributes of a subset of passing trains confirmed visually, and the majority of passages identified with audio data. In addition to fixed ground based monitors at distances 15 and 50 m from the train tracks, an horizontally pointing mini-micropulse lidar system was deployed on three days to make backscatter and depolarization measurements in an attempt to identify the zone of influence, and sources, of train-generated PM. Ancillary wind and dust fall data were also utilized. Trains carrying coal are associated with a 5.3 (54%), 4.1 (33%), and 2.6 (17%) μgm -3 average increase in concentration over a 14 min period compared to the average concentrations over the 10 min prior to and after a train passage ("control" or "background" conditions), for PM 3 , PM 10 , and PM 20 , respectively. In addition, for PM 10 and PM 20 , concentrations during train passages of non-coal-carrying trains were not found to be significantly different from PM concentrations during control conditions. Presence of coal dust particles at the site was confirmed by dust fall measurements. Although enhancements of PM concentrations during 14 min train passages were generally modest, passing coal trains occasionally enhanced concentrations at 50 m from the tracks by ∼100 μgm -3 . Results showed that not every train passage increased PM concentrations, and the effect appears to be highly dependent on wind direction, local meteorology and load related factors. LiDAR imagery suggests that re-mobilization of track-side PM by train-induced turbulence may be a

  1. Coal fires, fresh air and the hardy British: A historical view of domestic energy efficiency and thermal comfort in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty has been most commonly researched in the UK although it is experienced in other parts of Europe, to varying degrees. showed that energy inefficient buildings and heating systems are the most significant components of fuel poverty and highlighted the legacy of older buildings in this country that remain the majority of those now recognised as hard to treat. This paper considers the historical context for fuel poverty as a particularly British phenomenon. It examines claims that this is due to the mild climate and low indoor temperature expectations. It is concluded that there are significant differences from the European situation. The climate, particularly its characteristic changeability, has influenced building and heating methods, and the low priority given to energy efficiency by legislators. Significantly, economic priorities produced poor quality mass housing during the industrial revolution. The availability of coal encouraged the use of open fires, which demanded high ventilation rates. The British do value warmth but older buildings designed for heating with radiant open fires are difficult to adapt to convective central heating. Lessons can be drawn for newly industrialised economies similarly producing poor quality mass housing with low priorities for energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► Historical reasons for fuel poverty as a particularly UK phenomenon are considered. ► There are significant differences with the European situation. ► The changeable climate influenced building and heating methods as well as health. ► Fuel supply encouraged heating by inefficient open fires that needed draughts. ► Improving airtightness in an oldhousing stock remains challenging.

  2. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  3. The South African coal industry - a millennium review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, G.H.; Phillips, H.R. [University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2001-06-01

    South Africa is a significant contributor to southern Africa and Europe's coal needs and is expected to remain in this important position for the foreseeable future. This review paper of the South African coal mining industry highlights that, although abundant, the easily mineable reserves will become depleted within the next quarter century. Socio-economic issues of unique, local importance such as the HIV/AIDS pandemic as well as policies propagated by South Africa's post-apartheid government are detailed, as are programmes in research and development that will ensure that South Africa's long term coal industry is, at the every least, maintained. 11 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  5. World coal trade 2006 - another successful year for the industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. [e-coal.com (United Kingdom)

    2007-02-15

    The international coal industry enjoyed another successful year in 2006, with new records set and firm prices remaining after the previous strong years for the producers. This was of course not without the various problems and changes that occur each year. This article reviews the main issues and trends that came to light in 2006. 13 figs., 5 tabs., 3 photos.

  6. Rapid development of China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H.

    1978-11-01

    Since China relies mainly on coal for fuel, the development of the industry has a direct bearing on the national economic growth. The aim is to double the present output after ten years of hard work, produce as much again as in 1987 by the end of this century and mechanize the mines as soon as possible. In the next ten years China is planning to build, step by step, a number of large coal mining bases mainly in east, central--south and northeast China, and at the same time expand the Kailan, Tatung, and several other big coal centers. The aim is to achieve regional selfsufficiency. The key to speedy development of the coal industry lies in mechanization. Many mines have, in the last few years, geared their efforts to this requirement. Although productivity and some major economic and technical standards in China's coal industry today compare unfavorably with the world's advanced levels, Chinese miners and management alike are determined to catch up with and surpass world standards in the shortest possible time. The target is to achieve full mechanization within the next ten years. The biggest mines will be equipped with coal cutters and tunnelling machines, continuous transport facilities, automatic winders, preparation plants, and computerized communications and dispatching systems. China must rely on its own abilities to achieve this aim but at the same time will not hesitate to import some of the world's most advanced techniques and equipment. Measures will have to be taken to raise the scientific and technical level of the workforce to meet the needs of mechanization.

  7. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirten, D.

    1994-01-01

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.) [de

  9. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  10. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  11. A supply chain based assessment of water issues in the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Lingying; Liu Pei; Ma Linwei; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Shortages of water and geographically uneven distribution of coal and water pose great challenges to sustainable development of the coal industry in China. In this paper, we illustrate the major challenges existing in the coal industry from a supply chain viewpoint, and propose technical and policy suggestions to address them. First, we provide quantitative information about water withdrawal, consumption, waste water recycling and treatment and pollution from coal mining, preparation, to final conversion for China's power generation and coal-to-chemical industry. We then analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. Our results show that water issues are becoming increasingly severe constraints for coal development in China, especially in North and West China, where water is more scarce and ecological systems are more vulnerable than other regions. Without implementing effective water-saving measures or regulations the water demand in the coal industry could dramatically increase and probably exceed China's water supply capacity in the near-term future, bringing substantial uncertainty to sustainable development of China's energy economy. We also illustrate that coal-fired power generation, with appropriate technical improvement and proper policy supports, has the greatest potential for water savings in the coal industry. Our conclusions also underscore the importance of expanding energy efficiency and renewable energy in China so as to limit the country's dependence on coal. - Highlights: ► We provide information of water supply and use in the coal industry in China. ► We analyze scenarios of water use in China's coal industry between 2020 and 2030. ► Water issues are becoming severe constrains for the coal industry in China. ► The water demand in the coal industry could exceed China's water supply capacity. ► Coal-fired power generation has great potential for water savings.

  12. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, W. A.; Slade, E. C.

    1978-06-01

    A survey of the industrial capabilities of the valve and valve-actuator industry to supply large, high-pressure stop valves for the future coal conversion industry is presented in this report. Also discussed are development and testing capabilities of valve and valve-actuator manufacturers and anticipated lead times required to manufacture advanced design valves for the most stringent service applications. Results indicate that the valve and valve-actuator industry is capable of manufacturing in quantity equipment of the size and for the pressure and temperature ranges which would be required in the coal conversion industry. Valve manufacturers do not, however, have sufficient product application experience to predict the continuing functional ability of valves used for lock-hopper feeders, slurry feeders, and slag-char letdown service. Developmental and testing efforts to modify existing valve designs or to develop new valve concepts for these applications were estimated to range from 1 to 6 years. A testing facility to simulate actuation of critical valves under service conditions would be beneficial.

  13. Multi - party Game Analysis of Coal Industry and Industry Regulation Policy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianqi

    2018-01-01

    In the face of the frequent occurrence of coal mine safety accidents, this paper analyses the relationship between central and local governments, coal mining enterprises and miners from the perspective of multi - group game. In the actual production, the decision of one of the three groups can affect the game strategy of the other of the three, so we should assume the corresponding game order. In this order, the game analysis of the income and decision of the three is carried out, and the game decision of the government, the enterprise and the workers is obtained through the establishment of the benefit matrix and so on. And then on the existing system to optimize the coal industry regulation proposed practical recommendations to reduce the frequency of industry safety accidents, optimize the industry production environment.

  14. The Case of Coal Water Slurry Fuel for Industrial Use in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan; Mohammad A. Irfan; Afzal Khan; Irfan Ullah; Noman Wazir

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the case for design and development of Coal Water Slurry (CWS) Plant for industrial use in Pakistan. After exclusive comparison between coal quality quantification for CWS it was found that Darra mines at Pakistan provide best coal for CWS. Highly volatile, A and B Bituminous coal and Sub-Bituminous coal is selected for making CWS because of its low Sulfur contents, Ash contents and high heating value through experimentation. The purpose of this research was to present ...

  15. Pyrolisator Coal to be Cokes (Coal Cokes Casting Metal Industry Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolisis of coal is partial combustion to reduce total moisture, volatile matter and sulfur contens and increase the calorific value of coal. The results of pyrolysis of coal is coke. At the laboratory level studies, pyrolisis done in batch using different calorie, namely 5800, 6000, 6300 kcal/kg and a time of 15-60 minutes and the temperature 400-800°C. Maximum results obtained total moisture (0.44%, fixed carbon (89%, volatile matter (2.4%, sulfur content (undetected and ash (7.2%. Then applied to the scale miniplant with continuous processes using multitube pyrolisator which are designed to operate in the temperature range 400-800°C and a flow rate of 240-730 kg/h, obtained coal cokes that meets industry quality standards, namely TM (0.42%, FC (90.40%, VM (2.16%, S (not detected, Ash (6.8% incalori 6300 kcal/h, a flow rate of 240 kg / h and temperatures between 600-700°C

  16. Burnup credit in operations in the British nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.R.; Rice, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is involved in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, including the transport, storage, and reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuel. Irradiated fuel is transported from reactor sites to BNFL Sellafield in Cumbria, where it is stored in ponds. In the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), the design of the plant and the associated processes must ensure safe operation, and often pessimistic assumptions are made about the materials involved. Currently, BNFL assumes that fuel is unirradiated for the purposes of criticality assessment and takes no account of the reduction in reactivity known to occur with fuel irradiation. It is recognized that the unirradiated fuel assumption can impose substantial economic liability because the introduction of burnup arguments have the potential to lead to increased fuel transport payloads, increased capacity in fuel stores, increased plant throughputs, and a reduction in costly neutron poisoning. It is of prime importance that a methodology be established covering fuel identification, burnup quantification, inventory prediction, and reactivity calculation to enable BNFL to convince the regulatory bodies that there is an adequate margin to criticality safety in assessments. It is our goal to establish a route that will show that having taken all error margins into account, the operations are adequately safe, allowing for the irradiation of the fuel

  17. Economics of the coal industry east of the Mississippi, 1973-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Government regulations on health, safety and environment have been poppular blamed for the declining productivity in U.S. coal mines since 1970. The stagnation in the coal industry east of the Mississippi is alleged to have been caused by this declining productivity and by the growth of cheaper and cleaner coal production west of the Mississippi. Economic evidence suggests, however, that productivity declines were more due to a relative lowering of labor costs in comparison with coal prices and due to work stoppages. The development of western coals fields was spurred by growth in local demand and had only a relatively small impact on coal production east of the Mississippi. Problems of the eastern coal industry are rooted mainly in slow economic growth in eastern U.S. which must be addressed in the long-term interests of the eastern coal industry. ?? 1987.

  18. Coal, the metamorphoses of an industry. The new geopolitics of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Coal consumption is growing up so fast and coal reserves are so abundant that coal might overtake petroleum in the future. The worldwide environment will not gain anything in this evolution except if 'clean coal' technologies make a significant jump. What is the driving force of this coal development? The pitfall encountered by nuclear energy and the rise of natural gas prices have been favorable conditions for the development of coal but they cannot hide the worldwide metamorphosis of coal industry. From China, undisputed world leader, to the USA, without omitting India, Russia and the big exporting countries (Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia), a new map is drawing up. In all these countries, coal companies are concentrating and internationalizing, open new strip mines and new commercial paths. The understanding of this metamorphosis has become one of the keys of the energy prospective and geopolitics of the 21. century. Content: 1 - entering the 21. century with the energy source of the 19. century?; 2 - consumption growth: new trends; 3 - the USA: the Saudi Arabia of coal; 4 - the unexpected rebirth of coal in Russia; 5 - China, world leader of coal industry; 6 - India and south-east Asia are entering the race; 7 - the rise of exporting industries; 8 - international markets and competitive dynamics of industries; 9 - advantage and drawbacks of coal during the coming decades; 10 - will clean coal technologies be ready on time?; 11 - technical appendix. (J.S.)

  19. Wireless and empire geopolitics radio industry and ionosphere in the British Empire 1918-1939

    CERN Document Server

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2009-01-01

    Although the product of consensus politics, the British Empire was based on communications supremacy and the knowledge of the atmosphere. Focusing on science, industry, government, the military, and education, this book studies the relationship between wireless and Empire throughout the interwar period.

  20. Building “Sound” Industrial Relations in Nigeria: The British and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines measures taken by the British colonial administrationin Nigeria during the early years of the Cold War. I posit that anti-leftistmeasures against labour organisations were central to the success of thecolonial state's policy of “sound” industrial relations in the workplace(private and public). Using primary ...

  1. Product Quality Selection and Firm Survival. Evidence from the British Automobile Industry, 1895-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Peng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an additional determininant of firm survival. Based on a detailed examination of firm survival in the British automobile industry between 1895 and 1970, we conclude that firm’s selection of submarket-defined by quality level-influenced survival. In contrast to findings for the US automobile industry, there is no evidence of first-mover advantage in the market as a whole. However, we do find evidence of first-mover advantage after conditioning on submarket choice.

  2. Who gains when workers train? Training and corporate productivity in a panel of British industries

    OpenAIRE

    John Van Reenen

    2000-01-01

    There is a vast empirical literature of the effects of training on wages that are taken as an indirect measure of productivity. This paper is part of a smaller literature on the effects of training on direct measures of industrial productivity. We analyse a panel of British industries between 1983 and 1996. Training information (and other individual productivity indicators such as education and experience) is derived from a question that has been asked consistently over time in the Labour For...

  3. Who gains when workers train? Training and corporate productivity in a panel of British industries

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Lorraine; Reed, Howard; Van Reenen, John

    2000-01-01

    There is a vast empirical literature on the effects of training on wages that are taken as an indirect measure of productivity. This paper is part of a smaller literature on the effects of training on direct measures of industrial productivity. We analyse a panel of British industries between 1983 and 1996. Training information (and other individual productivity indicators such as education and experience) is derived from a question that has been asked consistently over time in the Labour For...

  4. The British Nuclear Industry Forum's public affairs campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In March 1999, BNIF launched a public affairs Campaign with the objective of influencing the views of opinion formers - particularly in the political field - about the case for nuclear energy as a long-term, sustainable component of the UK's energy mix. The Campaign was launched to BNIF's 70 member companies under the slogan, Profiting through Partnership - By Changing the Climate of Opinion. That slogan was chosen to emphasise a key feature of the Campaign approach, which is the importance of an industry speaking collectively with one voice, but with each individual company actively playing its part by spreading the industry's messages to their own local and regional audiences - Members of Parliament, local politicians, local media - to build a groundswell of support for the eventual renewal of nuclear energy in the UK. Our aim was to place the prospect of a new nuclear power station firmly on the political agenda during the lifetime of the next Parliament - that is, in the period 2002-2007. The Campaign was launched at a time when a few encouraging signs were emerging of a growing recognition in Government, Parliament, and in academic and scientific circles that nuclear energy has an important role to play in meeting the energy and environmental challenges of the 21st century. The challenge, in particular, of climate change and the UK Government's commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions undertaken at Kyoto and in its election manifesto, gave the industry a strong, positive issue on which to campaign. However, we fully recognised that to make a convincing case for nuclear energy we would also have to address the issues of concern and doubt in the minds of the public and politicians - economic competitiveness, waste management, transport and decommissioning. During the year, BNIF produced a range of Campaign materials, made submissions to several Government and other inquiries and consultations, organised events, meetings and discussions, all with

  5. “Under the Sway of Coal,” or a Story of the British Coal Miner Harold Heslop, Who Failed to Become a Soviet Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Ostrovskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the rapid and short-living Soviet writing career of the British coal miner Harold Heslop. Between 1926 and 1931, three novels by Heslop were published in the USSR (in Russian translation and the translation of a fourth was commissioned and completed, and in 1930 the author himself travelled to the USSR as one of two members of the British delegation at the Kharkov conference of the International Union of Revolutionary Writers (IURW. However, that was the end of his success: the translated novel Red Earth was not published nor were any of his later novels. The only venue for his rare shorter essays and occasional prose excerpts was the magazine International Literature. The paper discusses this curious writer’s biography from different perspectives. It analyzes at length the critical article by Anna Elistratova, published in Na literaturnom postu and International Literature, juxtaposing the two versions and the text of Heslop’s novel to contextualize the writer and his work in the Soviet literary criticism of the time. It explores archival materials—Heslop’s correspondence with different people and institutions as well as institutional papers—to discuss the case as  personal as well as institutional history, representative of the situation of the 1930s. Finally the article shifts perspective to discuss the author and his work in the context of the British working-class literature of the time.

  6. Industrial air pollution: British progress—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, G.

    Recent Annual Reports on industrial air pollution issued by the U.K. Health and Safety Executive show that considerable progress has been made. Further "Presumptive Limits of Emission" and "Notes on Best Practicable Means" have been published by H.M. Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate. The lists given in this journal [9, 709 (1975)] are extended in the Appendices. An abstract is given of BPM for oil refineries. Heavy smoke from blue brick manufacture and from shaft lime kilns has been eliminated by gas firing. Steps have been taken to reduce emissions of vinyl chloride, PCBs, compounds of fluorine and of toxic metals, As, Sb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn and radioactives. Reduction of low-level emissions is a continuing problem in improving local amenity. Considerable attention has been paid to continuous monitoring of massive emissions and of concentrations of pollutants outside factories, including odours. Arrestment equipment supplied to small firms has given trouble through poor design of components and monitors, inadequate help by suppliers during commissioning, and by lack of training and correct maintenance by management; tight specifications requiring quality engineering should be prepared by purchasers. Lectures to workers, backed by booklets, are assisting in making difficult works better neighbours. The Inspectorate has six sampling teams, mainly for dust, and nine task groups for special programmes. A computer programme for calculation of ground concentrations from multiple sources is assisting inspectors to assess complex situations. It is the author's opinion that research workers on environmental problems should examine these Reports to find more industrial subjects for study.

  7. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  8. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  9. Industry and government perspectives on First Nations' participation in the British Columbia environmental assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Annie L.; Skelton, Norm W.

    2011-01-01

    Research was conducted with West Moberly First Nations, Halfway First Nation and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association (located in northeastern British Columbia, Canada) on effective engagement in environmental assessment processes. As part of this research, we examined the perspectives of a subset of resource industry proponents and their consultants, as well as staff from the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office on their experiences with the requirement to consult with Canada's indigenous peoples. Research into the perspectives of industry proponents and consultants is almost non-existent, yet industry and governments are key participants within environmental assessments. This research found that industry proponents were disenfranchised by the British Columbia environmental assessment process and its mechanisms for consulting with First Nations, and that they sought changes to that process. Their concerns and their implications are documented and some recommendations are offered for addressing those concerns. Understanding industry and government views on First Nations engagement could suggest not only potential improvements in EA processes that facilitate all parties but provide common grounds for mutually engaging to resolve challenges.

  10. Supply constraints : Australia and Canada coal industry face logistics and capacity challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, J.

    2010-01-01

    Australia and Canada are benefiting from a global increase in coal consumption, but face challenges regarding coal and coal export capacity. Coal is Australia's biggest export commodity, accounting for over 50 percent of world coking coal exports, with almost 75 percent of those exports destined for Asian markets, primarily Japan. However, the number of ships delayed at Australian ports hit a record of 223 bulk carriers in early 2010. Compared to Canada, Australia faces greater logistical issues getting coal into port and onto ships at its 9 loading terminals. Two of Canada's 3 major shipping terminals, Westshore and Neptune, have some additional capacity. Its third terminal, Ridley Island, has considerable potential to carry more coal. With 98 percent of all coal moved by rail in Australia, rail issues also hinder growth. A national approach to planning freight transport on both roads and rail is being developed. While infrastructure issues remain the single greatest barrier to export growth for Australia's coal sector, Canada's most immediate issues pertain to mine permitting and mine-site expansion. In 2009, Canada exported 28 million tonnes of coal, 90 percent of it metallurgical. With approximately 70 million tonnes of annual production, mostly in British Columbia and Alberta, coal remains the number one commodity in Canada carried by rails and shipped from ports. 1 fig.

  11. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  12. The US coal industry, 1970--1990: Two decades of change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report, is to provide a comprehensive overview of the US coal industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that occurred, their causes, and their effects. The report presents and analyzes data compiled by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on the US coal industry, as well as EIA data on other energy sources and information from non-EIA sources where relevant. These data are used to reveal trends in coal production, consumption, distribution, and prices. Trends in coal mining productivity and employment are also examined, and the profitability of major energy companies' coal operations is tracked over the 1977 through 1990 period. Analysis of the data indicates the impacts on the coal industry of major events such as the oil embargo, technological breakthroughs, and Federal and State laws and regulations affecting the industry

  13. Coal in Europe: what future?: prospects of the coal industry and impacts study of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudianto, E.

    2006-12-01

    From the industrial revolution to the 1960's, coal was massively consumed in Europe and its utilization was constantly raised. In the aftermath of World War II, coal had also an important part in reconstruction of Western Europe's economy. However, since the late 1960's, its demand has been declining. There is a (mis)conception from a number of policy makers that saying coal mining and utilizations in Europe is unnecessary. Therefore in the European Union (EU) Green Paper 2000, coal is described as an 'undesirable' fuel and the production of coal on the basis of economic criteria has no prospect. Furthermore, the commitment to the Kyoto Protocol in reducing greenhouse gases emission has aggravated this view. Faced with this situation, the quest for the future of coal industry (mining and utilization) in the lines of an energy policy is unavoidable. This dissertation did a profound inquiry trying to seek answers for several questions: Does the European Union still need coal? If coal is going to play a part in the EU, where should the EU get the coal from? What should be done to diminish negative environmental impacts of coal mining and utilization? and finally in regard to the CO 2 emission concerns, what will the state of the coal industry in the future in the EU? To enhance the analysis, a system dynamic model, called the Dynamics Coal for Europe (the DCE) was developed. The DCE is an Energy-Economy-Environment model. It synthesizes the perspectives of several disciplines, including geology, technology, economy and environment. It integrates several modules including exploration, production, pricing, demand, import and emission. Finally, the model emphasizes the impact of delays and feed-back in both the physical processes and the information and decision-making processes of the system. The calibration process for the DCE shows that the model reproduces past numbers on the scale well for several variables. Based on the results of this calibration process, it can

  14. Conceptual approaches to forming a strategy of innovation-based development of the coal industry

    OpenAIRE

    DRACHUK YU. Z.; RASSUZHDAY L.M.; TRUSHKINA N.V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper substantiates conceptual approaches to forming a strategy of innovation-based development of the national coal industry, which consist in defining the basis for using a portfolio approach to the management of innovation projects at the enterprise; consideration of uncertainty and risk factors when evaluating innovation projects; government regulation of market mechanisms in the implementation of innovation-based development of the coal industry; prove of coal-mining enterprises’ cap...

  15. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  16. Energy survey of the coal based sponge iron industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Dey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on a typical coal based Indian sponge iron plant of capacity 500 t/d in order to identify the largest energy losses and find ways to increase the efficiency. The required data are obtained by measurements or taken from production industries. The process efficiency is about 51.31%. The energy balances of the process show that the gap between theoretical and actual energy consumption is 45.2% and the exhausts make up the largest loss of 43.5%. A huge amount of waste gas is generated during operation and substantial part of it associated with the waste gas, remains unutilized. The energy content in the exhaust gases which is found at useful temperature can be used in three different ways: by internal use; by external energy supply; or by power generation. The four possible potential areas are identified where energy is being lost and untapped. The largest improvements would be made by design modifications adopting a novel energy conservation scenario by process integration and thereby decreasing the coal and water consumption and by decreasing the cold fresh air.

  17. Computer application in coal preparation industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.; Wu, L.; Ni, Q. (China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several packages of microcomputer programs developed for designing and managing the coal preparation plants. Three parts are included: Coal Cleaning Package (CCP), Coal Preparation Optimization Program (CPO) and Coal Preparation Computer Aided Design System (CPCAD). The function of CCP is: evaluating and predicting coal cleaning result. Coal presentation process modelling and optimization; coal preparation flowsheet design and optimization. The CPO is a nonlinear optimization program. It can simulate and optimize the profit for different flowsheet to get the best combination of the final products. The CPCAD was developed based upon AutoCAD and makes full use of AutoLISP, digitizer menus and AutoCAD commands, combining the functions provided by AutoCAD and the principle used in conventional coal preparation plant design, forming a designer-oriented CPCAD system. These packages have proved to be reliable, flexible and easy to learn and use. They are a powerful tool for coal preparation plant design and management. (orig.).

  18. Vertical monopoly power, profit and risk: The British beer industry, c.1970-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Toms, JS; Higgins, D; Uddin, M

    2016-01-01

    By investigating surplus and risk distribution in the British brewing industry, this paper shows that risk and risk transfer are important dimensions of vertical supply chain relationships. A comparative financial analysis shows the effects of models of vertical ownership before and after the break-up of producer controlled tenanted estates and the strategy and performance of pub-owning companies. Contrasting mechanisms for controlling the capture of surplus and division of risk are evaluated...

  19. The effect of China's globalisation on the South African coal mining equipment (OEM) industry / Ramona Naidoo

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, Ramona

    2007-01-01

    The study looks at the mining equipment industry as coal mining equipment is a subsector within this industry. This study seeks to create an understanding of how the coal mining equipment industry in South Africa is affected by the emergence of China as a mining equipment supplier. China's globalisation is set to continue and will impact all industries. China's African Policy will also impact the African continent, as China will continue to invest and use Africa's mineral resources. Sourcing ...

  20. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  1. The contemporary coal industry: dancing to faster music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Within a framework that supports sustainable development, the issues of changing coal markets, environmental policy and climate change, and the positive marketing of coal as a solution to energy demand are discussed. Changes affect both domestic and international markets, and each subset of the market is different. In Europe, coal consumption is declining in contrast with expanding Asian energy markets. Clean coal technologies improve efficiency and make coal more acceptable. The greatest reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be realized within the least efficient areas of coal consumption, in particular the domestic markets in Asia, eastern Europe, and Africa.

  2. Bio-coal briquettes made from South Sumatera low rank coal and palm shell charcoal for using in small industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipahutar Riman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to blend the South Sumatera low rank coal and palm shell charcoal for producing bio-coal briquettes which have better fuel properties. The experimental study for making bio-coal briquettes was carried out to examine the effect of raw material composition and binder type on the quality of the briquettes produced. A screw conveyor machine equipped with a three blade stirred and designed with the length of 40 cm, mixing process diameter of 10 cm and the capacity of 2 kg bio-coal briquettes per hour was used to produce bio-coal briquettes ready to use in small industries. Proxymate analyses of the South Sumatera low rank coal, palm shell charcoals and bio-coal briquettes were conducted in accordance with the American Society of Testings and Materials (ASTM standards and the calorific value was determined by using a Bomb calorimeter. The experimental results showed that the calorific value of bio-coal briquette was greatly influenced by the raw material composition and the binder type. The highest calorific value was 6438 (cal/g at the sampel of SSC65-PSC20-B15(2.

  3. Accounting for social impacts and costs in the forest industry, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, Robert; Gale, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Business reviews of the forest industry in British Colombia, Canada, typically portray an unequivocally positive picture of its financial and economic health. In doing so, they fail to consider the following six categories of social impacts and costs: (1) direct and indirect subsidies; (2) government support through investment; (3) community dependence; (4) the maintenance of public order; (5) aboriginal title; and (6) the overestimation of employment. Our findings show that conventional economic and financial accounting methods inflate the industry's net contribution to the economy. We make a number of recommendations to address this shortcoming to improve future accounting and reporting procedures

  4. Statistical Analysis of Sino-U.S. Coal Mining Industry Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Guiling Wei

    2011-01-01

    Both China and the United States are large countries in coal production and consumption, however, the safety conditions of coal mining production in China are much worse than that of the U.S.. Although the Chinese Administration of Coal Mine Safety improved safety measures to tighten control on coal mining industry, the number of accidents, death toll and fatality rate per million tons were much higher than those of the U.S. in recent years. Based on the statistical analysis of Sino-U.S. coal...

  5. Question marks of the Czech coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.; Pesek, J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of brown and black coal mining in the Czech Republic is presented, and problems of the extent of coal reserves and of the profitability of deep black coal mining are discussed. Costs of coal mining in foreign countries are given. Coal mining in the Czech Republic can be expected to be loss-making unless coal prices are increased. Since coal resources in the Czech Republic are limited, additional nuclear power plants will have to be constructed or else coal for power generation will have to be imported. The environmental aspects of coal mining and burning are discussed. Medium-term and long-term solutions to reduce the environmental burden include thermal power plant desulfurization, application of the fluidized-bed combustion regime to coals with large ash and/or sulfur contents, and introduction of gas in towns and power plants. In the short run, large-scale consumers in towns and coal basins should be obliged to accumulate reserves of low-sulfur coal for later use. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs

  6. W(h)ither the coal industry? The long-term view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobert, H.H.; Rusinko, F. Jr.; Mathews, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Global warming--real or imaginary, friend or foe, carbon dioxide emissions a threat to the planet, benign, or good for agriculture--while the debate rages on, the debaters occasionally seem to pause long enough to agree on one point: coal is the bad guy. There is little doubt that coal combustion must continue as a major contributor to the energy economy for the near to mid-term future. It is likely, though, those environmental pressures on conventional processes for coal utilization will only intensify. This factor alone makes questionable the long-term future. Environmental issues also severely impact the metallurgical coke industry. The traditional coal industry and coal markets of the 20th century are under increasingly intense assault. But why waste coal by burning it? Steady progress is being made in two directions for using coal as a valuable hydrocarbon resource. On the one hand, continuous improvements in computer-based structural modeling, which now include the ability to calculate not only a molecular structure that is consistent with chemical facts, but also some of the physical properties and even the incorporation of water. The increasing reasonableness of such structures places one on the verge of being able to do rational organic chemistry on coals, that is, deliberately to select coals as starting materials for certain desired chemical transformations that will produce high-value chemical products in good yields. This opens a route to chemicals from coal that does not rely on by-product coal tars as the feedstock. On the other hand, excellent opportunities also exist for coals as precursors to high-value carbon materials. Anthracites in particular represent an under-exploited, and as yet poorly explored, opportunity for conversion to graphitic materials. Taking coal in both directions high-value chemicals and premium carbon products represent profitable opportunities for innovation, leadership, and new directions for the coal industry in the 21st

  7. The nexus of the coal industry and the state in Australia: Historical dimensions and contemporary challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Hans A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a historical account of the close relationship between the coal mining industry and the federal and various state governments, thus over time building a state/coal industry nexus in Australia. It examines (1) an early colonial stage extending from the late 18th century to around the time of Federation in 1902 when the nexus emerged; (2) an intermediate stage from the early 20th century to the late 1970s when the nexus became solidified; and (3) a late stage from the early 1980s to the present day when the corporate sector came to dominate the nexus. Both Coalition and Australian Labor Party governments have consistently supported the exploitation of Australia's coal and natural gas, including recently coal seam gas, and supported the expansion of coal ports. An opposition movement has called for leaving coal and coal seam gas in the ground and shifting Australia’s energy production to renewable sources, particularly solar and wind energy. The article highlights how the nexus between coal mining and the state inhibits action on climate change. It argues this can be transcended by energy policy directed at socializing coal mining, wedded to a program of transitioning it to renewable energy production. - Highlights: • A close nexus exists between the coal industry and the state in Australia. • An anti-coal movement has developed in recent years in Australia. • Breaking the coal industry/state nexus requires socialization of energy production. • This would enable a shift from reliance on coal to renewable energy sources.

  8. Waste pyritic coal as a raw material for energetic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasiorek, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Poznan (Poland). Dept. of Research and Technology

    1997-11-01

    Results are presented of large laboratory studies on coal desulphurisation with foam flotation method improved by application of bioadsorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria to the modification of superficial properties of pyrite particulates from hydrophobic to hydrophillic ones. Results of coal desulfurization with and without bioadsorption have been compared. Bioadsorption improved pyritic sulfur removal by 30% (for coal from `Sierza mine`, coal size 0.3 to 0.102 mm, S pyritic content 1.69%) after 6-week adaptation of bacteria and 30 min of bioadsorption. Bacteria concentration in 5% water suspension of coal reached 22 {mu}g of biomass cm{sup -3}. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  10. Networking to build a world-class bioenergy industry in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weedon, M. [BC Bioenergy Network, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described the role of the BC Bioenergy Network and its goal of maximizing the value of biomass resources in British Columbia (BC) and developing a world-class bioenergy industry in the province. Established in March 2008 with $25 million in funding from the BC government, the BC Bioenergy Network is an industry-led association that promotes the development of near-term bioenergy technologies and demonstration of new bioenergy technologies that are environmentally appropriate for the province of BC. The following technology areas require funding support: solid wood residues, pulp and paper residues, harvesting and pelleting, agriculture residues, municipal wastewater, municipal landfill waste, municipal solid waste, and community heating-electricity greenhouse systems. This presentation demonstrated that BC is well positioned to become a major player in the global bioenergy sector, as it has one of the largest forested areas in the world, and is a leader in biomass to value-added wood products. The opportunities, challenges, and requirements to build a world class bioenergy industry in British Columbia were discussed along with successful Canadian, US, and European collaborations with industry, research, and government. tabs., figs.

  11. Neo-industrialization of Kuzbass economy in innovative development of coal industry and machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of rental-resource model and access restrictions to capital and new technologies, the attempts to encourage import substitution made by the government do not generate innovative type of economic development and reconstruction of economy’s manufacturing industry competitive on the domestic market. In conditions of searching for a new model of Russian economy development the analysis of a number of problems such as industry degradation, reducing the competitiveness of Russian producers, the growth of structural imbalances and overcoming the negative macroeconomic trends becomes strategically important. This raises the value of neo-industrialization as the integrator of resource security, scientific and industrial potential of Russian economy and high capacity of the domestic market in the innovative development system. A special role neo-industrialization plays for the economic development of old industrial regions, which include Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia. Neo-industrial development of Kuzbass economy should be initiated by the technological modernization of mining machinery and innovative development of coal industry.

  12. Assessment of industrial energy options based on coal and nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Bowers, H.I.; Bryan, R.H.; Delene, J.G.; Hise, E.C.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Klepper, O.H.; Reed, S.A.; Spiewak, I.

    1975-07-01

    Industry consumes about 40 percent of the total primary energy used in the United States. Natural gas and oil, the major industrial fuels, are becoming scarce and expensive; therefore, there is a critical national need to develop alternative sources of industrial energy based on the more plentiful domestic fuels--coal and nuclear. This report gives the results of a comparative assessment of nuclear- and coal-based industrial energy systems which includes technical, environmental, economic, and resource aspects of industrial energy supply. The nuclear options examined were large commercial nuclear power plants (light-water reactors or high-temperature gas-cooled reactors) and a small [approximately 300-MW(t)] special-purpose pressurized-water reactor for industrial applications. Coal-based systems selected for study were those that appear capable of meeting environmental standards, especially with respect to sulfur dioxide; these are (1) conventional firing using either low- or high-sulfur coal with stack-gas scrubbing equipment, (2) fluidized-bed combustion using high-sulfur coal, (3) low- and intermediate-Btu gas, (4) high-Btu pipeline-quality gas, (5) solvent-refined coal, (6) liquid boiler fuels, and (7) methanol from coal. Results of the study indicated that both nuclear and coal fuel can alleviate the industrial energy deficit resulting from the decline in availability of natural gas and oil. However, because of its broader range of application and relative ease of implementation, coal is expected to be the more important substitute industrial fuel over the next 15 years. In the longer term, nuclear fuels could assume a major role for supplying industrial steam. (U.S.)

  13. New coal-fired generation: a summary of developments and impacts to the US coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2001-07-01

    20 overheads/slides summarise the coverage of this presentation. RDI has identified close to 34000 NW of proposed new coal-fired generating capacity in the USA. The talk reviewed where new plants may be built, the coal combustion technologies they will employ, sources of coal supply and transport, and plant retirements and offsets. Government policy today favours construction of large plants to ensure security of supply in regions where new base loaded capacity is needed. Costs of producing power from coal and natural gas are compared. Impacts of new plants to coal suppliers and coal transporters are considered. RDI will publish a study on winners and losers in the race for new coal-fired generation in July 2001.

  14. GAS AND COAL EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY DURING THE SOCIALIST INDUSTRIALIZATION PERIOD (1948-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS BULEARCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that since 1949 the extractive industry has undergone a strong process of restructuring when enterprises were nationalized and a strict control over all components of the economy was established. The new leadership of the country had the intention of developing the industrial sector as well, basically laying the foundations of the new Romanian economy where the industrial sector economy would bring considerable income. This program will lead to the development of the energy sector in Romania also, thus contributing to a great extent to the development and consolidation of coal and gas extraction. Despite of all the economic and social development achieved during the period 1950-1989, at the end of it, Romania ranked a marginal position in the European countries hierarchy since between its level of development and the market economy developed countries large gaps in respect to the main economic and social indicators occurred.

  15. E-commerce finally finds the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.

    2000-12-01

    In the last few months, new web sites have come online which are not only showcase for coal mining products and equipment but also act as sales platforms. A large set of sites deal with the purchase of coal and other raw materials. Most of them offer 24-hour news updates, a coal library and a reference section to help with financing, insurance and transportation of purchased coal. Another group focuses on the sale of equipment. Short writeups are given of 18 web sites. 1 photo.

  16. Market Structure Differences Impacting Australian Iron Ore and Metallurgical Coal Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Steelmaking relies on iron ore and metallurgical coal as main ingredients, the trade of which is hypothesized to theoretically change in tandem. However, strong correlation is not evident in historical trade prices of steelmaking inputs. To determine causes to this occurrence, the market factors that influence the Australian iron ore and metallurgical coal industries were studied. Data was collected over the past decade for worldwide resource production and trade quantities of crude steel, iron ore, and metallurgical coal. The data was analysed to reveal trends, allowing examination of the macroeconomic trade of metallurgical coal and iron ore with relation to worldwide and country specific steel production. It was determined that the influential growth of China’s steel production has spurred the growth of worldwide iron ore demand, which was met with increased production and supply, from Australia. The increased metallurgical coal demand has been met with increased production within China locally. Measures of supply elasticity were created for worldwide iron ore and metallurgical coal trade, where comparisons between Australia’s industries to the relevant greatest competitor were examined. The results, along with respective resource production data, highlighted the elevated competitive position that Australian iron ore producers enjoy compared to metallurgical coal producers. Trade characteristics revealed the different market structures that iron ore and metallurgical coal industries operate in, prompting a discussion of the effects these markets have on the two Australian industries.

  17. Nuclear techniques in the coal industry. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    With the aim of promoting advanced research and facilitating a more extensive application of nuclear techniques for environmental protection in the exploration and exploitation of coal, the IAEA established the present co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1989. This report includes an assessment of the current status and trends in nuclear techniques in the coal industry and the results obtained by the participants at the CRP. Proceedings of the final CRP on ''Nuclear Techniques in Exploration and Exploitation of Coal: On-line and Bulk Analysis and Evaluation of Potential Environmental Pollutants in Coal and Coke'', was held in Krakow, Poland, from 9 to 12 May 1994. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. The Kyoto Protocol and the coal industry in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana Rubio, Edgar

    1998-02-01

    In this article is studied the possible incidence of the commitments reached in the Kyoto Protocol on the coal market, making emphasis in the Colombian case. Projections, made in a study of Hill y Associates, points out that in a scenario of greenhouse gases emissions reduction, the market of the thermal coal will be seriously affected by the incidence on their demand

  19. Central Appalachia in advanced capitalism: its coal industry structure and coal operator associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    This study traces the origins of the notion that Appalachia constitutes a unique social-problem region, examines the models of Appalachian problems popularized during the 1960s, proposes an alternative framework for situating the Central Appalachian coalfields, and examines aspects of the coal industry's structure in the Central Appalachian region. The idea of Appalachia as a distinctive social problem region was created between 1890 and 1930 by a social movement affiliated with various Protestant church home mission boards and organizationally focused in the Conference of Southern Mountain Workers and Berea College. The movement stressed an environmental explanation of regional problems. During the 1960s, three explanatory models of Appalachian poverty and underdevelopment achieved prominence: the subculture of poverty model, the regional development model, and the internal colonialism model. Each contributed to a regionalized conception of Appalachian problems. Empirical studies show the subculture of poverty model to fail as an explanation of regional underdevelopment. In the absence of a critique of domination and a redistribution of power and wealth, the regional development model serves as a rationalization of existing structures of privilege. The internal colonialism model provides a critique of domination, but not the most appropriate one. This study argues that the above models should not be viewed as mutually exclusive formulations, and that they may be reconstructed to represent different dimensions of social existence.

  20. The South African coal mining industry: A need for a more efficient and collaborative supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pooe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that about two-thirds of global coal is used for power generation and that, in the next 20 years, over 70% of the demand for coal will come from China and India. Coal accounts for approximately 41% of the world's electricity generation. Demand for thermal coal is influenced by factors that include availability, prices of competing products such as oil, gas and nuclear power, and the demand for electricity. The aim of this article is to provide an exposition of supply chain dynamics within the South African coal mining industry and to argue for a more efficient and collaborative supply chain. The authors attempt to investigate at local and global level, the current trends pertaining to the level of reserves, production and consumption of coal. The article further demonstrates the shortcomings of current logistics in meeting the demand for coal in both domestic and export markets. The article draws from secondary data sourced from academic papers, government and agency documents in the exposition of the coal mining supply chain. The paper concludes by recommending the need for a scientific study on supply chain constraints facing the coal mining industry in South Africa.

  1. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  2. Secondary Industrial Minerals from Coal Fly Ash and Aluminium Anodising Waste Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals that are extracted from the earth’s crust to be directly used for their properties are called industrial minerals. This research shows that such minerals can also be produced from industrial residues, hence the name secondary industrial minerals. In this thesis coal fly ash is chosen as one

  3. Reserve reporting in the United States coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily

    2012-01-01

    United States energy policymaking can be better supported with accurate and consistent data on coal reserves, both in the public and private sectors. In particular, reserve data for coal and other energy resources should be directly comparable so that decision-makers can easily understand the relationship among available resources. Long-term policy and investment choices regarding energy security, the environment, and resource allocation depend on accurate information, but existing and easily available data on the magnitude of geologically, environmentally, economically, socially, and legally accessible coal reserves are of insufficient quality to guide such decisions. Even still, these data are often presented for use in policy and energy analysis. Currently, coal reserves are overstated relative to competitor energy resource reserves, in part because coal reporting standards have historically been more liberal and vague than standards for resources like natural gas. Overstating the marketable coal resource could lead to inefficient allocation of limited capital investment that can be difficult to reverse. US government bodies like the Energy Information Administration, United States Geological Survey, Securities and Exchange Commission, and Bureau of Land Management can help correct deficiencies by clarifying standards and collecting data that are relevant for decision-makers, such as energy-based reserve information. - Highlights: ► US Coal reserves are important to public and private policy and investment decisions. ► Poor quality data and coal reserve overreporting misrepresent reality. ► Choices made based on bad information can lead to long-term capital misallocation. ► Numerous government agencies are tasked with providing public data on coal reserves. ► Clearer, more restrictive reserves reporting standards can aid decision-makers.

  4. Selenium investigations in the Elk Valley (British Columbia) and the Cheviot and Luscar coal mines (Alberta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.; Brinker, C.; Symbaluk, M.; Jones, R.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the concentration of selenium (Se) in the waters of the Elk River to determine the risks to the aquatic environment. Se concentrations are increasing in water downstream of coal mines. Se concentrations in benthic invertebrates in the Elk River are high, but have not increased over the last few years. The viability and productivity of fish and water bird populations do not appear to be negatively affected. The potential Se effects to trout in Alberta are being examined further in an effort to establish a certain adverse effects threshold for trout in the Elk River Valley. Human health or terrestrial wildlife do not appear to be adversely affected. Monitoring and management is the main focus of the study. Management studies include predicting future Se releases under different mining scenarios; determining factors affecting the cycling and conversion of inorganic Se once it enters the aquatic environment; and integrating current and future information to effectively manage Se releases. Treatment alternatives such as passive bioreactor and in situ methods are also being examined. Mapping of lentic and lotic areas in the Elk River Valley will help in evaluating the regional significance of any localized aquatic impacts associated with elevated Se concentrations. New studies involving a Standard Operating Procedure for fish deformity analysis and predictive modeling of trout populations are among the recommendations that have been applied from a 2005 Selenium Science Panel.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  6. Brown coal - on the way to industrial-scale upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1981-01-01

    The main fields of development of Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG (Rheinbraun) in the field of brown coal upgrading are reported, i.e. production of synthesis gas, SNG, and liquid products. The Rheinbraun research programme involves the processes of high-temperature-Winkler gasification, hydrogasification, hydroliquefaction, tube stills, and methanation plants. In the long run, nuclear power will be indispensable for base load power supply so that brown coal can be upgraded instead of being used directly for electric power generation. (HS) [de

  7. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  8. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  9. Birth and first steps of mineral coal industry in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Amouroux, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes a brief history of the emergence of a mineral coal industry in the USA. He notices that wood has been the first source of energy used by settlers for housing heating, and then in industry and transports for heat and steam production. As demand and supply conditions were bad, coal production, although mining sites had been quickly identified and used, only emerged from the 1840's. Different kinds of coal (anthracite, bitumen) have been extracted depending on the region. Then, urbanisation and industrialisation created new opportunities for coal, and the share of coal regularly increased. The author describes how the coal industry was organised: seven regions, central position of Pittsburgh. He outlines the tremendous growth of coal production between 1840 and 1913; comments the distribution of this production among the different states. He describes and comments how this production has been industrialised. This industrialisation resulted in a dramatic increase of productivity between 1890 and 1910. He finally evokes the rather late creation of federal bodies

  10. Coal, the metamorphoses of an industry. The new geopolitics of the 21. century; Charbon, les metamorphoses d'une industrie. La nouvelle geopolitique du 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M

    2008-07-01

    Coal consumption is growing up so fast and coal reserves are so abundant that coal might overtake petroleum in the future. The worldwide environment will not gain anything in this evolution except if 'clean coal' technologies make a significant jump. What is the driving force of this coal development? The pitfall encountered by nuclear energy and the rise of natural gas prices have been favorable conditions for the development of coal but they cannot hide the worldwide metamorphosis of coal industry. From China, undisputed world leader, to the USA, without omitting India, Russia and the big exporting countries (Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia), a new map is drawing up. In all these countries, coal companies are concentrating and internationalizing, open new strip mines and new commercial paths. The understanding of this metamorphosis has become one of the keys of the energy prospective and geopolitics of the 21. century. Content: 1 - entering the 21. century with the energy source of the 19. century?; 2 - consumption growth: new trends; 3 - the USA: the Saudi Arabia of coal; 4 - the unexpected rebirth of coal in Russia; 5 - China, world leader of coal industry; 6 - India and south-east Asia are entering the race; 7 - the rise of exporting industries; 8 - international markets and competitive dynamics of industries; 9 - advantage and drawbacks of coal during the coming decades; 10 - will clean coal technologies be ready on time?; 11 - technical appendix. (J.S.)

  11. The energy demand in the British and German industrial sectors. Heterogeneity and common factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates energy demands for the German and British industrial sectors over the 1978-2004 and the 1991-2004 samples. From time series models we can conclude that there is a considerable variation in the value of the coefficients across sectors, even though energy demands with sensible parameters can rarely be estimated. When using a panel approach, the ability of some estimators to allow for diversity across subsectors was an important factor in explaining the estimates for price elasticity. On the other hand, correlation across panel members or common factors did not markedly influence our results. With regard to the estimated parameters, our preferred choice for elasticity of economic activity and price in the longer sample is 0.52 and - 0.64. Similar values are found in the case of the shorter samples. Bearing in mind the high price elasticity, energy taxes can be considered an effective strategy for reducing energy consumption. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the symposium on assessing the industrial hygiene monitoring needs for the coal conversion and oil shale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, O. Jr. (ed.)

    1979-03-01

    This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research, Analysis and Assessment Program, through the Safety and Environmental Protection Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The symposium program included presentations centering around the themes: Recognition of Occupational Health Monitoring Requirements for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries and Status of Dosimetry Technology for Occupational Health Monitoring for the Coal Conversion and Oil Shale Industries. Sixteen papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; six had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  13. Geochemistry of arsenic in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Hendry, M Jim; Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the geochemistry of arsenic (As) in low sulfide-high carbonate coal waste rock of the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Its abundance and mineralogical associations in waste rock of different placement periods were determined in addition to its mobilization into porewater and rock-drain effluent. The mean (5.34mg/kg; 95% confidence interval: 4.95-5.73mg/kg) As concentration in the waste rock was typical of sedimentary rock. Electron microprobe and As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopic analyses showed the As is predominantly associated with primary pyrites in both source and freshly blasted waste rock. However, in aged waste rock the As is associated with both primary pyrites and secondary Fe oxyhydroxides. Oxidation of pyrite in waste rock dumps was reflected by the presence of high concentrations of SO 4 2- in porewater and oxidation rims of Fe oxyhydroxides around pyrite grains. Acid released from pyrite oxidation to Fe oxyhydroxides is neutralized by carbonate mineral dissolution that buffers the pH in the waste rock to circumneutral values. Adsorption of As onto secondary Fe oxyhydroxides provides an internal geochemical control on As release during pyrite oxidation and porewater flushing from the dump, resulting in the low As concentrations observed in porewater (median: 9.91μg/L) and rock-drain effluent (median: 0.31μg/L). Secondary Fe oxyhydroxides act as a long-term sink for As under present day hydrologic settings in waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gamma, X-ray and neutron techniques for the coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear techniques play a prominent role in all aspects of the coal industry, from exploration through mine development to testing of coal quality during production. The advent of on-line nuclear techniques allows continuous, near real time appraisal of coal quality free from the errors inherent in conventional techniques based on discrete samples. The Advisory Group Meeting reviews the latest developments in this area and makes recommendations on the most promising areas and priorities for future research and development activities. This report records the proceedings of the Advisory Group Meeting. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  15. Ways of conserving fuel-energy resources in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshchenko, N.I.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the work undertaken by enterprises and organizations of the coal industry to conserve fuel-energy resources in the tenth Five-Year Plan. An examination is made of the basic organizational-technical measures that have been implemented in this sector for conserving thermal and electrical energy. A presentation is made of the results obtained from the introduction of advanced technological processes and equipment aimed at increasing productivity and reducing operational losses of coal.

  16. Guide to groundwater monitoring for the coal industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... have an effective and economical groundwater monitoring system. This paper provides a comprehensive ... try's primary energy requirements, as well as bringing foreign investment into the country. Coal ... tinual population growth, is resulting in a ever-growing demand and impact on South Africa's scarce ...

  17. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangshi; Chen, Na; Fu, Gui; Yan, Mingwei; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers′ safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers′ unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry. PMID:27869654

  18. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangshi Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5, and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0. Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers′ safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers′ unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry.

  19. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangshi; Chen, Na; Fu, Gui; Yan, Mingwei; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-11-17

    Introduction: Senior managers' attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers' attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method : We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions : Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers' safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers' unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications : We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry.

  20. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  1. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  2. A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE ROMANIAN COAL INDUSTRY: ELIMINATION OF THE STATE AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruian Claudiu-Marian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Commission decision N 239/2007 the Romanian coal industry will receive state aid by the end of 2010. After this period public companies in this sector will finance the costs of current production and investment entirely by their revenue. This article presents a short literature review regarding the subsidization of coal industry, shows the evolution of the mining industry in Romania so far, and identifies opportunities for continuing coal production after December 31, 2010 without state aid. The paper concludes that the abolition of subsides in is a positive measure but it must be taken gradually and responsibly, in order to ameliorate the negative effects on social end natural environment.

  3. Training of Engineering Personnel for the Innovative Coal Industry: Problems and Ways of Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaruba, Natalya; Fraltsova, Tamara; Snegireva, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    The article is written based on some results of the long-term scientific research of the problem related to the urgent need to find the ways of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system. This is due to the fundamental changes in the Russian social and economic conditions: the change in the social system and the owner of the coal industry, the emergence of new technologies in the field of coal mining and processing, and in the management of these processes. At the same time, the system of training specialists for the coal industry in the higher education institutions has largely remained unchanged: technologies and principles of training, scientific approaches and concepts take little account of the changed situation, traditional views of specialists work-ing in the university continue to dominate innovative ideas. Many innovations, especially related to technology and the principles of education, struggle to make their way into the higher education system. The article substantiates the urgency of the problem of training personnel for the innovative coal industry in the higher education system, as well as the importance of scientific analysis of the problem in order to find the ways to solve it.

  4. ECONOMIC AND THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF PLANNING EFFECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ENTERPRISES IN THE COAL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. K. Galiev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Relevance and purpose of the study. Under modern conditions, the share of loss-making enterprises of the coal industry is still high. This brings the solution of the problem of improving the efficiency of their activities up to date. It also determines the purpose of this research. Research methods: scientific generalization, system and factor analysis, and statistical modeling are used in the present work. Results. The article discusses the economic and theoretical aspects of planning the effective activities in the coal industry. The paper analyzes the elasticity of the unit cost price in terms of its labor productivity. It also deals with the elasticity of the volume of output in terms of labor productivity. This indicates that the existing coal mining technologies have, to some extent, exhausted their advantages in the coal industry. They require a change on the achieved level of the capital-labor ratio. It is recommended to strive to ensure advanced ratio of growth of labor productivity of workers compared to the growth rate of unit costs. This should be done at the introduction of a new technology at the enterprises of the coal industry. The advanced ratio of growth in output compared to the growth rate of labor productivity of workers should also be guaranteed. The early growth rate of revenue from sales compared to the growth rate in total costs of production should be provided. The advanced ratio of profit growth compared to the growth rate of revenue from sales has to be provided as well. It is proven that for coal industry enterprises the type of competitive advantages called “the lowest costs” can be the only acceptable one in comparison with other types. We have considered the requirements to the new developed technologies for coal mining. They are as follows: the value of marginal profit in the planned period should be more than the fixed costs of the enterprise; the value of marginal profit in the planned period should be more

  5. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  6. British Columbia hydrogen and fuel cell strategy : an industry vision for our hydrogen future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-15

    British Columbia's strategy for global leadership in hydrogen fuel cell technology was outlined. It was suggested that hydrogen and fuel cells will power a significant portion of the province by 2020, and will be used in homes, businesses, industry and transportation. The following 3 streams of activity were identified as leading to the achievement of this vision: (1) a hydrogen highway of technology demonstrations in vehicles, refuelling facilities and stationary power systems in time for and building on the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, (2) the development of a globally leading sustainable energy technology cluster that delivers products and services as well as securing high-value jobs, and (3) the renewal of the province's resource heartlands to supply the fuel and knowledge base for hydrogen-based communities and industries, and clean hydrogen production and distribution. It was suggested that in order to achieve the aforementioned goals, the government should promote the hydrogen highway and obtain $135 million in funding from various sources. It was recommended that the BC government and members of industry should also work with the federal government and other provinces to make Canada an early adopter market. Creative markets for BC products and services both in Canada and abroad will be accomplished by global partnerships, collaboration with Alberta and the United States. It was suggested that in order to deploy clean energy technologies, BC must integrate their strategy into the province's long-term sustainable energy plan. It was concluded that the hydrogen and fuel cell cluster has already contributed to the economy through jobs, private sector investment and federal and provincial tax revenues. The technology cluster's revenues have been projected at $3 billion with a workforce of 10,000 people by 2010. The hydrogen economy will reduce provincial air emissions, improve public health, and support sustainable tourism

  7. Restructuring and privatising the coal industries in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews coal industry reforms in central and Eastern Europe (CEE), including the former GDR and Estonia (oil shale), and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It describes achievements and failures during the last ten years on the road to an efficient, viable and environmentally acceptable coal industry playing the various roles assigned to it by governments as part of their energy policies. Obeying to conflicting objectives, coal-restructuring policies can best be described as stop-go policies. As a result, between 1990 and 1998, production declined by 41%, the number of pits by 26% and the number of employees by 45%. Productivity rose by only 8% in the region as a whole. At present, 80 to 90% of coal production is actually or virtually profitable under local or national circumstances. Turning virtual into actual profitability depends as much on continued reforms (unbundling of profitable from unprofitable mines, customerization of mines, equity privatisation) as on a fresh assessment, by investors, of two major opportunities: mine-utility partnerships and untapped productivity gains. These opportunities are growingly recognised by the business community: by 1998, 20% of coal production in the region are owned by equity investors, domestic and foreign. With, these opportunities in mind and assuming economic recovery, WEC, IIASA, IEA, DOE* (*World Energy Council, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, International Energy Agency, US Department of Energy) and national governments project a medium-term (2010,2020) increase of coal production against 1998 of about 20%, mostly in the CIS. (author)

  8. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- ) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO 4 2- concentrations increased proportionally with NO 3 - and Cl - to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO 3 - and Cl - concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO 4 2- due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Principles of assessment and management approaches to innovation potential of coal industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Козлов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines problems related to forming a complex of indicators to assess innovation potential of an industrial enterprise, on the example of coal industry enterprises, and an integral indicator of innovation potential, used for comparative analysis of the state of affairs in the industry. Analysis of different approaches to defining the term «innovation potential» for industrial enterprises has been carried out; resource-based, resultative, integrative and capacitive approaches have been highlighted, the latter one based on assessment of enterprise capacities. A conclusion has been made regarding advantages of integrative approach.Research has been made on the role of industry in the fuel and power sector of China and dynamics of industry and enterprise development in Shanxi province. Basing on suggested approach a system of assessment principles has been formulated, taking into account specific features of coal industry enterprises. Complex of indicators to assess innovation potential has been developed using expert evaluation method. An expertise procedure is proposed to assess competence of experts; results obtained from the expertise are presented. Proposed complex of indicators includes 23 parameters combined into three groups.Testing of proposed complex of indicators has been carried out on the example of coal industry in Shanxi province (China. Application of all stated principles has been proved in the process of indicator selection, assessment and formulation of recommendations for subsequent innovation potential management of coal industry enterprises. Proposed approach to forming a complex of indicators of innovation potential for industry enterprises permits to link together the logic of innovation potential definition, formation of the system of its principles, selection of the indicators complex for assessment and subsequent innovation potential management of the enterprise.

  10. Application of a Backfilling Method in Coal Mining to Realise an Ecologically Sensitive “Black Gold” Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Feng; Nong Zhang; Lianyuan Gong; Fei Xue; Xigui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    China, as the largest coal-producing and -consuming country in the world, is highly dependent on its coal industry, or “Black Gold” industry, for the national energy and economy. The consequent environmental crises, however, have persisted for decades, and the most serious effect is surface subsidence induced by underground mining. Underground coal excavation in China has ignored this problem for thousands of years, even though it causes conspicuous damage to the surface ecosystem and constru...

  11. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  12. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Black economic empowerment in the South African coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    South Africa has experienced great change and progress in the ten years since the end of apartheid and the inauguration of its first democratic government. Back in 1994, many were concerned about whether such a young and fragile democracy could survive. The new government needed to unify the country, while bringing about the significant change necessary to address the massive racial inequality at the heart of the apartheid system. The article explains actions and initiatives taken under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programme, one of which is the establishment of Eyesizwe Coal. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  14. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA's responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration

  15. From Mining to Post-Mining: The Sustainable Development Strategy of the German Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, J.; Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    By the end of the 1950s, the German coal mining industry produced 150 million tons of hard coal per year in 170 collieries with 600,000 employees. At that time, 70% of the primary energy demand of the Federal Republic of Germany was covered by domestic coal. Since the advance of oil, later of natural gas, in the world energy market and with the growth of world coal trade, domestic coal stood under a long-term restructuring pressure. This decision required a new strategy for the coal mining industry. Now German coal mining will be strictly finalized and will be prepared for the post-mining era. Within a sustainability strategy the long-term impacts of mining activities before and after the mine closures concerning the environmental, economic and social dimensions will be analyzed systematically and forward-looking.

  16. Modeling for comparison of leukemia incidence risk between nuclear and coal power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybutok, V.R.; Gold, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The leukemia incidence risk for a single coal plant, a single nuclear plant, and a single nuclear accident is used to compute the total industry leukemia incidence risk. In the absence of a nuclear power plant accident, the leukemia incidence risk is normally lower for a nuclear industry than for a coal industry of equivalent size. The nuclear industry risk with accidents was compared to the coal industry risk for six proposed dose response curves. Simplifying assumptions about the negligible effect of the cell-killing term and the linear nature of the linear quadratic curve allowed derivation of risk models for the assumption of both linear and quadratic dose response. These derived models, representing leukemia incidence risk bounds, are used to estimate the total industry risk comparison. Evaluation of an accident's impact on the leukemia incidence risk comparison is done with the risk bounds and compared to the risk evaluations calculated during all six dose response curves. The overlapping plot of the number of nuclear accidents required for equivalent industry environment risks versus the accident fraction allows the conservative function to be defined

  17. Managerial Accounting Principles and Cost Calculation Used by Economic Entities in the Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boca (Rakos) Ileana – Sorina; Vatasoiu Cristian Ionel

    2011-01-01

    Considering the specialized work in managerial accounting, this paper aims to show which cost calculation principles are actually applied in the coal mining industry today. The methodology used in this scientific approach is of qualitative nature, using the following methods: direct observation and interview.

  18. Ways to control quality of electric equipment in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipilov, A.D.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    A structure is proposed for organization in the coal industry of a permanent service for controlling quality of electrical engineering equipment. A form was developed for introduction of recommendations to improve quality. Methods are suggested for evaluating the quality level as applied to specific tasks of controlling quality of the electrical equipment used in mining.

  19. Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Shannon Perry

    As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

  20. Discovery of modern (post-1850 CE) lavas in south-central British Columbia, Canada: Origin from coal fires or intraplate volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canil, Dante; Mihalynuk, Mitch; Lacourse, Terri

    2018-01-01

    We describe three unusual lavas in the Northern Cordillera in south-central British Columbia, Canada, occurring as spatter, scoria and blocks over small 400 m2 areas. The lavas coat and weld cobbles and pebbles in glacial till and are vesicular and glassy with microlites of clinopyroxene and plagioclase, and xenocrysts of quartz, feldspar or clinopyroxene. Chemically the lavas are basaltic trachyandesite (55-61 wt% SiO2) with trace element patterns similar to average British Columbia upper crust, except for having higher V and lower Zr, Hf, Nb, Th and U. Melting experiments and plagioclase-melt thermometry on the glasses, and phase equilibrium in simple systems, require liquidus temperatures of 1150-1300 °C. Interaction of the liquids with carbonaceous matter at low pressure formed Fe metal spherules and SiC. Radiocarbon ages of charcoal and dendrochronology show the lavas are modern, emplaced in the last 120 years. The similar bulk composition of these lavas to several other Quaternary-aged volcanic centers in the North American Cordillera, some of which show recent seismic activity, could suggest a possible tectonic origin, but the deposits are unusually small and show no central vent for emplacement. Conversely, the balance of evidence would suggest an origin from coal fires or hot gas venting, but is less consistent with the observed calc- and per-alkaline lava compositions, and the lack of known local coal-bearing strata as a heat source. Other anthropogenic origins for the lavas are considered less plausible.

  1. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that World coal trade remained strong during the second quarter of 1991, with contributing factors including unseasonally large shipments to Japan for power generation, sustained Japanese steel production at around 112 Mt and some buildup in stocks in that country. Purchases by North Asian and European consumers also remained high. At the same time Soviet output and exports declined because of strikes and political unrest. In addition, exportable supplies in Poland fell. As a result the demand for Indonesian coal increased, and Australia exported larger than previously expected quantities of coal. ills

  2. R&D status and the performance of domestic firms in China's coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Coal use accounts for a very large proportion of electricity production in China. Using a recently developed coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique, this paper examines the impact of research and development (R&D) activities on the performance of firms in China's coal mining industry. Our empirical results reveal that firms in China's coal industry that conduct R&D are more productive and their sales are higher. However, as far as the firm profitability and market shares are concerned, whether or not a firm in China's coal industry conducts R&D makes no difference. We find that foreign direct investment in China's coal mining industry leads to a significant decrease in the market share of domestic firms and its impact on productivity, sales and profitability of domestic firms is insignificant. The empirical results presented in this paper suggest that policies that encourage domestic firms in China's coal mining industries to conduct R&D can increase domestic production thereby reducing reliance on imports. Furthermore, productivity gains arising from R&D activities can also help Chinese mining firms to improve their competitive position in the international market. However, there is a need for restricting foreign direct investment in China's coal mining industry. - Highlights: • R&D status affects firm performance in China's coal mining industry. • Coal mining firms that conduct R&D are, on average, 0.2717% more productive. • Coal mining firms that conduct R&D experience an increase in sales. • Increase in foreign investment decreases the market share of coal mining firms

  3. Thermophysical properties of composite fuel based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovsky, S. A.; Tolokolnikov, A. A.; Gubin, V. E.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental studies of composite fuel thermal decomposition processes based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes (fine wood) are presented. C, H, N, S weight percentage of each component of composite fuel was determined experimentally. It has been established that with an increase in wood concentration up to 50% in composite fuel, its energy characteristics decrease by less than 3.6%, while the yield of fly ash is 39.7%. An effective composite fuel composition has been defined as 50%/50%. Results of performed experimental studies suggest that it is possible to use composite fuels based on coal and wood at thermal power plants.

  4. Improving Occupational and Industrial Safety Management System at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagina, Svetlana; Kadnikova, Oksana; Demidenko, Ksenia; Chistyakova, Galina; Rolgayzer, Anastasia

    2017-11-01

    The article highlights the problem of mine workers occupational safety. The foreign and domestic experience of the field is analyzed. Some areas, activities and methods that meet modern requirements for ensuring occupational safety and production development, which are aimed at improving the quality of occupational safety management system, are described. The possibilities of their use in industrial safety of Kuzbass coal mining enterprises are considered. The proposed methods were implemented by JSC "Shakhta Yuzhnaya", "Kiselevsky Razrez" Ltd., the coal mining enterprises of the Kemerovo region.

  5. Influence of Coal Industry Enterprises on Biodiversity (on the Example of Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Svetlana; Dobrydina, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The fauna, the population density and the types of ants' nests on the territory affected by the coal industry have been studied. It has been found that the level of environmental contamination influences all the indicators: the minimum indices of density, 1-2 species of ants and only underground nests near the pollution sources. On the contrary, in the areas with a weak influence of coal enterprises, 9 species with a maximum density of up to 15.2 nests / m2 have been observed with predominance of nests in the form of earthen mounds. Lasius niger are the most resistant to pollution, while the Myrmica do not stand such an impact.

  6. Quartz exposure levels in the underground and surface coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, S.M.; Gero, A.J.; Parobeck, P.S; Tomb, T.F. [US Mine Safety and Health Administration, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Occupational quartz exposure data gathered from the Mine Safety and Health Adminsitration`s respirable dust enforcement program and a program to monitor quartz exposure in several mining occupations were compiled and analyzed to assess the status of quartz exposures in the coal mining industry. The analysis showed that, in underground mines, a substantial number of samples contained greater than 5% quartz. Occupations that showed a high frequency of excessive quartz exposure included the roof bolter, continuous miner operator, and continuous miner operator helper. In surface coal mines the highwall drill operator and helper, bulldozer operator, scraper operator, and truck driver were frequently exposed to high quartz concentrations.

  7. Who Wants to be a Millionaire? Gendered Entrepreneurship and British South Asian Women in the Culture Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Dipannita; Werbner, Pnina

    2012-01-01

    The 200 Richest Asians Magazines 2000, 2002, 2003 construct the success of British South Asian multi-millionaires in images that foreground their masculine traits and characteristics. And yet, this paper argues, such individual success stories are merely the tip of an “entrepreneurial iceberg”. They mask the existence of clusters of immigrant enterprises concentrated in particular economic sectors and industries. These may be headed by women as well as men. While South Asian men in Britain in...

  8. Capitalist collective action: competition, cooperation and conflict in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Bowman [City University of New York, New York, NY (USA). Queens College

    2006-11-15

    This volume presents a theory of capitalist collective action and a case study of the pre-World War II American coal industry to which the theory is applied. The author examines the irony of capitalist firms that do not want to compete with each other, but often cannot avoid doing so. He then explains under what conditions businesses would be able to organize their competition and identifies the economic and political factors that facilitate or inhibit this organization. The case study not only illustrates the theory, but demonstrates how the competitive relations of capitalist firms are critically important determinants of their political behavior. The author argues that the traditional Marxist concern with conflict between workers and capitalists should be supplemented with a concern for the competitive conflicts among capitalists. Contents are: 1: 1. Economic competition and market organization: the logic of capitalist collective action; 2. Forms of capitalist collective action; Part II: 3. Price and wage games in the bituminous coal industry; 4. Workers organize capitalists: collective bargaining and market organization, 1880-1914; 5. The coal industry on the defensive, 1916-1922; 6. Labor-capital conflict and the disorganization of the coal market, 1921-1928; 7. From free competition to state intervention; Part III: 8. Capitalists, workers, and the state; Bibliography; Indexes. This text was originally published in 1989 in hardback (ISBN 0-521-36265-2).

  9. Globalisation and Its Impact on Competitiveness: the Case of the British and German Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Christel Lane; Jocelyn Probert

    2003-01-01

    This paper assesses the degree of financial and economic globalisation of British and German pharmaceutical companies during 1990 and 2001 and explores the changing balance between globalisation and national embeddedness. It tries to explain both the much lower degree of globalisation of German as compared to British companies in 1990, as well as their catching up at the beginning of the 21st century. The paper suggests that the lesser degree of globalisation of German firms during most of th...

  10. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  11. Viral Management as a New Type of Enterprise Management in Coal Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garafonova, Olga; Grigashkina, Svetlana; Zhosan, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the evolution of the concept of "management". The Internet analysis of the concept of "viral management" was conducted, the results of which testify to the positive trend, the growing interest in scientific circles, the relevance of the chosen direction for further research and the increasing popularity of the viral management among business leaders. The indices of coal and brown coal extraction in Ukraine and Russia for 2010-2016 are analyzed. Among the problems that exist in the coal industry are the following: mine assets have a high degree of deterioration; the equipment is rather obsolete and does not correspond to the world level; among the existing face equipment, the specific weight of longwall mining equipment, road headers, loading machines, and belt conveyors of the new generation is only several percent. Five steps of introduction of the virus management at the enterprise are identified: opening, development, participation, diffusion, sustainability. The principles of introduction of the viral management in the enterprises of the coal industry are offered. It is established that the main idea of the viral management is to "infect" the organization and, mainly, employees with one or another "virus" in the form of a common idea or goal. It is indicated that the viral management assumes a certain automaticity of changes, internal "obsession" with this or other innovation, involvement of an informal personal factor.

  12. Viral Management as a New Type of Enterprise Management in Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garafonova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the evolution of the concept of “management”. The Internet analysis of the concept of “viral management” was conducted, the results of which testify to the positive trend, the growing interest in scientific circles, the relevance of the chosen direction for further research and the increasing popularity of the viral management among business leaders. The indices of coal and brown coal extraction in Ukraine and Russia for 2010-2016 are analyzed. Among the problems that exist in the coal industry are the following: mine assets have a high degree of deterioration; the equipment is rather obsolete and does not correspond to the world level; among the existing face equipment, the specific weight of longwall mining equipment, road headers, loading machines, and belt conveyors of the new generation is only several percent. Five steps of introduction of the virus management at the enterprise are identified: opening, development, participation, diffusion, sustainability. The principles of introduction of the viral management in the enterprises of the coal industry are offered. It is established that the main idea of the viral management is to “infect” the organization and, mainly, employees with one or another “virus” in the form of a common idea or goal. It is indicated that the viral management assumes a certain automaticity of changes, internal “obsession” with this or other innovation, involvement of an informal personal factor.

  13. Restructuring of the coal industry and thermal power sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The paper summarizes the most recent developments in the transformation of the coal and thermal power sector in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine to market economy conditions. It also provides statistical data concerning the dynamics of the major indicators of restructuring, such as the allocation of state subsidies, productivity growth, employment and investment. Over the last three years, the restructuring of the coal and thermal power sectors has progressed differently in the above three countries. Both sectors and especially the coal industry sector have been forced to restructure with extreme rapidity under unstable conditions, such as economic decline, absence of stable economic and fiscal laws, hyperinflation, loss of purchasing power, collapse of payment system. The transformation has been management restructuring rather than technical or reinvestment. The programmes of restructuring were mor ambitious than their realistic implementation as the lack of financial resources had, in many cases, delayed or even postponed the deadlines and objectives. The first stage has been completed in the Russian Federation, but has not yet started in Ukraine. In Kazakhstan, the coal industry has been fully privatized, mainly by foreign companies, power generation is now following along the same lines. Both sectors adapt their structure to new market requirements.

  14. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  15. Application of reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infrared analysis to the study of coal macerals: An example from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of the reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) technique for analyzing the distribution of functional groups in coal macerals is discussed. High quality of spectra, comparable to those obtained using other FTIR techniques (KBr pellet and transmission micro-FTIR), indicate this technique can be applied to characterizing functional groups under most conditions. The ease of sample preparation, the potential to analyze large intact samples, and ability to characterize organic matter in areas as small as 20 ??m are the main advantages of reflectance micro-FTIR. The quantitative aspects of reflectance micro-FTIR require further study. The examples from the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia show that at high volatile bituminous rank, reflectance micro-FTIR provides valuable information on the character of aliphatic chains of vitrinite and liptinite macerals. Because the character of aliphatic chains influences bond disassociation energies, such information is useful from a hydrocarbon generation viewpoint. In medium volatile bituminous coal liptinite macerals are usually not detectable but this technique can be used to study the degree of oxidation and reactivity of vitrinite and semifusinite.

  16. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical composition of particulate matter (PM10) in coal and non-coal industrial cities of Henan Province, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Shao, Longyi; Zheng, Qiming; Yang, Shushen

    2014-06-01

    A total of 19 24-h PM10 samples, the 11 for a typical coal industrial city and 8 for a non-coal industrial city, were collected by a TSP-PM10 sampler during a serious and continuous haze event in Henan Province, North China. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogy and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) was used to determine the morphology and chemical composition of the PM10 samples. The crystalline phases that were identified by XRD mainly include sulfate (dominated by koktaite, boussingaultite, gypsum, etc.) and silicate (quartz and kaolinite) as well as small amount of chloride (sal-ammoniac). Silicate particles mainly originate from crust as well as waste dumps for coal industrial cities, and usually have an irregular shape, while sulfate particles occur as individual sheets or needles, and have an anthropogenic origin, which are the products of chemical reaction of preexisting carbonate with SO2 emitted by coal combustion. Nitrogen, S and Cl occurring in particulate matter are considered to have an anthropogenic origin due to their high enrichment factors, and their abundance in particulate matter is associated with coal industrial activities. Nitrogen mainly occurs as NH4+ in sulfate, as well as in small amount of organic matter. Sulfur mainly occurs as SO42 - in sulfate. Chlorine mainly occurs in chloride.

  18. The British Film Industry and the Declining Audience: Demythologizing the Technological Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, David E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Claims that the decline in attendance at the British cinema since World War II is not explained either by the lack of good films or by the coming of television, but by both changing demographics and significant shifts in the social construction of leisure. (JD)

  19. Performance and Accountability in "Post-industrial Society": The Crisis of British Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper records some of the important changes that have been forced on British universities regarding performance and accountability. It also proposes an analysis of postindustrialism, relating it briefly to the modernity/postmodernity debate. Finally, some positive conclusions concerning the future role of the university are provided. (GLR)

  20. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [de

  1. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-yu Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (Changchun–Port Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  2. Coal utilization in industrial boilers in China - a prospect for mitigating CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Zeng, T.; Yang, L.I.S.; Oye, K.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is estimated from GEF statistical data for 1991 that more than 500,000 industrial boilers (mostly stoker-fired) in China consume over 400 million tons of coal per year. Each year, because of low boiler efficiency, 75 million tons of coal is wasted and 130 million tons of excess CO 2 are emitted. An analysis of 250 boiler thermal-balance test certificates and 6 field visits in three provinces have shown that: (1) boilers with efficiencies of less than 70% account for 75% of the total boiler-population; (2) the main causes of the low efficiencies are high excess air and unburned carbon in the slag and fly ash. The effect of unburned carbon on CO 2 emission is a balance of positive and negative contributions: while the unburned carbon does not produce CO 2 emissions, its replacement carbon, burned at a low efficiency, contributes to a net increase in CO 2 emissions. It seems from the analysis that the average boiler efficiency can be raised to 73% by relatively simple means, such as the size grading of the coal, improved boiler operating practice and some inexpensive equipment modifications. This could then result in savings each year of 34 million tons of coal and a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 63 million tons at an estimated cost of $10 per ton of CO 2 . (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Current and advanced NO/sub x/-control technology for coal-fired industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    A NOx-control-technology assessment study of coal-fired industrial boilers was conducted to examine the effectiveness of combustion-modification methods, including low excess air, staged combustion, and burner modifications. Boiler types considered included overfed and underfed stokers, spreader stokers, pulverized-coal and coal-fired cyclone units. Significant variations in NOx emissions occur with boiler type, firing method, and coal type; a relative comparison of emission-control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. Baseline (as-found) emissions from grate-fired stokers were shown to be in the range of 200 to 300 ppM. Similarly, as-found emissions from suspension-fired units were quite low (350 to 600 ppM) as compared to comparably designed utility-sized units. Low excess air was shown to be the most effective method on existing units, reducing emissions by approximately 10%. Evaluation of staged combustion and burner modification, however, were limited due to current boiler designs. Major hardware modification/design and implementation are necessary before the potential of these techniques can be fully evaluated. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion-modification program, including energy considerations, incremental capital and operating costs, corrosion, secondary pollutants, and retrofit potential.

  4. Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Пономаренко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The relations between social responsibility and economic results and the effects of implementing CSR policies are often not obvious.This study offers an assessment of present-day state of corporate social responsibility policies in coal companies of Russia and Poland and formulates proposals on implementing social responsibility projects with consideration of state-of-the-art CSR concepts.The results of the study are as follows: the achieved level of social responsibility in coal companies of Russia and Poland has been assessed; it is proven that most companies in the coal industry are at the level of fragmentary application of CSR concepts; an analysis has been carried out of tools available in the area of social responsibility of coal companies.

  5. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Industrial Internet of Things: (IIoT) applications in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Damiano, N; Whisner, B; Reyes, M

    2017-12-01

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), a concept that combines sensor networks and control systems, has been employed in several industries to improve productivity and safety. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers are investigating IIoT applications to identify the challenges of and potential solutions for transferring IIoT from other industries to the mining industry. Specifically, NIOSH has reviewed existing sensors and communications network systems used in U.S. underground coal mines to determine whether they are capable of supporting IIoT systems. The results show that about 40 percent of the installed post-accident communication systems as of 2014 require minimal or no modification to support IIoT applications. NIOSH researchers also developed an IIoT monitoring and control prototype system using low-cost microcontroller Wi-Fi boards to detect a door opening on a refuge alternative, activate fans located inside the Pittsburgh Experimental Mine and actuate an alarm beacon on the surface. The results of this feasibility study can be used to explore IIoT applications in underground coal mines based on existing communication and tracking infrastructure.

  7. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  8. South Africa, a new perspective: How the coal industry of RSA looks to an observer from the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A microcosm of what was, what is, and hopefully what will be, is embodied in South Africa's coal industry-the sixth largest in the world, the third largest in coal exports behind the United States and Australia, and the second largest in the world's steam coal trade behind Australia. Mining is the international, economic life blood of South Africa. In total, the country exports 60 minerals to 80 countries, providing on a raw basis for 43% of the nation's international trade, and as much as 60% when beneficiated products are included. The nation's coal fields lie in the northeastern section of the country, running south from the Botswana-Zimbabwe-Mozambique borders, principally in the Transvaal, Natal, and Orange Free State provinces. The coal seams run in thickness from 2.5 to 8 m, with an average overburden thickness of 80 m. The coal industry provides 83% of the country's commercial energy and 52% of all the electric power consumed on the entire continent. Seen from the air, the veld around Johannesburg is dotted with power plants-virtually all coal-fired. There is only one nuclear plant and two hydroelectric produced in South Africa comes from Eskom, the state-owned utility, and 90% total comes from coal-fired units

  9. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  11. A World-Ecological Perspective on Socio-Ecological Transformation in the Appalachian Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Marley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the exhaustion of socio-ecological relations in the coalfields of West Virginia. We use the term socio-ecological to signify "the interwoven character and the indispensable unity of social and natural life" (Araghi 2009: 115. In particular we use classic literatures on labor history in the coalfields of central Appalachia and contemporary studies of mountaintop removal to think about phases of socio-ecological relations of the coal industry. We argue for the interrelationality of the social and the ecological in place of conventional eco-M arxist approaches which treat these as relatively independent units. This enables us to situate nature as an active component of capitalist developmental processes. We argue that the exhaustion of socio-ecological relations in the coalfields of West Virginia is an outcome of material practices within the phase of extraction using mountaintop removal, historical changes in the conditions of production in the coalfields, and of new forms of competition from other regions and energy sources. We find that the relative exhaustion of central Appalachian coal is tempered by favorable international markets and a specialization in metallurgical coal.

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverages coverage in the British media: an analysis of public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Green, Alex; Hyseni, Lirije; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-07-19

    To assess the extent of media-based public health advocacy versus pro-industry messaging regarding sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). We conducted a systematic analysis to identify and examine all articles regarding SSBs published in all mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014. We initially conducted a brief literature search to develop appropriate search terms and categorisations for grouping and analysing the articles. Articles were then coded according to the publishing newspaper, article type, topic, prominence and slant (pro-SSB or anti-SSB). A contextual analysis was undertaken to examine key messages in the articles. We identified 374 articles published during 2014. The majority of articles (81%) suggested that SSBs are unhealthy. Messaging from experts, campaign groups and health organisations was fairly consistent about the detrimental effects of SSB on health. However, relatively few articles assessed any approaches or solutions to potentially combat the problems associated with SSBs. Only one-quarter (24%) suggested any policy change. Meanwhile, articles concerning the food industry produced consistent messages emphasising consumer choice and individual responsibility for making choices regarding SSB consumption, and promoting and advertising their products. The food industry thus often managed to avoid association with the negative press that their products were receiving. SSBs were frequently published in mainstream British print newspapers and their online news websites during 2014. Public health media advocacy was prominent throughout, with a growing consensus that sugary drinks are bad for people's health. However, the challenge for public health will be to mobilise supportive public opinion to help implement effective regulatory policies. Only then will our population's excess consumption of SSBs come under control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  13. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mine refuse inventory maps were prepared in response to a need by both the State and the coal industry. The lack of information on the scope of the problem handicapped all people concerned in drafting realistic legislation for a severance tax on coal production to raise funds for restoration of refuse sites. The inventory was conducted rapidly and economically, and demonstrated the benefits which can be derived through remote sensing methods.

  14. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  15. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Lixuan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    As China continues its double-digit economic growth, coal remains the principal fuel for the country’s primary energy consumption and electricity generation. China’s dependence on coal in coming years makes its carbon emission intensity reduction targets more difficult to achieve, particularly given rising electricity demand from a growing number of Chinese cities. This paradox has led the government to pursue cleaner and more efficient development of the coal industry on the supply side and “low carbon” development of cities on the demand side. To understand and assess how China may be able to meet its energy and carbon intensity reduction targets, this report looks at the recent development of low carbon cities as well as new developments and trends in the coal industry. Specifically, we review low-carbon city and related eco-city development in China before delving into a comparison of eight pilot lowcarbon city plans to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in helping achieve national energy and carbon targets. We then provide insights into the future outlook for China’s coal industry by evaluating new and emerging trends in coal production, consumption, transport, trade and economic performance.

  16. Study of otoacoustic emissions in workers of various professional groups of the coal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shydlovska T.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise influence takes one of the leading roles in the development of sensorineural hearing loss (SHL. At the same time professional deafness steadily occupies the 5th place in the structure of occupational diseases in Ukraine over the past few years. Of special importance is the problem of pre-clinical and early diagnosis of occupational hearing deterioration, in sense of timely prophylactic and rehabilitation measures in “risk group” workers. The objective research methods play an important role in the diagnosis of auditory analyzer state. Many scientific studies have shown the diagnostic effectiveness of method of otoacoustic emissions recording in the early diagnosis of lesions of receptor part of auditory analyzer. It is known that SHL of noise genesis largely affects the receptor part of the auditory analyzer, for which the OAE method has great practical diagnostic significance. Objective: to study informativity indicators of otoacoustic emission for the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in various occupational groups of coal workers in Ukrainian mines. Materials and Methods: Auditory function of 87 workers of the coal industry (drifters, miners and longwall miners with different levels of industrial noise and hygienic conditions in their workplaces was: 28 studied drifters (group 1, 25 miners (group 2 and 34 longwall miners (group 3. Work experience in noise in these groups was 17,9±1,0; 23,1±1,0 and 22,2±2,0 accordingly. Noise ratio in drifters was 93,6±4,9 dBA, in miners – 92,9±5,5 dBA and in longwall miners – 86,5±6,04 dBA accordingly, while the maximum permitted level is 80 dBA. The research was conducted on the analyzing system "Eclipse" "Interacoustics" (Denmark. All patients underwent registratiov of the caused OAE at frequency distortion product (DPOAE at frequencies 1-6 kHz. The results were rated using variation statistics Student's test. Results: The most prominent violation of the receptor part of the

  17. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  18. The pollutants removal and bacterial community dynamics relationship within a full-scale British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater treatment using a novel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin

    2016-01-01

    The novel system of EBA (based on external circulation anaerobic (EC) process-biological enhanced (BE) process-anoxic/oxic (A/O) process) was applied to treat the British Gas/Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in Erdos, China. After a long time of commissioning, the EBA system represented a stable and highly efficient performance, particularly, the concentrations of COD, NH4(+)-N, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile phenols in the final effluent reached 53, 0.3, 18, 106mg/L and not detected, respectively. Both the GC-MS and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses revealed significant variations of organic compositions in the effluent of different process. The results of high-throughput sequencing represented the EBA system composed 34 main bacteria which were affiliated to 7 phyla. In addition, the canonical correspondence analysis indicated high coherence among community composition, wastewater characteristics and environmental variables, in which the pH, mixed liquid suspended solids and total phenols loading were the most three significant variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soft capitalism and a hard industry: virtualism, the 'transition industry' and the restructuring of the Ukrainian coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Swain [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Geography

    2006-06-15

    This paper examines the geographical transfer of economic knowledge and practices from centres of neoliberalism in North America and Western Europe to post-soviet Ukraine. The paper argues that a 'transition industry' emerged in the wake of the disintegration of the soviet system whose purpose was to realize economic transition in central and eastern Europe. The paper discusses the emergence of a community of academic and professional economists affiliated to international financial institutions and academic and professional economic research organizations in Kyiv engaged in promoting the Washington consensus. This community identified the coal industry, located in the Ukrainian Donbas, as a barrier to structural economic reform and the political re-alignment of the country. The paper then examines the way the World Bank unsuccessfully attempted to force the coal industry to conform to its own policy prescriptions. The example points to the articulation not only of extra-local and internal processes of neoliberalization, but also with indigenous informal marketization. In this instance the World Bank's vision failed to materialize because state power could not be allied to its neoliberal project.

  20. Review of the current criticality data validation requirements within the British Nuclear Fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, P.E.; Thorne, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has commercial involvements throughout the whole of the nuclear fuel cycle, from fuel fabrication through to irradiated fuel transport and pond storage, chemical reprocessing, waste treatment, handling and storage, and the isolation and storage of purified UO 3 and PuO 2 products. The wide range of materials and compositions handled and the variety of environments encountered results in a requirement to address a large number of criticality safety problems. With some problems requiring novel approaches to their solution, there are inevitably some areas where further validation data would be desirable. The principal calculational tool used in Britain for criticality safety assessment work is the Monte Carlo computer code MONK6B. This has already been validated against a wide range of critical experiments, and work is under way to increase the validation data base even further. As previously indicated, however, there are areas where improvements could be made, and these are outlined in the following paragraphs. The power of the MONK6B geometry package is such that virtually any conceivable geometric configuration can be accurately modeled in detail. It remains, therefore, that in most instances, the limiting factor on the accuracy and reliability of the final answer rests with the quality of the nuclear data and this, of course, requires to be validated

  1. The proposed structure of the UK's nuclear industry: the 'creation' of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear generation has been contributing to the UK electricity market for over thirty years. For most of this period the generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity was in the hands of the state. The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) was responsible for generation and transmission in England and Wales, supported by local ''Area Boards'' who were responsible for distribution and supply. The Scotland Electricity Board (SSEB) and the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board were responsible for all four functions in Scotland. Over the period the number of nuclear stations has increased. Magnox stations and the more modern Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors (AGR) were commissioned by the CEGB and SSEB. State ownership continued until the Regional Electricity Companies (1990) and the non-nuclear generators (1991) were privatised. The nuclear generators were retained in the public sector under two newly created companies; Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Ltd. The UK's first PWR has since been commissioned by Nuclear Electric. Three of the early Magnox reactors are being decommissioned, two by Nuclear Electric and one by Scottish Nuclear. The UK Government has reviewed the recent performance of the nuclear generators and is proposing privatisation of the AGR and PWR stations under a new holding company ''British Energy'' in 1996. (author)

  2. Emanuel Edward Klein, a diligent and industrious plodder or the father of British microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Atalić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Emanuel Edward Klein (Osijek, 1844 - Hove, 1925 was a Britishmicrobiologist of Croatian origin. He completed his medical studies in Vienna in 1869. In 1869 he was sent to England to determine terms for the translation of Samuel Stricker’s manual Handbuch von den Geweben des Menchen und der Tiere. During his visit he made a good impression on John Burdon Sanderson and John Simon, which was the main reason why he was invited to London in 1871 to conduct investigations under their guidance. In 1873 Klein began his collaboration with the Saint Bartholomew‘s Hospital, where he was appointed as a Joint Professor of General Anatomy and Physiology. His researches were in the fields of anatomy, histology, pathology, embryology, physiology, and especially microbiology. He did a great deal to its development in Britain. He has written about 260 scientific papers on a broad range of different topics. Despite all the aforementioned facts, his work was never properly studied, and he is almost unknown outside academic circles. For that reason, attitudes towards him still range between the extremes of calling him the father of British microbiology on one side, and attributing him as a diligent and idustrious plodder on the other. In this paper we will try to prove the first attitude. We will put his researches in a general context. Finally we will highlight his original achievements in the isolation of new microbes.

  3. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  4. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  5. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  10. Discovery and ramifications of incidental Magnéli phase generation and release from industrial coal-burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Chen, Bo; Hower, James; Schindler, Michael; Winkler, Christopher; Brandt, Jessica; Di Giulio, Richard; Ge, Jianping; Liu, Min; Fu, Yuhao; Zhang, Lijun; Chen, Yuru; Priya, Shashank; Hochella, Michael F

    2017-08-08

    Coal, as one of the most economic and abundant energy sources, remains the leading fuel for producing electricity worldwide. Yet, burning coal produces more global warming CO 2 relative to all other fossil fuels, and it is a major contributor to atmospheric particulate matter known to have a deleterious respiratory and cardiovascular impact in humans, especially in China and India. Here we have discovered that burning coal also produces large quantities of otherwise rare Magnéli phases (Ti x O 2x-1 with 4 ≤ x ≤ 9) from TiO 2 minerals naturally present in coal. This provides a new tracer for tracking solid-state emissions worldwide from industrial coal-burning. In its first toxicity testing, we have also shown that nanoscale Magnéli phases have potential toxicity pathways that are not photoactive like TiO 2 phases, but instead seem to be biologically active without photostimulation. In the future, these phases should be thoroughly tested for their toxicity in the human lung.Solid-state emissions from coal burning remain an environmental concern. Here, the authors have found that TiO2 minerals present in coal are converted into titanium suboxides during burning, and initial biotoxicity screening suggests that further testing is needed to look into human lung consequences.

  11. Industry and improvement: state and class formations in Nova Scotia`s coal-mining countryside, 1790-1864

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The role of state and class formation in Nova Scotia before Confederation is discussed. The farming and coal mining districts of northern Nova Scotia are described as opposing segments that together were central to the development of liberal capitalist government forms in the province. A range of economic circumstances is considered: squatters, estates, mixed farming, coal mining, trading, quarrying, and fraternal societies. The role of enterprises such as the General Mining Association, a British venture, in colonization and in constraint of local initiative and accumulation is considered. Rural liberals created a positive place in self-government, while colonial liberals constructed a liberalism that was centred around the state and economic progress. The poor and those without property were allotted marginal public roles.

  12. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  13. Wear surface studies on coal water slurry nozzles in industrial boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Zeliang [Hunan Engineering Technology Key Laboratory of Inorganic and Nonmetal Materials, Hunan University of Technology, Zhuzhou 412008, Hunan Province (China)]. E-mail: dingzl@263.net; Deng Jianxin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: jxdeng@sdu.edu.cn; Li Jianfeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, Shandong Province (China)]. E-mail: ljf@sdu.edu.cn

    2007-07-01

    In this study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic, WC/Co cemented carbide, and 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel were produced to be used as nozzle materials in coal water slurry (CWS) industry boilers. Coal water slurry burning tests with these nozzles were carried out. The wear surface features of the nozzles made from these materials were examined. The results showed that the wear mechanisms of nozzles varied from entry to exit. The material removal of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(W,Ti)C ceramic nozzle in CWS atomizing and burning is attributed to a mixed mode damage by brittle fracture, polishing, thermal cracking and chipping. The nozzle entry section appears to be entirely brittle in nature with evidence of large scale-chipping. The centre bore area showed a polishing effect with a very smooth surface. While the exit section exhibits cracking owing to the large thermal shock. Examination of the eroded bore surface of the WC/Co cemented carbide nozzles demonstrated that the wear occurred through preferential removal of the metal binder (Co) followed by pluck-out of the exposed WC grains at the entry zone, while the center and the exit zone showed polishing action. The primary wear mechanisms of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel nozzle exhibited plastic deformation at the entry zone, and plowing and micro-cutting at the other zones by the eroded particles.

  14. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  15. Risk evaluation of lost-time injuries in the coal mining industry of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, K.G.; Edwards, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Lost-time accidents frequently occur in underground coal mining, which result in a substantial amount of lost workdays. In order to evaluate injury risks for the underground mining industry in Pakistan, two years record of lost time accidents were collected and analysed. Risk indices were computed for different variables, such as cause of accidents; age and job of the injured person; place of accidents; and part of the body injured. These indices incorporate information that has not been used in traditional accident analysis. Fall of ground type accidents were the major cause followed by haulage and transport. More than 50 % of accidents occurred at or Near the working faces and coal cutters/ face workers were found to be at a higher risk as compared to all other job categories. Injuries to hand and foot for all group of workers were comparatively higher than those to all other parts of the body; Workers in the age group of (21-30) years were involved in the majority of the lost time accidents. Regular and systematic analysis of lost time accidents should be made which may be helpful in reducing the frequency and severity of these accidents. (author)

  16. Through tobacco industry eyes: civil society and the FCTC process from Philip Morris and British American Tobacco's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Green, Lawrence W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-07-01

    To analyse the models Philip Morris (PM) and British American Tobacco (BAT) used internally to understand tobacco control non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and their relationship to the global tobacco control policy-making process that resulted in the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents in the Legacy Tobacco Document Library. PM contracted with Mongoven, Biscoe, and Duchin, Inc. (MBD, a consulting firm specialising in NGO surveillance) as advisors. MBD argued that because NGOs are increasingly linked to epistemic communities, NGOs could insert themselves into the global policy-making process and influence the discourse surrounding the treaty-making process. MBD advised PM to insert itself into the policy-making process, mimicking NGO behaviour. BAT's Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (CORA) department argued that global regulation emerged from the perception (by NGOs and governments) that the industry could not regulate itself, leading to BAT advocating social alignment and self-regulation to minimise the impact of the FCTC. Most efforts to block or redirect the FCTC failed. PM and BAT articulated a global policy-making environment in which NGOs are key, non-state stakeholders, and as a result, internationalised some of their previous national-level strategies. After both companies failed to prevent the FCTC, their strategies began to align. Multinational corporations have continued to successfully employ some of the strategies outlined in this paper at the local and national level while being formally excluded from ongoing FCTC negotiations at the global level.

  17. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  18. Globalisation, transition and development in China. The case of the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huaichuan Rui

    2004-07-01

    The author aims to explain China's development strategy and its underlying forces, and the success of this strategy. It examines China's gradualist approach which emphasises development first and regards transition and globalisation as secondary, enacting liberalisation of domestic markets and integration into the world economy in a paced way, avoiding dramatic changes which might impede or even reverse development. The author argues that this approach is broadly correct. She considers China's failures, including the failure to build large globally competitive corporations despite the intention to do this, and shows how China's economic strategy has been implemented in detail with a case study of the coal industry.

  19. Dynamic analysis on market structure of China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xin

    2017-01-01

    According to industrial organization theory, market structure is a crucial factor to market performance. Based on the VAR model and the data from 1994 to 2014, we revealed the dynamic response route of the market structure to these factors and the change process of contribution rate of these factors to the market structure. It shows that market structure is inertial adjustment; technology advance and industry policy have continuous effects on improvement of market concentration ratio; market size and production scale have sustained negative effects on market concentration ratio; fixed capital has barrier effect, which is mainly the entry barrier effect at the beginning, and then the exit barrier effect continues to play a leading role. Therefore, the government has no need to introduce special policies to encourage merger or expansion on the capacity as enterprises would do it spontaneously; it is necessary to make market access system stricter, to improve exit compensation mechanism and to promote technological innovation; all these policies need dynamic adjustment based on the stages of economic cycle. - Highlights: • The adjustment mechanism of China's coal market structure is revealed. • Technology and industry policy are significant factors to optimize the market structure. • The government need not introduce special policy to encourage merger. • The market access system should be stricter. • Policies strength should be dynamically adjusted based on the economic cycle.

  20. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  1. Opportunities in low-rank coal applications for synfuels and power industries in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winch, R.A.; Alejandro, I.; Hernandez, G.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of domestic coal is an important ingredient in the generation strategy of electricity in Mexico. The relative ranking of the MICARE and Sabinas coals, compared to other coals tested at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot test facility at Grand Forks is an important factor for future economic fuel studies. A test comparison between US and Mexican coals was made and observations are listed

  2. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  3. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech

  4. Raw-materials mixtures from waste of the coal industry for production of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galpern, E.I. [Scientific-Manufacturing Enterprise ``Ceramics``, Donetsk (Ukraine); Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry of NASU, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1998-09-01

    The liquidation of waste dumps on the surface of mining enterprises and realization of measures by environment protection of air and aquatic basins are connected to the complex processing of mining mass. The main directions of utilization of mining rocks and coal wastes realized in Ukraine industry are: - filling of mines worked-out area by grouting solutions; - ceramic brick, porous filling materials and binding materials production; - road-making, construction of hydrostructures and industrial objects; - output of concrete items predominantly for using in mining conditions. The peculiarity of wastes using in above-mentioned fields is the possibility of their mass application in quantities commensurable with valumes of their yields. The experience of enterprises work which process mining rocks into building materials by burning method (ceramic brick, porous aggregates of concretes as aggloporite, expanded clay aggregate) has shown that unconstant and, as the rule, exceeding norms content of carbon and sulphur in the rock results to deterioration of products quality and technological factors of production. Unstability of carbon content in raw material makes the burning process hardly operated. Obtained products having residual carbon in the view of coke residue are often characterized by lower physical-mechanical characteristics. (orig./SR)

  5. THE ROMANIAN COAL INDUSTRY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last century, the world has seen an acceleration of technological development in almost all the fields related to human life, leading to rapid improvement of living standards in most countries. Electricity industry is a basic economic branch, and is also a branch with high importance to the economy and social life of any country. This branch, which currently is the base of industrial, agricultural, transportation and telecommunications activities, and which characterizes the entire modern world civilization, began to develop only towards the late of the XXth century. Electricity is an energy form easily usable in production, household consumption, transport, telecommunications etc. It was the one that revolutionized manufacturing resources and equipment used in all fields. Electricity production worldwide has increased about 30 times since 1938. Coal maintained a vital role in the total energy sources, especially by ensuring price stability which is a major and indispensable factor for stability and further economic growth, and also by its distribution around the globe.

  6. Unexpected Dominance of Elusive Acidobacteria in Early Industrial Soft Coal Slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Eric Wegner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur, which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure. Bacterial groups typically found in AMD systems and mine tailings were not present. Instead, the soft coal slags were dominated by uncharacterized groups of Acidobacteria (DA052 [subdivision 2], KF-JG30-18 [subdivision 13], Actinobacteria (TM214, Alphaproteobacteria (DA111, and Chloroflexi (JG37-AG-4, which have previously been detected primarily in peatlands and uranium waste piles. Shotgun metagenomics allowed us to reconstruct 13 high-quality Acidobacteria draft genomes, of which two genomes could be directly linked to dominating groups (DA052, KF-JG30-18 by recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomics revealed broad carbon utilization capabilities for these two groups of elusive Acidobacteria, including polysaccharide breakdown (cellulose, xylan and the competence to metabolize C1 compounds (ribulose monophosphate pathway and lignin derivatives (dye-decolorizing peroxidases. Equipped with a broad range of efflux systems for metal cations and xenobiotics, DA052 and KF-JG30-18 may have a competitive advantage over other bacterial groups in this unique habitat.

  7. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  8. Compare pilot-scale and industry-scale models of pulverized coal combustion in an ironmaking blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yansong; Yu, Aibing; Zulli, Paul

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the complex phenomena of pulverized coal injection (PCI) process in blast furnace (BF), mathematical models have been developed at different scales: pilot-scale model of coal combustion and industry-scale model (in-furnace model) of coal/coke combustion in a real BF respectively. This paper compares these PCI models in aspects of model developments and model capability. The model development is discussed in terms of model formulation, their new features and geometry/regions considered. The model capability is then discussed in terms of main findings followed by the model evaluation on their advantages and limitations. It is indicated that these PCI models are all able to describe PCI operation qualitatively. The in-furnace model is more reliable for simulating in-furnace phenomena of PCI operation qualitatively and quantitatively. These models are useful for understanding the flow-thermo-chemical behaviors and then optimizing the PCI operation in practice.

  9. Rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the Chinese coal industry based on a tripartite game model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Cao, Jing

    2014-01-01

    There are extensive governmental rent-seeking activities in safety supervision of the Chinese coal industry. The rents come from industry safety barriers, low resource taxes, and privilege policies for coalmining enterprises. The rent-seeking mechanism was analyzed using a model comprising dynamic games with incomplete information. The equilibrium results indicate that the probability of national supervision is influenced by penalties and bribery: there is negative correlation with penalties and positive correlation with bribery. The rent-seeking probability of a governmental safety supervision department is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with the cost of national supervision. The probability of bribery of coalmining enterprises is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with wages of governmental departments and a reasonable rent-seeking range. Reversed rent-seeking reduces the probability of bribery, but it's not worth recommending. Some recommendations are proposed. - Highlights: • We analyze rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the coal industry. • A dynamic game with incomplete information for Chinese coal industry is built. • Reversed rent-seeking is proposed as a new rent-seeking form. • We analyze the selection probability of the three participants. • We give some policies about how to enhance safety supervision

  10. Protocol in NORM industries. Central thermal coal production; Protocolo de actuacion en industrial NORM. Centrales de produccion termica de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Corbacho, J. A.; Baeza, A.; Cancio, D.

    2011-07-01

    This protocol arises from the execution of R and D project Study of the radiological impact of coal power plants on their environment, funded by the Nuclear Safety Council. Its main objective was to assess the radiological impact exerted on workers and their environments, the four coal-fired power more currently in Spain: As Pontes (A Coruna), Compostilla II (Leon ),Litoral (Almeria) and Andorra (Teruel). (Author)

  11. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Filip P.; Berić Ivana M.; Jovanović Petar M.; Jovanović Aca D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reductio...

  12. Coal and the competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, M. [RDI Consulting, Arlington, VA (United States). FT Energy

    2000-07-01

    24 overheads/viewgraphs outline a presentation on competition in the US coal industry. It discussed four main subjects: key factors driving coal demand (environmental regulations, electric utility deregulation; competition with natural gas, inter-regional coal competition, supply availability and pricing; and the export market and competition from off-shore coal sources); coal's ability to boost market share; shifts in coal distribution and the risk of more branded coal; and attempts to keep more regional sources of coal in business. State tax incentives for coal use in Arizona, Ohio, Oklahoma, Virginia and Alabama were discussed.

  13. The economic case for industrial application of low-rank coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, W.

    1991-01-01

    The World Coal Institute estimates coal should overtake oil as the world's largest source of primary energy by the turn of the century. Current world coal production of 3.6 billion tons in 1990 is predicted to rise to 4 billion tons by the year 2000. It is conceded that a major environmental problem with burning coal is the so-called greenhouse effect. The question is how do you use the new technologies that have been developed which now allow coal to be burned with minimum damage to the environment. Despite their technical merits, acceptance of these new technologies is slow because they appear uncompetitive when compared with historic energy costs. Unless economic comparisons include some form of environmental evaluation, this issue will continue to be a barrier to progress. To avoid stagnation and provide the necessary incentive for implementing badly needed change, structural changes in energy economics need to be made which take into account the environmental cost element of these emerging new technologies. The paper discusses coal trade and quality and then describes the three main areas of development of clean coal technologies: coal preparation, combustion, and flue gas treatment

  14. Systems analysis on the humanization of industrial life in the coal mining industry. Pt. 2. Results. Systemanalyse zur Humanisierung des Arbeitslebens im Steinkohlenbergbau. T. 2. Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume No. 8 of the series of papers quantifies the system of aims, i.e. it defines synthetic data of laws and regulations of mining of DIN standards, and VDI guidelines, of generally accepted rules of engineering as well as of certified findings of industrial science as minimum requirements. This definition is followed by the examination of the type of medium-term development to be expected in the bituminous coal mining industry of the Ruhrkohle AG up to the year 1985. Then the general aims 1 and 2 given in volume No. 7 are described in detail. These descriptions constitute an excellent summary of the present state of knowledge concerning the improvement of working conditions in the bituminous coal mining industry. Finally, a study on the transferability of research findings is given. One statement is of special importance, i.e., that transferability is not characterized by technological feasibility alone which depends to a high degree on marginal, organizational conditions within the company, e.g., on the information system, on its hierarchical structure, on the company's policy, and on departamental policy. In this study, only the technological transferability is examined. To enable us to assess it, appropriate statements are made in a brief description of the research project carried out since 1974, which was sponsored within the action programme ''Humanization of Industrial Life''.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  16. The modernization potential of gas turbines in the coal-fired power industry thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of repowering the existing condensing power stations by means of  gas turbogenerators offers an important opportunity to considerably improvement of their energy efficiency. The Modernization Potential of Gas turbines in the Coal-Fired Power Industry presents the methodology, calculation procedures and tools used to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to dual-fuel gas-steam combined-cycle technologies. Both the conceptual and practical aspects of the conversion of existing coal-fired power plants is covered. Discussions of the feasibility, advantages and disadvantages and possible methods are supported by chapters presenting equations of energy efficiency for the conditions of repowering a power unit by installing a gas turbogenerator in a parallel system and the results of technical calculations involving the selection heating structures of heat recovery steam generators. A methodology for analyzing thermodynamic and economic effectiveness for the selection of a structure...

  17. Quantitative applications of gamma densitometry in the coal industry: a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, P.; Sher, R.; Gozani, T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of gamma densitometry to quantitatively assay bulk samples of coal on a continuous basis. Devices using these principles to determine mass flows are on the market, and work is progressing in several countries on instruments to determine ash content. The theoretical limits of applicability and inherent assumptions of these techniques are discussed, primarily as applied to dry bulk coal, but with some discussion of the more complicated problems of slurried coal. Gamma rays are generated by sources, usually a single radioactive element. These have several advantages over XRF, the main one being that no power is required to generate gammas. However, there are a limited number of gamma sources with useful energies, long enough half-lives to be economically useful, and clean spectra (that is, relatively few energies emitted by the source in question). Gamma densitometry measurements by single and multiple-energy transmission and backscatter measurements are discussed. A general formalism for analyzing multiple-energy systems is presented. While multi-energy systems can, in principle, pick out as many groups of elements as energies used, the matrices involved are ill-conditioned and thus require accurate measures of count rate (i.e., long counting times or high source intensities) to achieve acceptable errors. Changes in coal composition and profile of coal on a belt were also seen to be important sources of error. Transmission measurements are more amenable to analysis than backscatter, which are essentially transmission measurements made on a distributed source. In addition, transmission measurements are not restricted to low energy gamma sources, and can survey the entire bulk of coal rather than just the upper portion. The special problems of slurried coal measurements are briefly discussed

  18. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF COAL AND STEEL INDUSTRIES UNDER THE ECSC (1952-1967: WAS WEST GERMANY KEPT “SMALL”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Poelmans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1951, six European countries founded the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, which they hoped would be a first step towards more European integration and which they hoped would provide a common legal framework for their coal and steel industries. The main aim of the ECSC was to make sure that the German coal and steel industries would never again reach their prewar capacities, which according to many had played a part in the coming of World War II. Another important aim was to forestall any attempt of the USSR to conquer West Germany. This article constitutes a case study of the regional concentration of the coal and steel industries in the six ECSC countries, and it investigates whether the importance of certain coal and steel producing regions within the ECSC changed between 1952 and 1967. Furthermore, an analysis is conducted of how the concentration ratios of the ECSC's industries differed among the six countries, whether these differences changed over time, how this influenced the size and number of coal and steel firms and whether the ECSC succeeded in its initial aim of keeping West Germany small.

  20. Portable rapid gas content measurement - an opportunity for a step change in the coal industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, Basil; Kizil, Mehmet; Gu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The last major advance in gas content measurement for coal seams was the introduction of the quick crush technique in the early 1990s. This is a laboratory test method that has proven very reliable over the years. Recent laboratory testing using a portable quick crushing device, known as the portable gas content analyser, has produced consistent gas content results for a set of core samples obtained from a single borehole that intersected four coal seams. The retained gas content values obtained for the seams show the same increasing gas content pattern and gas composition change with depth as the standard quick crush technique. Use of the portable gas content analyser provides the opportunity to produce rapid, reliable gas content measurement of coal that could be developed for assessing gas compliance cores and outburst-prone conditions at a mine site.

  1. Profit shifting in the Norwegian and British petroleum industry: Differentiating between the real and shifting response to tax changes

    OpenAIRE

    Vada, Helene

    2016-01-01

    In this master’s thesis, I explain the concept of profit shifting within multinational enterprises and investigate whether petroleum companies on the Norwegian and British continental shelves engage in tax motivated profit shifting, by applying ordinary least squares and company fixed effects estimation. To be able to distinguish between traditional tax distortions and profit shifting, I extend the model developed by James R. Hines and Eric M. Rice in their 1994 article “Fiscal Paradise: Fore...

  2. REKUL'TIVATSIYA NARUSHENNYKH ZEMEL' V UGOL'NOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI [RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED LANDS IN THE COAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harionovskij A.A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the issue of reclamation of disturbed lands is due to the fact that coal mining by both open and underground methods is inevitably accompanied by exclusion from economic circulation and violation of lands for various purposes, by changing the terrain and forming an industrial landscape. The article contains information on the volumes of disturbance and reclamation of lands in the coal industry In the article the directions of reclamation and applied technologies, domestic developments and foreign experience are considered. It was noted that the priority areas for reclamation of disturbed lands in the coal industry are: agricultural, forestry and sanitary-hygienic. It is noted that the quality of the recultivated areas is not always at the proper level, which creates dif culties in their subsequent use. The main reasons for the low quality of reclamation are the lack of the necessary amount of initial data on the composition and properties of soil and rock mass of the dumps at the development stage of the reclamation projects, the lack of special technical means for performing remediation works at a high level, the lack of a landscape approach to the restoration of disturbed areas. Measures to prevent spontaneous combustion of rock dumps are laid in projects and are not implemented in practice in full, which leads to the occurrence of res. Two new developments in the eld of reclamation are presented: the microbiological method developed by MNIIECO TEK JSC, and the method for restoring the biological productivity of disturbed lands, proposed by the Scienti c Research Institute of Agricultural Problems of Khakassia SB RAAS. Identi ed problem issues in the eld of reclamation and a list of measures to improve the state of protection of land resources. In the article it is shown that in order to improve the state in the sphere of land resources protection in the coal industry, it is necessary to improve the applied mining technologies

  3. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  4. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  5. Industrial monument and symbol of a new beginning. Coal scrubber on mine Zollverein; Industriedenkmal und Symbol eines Neubeginns. Die Kohlenwaesche auf Zeche Zollverein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seht, Bernd von; Schneider, Helmut; Ferrarini, Dario [Ingenieurbuero Wetzel und von Seht, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The former coal mine ''Zollverein'' has been accepted in the UNESCO World Heritage List, which proves its status as an outstanding monument of industrial culture in the Ruhr region. Currently, the buildings are being converted into a culture and design forum of international renown. The coal scrubber building of Schacht XII is presented as an example to show how the conflicting goals of conservation and transformation can be integrated in consideration of current standards for supporting structures. (orig.)

  6. Oil and Beyond Expanding British Imperial Aspirations, Emerging Oil Capitalism, and the Challenge of Social Questions in the First World War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atabaki, Touraj; Ehsani, Kaveh; Bley, Helmut; Kremers, Anorthe

    2014-01-01

    With the onset of the First World War, the British state crafted a new strategy of shifting its industry, military and navel units from consuming coal to oil energy. This transition effectively turned Persian oil into a strategic military as well as economic resource of fundamental importance to the

  7. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Considine

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics.A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457 across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements. Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+ and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics.Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems.This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The

  8. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  9. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological

  10. Sanctions, the South African Coal Industry and the anti-apartheid movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    The report was compiled late last year by two British MPs, a member of the Economic and Social Committee to the European Communities and a representative of the Conservative Research Department. The report records the results of a fact-finding tour undertaken to investigate allegations by the anti-apartheid movement in the UK. The report is not a propaganda exercise, and was not sponsored by the South African Government.

  11. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems. Feasibility study of environmentally friendly type coal utilization systems in sectors except the coal industry in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sekitan kogyo igai no bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a comprehensive master plan for application of the coal utilization system, the paper surveyed and studied the coal utilization system in terms of environmental measures and efficiency improvement in the utilization of coal. As a result of the discussion with NEDO and the National Planning Committee of China, Liaoning Province (the whole China) and Shenyang City were selected as a model area and a model city for the survey and study. As energy conservation measures taken in the former, desirable are intensifying/capacity-increase of boilers, kilns, etc. and adoption of new-type/high-efficient equipment. Also expected are reinforcement of combustion control and improvement of efficiency by using coal preparation, industrial use coal briquette, etc. Measures taken in the latter are the same as those taken in the whole China. As SOx reduction measures for Liaoning Province, desirable is installation of dry-type desulfurization equipment and simple desulfurization equipment. As dust prevention measures for it, desirable is installation of electrostatic precipitators or high-functional bag filters. SOx reduction measures for Shenyang City are the same as those taken in the whole China. SOx can be reduced by using coal-prepared low-sulfur coal and industrial use coal briquette added with desulfurizing agent. 88 figs., 163 tabs.

  12. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes.

  13. Environmental Impact of Restructuring of the Coal Industry in the Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zhukova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative anthropogenesis impact on environment is now felt especially sharply and gains global character. One of the most large-scale subjects of the economic environment doing harm to environment are the enterprises of an coal complex as they in large volumes throw out the polluting substances and in high volumes take natural resources. However the field of activity of such enterprises is a priority for national economy, and difficult interchangeability of energy raw material resources demands from the state and the coal enterprises of development within realization of complete branch ecological-economic policy of the economic mechanism of stimulation of ecologically sustainable development of the coal complex. In the conditions of an economic crisis, threat of world recession and external economic pressure upon the forefront there are two priority economic tasks: maintaining economic and social stability and promote economic growth of the Russian economy and its regions. Along with attempts to stabilize the preserved and newly opened businesses, and really putting their place in the market economy, it is necessary to overcome the whole complex of socio-economic and environmental impacts of restructuring. The neutralization of the negative environmental impact of the closure of coal enterprises, as well as warning of emerging environmental hazards require large material costs. To reduce costs requires a comprehensive, scientifically sound approach to solving this global problem. Significant reserve to reduce the negative impact of ecological consequences of liquidation of mines on the environment is the task of the use of related natural resources, which are currently the sources of pollution of the biosphere.

  14. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  15. Modified coal fly ash as low cost adsorbent for removal reactive dyes from batik industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiq Agus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of reactive dyes on modified coal fly ash has been investigated during a series of batch adsorption experiments. Physical characteristics of modified coal fly ash was characterized by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET surface area analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The effects of operational parameters such as initial dye concentration (50–200 mg/L, solution pH (4–10 and adsorbent dosage (50–200 mg/L were studied. The adsorption experiments indicated that modified coal fly ash was effective in removing of Remazol Blue. The percentage removal of dyes increased while the modified fly ash dosage increased. The percentage removal of dyes increased with decreased initial concentration of the dye and also increased with amount of adsorbent used. The optimum of removal of dyes was found to be 94% at initial dye concentration 50 g/mL, modified fly ash dosage 250 g/mL, and pH of 2.0.

  16. Prices regulation in price-cap: the lessons of the british gas industry; Reglementations tarifaires en price-cap: les lecons de l'industrie gaziere anglaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, L.

    2003-07-01

    This article examines the problem of the price-cap regulation applied to the british gas transport. The RPI-X cap is a particular form of the price cap. This cap seems to be more remunerative for the regulatory firm than a cap calculated on the Laspeyres index because it authorizes a greater freedom of prices choice, to the prejudice of the consumers. Facing these perverse effects, Cowan proposed in 1997 a new system, not more satisfying. Another equation is analyzed in this article, proposed by Ofgem. Meanwhile this system presents no improvement of the consumers surplus facing the RPI-X cap. (A.L.B.)

  17. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  18. The redefinition of the american and british gas industries: the regulation of the access load to the gas pipelines networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    2000-10-01

    The transport and distribution networks regulation is the main stakes of the regulation reform of the gas industries. This thesis analyzes the models applied in The Usa and in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with the gas industries deregulation in these two countries, the impacts on the economy and the organization of the gas industries. The second part presents a theoretical approach of the regulation applied to the prices of the natural ags transport by gas pipelines. Regulation by the service cost price and by price cap are compared. (A.L.B.)

  19. THE DASHBOARD - STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT TOOL OF ACTIVITIES IN THE COAL MINING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the objectives at all levels and categories of functions in the unit, use multiple information systems, including the dashboard which is one of the management tools that responds very well to the rationale and supporting data of management decisions complementary to those provided by other media. In this respect, we try to calculate indicators organization currently working compartments of the coal mining units and will propose a series of indicators whose calculation we consider would be necessary for a detailed presentation as activity carried out and the improvement of management.

  20. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  1. The UK gas industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The progress of the gas industry in the United Kingdom (UK) for the year 1992 is reviewed, by the chairman of British Gas plc. Four areas of change are identified and discussed. Recent Government legislation and changes in regulations have led to improvements in efficiency and the growth of competition in the provision of gas supplies. British Gas's share of the UK market has fallen with the arrival of many new gas marketers. The Monopolies and Mergers Commission Inquiry into British Gas, published in July, has wide ranging implications. Finally, with the many coal pit closures announced in October, and the subsequent Coal Review, the gas-fired generation market received a substantial boost. (UK)

  2. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  3. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE RUHR DISTRICT – FROM THE FORMALLY CENTRE OF THE COAL AND STEAL INDUSTRY TO A CENTRE OF TERTIARY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Anhuf

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional development within the Ruhr district – from the formally centre of the coal and steel industry to a centre of tertiary services. The Ruhrgebiet (Ruhr district is an urban agglomeration in the western part of Germany with a population of approximately 5.3 Million, covering an area of 4.435 km². It’s part of the metropolitan area of Rhine-Ruhr with more than 10 Million inhabitants living in an area of about 10.000 km².The black coal resources, deposited during the carboniferous area form the natural backbone for the development of the largest region of coal, iron, and steel industry in Europe. The economy of the Ruhrgebiet was unidirectional dominated for more than 150 years by four heavy industry sectors, black coal, steel, chemical industry and energy production. But later, when petroleum and natural gas and cheaper imported black coal conquered the German market and, as well, steel could be produced at a reduced rate elsewhere in the world the booming producing industry quasi collapsed. Thus, the Region is characterized by an above average unemployment since the mid 70ies. More than 50% of the 1 Million jobs in the region were lost, while only 300.000 new jobs could be added within the service sector between 1980 and 2002. The economic and social structural change within the Ruhr district is primarily based on the expansion of services like advertisement, science, development, transport logistics, consulting, and design. But also the cultural and tourist branches are characterized by growing figures. The BIP, produced within the Ruhrgebiet, is about 26% of the BIP of North-Rhine-Westphalia or 6% of Germany’s BIP. In comparison, the metropolitan area of São Paulo produces 17% of the national BIP of Brazil.

  4. How can the British motorway services industry integrate corporate social responsibility strategies into business practice: A case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Stakeholder theory is considered within a corporate social responsibility context and applied to the motorway service industry. The application is focused on a specific case study site; Hopwood Park. Stakeholder salience model is considered within the identification of stakeholders of the site. A range of methodologies are then used and tested to engage within four specific stakeholder groups; employees, customers, community and the environment. Engagements allow understanding of co...

  5. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the commercial and industrial sectors in British Columbia: Technical/economic potential, market barriers, and strategies for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, K.

    2000-05-01

    According to current forecasts, greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption by the commercial and industrial sector will increase from 11,000 kilotonnes to 16,000 kilotons between 1990 and 2015. During the same period electricity generated in British Columbia from fossil fuel combustion will have increased from five per cent to 26 per cent. Therefore, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it will be imperative to find ways of significantly reducing the consumption of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products in both the commercial and industrial sectors. Increased application of energy conservation practices, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching and the increased use of renewable energy sources come to mind as the most appropriate strategies to be considered, despite formidable barriers to implementation. Despite the existence of barriers, some progress is being made as indicated by codes and standards, financial incentives, educational and public awareness campaigns, and research and development programs. This report examines the barriers, the measures that have already been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions and the economic and environmental benefits that will accrue from these and other measures currently under development. The beneficial impact of increased investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies on employment is emphasized. 24 refs., tabs., figs

  6. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to: http://ukinswitzerland.fco.gov.uk/en/passports/passport-move/

  7. Sulfidic vapor phase catalysts, especially tungsten sulfide, in industrial coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.

    1943-01-01

    The historical development of high-pressure processes of the I. G. Farbenindustrie, from ammonia through methanol and gasoline, and the special case of gasoline production with a fixed-bed catalyst (tungsten sulfide) were discussed. The preparation, properties, and uses of this versatile catalyst were discussed, but it was emphasized that with the sotrmy development of the process, a condition which still existed at the time of this report, and with a great number of practical problems to solve, no extensive study of basic facts had ben possible. This tungsten sulfide catalyst was an especially active vapor-phase catalyst which operated at lower temperatures than the molybdenum catalysts formerly used. It also permitted higher thruputs, even with the oils from bituminous coal that were difficult to split. For certain uses, such as the improvement of the antiknock properties or the saving in tungsten, it was strongly diluted. Studies on using up sulfur in the tungsten sulfide catalyst were in progress at this time and showed there was practically no reduction of it under the conditions of hydrogenation under pressure as long as the raw material contained sulfur.

  8. Ventilation air methane destruction - the new challenge to the underground coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Michael; Seddon, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of 'Carbon Taxes' the carbon footprint of coal has become an economic as well as an environmental issue and the emission of methane in mine out- bye air as ventilation air methane (VAM) is a pending liability. As well as being economic and environmental concerns, VAM and VAM management have safety, social licence and operational factors that must also be addressed. The need to mitigate (oxidise) methane to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour (VAM destruction) and thus lower the Greenhouse footprint is coming to be seen as a necessary mining activity. However, there are several key issues to be addressed with present technology using high temperature (1000°C) thermal oxidisers. Emerging technology may involve a catalytic approach. This technology aims to lower the oxidation temperature and produce a more efficient combustion process. Several systems (based on both precious metals and transition metals) have been shown to operate below 400°C. An ultimate solution would be oxidation at ambient temperature, which is clearly demonstrated by the enzyme methane mono-oxygenase (MMO) which oxidises methane to methanol. However, the rate of oxidation at ambient temperature is too low and the structure of the bio-reactors required would be very large. The challenge is to marry the natural oxidation with modern catalytic approaches and achieve high rates of methane oxidation, in compact equipment, well below the methane auto-ignition temperature.

  9. Research of composite fuels thermophysical properties based on low-grade coals with addition of fine sawdust and flour industry wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankovsky Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have been carried out to determine the energy and technical characteristics of composite fuels from coal grade 3B (Balakhtinskoye deposit, fine waste and flour from the milling industry. An effective concentration of 50% / 50% composite fuel has been established without the addition of a flour component, in which the combustion heat is reduced by less than 8%, with the flour component added up to 15%, the heat of combustion further decreases less than 2% of the heat of combustion of homogeneous coal. At the same time, the ash content is reduced to 11%, the yield of volatile components remains at the concentration level of the composite fuel of coal and wood. It is established that this component composition of three types of fuel is suitable for the formation of fuel briquettes suitable for burning in furnaces of small power boilers.

  10. Coal 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1995-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke in Sweden during 1994. Some information about technology, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used.The use of steam coal for heating purposes has been unchanged during 1994 at a level of 1 Mtons. The production in the cogeneration plants has been constant, but has increased for electricity production. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. The use of steam coal will probably go down in the next years both for heat and cogeneration plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water and 11 cogeneration plants. 1994 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in industry has been constant at the level 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1.6 Mtons, like 1992. Import of 0.3 Mtons of coke gives the total consumption of coke in industry as 1.5 Mtons. the average price of steam coal imported to Sweden was 317 SEK/ton, 3% higher than 1993. All Swedish plants meet their emission limit of dust, SO 2 and NO x as given by county administrations or concession boards. The cogeneration plants all have some SO 2 removal system. The biggest cogeneration plant (Vaesteraas) has recently invested in a SCR NO x cleaning system. Most other plants use low NO x burners or SNR injection systems based on ammonia or urea. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  11. Utilization of coal rejects and coal washery tailings in Yong Rong Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, T.; Kefa, C.; Mingjiang, N.; Guoguan, H.; Yong, C.; Xiang, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The coal rejects and coal washery tailings discharged by coal washery not only occupies farmland but also causes environmental pollution. With the development of coal industry, the problem becomes more serious. In this paper, the properties of coal rejects and coal washery tailings are analyzed. The technology that burn coal rejects and coal washery tailings in boilers to produce electric power is reported. It has been shown the technology is feasible and successful. It saves energy as well as protects the environment

  12. Ground water-surface water relations in the Flathead River valley near the proposed Cabin Creek coal mine, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, J.A.; Liebscher, Hugh; Van Voast, W. A.; Feltis, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The area of the proposed Cabin Creek coal mine was studied to obtain information needed to respond to questions posed by the International Joint Commission advisers concerning water resources near the international border. Specific interest focused on determining the extent and character of surficial material in the Flathead River valley, identifying gaining and losing reaches of the river and major tributaries, and documenting ambient water quality at selected sites. Thickness of the alluvial deposits depends on depth to underlaying Quaternary glacial deposits or Tertiary bedrock. The alluvial deposits in the Flathead River valley thin to a veneer of cobbles near the mouth of Couldrey Creek. Measurements of streamflow at 20 sites in the Flathead River valley indicate that water discharges from the alluvial deposits to most of the tributaries and to the river near the proposed mine. The Flathead River gains 0.87 cu m/sec (31 cu ft/sec) of flow near Howell Creek. The Flathead River and Couldrey Creek gained about 0.81 cu m/sec (28.5 cu ft/sec) of flow near the mouth of Couldrey Creek where bedrock crops out in the streambeds. Bedrock outcrops effectively interrupt the alluvial aquifer system between the proposed mine site and the international border. The Flathead River lost 0.87 cu m/sec (31 cu ft/sec) of flow between the bedrock outcrops and the international border; this streamflow loss enters alluvial deposits and flows across the international border as subsurface flow. Analysis of samples from 18 stream sites and 1 spring site indicates general trends in water quality. In Howell Creek, concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and sulfates increased slightly downstream. Conversely, samples from Sage and Couldrey Creeks indicate downstream increases in concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and alkalinity, but decreases in concentrations of sulfate. Water quality of Cabin Creek was relatively stable through the sampled reach. Decreased concentrations of calcium and

  13. Industrial hygiene aspects of a sampling survey at a bleached-kraft pulp mill in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrakianakis, G; Svirchev, L; Tang, C; Janssen, R; Anderson, J; Band, P; Le, N; Fang, R; Bert, J

    1998-10-01

    To validate exposure estimates used to investigate correlations between exposure and cancer risk, 1678 personal measurements were collected for 46 job titles during 73 day shifts at a bleached-kraft pulp mill. Measurements included shift-long average and short-term exposures to carbon monoxide, chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and hydrogen sulfide; and shift-long average exposures to calcium oxide and wood dust (WD). Overall results indicate low levels of exposure with a few noteworthy exceptions. Although ClO2 was the exclusive bleaching agent, 77 area samples indicated that chlorine (Cl2), not ClO2 was present in all areas apart from the chemical preparation area (chem-prep) and during a pulp spill. The highest shift-long exposures to Cl2 were measured in the chip yard and are attributed to uncontrolled stack emissions. Finally, WD samples collected from several laborers significantly exceeded regulatory limits, with the highest exposures measured in the steam and recovery area. For short-term exposures to ClO2 in chem-prep, 12 of 17 data-logging electro-chemical sensor sample results showed at least one peak that exceeded the short-term exposure limit of 0.3 ppm. The use of data-logging equipment quantified short-term exposures that previously had been characterized only anecdotally. The peaks were correlated with tasks and upset conditions and, given their transient nature, these exceedances could not have been detected using shift-long average-based sampling devices. Since the respiratory effects of significant short-term exposures to irritant gases such as Cl2 and ClO2 are well-documented, data-logging instruments are necessary to characterize exposures in the pulp and paper industry.

  14. Factors contributing to industrial accidents during coal mining operations. [Bulgaria: 1978 and 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkova, N.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred cases of severe industrial traumas from 1978 to 1979 were analyzed on a computer. The information was coded into four groups, characterizing the human undergoing the trauma, the time of the event, the working environment and the equipment involved, the causes of the accident (objective and subjective with respect to the victim). Eighty-six variables (values) of two types were input into the computer: quantitative (age, length of service at that job and in the profession, the month, date, day, hour and shift); categorical (profession- 11 subgroups; place of the event- 12 subgroups; work being done at the time of the event- 12 subgroups; indirect cause of the accident- 10 subgroups; circumstances of the accident- 11 subgroups; objective 15 subgroups and subjective- 7 subgroups of causes with respect to the victim). Ten factors were identified which lead to industrial accidents (By level of importance); poor dicipline, work shift, profession, date of the month, mine transport, poor instruction, unsafe work place, length of service, month of the year, poor organization of the work place. The following conclusions were made on the basis of these results: 1) poor discipline is undoubtably a primary factor in work safety; In a narrow context, it is connected with insufficient knowledge and lack of expertise, inability to work safely, poor control and organization of the work place; 48% of industrial accidents occur among stope miners and timbermen; 27% among transport workers; 2) 50% of the accidents occurred during the first shift, 16% between 11 and 12 o'clock; 3) 39.5% occurred at the end of the month; 4) 39% occurred due to insufficient and poor quality instruction, lack of necessary expertise and the ability to work safely.

  15. An information guide on pursuing biomass energy opportunities and technologies in British Columbia for First Nations, small communities, municipalities and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-07

    The province of British Columbia (BC) has committed to maintaining a share of at least 90 per cent of its electricity generation from clean and renewable energy sources. It has also mandated that all new facilities will have net zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass is a carbon neutral renewable resource and can make a significant contribution towards this goal. Biomass can also support energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction goals in the fields of heat and transportation fuels. The purpose of this primer was to assist stakeholders in small communities, Aboriginal groups, municipalities and industry in developing and pursuing bioenergy options in BC. The primer provided an overview of bioenergy in BC and examined local considerations such as bioenergy feedstocks; transport of bioenergy; comparison of options; and potential applications. The primer also provided a technology review of anaerobic digestion; combustion, gasification and pyrolysis; pelletization of wood; high-temperature gasification of MSW and biomass; lignocellulosic ethanol; and biodiesel or sundiesel. Funding sources such as private financing, grants, and additional income and incentives were also presented along with a discussion on grid connection and power sales issues. 12 refs., 19 tabs., 21 figs.

  16. An information guide on pursuing biomass energy opportunities and technologies in British Columbia : for First Nations, small communities, municipalities and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-31

    Biomass is an important renewable energy source that can support energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction goals in the fields of heat and transportation fuels. The purpose of this document was to help stakeholders in small communities, Aboriginal groups, municipalities and industry develop and pursue bioenergy options in British Columbia (BC). Specifically, the intent of the document was to help stakeholders identify bioenergy options and technologies suitable for the biomass resource and bioenergy markets available to them; identify potential hurdles and requirements related to each of the technologies described; learn about ways to finance a bioenergy project; understand the steps involved in the development of a project; and identify technology providers in Canada. The document provided an overview of bioenergy in BC and discussed local considerations; bioenergy feedstocks and evaluating assets and defining products; transport; comparison; and potential applications. The document also presented a technology review and comparison, including anaerobic digestion; combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis; pelletization of wood; high-temperature gasification of MSW and biomass; lignocellulosic ethanol and biodiesel. Funding sources and grid connection and power sales were also addressed. Last, the document discussed the feasibility of developing a biomass energy project in BC. Consultants and technology vendors were identified along with additional literature and information. 12 refs., 18 tabs., 23 figs.

  17. Coal information 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Coal Information (1997 edition) is the latest edition of a publication that has been produced annually by the IEA since 1983. The report is intended to provide both Member countries of the OECD and those employed in all sectors of the coal industry with information on current world coal market trends and long-term prospects. It includes information on coal prices, demand, trade, supply, production capacity, transport, environmental issues (including emission standards for coal-fired boilers), coal ports, coal-fired power stations and coal used in non -OECD countries. Part I of the publication contains a wide ranging review of world coal market developments in 1996 and current prospects to 2010. The review is based on historical data of OECD energy supply and demand, data on other world regions, projections of OECD coal supply, demand and trade and information provided by the CIAB. Part II provides, in tabular and graphical form, a more detailed and comprehensive statistical picture of coal developments and future prospects for coal in the OECD, by region and for individual Member countries. Readers interested in projections are strongly advised to read the notes for individual countries in Principles and Definitions in Part II. Coal statistics for non-OECD countries are presented in Part III of the book. Summary data are available on hard coal supply and end-use statistics for about 40 countries and regions world-wide. Data are based on official national submissions to the United Nations in Geneva and New York, national energy publications, information provided to the IEA Secretariat by national statistical offices as well as other unofficial Secretariat sources. Further information on coal used in non-OECD countries is published annually by the IEA in Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries. Also included in Part III are the Survey of Coal Ports world-wide and the Survey of Coal-fired Power Stations in coal-importing countries

  18. Risk management of energy efficiency projects in the industry - sample plant for injecting pulverized coal into the blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Filip P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the applicability of well-known risk management methodologies in energy efficiency projects in the industry. The possibilities of application of the selected risk management methodology are demonstrated within the project of the plants for injecting pulverized coal into blast furnaces nos. 1 and 2, implemented by the company US STEEL SERBIA d.o.o. in Smederevo. The aim of the project was to increase energy efficiency through the reduction of the quantity of coke, whose production requires large amounts of energy, reduction of harmful exhaust emission and increase productivity of blast furnaces through the reduction of production costs. The project was complex and had high costs, so that it was necessary to predict risk events and plan responses to identified risks at an early stage of implementation, in the course of the project design, in order to minimise losses and implement the project in accordance with the defined time and cost limitations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179081: Researching contemporary tendencies of strategic management using specialized management disciplines in function of competitiveness of Serbian economy

  19. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States); Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui [Ministry of Electric Power, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  1. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since

  2. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine E; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B

    2010-01-12

    Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since employed IA in

  3. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. Methods and Findings In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical

  4. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-04-01

    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  5. International exchange project for the engineer exchange project (in coal mine technology area) in fiscal 1998. Pre-survey in Europe; 1998 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Jizen chosa (Oshu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey in Europe surveyed the current status of the coal industry, supporting directions and policies of governments on the coal industry, and summarized the information thereof. The survey included movements in policies and activities in transfer of technologies to overseas countries by governments and corporations of different countries, and the current status of the coal technology training project. The survey covered Britain and Germany. The British coal industry is facing a serious difficulty because the electric power industry being the major coal purchaser has changes its sourcing to natural gas. In addition, the open-cut mining which has been considered high in productivity has no further hope of big progress due to regulations in the environmental aspects. However, as a result of having performed positively research and development on production cost reduction, the production efficiency has grown excellently. Using this situation as the base, positive advancement into overseas countries is being carried out. The German coal industry has, in spite of having reduced the production size and the number of coal mines, shifted coal purchasers to electric power generation and steel making areas, and its quality and supply capability stand equivalent to those of imported coals. (NEDO)

  6. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials

  7. Analysis of thermal coal pricing and the coal price distortion in China from the perspective of market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Herui; Wei, Pengbang

    2017-01-01

    The price of thermal coal has always been the focus of the debate between coal mining industry and electric power industry. The thermal coal price is always lower than other same quality coal, and this phenomenon of thermal coal price distortion has been existing in China for a long time. The distortion coal price can not reflect the external cost and the resource scarcity of coal, which could result in environment deteriorating and inefficient resource allocation. This paper studied the phenomenon of thermal coal price distortion through economic theoretical modeling and empirical cointegration analysis from the perspective of market forces. The results show that thermal coal price is determined by electricity price, the prediction elasticity of a electricity enterprise, price elasticity of demand of electricity, the input prediction elasticity of a electricity enterprise and the price elasticity of supply of thermal coal. The main reason of coal price distortion is the unbalance market force of coal industry and thermal coal generation industry. The distortion rate of coal price is positively related to the market force of electric power industry and negatively related to the industrial concentration of coal industry. - Highlights: • This paper studied thermal coal pricing and the coal price distortion in China. • The main reason of coal price distortion is the unbalance market force. • Thermal coal price is also influenced by electricity price and price elasticity of demand of electricity. • The distortion rate of coal price is negatively related to the industrial concentration of coal industry.

  8. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  9. The quality of Environmental Management Programmes (EMPRs) within the coal mining industry in South Africa / Casper Joubert

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Mining operations negatively impact the environment and, as a result, South African legislation requires that, as part of an Environmental Impact Assessment, an Environmental Management Programme (EMPRs) be developed and implemented to manage all the impacts identified. The Coal Mining Sector was selected for this research because of the important role it plays within the South African economy. In this research, the quality of Environmental Management Programmes within the Coal Mining Sector ...

  10. Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-06-12

    Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

  11. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  12. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1994--February 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.

    1995-05-12

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and stagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first three phases (i.e., the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours.

  13. Organization, activities, and issues with particular emphasis on coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses Colorado's coal industry; the Colorado Mining Association; lobbying and legislative actions; industry networking, information, and communications; coal issues and activities; and Colorado issues and activities. Some of the latter include: land reclamation of mined lands; oil and gas drilling and coal mine conflicts; wild and scenic river designations; general permitting of coal mining discharges; and coal mine land reclamation awards

  14. Coal gasification in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first analyzes European energy consumption and supply dynamics within the framework of the European Communities energy and environmental policies calling for the increased use of natural gas, reduced energy consumption, promotion of innovative renewable energy technologies, and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This analysis evidences that, while, at present, the increased use of natural gas is an economically and environmentally advantageous policy, as well as, being strategically sound (in view of Middle East political instability), fuel interchangeability, in particular, the option to use coal, is vital to ensure stability of the currently favourable natural gas prices and offer a locally available energy alternative to foreign supplied sources. Citing the advantages to industry offered by the use of flexible, efficient and clean gaseous fuels, with interchangeability, the paper then illustrates the cost and environmental benefits to be had through the use of high efficiency, low polluting integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants equipped to run on a variety of fuels. In the assessment of technological innovations in this sector, a review is made of some of the commercially most promising gasification processes, e.g., the British Gas-Lurgi (BGL) slagging gasifier, the high-temperature Winkler (HTW) Rheinbraun, and the Krupp Koppers (PRENFLO) moving bed gasifier processes

  15. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  16. The position of the French coal industry on the European Commission strategy against acidification; Position de charbonnages de France sur la strategie de lutte contre l`acidification de la commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejean, M. [CDF Energie, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The Charbonnages de France group (French coal industry) presents several objections to the projected European Commission program concerning the reduction of air pollution emission and acidification: reaching so rapidly the projected reduction level means a drastic improvement to the large burning plants, regardless of the low operating duration of the coal plants in France, which are used for electric power production only at peak or semi-base periods or in industries (principally food industry) with low energy duration requirements, and regardless of the important emission reductions already achieved in France. The coal industry proposes to simply apply the present IPPC directive; already, turning to circulating fluidized bed units has allowed important SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission reductions. The evolution of sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions in France between 1990 and 1995 is detailed

  17. Developing Queensland coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, A. [Australian QTherm (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Despite regional economic woes and falling coal prices, there have been exciting developments in Queensland`s coal industry with the announcement of three new coal mines, four mine expansions and two mine feasibility studies being undertaken. The article describes new projects being undertaken in Coppabella, Morahbah North and Hall Creek all in the Northern Bowen Basin, and mine expansions underway at Burton, Enshan, Newlands and Oaky North. Feasibility studies are the progress in the Millmerran and Acland deposits in The Moreton Basin. However, a number of proposed expansions at some major mines, such as Moura, Saraji and Peak Downs, have been postponed due to falling international coal prices. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  18. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  19. Feasibility study: comparison of coal- and nuclear-fueled alternatives for process steam and by product electrical power generation for the PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a small, (365 MWt) nuclear reactor for supplying process steam and electricity as a replacement for energy sources using increasingly scarce natural gas or oil. The PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site at Lake Charles, Louisiana, was chosen as representative of industrial installations that require sizeable amounts of process steam and electricity. For comparison purposes conventional coal-fired boilers were also evaluated. It was determined that both nuclear- and coal-based process energy supply systems are technically feasible. For the specific steam/electricity demands at the reference site, the coal-fired plant proved to be economically more attractive than the nuclear units. For an application requiring a base-loaded supply of saturated steam, utilizing full reactor capacity, the nuclear option appears competitive for coal costing $40/ton in 1978 dollars.

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  1. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council

  2. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  3. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  4. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  5. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Survey by region/industry in India; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indo ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    A survey was made in India which is a coal producing/consuming country following China in Asia and where coal is used for about 60% of the primary commercial energy. The survey was conducted on coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental issues, aiming at studying feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly coal utilization system into every industry including the residential/commercial one, and at implementing a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation. Total power source facilities in fiscal 1995 are 83.3 million kW, 64% of which are coal thermal power facilities and generated 260 TWh, 69% of the total output energy. Main commercial energy sources are coal, oil and natural gas, and oil is self-sufficient. The survey this time did not examine very well the actual state of the environmental pollution problem caused by the coal utilization. Indian coal is high in ash content but low in sulfur content, and therefore, SOx polluting air has not been a very important problem so far, but soot/smoke is almost the problem. Further, ash treatment after combustion at boilers, etc. is expected to be a big problem in the future. 49 figs., 88 tabs.

  6. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, Y.; Cosnard, D.

    2005-01-01

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  7. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  8. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  9. Introduction: Technologies of Fire in Nineteenth-Century British Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sullivan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultural histories of nineteenth-century Britain have studied the important physical and psychological transformations caused by the industrialization of light. Gaslight, though discovered prior to the nineteenth century, became aligned with the era’s narratives of national and industrial progress, an arc that, one might argue, culminated in the growing popularity of electric light at the end of the century. Yet, despite these new technologies of ‘artificial light’, ‘natural’ wood and coal fires remained popular in British culture. This issue explores fire as a visual and narrative technology in art, literature, and public displays by examining the ways in which it evoked competing symbolic values, such as primitivism and modernity, vitality and destruction, intimacy and spectacle. The reading order mixes articles and shorter pieces together to demonstrate the continuities of fire across various sites, including: the domestic fireside, the tallow candle, theatrical conflagrations, Turner’s fires, fireworks, funeral pyres, subterranean fire, solar fire, and a coal-ship fire.

  10. The role of multiple regression and exploratory data analysis in the development of leukemia incidence risk models for comparison of radionuclide air stack emissions from nuclear and coal power industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybutok, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    Risk associated with power generation must be identified to make intelligent choices between alternate power technologies. Radionuclide air stack emissions for a single coal plant and a single nuclear plant are used to compute the single plant leukemia incidence risk and total industry leukemia incidence risk. Leukemia incidence is the response variable as a function of radionuclide bone dose for the six proposed dose response curves considered. During normal operation a coal plant has higher radionuclide emissions than a nuclear plant and the coal industry has a higher leukaemia incidence risk than the nuclear industry, unless a nuclear accident occurs. Variation of nuclear accident size allows quantification of the impact of accidents on the total industry leukemia incidence risk comparison. The leukemia incidence risk is quantified as the number of accidents of a given size for the nuclear industry leukemia incidence risk to equal the coal industry leukemia incidence risk. The general linear model is used to develop equations that relate the accident frequency required for equal industry risks to the magnitude of the nuclear emission. Exploratory data analysis revealed that the relationship between the natural log of accident number versus the natural log of accident size is linear. (Author)

  11. Technological changes illustrated by the coal tar and tar dye industry; Die Wandlung der Technik am Beispiel der Steinkohlenteer- und Teerfarben-Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chemisches Apparatewesen, Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V. (DECHEMA), Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Coal tar was detected in the 17th century in laboratory experiments based on empirical knowledge. In the 18th century industrial revolution, coal tar was an undesired by-product of iron production and coking plants. It was first used in the 19th century for impregnating railway sleepers. Later developments in atomic theory, new chemical symbols and organic element analysis provided the basis for discovering and chemical characterisation of coal tar constituents. Laboratory experiments with these tar constituents resulted in the first synthetic dyes, the postulation of tetravalent carbon and the resulting structural theory in organic chemistry for systematic synthesis of many tar dyes to substitute natural dyes in the textile industry. The technical application of these syntheses was part 2 of the industrial revolution and the foundation of the chemical industry in Germany, which developed rapidly in the 2nd half of the 19th century. Tar dye chemistry has made a significant contribution to Germany's economic growth and the change from an agricultural to an industrialized country. [German] Die Entdeckung des Steinkohlenteers im 17. Jahrhundert basiert auf durch Erfahrungswissen gepraegten Laboratoriumsexperimenten. Im Verlauf der 'Industriellen Revolution' des 18. Jahrhunderts ist der Steinkohlenteer zunaechst ein laestiges Abfallprodukt der Eisengewinnung im Kokshochofen und der Leuchtgasherstellung durch Kohlenverkokung. Erste technische Applikation finden Steinkohlenteeroele im 19. Jahrhundert durch den Eisenbahnbau zur Langzeit-Konservierung der dafuer benoetigten Holzschwellen. Die wissenschaftlichen Erfkenntnisse zur Atomtheorie, eine neue chemische Zeichensprache und die organische Elementaranalyse werden Voraussetzungen zur Entdeckung und chemischen Charakterisierung der Hauptinhaltsstoffe des Steinkohlenteers. Laboratoriumsexperimente mit den entdeckten Teerinhaltsstoffen fuehren zur Erfindung der ersten synthetischen Farbstoffe, die

  12. Coal: Less than lackluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerell, P.

    1994-01-01

    Not many in the world coal industry will remember 1993 as a good year. The reasons for the poor state of affairs were first the weak economic climate, and second, the energy glut. For the first time after expanding steadily since the 70s, seaborne trade in hard coal fell by about 4% to 350M mt. Steam coal accounted for a good half of this volume. While demand continued to rise in the newly industrialized countries of the Pacific area, imports into Europe of both coking coal and steam coal fell sharply. The United States, CIS, and Canada had to accept substantial losses of export volume. Australia, as well as South Africa, Colombia, and Indonesia consolidated their market positions and Poland, too, recorded high volumes available for export. The positive news came from Australia, where in mid-December the New South Wales coal industry reported an increase in the net profit after tax from $A83M (about $55M) to $A98M (about $126M) in 1992/1993. This success was however ascribed less to an improvement in the fundamental mining indicators than to the fall in the Australian dollar and the lowering of corporate tax. The reduction in capital investment by 26% down to $A330M (after the previous year when it had also been cut by 25%) is seen by the chairman of the NSW Coal Assoc. as not auguring well for the industry's ability to meet the forecast growth in demand to the year 2000

  13. Is there a risk to safety when working in the New South Wales underground coal-mining industry while having binaural noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, D A; Nie, V; Guest, M

    2006-03-01

    Underground coal-mine workers suffer noise-induced hearing loss and continue working in the industry while having varying degrees of deafness. Few studies have researched the risk to safety arising from the loss of hearing. This study is designed to investigate the possible association between hearing loss and accidents in the New South Wales underground coal-mining industry. A study was conducted, gathering data over a 10-year period from 1994 to 2003, which identified 97 cases that have had accidents and 983 controls that have had no accidents. Hearing loss levels were noted and compared in the cases and controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether the variables were significant risk factors in the occurrence of accidents. Hearing loss levels in the total cohort varied from 0 to 54%. The proportion of cases with hearing loss appeared to be significantly higher in the young age group of <29 years than in the controls, but was not significantly different in the older age groups. This study indicates that workers who have lost up to 54% binaural high tone hearing and are older than 29 years do not appear to have an increased risk to safety when compared with workers who do not have hearing loss. However, workers in the young age group of <29 years who have high tone hearing loss may be at an increased risk of accident.

  14. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  15. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  16. British Capital, Industry and Perseverance’ versus Dutch ‘Old School’?: The Dutch Atlantic and the Takeover of Berbice, Demerara and Essequibo, 1750-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Oostindie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent historiography has reconsidered the idea that the Dutch role in the early modern Atlantic was of little significance, particularly in comparison to the accomplishments of the Dutch East India Company (voc in Asia. Revisionist studies have emphasised that in spite of the limited and fragmented nature of the Dutch Atlantic ‘empire’, the Atlantic contribution to the Dutch economy was significant and possibly even greater than the voc’s share. Moreover, this scholarship stresses the vital role of Dutch Atlantic colonies (Curaçao and St Eustatius, (partly Jewish networks and individuals in connecting the various subempires of the Atlantic. While Oostindie subscribes to many of these conclusions, he argues against excessive revisionism. His analysis of the development of the lesser Dutch Guianas, adjacent to Suriname, is used as a counter-weight to this revisionist impulse. He demonstrates that the spectacular economic and demographic development of these colonies was due mainly to British and (British American involvement culminating in the eventual British takeover of ‘Guiana’.

  17. Coal -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1994-05-01

    This report deals with use of coal and coke during 1993; information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Use of steamcoal for heating purposes has been reduced about 3 % during 1993 to 1,0 mill tons. This is the case especially for the heat generating boilers. Production in co-generation plants has been constant and has increased for electricity production. Minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels, LPG and NG. Use of steamcoal will probably go down in the immediate years both in heat generating and co-generating plants. Coal-based electricity has been imported from Denmark during 1993 corresponding to about 400 000 tons of coal, when several of our nuclear plants were stopped. Use of steamcoal in the industry has been constant at 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1993 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. Coke consumption in industry was 1,4 mill tons. 0,2 mill tons of coke were imported. Average price of steamcoal imported to Sweden in 1993 was 308 SEK/ton or 13 % higher than in 1992; this can be explained by the dollar price level increasing 34% in 1993. For the world, the average import price was 50,0 USD/ton, a decrease of 6 %. The coal market during 1993 was affected by less consumption in Europe, shut downs of European mines and decreasing prices. High freight price raises in Russia has affected the Russian export and the market in northern Europe. The prices have been stabilized recently. All Swedish plants meet emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x . Co-generation plants all have some sort of SO 2 -removal system; the wet-dry method is mostly used. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO x -duties is a 40% reduction

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semi-annual technical progress report, 15 August 1995--15 February 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to determine the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. Information will also be generated to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The first three phases (i.e., the first 1,000-hour demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) will be conducted with a proven CWSF-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrid circuit was recently installed and will be evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and will be used to generate baseline data firing No. 6

  19. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  20. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  1. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2000; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt.

  2. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  3. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1998; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [German] Nach einem einfuehrenden Text, der in die Abschnitte Energie- und Kohlenmarkt, Steinkohlenbergbau und Braunkohlenbergbau gegliedert ist, wird ein umfangreiches Tabellenmaterial vorgelegt, das die wichtigsten Kennzahlen des deutschen Kohlenbergbaus enthaelt. (orig.)

  4. Integrated coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, D.J.; Jones, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Perceptions of quality have changed over the years. The attributes of a certain coal (its rank, slagging propensity, ash content etc) are traditionally referred to as its quality. However, the subject of this paper is quality in a much wider sense: quality as fitness for purpose: and all that such a wide definition entails. British Standard BS 5750 (ISO 9000) Quality Systems defines a systems approach to quality, and includes both the supplier of raw materials and the final customer within this boundary. Coal preparation starts at the production face. The greater the proportion of dirt in run-of-mine product the greater the challenge in satisfying the customer's needs. Significant advances have been made in minimizing mined dirt. For example, the sue of vertical steering on longwall faces improves productivity and quality. Unfortunately modern mining methods produce large quantities of fines, despite efforts to reduce them at the point of production and during transportation to the surface. Coal preparation also produces further fines. It has been estimated that fine coal costs 2.5 times as much to clean as large coal, and the costs of handing wet fine coal product will inflate this estimate. Handling considerations rightly concern our customers and are part of the wider meaning of quality. In this paper the authors address some novel solutions to the challenge posed by fines

  5. An evaluation of microwave-driven stannylation followed by in situ {sup 119}Sn MAS n.m.r. spectroscopy as a probe for hydroxyl functionality in medium-rank British coals and macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manak, H.; Monsef-Mirzai, P.; McWhinnie, W.R.; Hamor, T.A. [Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    1997-07-01

    The paper describes the derivatization of hydroxyl groups in coals and coal macerals by stannylation. Stannylation of a range of phenolic compounds with Me{sub 3}SnCl, Bu{sub 3}SnCl and (Bu{sub 3}Sn){sub 2}O (TMTO) was carried out under both microwave-driven and conventional conditions. The degree of Stannylation was influenced by the steric environment of the OH group, implying that stannylation in comparison with, say trimethylsilylation of OH groups could help to map the steric environments of phenolic groups in coals. Good maceral separations of Creswell coal and acceptable separation of Cottonwood coal were achieved. The whole coals and the macerals were stannylated with TBTO under microwave-enhanced conditions and the products were examined by {sup 119}Sn MAS n.m.r. and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reaction was confined to surface regions. Differences were found in the behaviour of the macerals. The crystal and molecular structures of the trimethylstannyl derivative of 2,6-diphenylphenol were determined, to establish the validity of the claim to have stannylated model compounds. Molecular parameters were compared with related systems. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. The environment, public relations and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, W.J. (Coal Association of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    Information is presented in note format. The presentation covers world environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect, an overview of the coal industry's role in atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and finally, the need for the coal industry to make the public aware of coal's current and future role in our economic and energy future.

  7. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 70mm black and white infrared photography acquired in March 1973 at an approximate scale of 1:115,000 permits the identification of areas of mine subsidence not readily evident on other films. This is largely due to the high contrast rendition of water and land by this film and the excessive surface moisture conditions prevalent in the area at the time of photography. Subsided areas consist of shallow depressions which have impounded water. Patterns with a regularity indicative of the room and pillar configuration used in subsurface coal mining are evident.

  9. Rehabilitation of residual pits in post-mining area: a goal of Czech brown coal opencast mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, I.

    1997-01-01

    The closure of surface brown coal mines is a complex process with many specific considerations. In the Czech Republic a special project was proposed to analyze the types of environmental disturbance generated by surface mining operations and suggest procedures for the affected areas. It also aims to propose rehabilitation techniques for residual pits, considering their future use for recreational or development purposes. A Chabarovice mine case study demonstrates how to solve the problem of water flooding and utilization of the future residual lake. 2 figs

  10. 78 FR 60866 - National Coal Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...: Washington Court Hotel, 525 New Jersey Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20001-1527. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... general policy matters relating to coal and the coal industry Purpose of Meeting: The November 2013...

  11. Coal blending preparation for non-carbonized coal briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo; Fatimah, D.; Estiaty, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    Referring to the national energy policy targets for the years 2025, the government has launched the use of coal briquettes as an alternative energy replacement for kerosene and firewood. Non-carbonized briquettes in the form of coal briquettes as well as bio-coal briquettes are used in many small-medium industries and households, and are rarely used by large industries. The standard quality of coal briquettes used as raw material for non-carbonized briquettes is a minimum calorific value of 4,400 kcal/kg (adb); total sulfur at a maximum of 1% (adb), and water content at <12% (adb). The formation of coal deposits depends on the origin of the coal-forming materials (plants), the environment of deposition, and the geological conditions of the surrounding area, so that the coal deposits in each region will be different as well as the amount and also the quality. Therefore, the quantity and the quality of coal in each area are different to be eligible in the making of briquettes to do blending. In addition to the coal blending, it is also necessary to select the right materials in the making of coal briquettes and bio-coal briquettes. The formulation of the right mixture of material in the making of briquettes, can be produced of good quality and environmental friendly.

  12. British Nuclear Fuels (Warrington)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, D.; Cryer, B.; Bellotti, D.

    1992-01-01

    This adjournment debate is about British Nuclear Fuels plc and the 750 redundancies due to take place by the mid-1990s at BNFL, Risley. The debate was instigated by the Member of Parliament for Warrington, the constituency in which BNFL, Risley is situated. Other members pointed out that other industries, such as the textile industry are also suffering job losses due to the recession. However the MP for Warrington argued that the recent restructuring of BNFL restricted the financial flexibility of BNFL so that the benefits of contracts won for THORP at Sellafield could not help BNFL, Risley. The debate became more generally about training, apprentices and employment opportunities. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Energy explained the position as he saw it and said BNFL may be able to offer more help to its apprentices. Long- term employment prospects at BNFL are dependent on the future of the nuclear industry in general. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. (U.K)

  13. Coal and nuclear electricity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, F.

    1982-06-01

    Comparative economic analysis is used to contrast the economic advantages of nuclear and coal-fired electric generating stations for Canadian regions. A simplified cash flow method is used with present value techniques to yield a single levelized total unit energy cost over the lifetime of a generating station. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the effects of significant changes in some of the cost data. The analysis indicates that in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia nuclear energy is less costly than coal for electric power generation. In the base case scenario the nuclear advantage is 24 percent in Quebec, 29 percent in Ontario, 34 percent in Manitoba, and 16 percent in British Columbia. Total unit energy cost is sensitive to variations in both capital and fuel costs for both nuclear and coal-fuelled power stations, but are not very sensitive to operating and maintenance costs

  14. The Safety Journey: Using a Safety Maturity Model for Safety Planning and Assurance in the UK Coal Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Foster

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Safety Maturity Model was developed for use in UK coal mining operations in order to assess the level of compliance and effectiveness with a recently introduced standards based safety management system. The developed model allowed for a “self-assessment” of the maturity to be undertaken by teams from the individual sites. Assessments were undertaken at all sites (surface and underground and in some cases within each site (e.g., underground operations, surface coal preparation plant. Once the level of maturity was established, improvement plans were developed to improve the maturity of individual standards that were weaker than the average and/or improve the maturity as a whole. The model was likened to a journey as there was a strong focus on continual improvement and effectiveness of the standards, rather than pure compliance. The model has been found to be a practical and useful tool by sites as a means of identifying strengths and weaknesses within their systems, and as a means of assurance with the safety management system standards.

  15. Nitrogen removal and microbial community shift in an aerobic denitrification reactor bioaugmented with a Pseudomonas strain for coal-based ethylene glycol industry wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Cong; Cui, Chong-Wei; Qiu, Shan; Shi, Sheng-Nan; Li, Ang; Ma, Fang

    2017-04-01

    An aerobic denitrification system, initially bioaugmented with Pseudomonas strain T13, was established to treat coal-based ethylene glycol industry wastewater, which contained 3219 ± 86 mg/L total nitrogen (TN) and 1978 ± 14 mg/L NO 3 - -N. In the current study, a stable denitrification efficiency of 53.7 ± 4.7% and nitrite removal efficiency of 40.1 ± 2.7% were achieved at different diluted influent concentrations. Toxicity evaluation showed that a lower toxicity of effluent was achieved when industry wastewater was treated by stuffing biofilm communities compared to suspended communities. Relatively high TN removal (~50%) and chemical oxygen demand removal percentages (>65%) were obtained when the influent concentration was controlled at below 50% of the raw industry wastewater. However, a further increased concentration led to a 20-30% decrease in nitrate and nitrite removal. Microbial network evaluation showed that a reduction in Pseudomonas abundance was induced during the succession of the microbial community. The napA gene analysis indicated that the decrease in nitrate and nitrite removal happened when abundance of Pseudomonas was reduced to less than 10% of the overall stuffing biofilm communities. Meanwhile, other denitrifying bacteria, such as Paracoccus, Brevundimonas, and Brucella, were subsequently enriched through symbiosis in the whole microbial network.

  16. Coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the U.S. Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in Hungary were selected for standard coal analyses and major, minor and trace elements analysis. The mine areas sampled were selected to provide a spectrum of coal quality information for comparison with other coal areas in central Europe and worldwide. All of the areas are of major importance in the energy budget of Hungary. The five sample sites contain coal in rocks of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age. The coals, from four underground and one surface mine, range in rank from high volatile bituminous to lignite B. Most of the coal produced from the mines sampled is used to generate electricity. Some of the power plants that utilize the coals also provide heat for domestic and process usage. The standard coal analysis program is based on tests performed in accordance with standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Proximate and ultimate analyses were supplemented by determinations of the heating value, equilibrium moisture, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, ash fusion temperatures (both reducing and oxidizing), apparent specific gravity and Hardgrove Grindability index. The major, minor and trace element analyses were performed in accordance with standardized procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. The results of the program provide data for comparison with test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  17. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  18. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  19. Coalbed gas : responsibility developed for British Columbians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, M. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provided a general background of coalbed gas (CBG) development opportunities in British Columbia. It included a review of the coal resource and geology; the regulatory process and other useful information for potential investors; geoscience and the environment; and community and First Nations issues. CBG activity in British Columbia is in the early stage of exploration. Fifty wells have been evaluated since 1999 and it is expected that CBG will play a large role in the province's future energy supplies. The common concerns that have been expressed by various communities throughout the province include responsible development and mitigating any impacts on land, air, water, wildlife and people. In response to public interest, the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines has taken measures to regulate the environment and produced water. The government's approach to communities involves consultation with First Nations, which are key to resource development. tabs., figs.

  20. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  1. Bright outlook for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    After enduring contract price cuts over the past two years of almost 17% for thermal coal and 23% for hard coking coal, the New South Wales coal industry is looking forward to a reversal of fortune for 2001. Increased export demand, improved prices, significant improvements in mine site productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of a number of new projects or extensions progressing to development are likely to result in an increase in NSW saleable production to around 110 million tonnes (Mt) in 2000-01. Sharply weaker coal prices over the past two years, intensified international competition and the Asian economic downturn had a negative impact on profitability, investment, exports and employment in the NSW coal industry. As a result, the industry has undergone substantial restructuring. The restructuring process has led to a consolidation in ownership, reduced production costs and improved operational efficiency. The outcome is an industry well positioned to take advantage of the positive market conditions and one likely to experience levels of profitability not achieved over the past few years

  2. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  3. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  4. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  5. Bio-coal briquettes using low-grade coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiaty, L. M.; Fatimah, D.; Widodo

    2018-02-01

    The technology in using briquettes for fuel has been widely used in many countries for both domestic and industrial purposes. Common types of briquette used are coal, peat, charcoal, and biomass. Several researches have been carried out in regards to the production and the use of briquettes. Recently, researches show that mixing coal and biomass will result in an environmentally friendly briquette with better combustion and physical characteristics. This type of briquette is known as bio-coal briquettes. Bio-coal briquettes are made from agriculture waste and coal, which are readily available, cheap and affordable. Researchers make these bio-coal briquettes with different aims and objectives, depending on the issues to address, e.g. utilizing agricultural waste as an alternative energy to replace fossil fuels that are depleting its reserves, adding coal to biomass in order to add calorific value to bio-coal briquette, and adding biomass to coal to improve its chemical and physical properties. In our research, biocoal briquettes are made to utilize low grade coal. The biomass we use, however, is different from the ones used in past researches because it has undergone fermentation. The benefits of using such biomass are 1. Fermentation turns the hemi cellulose into a simpler form, so that the burning activation energy decreases while the calorific value increases. 2. Enzym produced will bind to heavy metals from coal as co-factors, forming metals that are environmentally friendly.

  6. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  7. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  8. 100 years of the main mine rescue service. A contribution to the protection against disasters in the coal mining industry; 100 Jahre Hauptstelle fuer das Grubenrettungswesen. Ein Beitrag zum Katastrophenschutz im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermuelheim, Walter [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Zentralbereich Arbeits-, Gesundheits- und Umweltschutz

    2011-06-15

    A review of 100 years of protection against disasters in the coal mining industry impressively shows the way from an era of major accidents to a modern branch of industry, which justifiably and with good prospects of success can pursue the aim of ''No accidents - no damage to health - no damage to the environment''. However, the development of the mine rescue service over more than 100 years - represented in the Ruhr by the Main Mine Rescue Service established in 1910 in Essen - would be incomplete without consideration of the allied technical fields underground fire protection and explosion protection. Cooperation between institutions such as the Tremonia test mine and the BVG has produced a safety level in all three fields, which is regarded as exemplary worldwide, and in addition to the latest mining technology is a good advertisement for the German coal mining industry. (orig.)

  9. Application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important result to date is the demonstration of the special value of repetitive ERTS-1 multiband coverage for detecting previously unknown fracture lineaments despite the presence of a deep glacial overburden. The Illinois Basin is largely covered with glacial drift and few rock outcrops are present. A contribution to the geological understanding of Illinois and Indiana has been made. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery has provided useful information to the State of Indiana concerning the surface mined lands. The contrast between healthy vegetation and bare ground as imaged by Band 7 is sharp and substantial detail can be obtained concerning the extent of disturbed lands, associated water bodies, large haul roads, and extent of mined lands revegetation. Preliminary results of analysis suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof fall accidents for a few areas investigated. ERTS-1 applications to surface mining operations appear probable, but further investigations are required. The likelihood of applying ERTS-1 derived fracture data to improve coal mine safety in the entire Illinois Basin is suggested from studies conducted in Indiana.

  10. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  11. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  12. Coal-to-liquids: Potential impact on U.S. coal reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from coal will very likely become an important part of the hydrocarbon energy mix of the future, provided that technical and environmental obstacles are overcome economically. The coal industry should be able to handle a coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry of modest size, using 60-70 million short tons or 54-64 million metric tonnes of coal per annum, without premature depletion of the country's coal reserves. However, attempts to use CTL technology to replace all petroleum imports would deplete the nation's coal reserves by the end of the century. ?? 2009 U.S. Government.

  13. The revolutionary importance of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Alan Macfarlane discusses the coal revolution, the change from energy harvested from the sun through plants and animals, to the stored carbon energy of millions of years of sunlight. Filmed on a coal heap in Coalbrookdale, where the industrial revolution in England began.

  14. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  15. Proceedings of the 34. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium and 35. annual Canadian Land Reclamation Association meeting : reclamation from planning to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Wambolt, T.; Van Zyl, D.; Riordan, B.; Hargreaves, J.; Pomeroy, K.; Beckett, P.; Giasson, M.; Polster, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The reclamation of lands disturbed by mineral extraction and processing or by other industrial activity is aimed at returning the land to a level that is equivalent to its pre-industrial activity. The environmental impacts of mine development were discussed along with opportunities to rehabilitate disturbed lands using new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. A broad range of reclamation, restoration and remediation methods for oil sand mining, coal mining and metals in soils were also discussed. The conference featured 30 presentations, including posters, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S. [Research and Design Institute for Problems of Development of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (KATEKNilugol), Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  17. Connect the Spheres with the Coal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Coal fueled the Industrial Revolution and, as a result, changed the course of human history. However, the geologic history of coal is much, much longer than that which is recorded by humans. In your classroom, the coal cycle can be used to trace the formation of this important economic resource from its plant origins, through its lithification, or…

  18. The Global Value of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal plays an essential role in our global energy mix, particularly for power generation; and through that to the alleviation of energy poverty. The use of coal continues to grow rapidly and will continue, together with other fuels, to support world economic and social development particularly in rapidly developing world economies such as China and India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight for policy makers the value of coal to world economic and social development and so encourage development of a policy environment that will allow the coal and electricity industries to make the necessary investments in production capacity and CO2 emissions reduction technologies.

  19. Buckets of money for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The revival of coal prices is providing record profits for Australian coal producers. As the world's largest coal exporter, any move in coal prices has significant ramifications for the Australian economy. The coal boom of the mid-1980s resulted in a massive increase in mine capacity and subsequently excess supply. This resulted in the decade between 1990 and 2000 seeing benchmark prices for coking coal in Japan plummeting to $US 39 a tonne (down from around the $US 52 mark) and a price of $US 28 for a tonne of steaming coal. Asia's financial problems, late in the decade coupled with a rapid fall in Asian steel making, also added to our coal export woes. As a result for most of the 1990s, Australia's coal sector delivered inadequate returns, was seen as over-capitalised and suffered from a profound investor indifference. But the sector is now seeing a definite turnaround in fortunes. Prices for thermal coal are on the rise and the benchmark coking coal prices to Asia have also jumped. Market analysts reported the price for contract deliveries of thermal coal in April this year were $US 34.50 ($AUD 69.35) up by $US 5.75 from the same time last year. The increased production is expected on the back of a continued rise in export demand, further improvement in prices, significant improvements in mine productivity, a weak Australian dollar and the probability of new projects and mine extensions going into operation. The improved returns have also flowed into rising valuations for listed coal miners. Over the last year, coal miners such as MIM and Gympie Gold, have delighted in share price gains of 12 per cent and 55 per cent respectively. These sort of performances are being repeated across the Australian industry

  20. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies

  1. The Chemicals, Coal and Petroleum Products, and Rubber Industries in Italy's Regions, 1861-1913: Time-Series Estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli Carlo; Fenoaltea Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Questo saggio presenta stime annuali della produzione delle industrie chimiche e affini nell'Italia post-unitaria, disaggregate per regione e per industria. Nel lungo periodo la produzione si concentra, e si sposta verso nord. La crescita più rapida si registra dai primi anni settanta ai primi anni novanta in Piemonte e in Lombardia, e poi, fino al 1913, in Liguria, in Toscana, e (grazie alla sua elettrochimica) in Umbria. Le regioni meridionali erano dominanti all'Unità; registrarono poi una...

  2. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  3. The Impact of Variability of Selected Geological and Mining Parameters on the Value and Risks of Projects in the Hard Coal Mining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Michał

    2017-09-01

    The paper attempts to assess the impact of variability of selected geological (deposit) parameters on the value and risks of projects in the hard coal mining industry. The study was based on simulated discounted cash flow analysis, while the results were verified for three existing bituminous coal seams. The Monte Carlo simulation was based on nonparametric bootstrap method, while correlations between individual deposit parameters were replicated with use of an empirical copula. The calculations take into account the uncertainty towards the parameters of empirical distributions of the deposit variables. The Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) were selected as the main measures of value and risk, respectively. The impact of volatility and correlation of deposit parameters were analyzed in two aspects, by identifying the overall effect of the correlated variability of the parameters and the indywidual impact of the correlation on the NPV and IRR. For this purpose, a differential approach, allowing determining the value of the possible errors in calculation of these measures in numerical terms, has been used. Based on the study it can be concluded that the mean value of the overall effect of the variability does not exceed 11.8% of NPV and 2.4 percentage points of IRR. Neglecting the correlations results in overestimating the NPV and the IRR by up to 4.4%, and 0.4 percentage point respectively. It should be noted, however, that the differences in NPV and IRR values can vary significantly, while their interpretation depends on the likelihood of implementation. Generalizing the obtained results, based on the average values, the maximum value of the risk premium in the given calculation conditions of the "X" deposit, and the correspondingly large datasets (greater than 2500), should not be higher than 2.4 percentage points. The impact of the analyzed geological parameters on the NPV and IRR depends primarily on their co-existence, which can be

  4. Mineral potential of Malawai. 3. Mineral deposits associated with sedimentary and volcanic cover rocks: Karoo and post-Karoo (coal, uranium, industrial minerals and gemstone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report was produced for the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Malawi. It gives information and maps of uranium deposits, coal deposits, coal-bed methane, natural gas and helium potential, limestone deposits and gemstones (blue agate, chalcedony and kimerlites, the primary source of diamonds). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 4 maps, 5 photos.

  5. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    importantly exploiting cheap labour for industrial purposes from the native population. 13 . During the colonial era manufacturing in the continent was generally at the handicraft and small scale levels. In some colonies this was supplemented by some relatively complex industries producing mainly for export, but also ...

  6. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  8. For British eyes only?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothstein, L.

    1993-01-01

    Americans are learning about the history of their own nuclear weapons program from British documents released under the 30-year rule. In January, the British government released papers related to the 1958-61 U.S.-Soviet moratorium on nuclear testing and the resumption of U.S. testing in 1962. According to Solly Zuckerman, chief scientific advisor to the British Defense Ministry at the time, the United Kingdom had not appreciated that the nuclear weapons experts of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. used the two-and-a-half-year moratorium to plan the largest program of tests these countries carried out

  9. The future of coal trading. Part 1: obstacles to coal trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, W.; Vaninetti, J.

    1998-01-01

    'Trading' as used in this article means routine buying and selling of futures contracts or options and other derivatives of future contracts. The variable nature of coal, lack of liquidity, and the coal industry's understanding and acceptance of commodity trading concepts are identified as three major barriers to successful trading of a coal futures contract. The article discusses these obstacles

  10. Constructive explosion protection in the energy industry. Example explosion suppression at a coal grinding plant of RWE AG; Konstruktiver Explosionsschutz in der Energiebranche. Beispiel Explosionsunterdrueckung bei einer Kohlemahlanlage der RWE AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Matthias [Fike Deutschland, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In the energy sector and especially in the power generation, excess pressure control as well as explosion protection are a historically grown theme in the range of process safty. Beginning with the industrial use of the steam engine, it has come to events again and again that are associated with explosions and associated with damages to property and persons. In the Westphalian Ibbenbueren (Federal Republic of Germany), RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) operates a hard-coal fired power plant at which power is generated primarily from the anthracite coal from the mine Ibbenbueren. Within an optimization process it was decided to mix brown coal as an additive to anthracite coal in order to improve the ignition properties. The principle of action in the suppression of explosions is subject to three parallel acting mechanisms: (a) The inert dust absorbs thermal energy; (b) Effect of inertisation; (c) Anticatalytic effect. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on a HRD-extinguishing agent containers from Fike Germany (Mannheim, Federal Republic of Germany). The benefits of this explosion protection system are: (a) The maintenance personnel only may enter the grinding plants when the extinguishing agent containers were locked manually; (b) Lower maintenance costs in comparison to other explosion protection systems; (c) Favourable and quick repair; (c) Very fast transport of the extinguishing powder to the site of explosion.

  11. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  12. Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Blundel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  13. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  14. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ''clean coal utilization.'' For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  15. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  16. Use of phytoproductivity data in the choice of native plant species to restore a degraded coal mining site amended with a stabilized industrial organic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Toumi, Hela; Böhm, Renata F S; Engel, Fernanda; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Rörig, Leonardo R; Adani, Fabrizio; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-11-01

    Coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. The arid soil resulting from acid mine drainage affects terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and thus, site remediation programs must be implemented to mitigate this sequential deleterious processes. A low-cost alternative material to counterbalance the affected physico-chemical-microbiological aspects of the degraded soil is the amendment with low contaminated and stabilized industrial organic sludge. The content of nutrients P and N, together with stabilized organic matter, makes this material an excellent fertilizer and soil conditioner, fostering biota colonization and succession in the degraded site. However, choice of native plant species to restore a degraded site must be guided by some minimal criteria, such as plant survival/adaptation and plant biomass productivity. Thus, in this 3-month study under environmental conditions, phytoproductivity tests with five native plant species (Surinam cherry Eugenia uniflora L., C. myrianthum-Citharexylum myrianthum, Inga-Inga spp., Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius, and Sour cherry Prunus cerasus) were performed to assess these criteria, and additional biochemical parameters were measured in plant tissues (i.e., protein content and peroxidase activity) exposed to different soil/sludge mixture proportions. The results show that three native plants were more adequate to restore vegetation on degraded sites: Surinam cherry, C. myrianthum, and Brazilian peppertree. Thus, this study demonstrates that phytoproductivity tests associated with biochemical endpoint measurements can help in the choice of native plant species, as well as aiding in the choice of the most appropriate soil/stabilized sludge proportion in order to optimize biomass production.

  17. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  18. Competing For industry Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, John

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation the UK Minister for Energy and Industry discusses the energy policy of the UK since the Government changed. He considers energy demand, sustainability and climate change. The UK strategy for sustainable development is set out in the publication Opportunities for Change. Another recent publication is Sustainable Business. What is needed now is a paradigm shift geared to actually developing a sustainable means of moving forward to improve the quality of life for humankind as a whole. Even as we endeavour to meet the environmental targets that flow from the Kyoto agreement, they are only a milestone. The market is the best way to balance supply and demand for energy in the long term. Much has been done to open up energy markets in Europe over the past few years, first in electricity, then in gas. Europe is now also opening up natural gas markets to competition. The UK has just completed a major review of the whole range of utility regulation and will consult further on how to change the gas and electricity regimes to make them more consistent and more in tune with the way the market is developing. A major review of the electricity generation sector has been held; gas is fine, but perfectly good coal stations should not be closed down for something more expensive. The wholesale electricity market should be reformed to create a competitive environment in which no one fuel has a built-in institutional advantage over another. Activity in the UK sector of the North Sea has held up well. British companies are expected to play an important role in worldwide deep water developments. British yards are at the forefront of FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Off-loading) technology. British expertise in the development of floating systems is second to none and operators ought to consider the UK as supplier of choice

  19. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  20. Drivers for the renaissance of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Jakob, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Coal was central to the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century it increasingly was superseded by oil and gas. However, in recent years coal again has become the predominant source of global carbon emissions. We show that this trend of rapidly increasing coal-based emissions is not restricted to a few individual countries such as China. Rather, we are witnessing a global renaissance of coal majorly driven by poor, fast-growing countries that increasingly rely on coal to satisfy their growing energy demand. The low price of coal relative to gas and oil has played an important role in accelerating coal consumption since the end of the 1990s. In this article, we show that in the increasingly integrated global coal market the availability of a domestic coal resource does not have a statistically significant impact on the use of coal and related emissions. These findings have important implications for climate change mitigation: If future economic growth of poor countries is fueled mainly by coal, ambitious mitigation targets very likely will become infeasible. Building new coal power plant capacities will lead to lock-in effects for the next few decades. If that lock-in is to be avoided, international climate policy must find ways to offer viable alternatives to coal for developing countries. PMID:26150491

  1. Drivers for the renaissance of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Jan Christoph; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Jakob, Michael

    2015-07-21

    Coal was central to the industrial revolution, but in the 20th century it increasingly was superseded by oil and gas. However, in recent years coal again has become the predominant source of global carbon emissions. We show that this trend of rapidly increasing coal-based emissions is not restricted to a few individual countries such as China. Rather, we are witnessing a global renaissance of coal majorly driven by poor, fast-growing countries that increasingly rely on coal to satisfy their growing energy demand. The low price of coal relative to gas and oil has played an important role in accelerating coal consumption since the end of the 1990s. In this article, we show that in the increasingly integrated global coal market the availability of a domestic coal resource does not have a statistically significant impact on the use of coal and related emissions. These findings have important implications for climate change mitigation: If future economic growth of poor countries is fueled mainly by coal, ambitious mitigation targets very likely will become infeasible. Building new coal power plant capacities will lead to lock-in effects for the next few decades. If that lock-in is to be avoided, international climate policy must find ways to offer viable alternatives to coal for developing countries.

  2. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Mined Land Inventory map of Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties, Indiana, prepared from ERTS-1 imagery, was included in the 1973 Annual Report of the President's Council on Environmental Quality as an example of ERTS applications to mined lands. Increasing numbers of inquiries have been received from coal producing states and coal companies interested in the Indiana Program.

  3. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...

  4. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  5. Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Belz, B.; Mohamad, Y.; Velasco, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Industry plays a key role in the path towards eInclusion. While corporate social responsibility statements of leading companies confirm this, surveys show that there is still a long way to go. Among various reasons for the reluctant take-up of Design for All (DfA) by industry providing Information and Communication Technology (ICT), the lack of relevant knowledge and skills obviously plays a crucial role. Therefore, the DfA@eInclusion project has undertaken to develop curriculum guidelines an...

  6. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...... of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory....

  7. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  8. Does vertical integration have an effect on load factor? - A test on coal-fired plants in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Jose A.; Salies, Evens

    2006-02-01

    Today in the British electricity industry, most electricity suppliers hedge a large proportion of their residential customer base requirements by owning their own plant. The non-storability of electricity and the corresponding need for an instantaneous matching of generation and consumption creates a business need for integration. From a sample of half-hour data on load factor for coal-fired power plants in England and Wales, this paper tests the hypothesis that vertical integration with retail businesses affects the extent to which producers utilize their capacity. We also pay attention to this potential effect during periods of peak demand. (authors)

  9. Coal: a South African success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the South African coal mining industry, including exports domestic use of coal, coal geology and mining methods, employment, labour relations, benefits and social amenities provided for workers, safety and environmental aspects including land reclamation. Also discusses the implications of sanctions on coal and the mining industry, and argues that sanctions have not achieved and cannot achieve the stated objective of the social and political emancipation of black South Africa. Concludes that in order to defeat apartheid, South Africa, needs economic growth and encouragement for those attempting reform.

  10. Queensland coal sets new records in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Coffey, D.; Abbott, E.

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the Queensland coal industry consolidated on record expansion in the export market over the past two years and again, increased its sales to overseas customers. New sales records were set in both the export and domestic markets. Unprecedented international demand for Queensland metallurgical coals coupled with improved prices and a favourable A$-US$ exchange rate created strong market conditions for the Queensland coal export industry, boosting confidence for further expansion and new developments. Australian coal exports in 2001 amounted to 194 Mt and are forecast to reach 275 million tonnes per annum (Mtpa) in 2020. The Queensland coal industry is poised to capture a significant share of this market growth. Queensland's large inventory of identified coal, currently estimated at more than 37 billion tonnes (raw coal m situ), is adequate to sustain the industry for many years and allow new opencut and underground mines to develop according to future market demand. Recent coal exploration successes are expected to add significant tonnage to the inventory (Coxhead, Smith and Coffey, 2002). Most of the coal exported from Queensland is mined in the Bowen Basin of central Queensland and additional tonnage of Walloon coal is exported by mines in the Moreton Basin and Surat Basin in south-east Queensland. The Walloon Coal Measures and its equivalents contain large resources of undeveloped opencut, high volatile, clean-burning thermal coal. The environmental advantages in the utilisation of these coals are now recognised and strong growth in production is expected in the near future for supply to both the domestic and export markets. Establishment of new rail transport and civil infrastructure will however, be required to support the development of large scale mining operations in this region

  11. Black coal. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An overview is given of the situation of the world energy industry with regard to all energy carriers. Then energy-political conclusions are drawn for German black coal and the resulting prospects are detailed. Finally, some socio-political aspects are considered with regard to German black-coal mining: Workforce policy, tariff policy, social security and social safeguards for the adaptation process. (orig.) [de

  12. Nuclear energy, coal, and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Pan Ziqiang.

    1989-01-01

    From the view point of environmental protection, nuclear plants are superior to coal-fired ones. Coal-fired plants and other uses of burning create serious environmental problems, whereas no noticeable impacts are identified for nuclear plants. Even with respect to radiation risk, with equal energy output, a coal-fired plant is one order of magnitude higher than a nuclear station. Energy is a prerequisite for the development of a national economy and the improvement of living standards. Economic growth must be coordinated with the exploitation of energy resources. The worsening shortage of energy has made it imperative that China step up its energy development and pay full attention to the development of nuclear energy. Among direct energy sources, about 70% came from coal in the past. The public has been greatly concerned over the pollution caused by coal-fired power stations and/or other industrial and domestic use of coal burning. With increasing mining of coal, the issues related to pollution from the use of coal will become more serious and prominent. 17 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, M.; Noedland, S.I.

    1991-02-01

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  14. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstone, D.

    1998-01-01

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  15. Analysis of coal streams with californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, B.W.

    1976-01-01

    The sulfur, ash, water, and energy content of coal are increasingly important parameters to various coal users because of their relationship to air pollution, energy conservation, and to the proper operation of coal-burning plants. For example, ash accumulation is critical in electric power plants and suppliers of coal operate under contracts specifying maximum ash and sulfur content of their product. Conventional analysis of streams of coal on the order of 100 to 2000 tons/hour have relief on elaborate mechanical sampling mechanisms to take primary, secondary, and tertiary cuts from the coal stream with pulverizing stages between cuts to reduce it down to a fine powder which is analyzed off-line with wet chemical methods. (X-ray backscatter techniques have been applied to small coal streams for ash analysis.) This technique is too slow for process control in coal cleaning and blending operations, and is unreliable because of the highly heterogeneous nature of coal as it comes from the mine. Analysis of the entire stream of coal for the parameters of interest appears to be feasible only by analyzing the prompt gamma rays produced by capture of thermal neutrons diffusing through the coal. At FMC Corporation, we are performing extensive tests of the analysis of coal on-line for its important parameters using a californium-252 neutron source. In this paper we report the progress of our tests and the outlook for commercial industrial application of the method

  16. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  17. Germanium content in Polish hard coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the policy of the European Union, it is necessary to search for new sources of scarce raw materials. One of these materials is germanium, listed as a critical element. This semi-metal is widely used in the electronics industry, for example in the production of semiconductors, fibre optics and solar cells. Coal and fly ash from its combustion and gasification for a long time have been considered as a potential source of many critical elements, particularly germanium. The paper presents the results of germanium content determination in the Polish hard coal. 23 coal samples of various coal ranks were analysed. The samples were collected from 15 mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and from one mine of the Lublin Coal Basin. The determination of germanium content was performed with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Electrothermal Atomization (GFAAS. The investigation showed that germanium content in the analysed samples was at least twice lower than the average content of this element in the hard coals analysed so far and was in the range of 0.08 ÷ 1.28 mg/kg. Moreover, the content of Ge in the ashes from the studied coals does not exceed 15 mg/kg, which is lower than the average value of Ge content in the coal ashes. The highest content of this element characterizes coals of the Lublin Coal Basin and young coals type 31 from the Vistula region. The results indicate a low utility of the analysed coal ashes as a source of the recovery of germanium. On the basis of the analyses, the lack of the relationship between the content of the element and the ash content in the tested coals was noted. For coals of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, the relationship between the content of germanium in the ashes and the depth of the seam was observed.

  18. Know-how management ''Rock mechanics and support methods for the gate roads in the German coal mining industry''; Wissensmanagement ''Gebirgsmechanik und Ausbautechnik fuer Floezstrecken im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junker, M. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik; Schmidt, R.

    2006-03-23

    The R+D-project for establishment of a database with the entire know-how of the last 30 years from the ''Rock mechanics and support methods for gate roads in the German coal mining industry'' has so far been carried out as planned. After adaptation to the project the selected computer system was introduced. A planning module with recorded operational cases and a structured literature database is thus available to the Competence Centre for Road Supports in the Mining Technology Department of the Technology and Logistics Service Division of DSK. (Orig.)

  19. World coal outlook to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of the World Coal Outlook to the Year 2000 examines the worldwide impact of lower oil prices and lower economic activity on the demand, production, and international trade in coal. The report includes detailed regional forecasts of coal demand by end-use application. Regions include the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Other Asia, Latin America, Africa, Australia/New Zealand, Communist Europe, and Communist Asia. In addition, regional coal production forecasts are provided with a detailed analysis of regional coal trade patterns. In all instances, the changes relative to Chase's previous forecasts are shown. Because of the current situation in the oil market, the report includes an analysis of the competitive position of coal relative to oil in the generation of electricity, and in industrial steam applications. The report concludes with an examination of the impact of an oil price collapse on the international markets for coal.

  20. Chronocentrism and British criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  1. Love British books 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Armenia is celebrating the 500th anniversary of the first printed Armenian book and the declaration of Yerevan as World Book Capital 2012 by UNESCO. Within the framework of festive events, the House of Artists Union hosted the exhibition 'Love British books' otrgnaised by the RA Ministry of Culture, together with the University of Northampton (UK).

  2. ‘As snug as a bug in a rug’: post-war housing, homes and coal fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Nead

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the layers of meaning and value attached to the image of the open coal fireside in the years immediately following the end of the Second World War. Although the open fire has a much longer economic, social and cultural history, it is argued here that after 1945 it took on new, emergent meanings that tapped into pressing contemporary debates concerning the nature of the modern British nation, the home and the family. Whilst writers often evoked the experience of the open fire as a timeless comfort, addressing basic human needs, the fireside of post-war British journalism and illustration was a very modern thing indeed, able to express specific debates arising from the requirements of reconstruction and modernisation. The almost folkloric associations of the open fire made it harder in the 1950s to legislate against domestic smoke than it was to regulate industrial pollution. Vested interests drew on the powerful rhetoric of the coal fire to combat the smoke pollution reports of the early 1950s and the growing inevitability of legislation. The coal fire was part of a post-war chain of being that started with the domestic hearth and progressed to the nuclear family, the self-contained home, the nation, and ultimately to the Commonwealth.

  3. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  4. Coal's sleeping market: non-utility generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, R.L.; Knutson, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The article briefly profiles the coal market for non-utility generation (NUG). Coal consumption by NUGs, currently estimated at around 6.1 million tons, is projected to reach nearly 13.6 million tons by 1995 and 21.2 million tons by 2000. If the projected growth is achieved the NUG market may become one of the strongest market segments for the coal industry into the next century. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  6. Evaluation of ecological consequences of coal mine closure in Kuzbass coal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schastlivcev, E.L.; Barannic, L.P.; Ovdenko, B.I.; Bykov, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Kemerovo region (otherwise called Kuzbass) is the most industrially developed and urbanized region of Siberia, Russia. The main industrial branch of Kuzbass is coal output. Open pits and underground mines of Kuzbass produce about 40% of total amount of coal in Russia and more than 70% of coking coal. In the current process of the coal industry's restructuring, the closing of many unprofitable coal enterprises is associated with radical changes in their influence on the environment. The task to provide a probable forecast of ecological consequence of mine closure is both practically significant and complicated. In order to find some scientific approach to solve named problem the authors made in the paper the first attempts to analyze of accessible closed mines data in Kuzbass, to classify coal mines (working and closed) with respect to there negative influence on soil, water and atmosphere and to obtain some numerical estimates of possible bounds of this influence. 7 refs

  7. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2016; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-03

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  8. Effects of modified coal-winning methods on structures in the coal mining industry. Learning from a case of damage; Auswirkungen veraenderter Abbauverfahren auf Bauwerke des Steinkohlenbergbaus. Lehren aus einem Schadensfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fastabend, M.; Schaefers, T.; Reissmann, F. [Ingenieurbuero IDN, Duisburg (Germany); Fischer, P.; Kaehler, A. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany)

    2006-11-07

    The collapse of a side wall of a raw feed coal bunker after 30 years in operation at a DSK colliery gave rise to the checking of structures of the same type of the basis of the causes of damage. Due to highly mechanised working methods in the colliery the soil mechanical boundary conditions of the filling material have changed. Meanwhile a deeper knowledge of the ground pressure theory to be assumed, which always necessitates consideration of at least a proportion of the earth static pressure in the case of rigid structures of this type, is also available. (orig.)

  9. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  10. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  11. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  12. Clean Coal Initiatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of, and access to, coal is a crucial element of modern economies and it helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the thermal power sector and steel industries have been given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing these sectors have resulted in significant gain in generation and availability of electricity and steel in the years since independence. To meet the need of huge demand of power coal is excavated. The process of excavation to the use of coal is potential enough to degrade the environment. Coal Mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities directly and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coal field in India have become derelict due to abandoned and active opencast and underground mines. The study is pursued to illustrate the facts which show the urgent need to clean coal mining in India.

  13. Coal as a Substitute for Carbon Black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal shows sprayed coal powder formed by extrusion of coal heated to plastic state may be inexpensive substitute for carbon black. Carbon black is used extensively in rubber industry as reinforcing agent in such articles as tires and hoses. It is made from natural gas and petroleum, both of which are in short supply.

  14. Dewatering pump control in underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, Kim M.

    2012-01-01

    An underground coal mine roadway dewatering network is a highly variable, constantly changing system. Pumps used in this environment need to achieve a wide range of duties that may change regularly. This article discusses the use of and preferred methods in the context of an Australian underground coal mine with conditions particular to this industry.

  15. Atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2017-08-01

    To study the mercury emission due to the combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China, we analyzed the mercury contents of coal, fly ash, bottom ash and sluicing water in thermal power plants, steam boilers as well as domestic coal-stoves, in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong and Yunnan Provinces. This study conduct an estimate of the Hg emission rates from steam coal and domestic coal combustion based on the method of mass distribution ratio of fly ash and bottom ash. The results show that the Hg emission rate of coal combustion in thermal power plants is about 50.21% (electrostatic precipitators + wet flue gas desulfurization), and that in heating boilers is about 67.23%, and 92.28% in industrial boilers without flue gas desulphurisation equipment. Furthermore, Hg emission rate is 83.61% due to domestic coal combustion in coal-stoves. The Hg emission amount into the atmosphere from power and heat generation, industrial boilers, domestic coal-stoves and spontaneous combustion of coal gangue is roughly estimated to be 133 ± 4, 100 ± 17, 11 ± 0.1 and 47 ± 26 tons in China in 2014, respectively, and the total Hg emission amount from this paper is estimated at 292 tons. The trends of Hg emission in China from 1991 to 2014 show an accelerating growth after 2002. The proportion of mercury emission due to thermal power, heating generation and industrial energy utilization continuously increased. The atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal, domestic coal and coal gangue accounts nearly 50% in total anthropogenic Hg emissions in China, indicating one of the largest sources of Hg emission in China which should draw more public and scientific attention in the future.

  16. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  17. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  18. State of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, P.; Ogden, S.O.; Sell, D.P.; Garges, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    This panel discussion on the state of the US coal industry presented three points of view. The issue is one of perspective, for the coal miner current conditions are not particularly encouraging given the economic climate, environmental issues, and the ambiguity of the proposed National Energy Strategy. To make matters worse, much of the public views the production and utilization of coal as an environmental risk. It is easy to overlook the fact that the US coal industry is poised for tremendous growth and opportunity. Demand for energy and electricity worldwide is projected to increase significantly and coal is expected to play a major role. New technologies such as clean coal combustion and coal gasification will be required to meet growing human and environmental requirements. The coal industry must educate the public on the capabilities of coal, advance new technologies for deployment and commercial development, demonstrate prudent mining and safety records and develop human talent and skills necessary to advance US coal in the 21st century

  19. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.

    1944-02-11

    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  20. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  1. Preliminary experimental studies of waste coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Jin, Y.G.; Yu, X.X.; Worrall, R. [CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Advanced Coal Technology

    2013-07-01

    Coal mining is one of Australia's most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects from black coal mining was approximately 1.82 billion tonnes from 1960 to 2009 in Australia, and is projected to produce another one billion tonnes by 2018 at the current production rate. To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to create value from the coal waste through production of liquid fuels or power generation using produced syngas from waste coal gasification. Consequently, environmental and community impacts of the solid waste could be minimized. However, the development of an effective waste coal gasification process is a key to the new pathway. An Australian mine site with a large reserve of waste coal was selected for the study, where raw waste coal samples including coarse rejects and tailings were collected. After investigating the initial raw waste coal samples, float/sink testing was conducted to achieve a desired ash target for laboratory-scale steam gasification testing and performance evaluation. The preliminary gasification test results show that carbon conversions of waste coal gradually increase as the reaction proceeds, which indicates that waste coal can be gasified by a steam gasification process. However, the carbon conversion rates are relatively low, only reaching to 20-30%. Furthermore, the reactivity of waste coal samples with a variety of ash contents under N{sub 2}/air atmosphere have been studied by a home-made thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) apparatus that can make the sample reach the reaction temperature instantly.

  2. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  3. Development of a self-consistent thermodynamic- and transport-property correlation framework for the coal conversion industry. Phase I. Semiannual report, September 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starling, K.E.; Lee, L.L.; Kumar, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    During the first half year of this research program the following elements of research have been performed: (1) the development of an improved pure component data bank, including collection and processing of data which is 70% complete as to substance, (2) calculation of distillable coal fluid thermodynamic properties using a multiparameter corresponding states correlation, (3) application of the most general density-cubic equation of pure fluids and (4) initiation of research to extend the corresponding states correlation framework to polar fluids. Primary conclusions of the first phase of this research program are that the three parameter corresponding states correlation predicts lighter coal fluid properties to a reasonable level of accuracy, and that a cubic equation can predict pure fluid thermodynamic properties on par with non-cubic equations of state.

  4. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  5. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  6. Underground Coal Preparation System and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cao; DeYong, Shang; BaoNing, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The underground coal preparation is a cutting-edge technology of the coal industry worldwide. This paper introduced the meaning of implementing the underground coal preparation, and the practical applications of underground mechanical moving screen jig, underground heavy medium shallow slot and underground air jigger. Through analyzing the main separation equipment and the advantages and disadvantages of three primary processes from aspects of process complexity, slime water treatment, raw coal preparation, etc., the difference among technology investment, construction scale, production cost and economic benefit is concluded.

  7. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  8. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  9. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  10. The two faces of coal : uncertainty the common prospect for metallurgical and thermal coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlotnikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    Although the methods of producing thermal and metallurgical coal are the same, metallurgical coal is destined to cross the world for steel manufacturing and thermal coal is destined for power plants close to where it was mined. This article discussed the factors influencing the price of these 2 coals. The production of thermal coal can remain steady during an economic crisis because coal-fired power plants generally provide low-cost-base-load electricity that remains stable during economic cycles. However, the demand for metallurgical coal is more volatile during an economic crisis because it is directly related to the demand for steel products in the construction and automotive industry, which are very sensitive to the state of the economy. There have been recent indications that Canada's export market for thermal coal is on the rise. In 2008, China became a net importer of coking coal. China's need for more coal to fuel its growing economy despite the global economic slowdown has meant that producers are diverting excess supply from European markets to China. Higher-end thermal coal offers low sulphur content and higher energy content, both desirable traits for power utilities facing strict emissions control. In addition to having huge reserves of very high-quality coal that is becoming increasingly important to China, Canada has the advantage of having the available transportation capacity in its west coast terminals and on its rail network. 3 figs.

  11. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The European coal industry is at a crossroads. The European Commission (EC) Energy Policy by 2020, the 20/20/20 targets, is not favourable to coal: a 20% decrease in CO 2 emissions does not favour coal compared with natural gas, its main competitor in electricity generation; a 20% increase in energy efficiency will lead to a decrease in energy/coal consumption; a 20% increase in renewables will displace other energy sources, including coal. The recent EC Energy road-map to 2050 targets a cut in GHG emissions by 80-95%. Under such a tough emissions reduction target, the future use of coal is tied with CCS technologies for which public acceptance and an adequate CO 2 price are crucial. The Large Combustion Plants Directive has already had a huge impact on EU coal-fired electricity generation. In UK, a third of coal-fired power capacity will be closed by the end of 2015 at the latest. Phase III of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme requires CO 2 allowances to be auctioned from January 2013, adding a new burden on fossil fuel power plants. The end of state aid to European hard coal production by 2018, in line with EC Council Decision 2010/787/EU, means that domestic production is going to decrease. Does this mean the end of coal in Europe? Maybe not, and certainly not by 2020, although its future after that date is quite uncertain. Coal provides 17% of the EU s primary energy supply, and represents 25% of electricity generation. With the phasing out of nuclear energy in some countries (mainly Germany), coal has gained a period of grace before the transition to a less-carbonised economy. Its consumption by European power utilities increased by 7% in the first half of 2012, boosted by low CO 2 prices and relatively high gas prices. European production still accounts for 60% of the total coal supply in the EU. Coal therefore gives the EU a certain degree of independence and contributes to its security of supply. Hard coal and lignite represent approximately 80% of EU

  12. Bulk analysis of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear techniques used in the coal industry to determine specific energy, ash and moisture are outlined. Ash analysis by radioisotope X-ray techniques include a single X-ray measurement using a transmission or backscatter geometry and techniques with compensation for iron variations. Neutron techniques can be used to measure the concentration of some specific elements in coal. The measurement of specific energy, ash and moisture then depends on the correlation of the particular parameter with the measured elemental composition. Carbon can be determined by a combination of a measurement of 4.43 MeV 12 C gamma-rays from neutron inelastic scattering with a separate 60 Co gamma-ray scattering measurement. Sulphur meters are based on the measurement of 5.42 MeV neutron capture of gamma rays

  13. The power of British Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1997-01-01

    When the power industry in Britain was privatized, British Energy plc (BE), whose head office is in Edingburgh, Scotland, was founded in July 1996. It is the only power utility in the world exclusively operating nuclear power stations. Operative business has remained the responsibility of the two regional supply companies, Nuclear Electric (NE) and Scottish Nuclear (SN) which, in addition to the modern PWR nuclear generating unit of Sizewell B, have included in the new holding company their advanced gas-cooled and gas-moderated reactor (AGR) units. The older gas-graphite reactor (GGR) plants were combined in the new Magnox Electric plc, Berkeley; at some later date, this company is to be merged with another nuclear power plant operator, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). Sizewell B, which was commissioned in 1995, is the last nuclear generating unit to be started up in the United Kingdom, for the time being. In times of low raw material prices and the need for a quick return on invested capital, BE is reluctant to run the risk associated with tying up capital for a long time. Instead, the company has backfitted its plants so that the production of electricity from nuclear power in Britain in 1996 of 92,476 GWh was increased by almost 10% over the 1995 level of 84,174 GWh. In addition to modernization and rationalization at home, BE together with Sizewell B vendor Westinghouse is engaged worldwide in the development and commercialization of future advanced reactors. This ensures that the know-how accumulated will be preserved and will be available for new nuclear power plants to be built in Britain in the next century. (orig.)

  14. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  15. Coal: the dinosaur wakes up; Charbon: le dinosaure se reveille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, Y.; Cosnard, D

    2005-10-01

    In western countries, coal is considered as an industry of the past, but at the Earth's scale the situation is radically the opposite. Since three years, coal is the faster developing energy source, in particular thanks to China expansion and to the oil crisis which makes coal more competitive. This short paper presents the situation of coal mining in China: projects, working conditions and environmental impact. (J.S.)

  16. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, ''Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs

  17. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  18. Occurrence of molybdenum in British surface water and groundwater: Distributions, controls and implications for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, P.L.; Cooper, D.M.; Ander, E.L.; Milne, C.J.; Lapworth, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mo concentrations in British surface water and groundwater are typically low: <2 μg/L. • Urban/industry contamination can increase concentrations above WHO health-based value. • Highest concentrations are consistent with release by oxidation of sulphides. • Highs in mildly reducing groundwaters are consistent with release from metal oxides. • Mo in water is unlikely to pose a major problem for the British water supply industry. - Abstract: Data for Mo in British surface water and groundwater collated from a number of databases show that concentrations are in most cases low, of the order of 2 μg/L or less. However, variability is large and sporadic high values are found in both streamwaters and groundwaters. Data for some 11,600 British streamwater samples indicate a 10–90th percentile range of 0.08–2.44 μg/L with a median of 0.57 μg/L and maximum observation of 230 μg/L. High values tend to be from streams on clay-rich formations and sulphide-mineralised bedrock and streams affected by localised urban and industrial contamination. Monitored lowland river waters also typically have median concentrations <1 μg/L although higher values are present in a number of urban/industrialised English rivers. Highest observed concentrations (median 20 μg/L), occur under low-flow conditions in a river system from an urban, industrial area of NE England and are likely the products of industrial contamination and mine drainage. Concentrations in 96 upland lakewater samples from NW England are universally 0.1 μg/L or less. Data for 1735 groundwater samples from across Britain have a 10–90th percentile range for Mo of 0.035–1.80 μg/L with a median of 0.20 μg/L and maximum observation of 89 μg/L. Relatively high values derive from some Lower Cretaceous greensand, Carboniferous limestone and mudstone (Coal Measures) aquifers, particularly under anaerobic conditions. Release from Fe oxides and possibly Mn oxides by reductive dissolution is a

  19. Water pollution profile of coal washeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.K.; Singh, Gurdeep

    1995-01-01

    Environmental problems in coal mining industry is increased with the demand of good quality of coal through coal washing/beneficiation activities. The coal washeries in general have been identified as one of the serious sources of water pollution particularly of Damodar river. Coal washeries though are designed on close water circuit, most of these however, fail to operate on close water circuit thus resulting in enormous quantity of effluents containing coal fines as well. This apart from posing serious water pollution problem also results into economic losses. The present study attempts to provide an insight into water pollution profile from coal washeries in Jharia coalfield. Various process parameters/unit operations in coal washing are also described. Effluents from various selected coal washeries of Jharia coalfield are sampled and analysed over a period of six months during 1993. Suspended solids, oil and grease and COD in the washery effluents are identified as the three major water quality parameters causing lots of concern for Damodar river pollution. Reasons for unavoidable discharge of effluents containing coal fines are also described. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  1. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  2. Application of coal combustion residues to the stabilization/solidification of industrial wastes (IRIS); Desarrollo de un Proceso, a Escala Piloto de Inertizacion de Residuos Industriales con Cenizas Volantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes, also called inertization processes, are a group of techniques which employ additives to reduce the mobility of the hazardous components from the waste and make possible for the residue to be accepted for its disposal in a safe way. These processes, mainly applied to wastes that contain heavy metals (such as lead, zinc, cadminum, mercury, copper, nickel, titanium, chromium-III, chromium-VI, arsenic,....) change the waste into a solid-like material in which the metals are trapped (nets and matrix) by physical or chemical links. The IRIS Project, carried out by AICIA through the ECSC Coal Programme with the participation of two industrial partners (Sevillana de Electricidad and EGMASA, a public-owned company for waste treatment), has developed, at pilot scale, a new S/S process for inorganic industrial wastes that uses great quantities of fly ash in the place of other more commonly used and expansive reagents. A pilot plant for 200 kg/h has been designed, built and operated. This facility has allowed to add improvements and scientific foundations to existing S/S technology. It has also allowed to obtain industrial scale parameters for fixed and portable plants. Experiencie have been mainly carried out using fly ash from high quality coals, but types of ash have been tested coming from coals with a greater calcium content, from fluidised bed combustion boilers and from desulphurisation processes, giving very suitable characteristics for their application to S/S processes. The addition of fly ash (up to 30%) in the IRIS process improves the results in comparison with the S/S processes that use only cement, because the final pH obtained (8-11) does not allow amphoteric metallic ions to escape in the leachate. The same as other S/S processes, IRIS can be applied also to wastes that contain certain metals (chromium-VI, arsenic, for example) with specific pre-treatments (redox, for example). The efficiency of the IRIS treatment

  3. Irish Sea: British radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Aongus

    1985-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) have recently taken the decision to invest several hundred million pounds in reducing the discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant into the Irish Sea. This report outlines the history of the plant and its operation up to the present day and its plans for the future. The attitude of the Irish regulatory authorities and of the public to the radioactive discharges is presented and the incidence of Downs Syndrome and certain specific cancer types on both sides of the Irish Sea is discussed

  4. FT-IR and XRD analysis of coal from Makum coalfield of Assam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    iliary fuels, such as natural gas or imported coals to satisfy the coal quality requirement for ther- mal power generation, particularly from the emis- sion point of view. Since mineral matter affects almost all aspects of coal utilization, the accep- tance of coal for industrial application depends critically on both organic and ...

  5. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15--August 15, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-06-03

    The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, performing baseline tests firing No. 6 fuel oil, and conducting additional CWSF testing). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers is also evaluated. The first three phases have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler did not meet performance goals. A maximum coal combustion efficiency of 95% (compared to a target of 98%) was achieved and natural gas cofiring (15% of the total thermal input) was necessary to maintain a stable flame. Consequently, the first demonstration was terminated after 500 hours. The second CWSF demonstration (Phase 4) was conducted with a proven coal-designed burner. Prior to starting the second demonstration, a CWSF preparation circuit was constructed to provide flexibility in CWSF production. The circuit initially installed involved single-stage grinding. A regrind circuit was recently installed and was evaluated. A burner was installed from ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB/CE) and was used to generate baseline data firing No. 6 fuel oil and fire CWSF. A temporary storage system for No. 6 fuel oil was installed and modifications to the existing CWSF handling and preheating system were made to accommodate No. 6 oil.

  6. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Physical and chemical coal cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, T. D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1981-02-01

    Coal is cleaned industrially by freeing the occluded mineral impurities and physically separating the coal and refuse particles on the basis of differences in density, settling characteristics, or surface properties. While physical methods are very effective and low in cost when applied to the separation of coarse particles, they are much less effective when applied to the separation of fine particles. Also they can not be used to remove impurities which are bound chemically to the coal. These deficiencies may be overcome in the future by chemical cleaning. Most of the chemical cleaning methods under development are designed primarily to remove sulfur from coal, but several methods also remove various trace elements and ash-forming minerals. Generally these methods will remove most of the sulfur associated with inorganic minerals, but only a few of the methods seem to remove organically bound sulfur. A number of the methods employ oxidizing agents as air, oxygen, chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, or a ferric salt to oxidize the sulfur compounds to soluble sulfates which are then extracted with water. The sulfur in coal may also be solubilized by treatment with caustic. Also sulfur can be removed by reaction with hydrogen at high temperature. Furthermore, it is possible to transform the sulfur bearing minerals in coal to materials which are easily removed by magnetic separation.

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  9. Beneficiation of power grade coals: its relevance to future coal use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    With consumption increasing from the current level of 220 mt. to over 600 mt. by the year 2010 A.D., coal will continue to enjoy a prime position in the overall energy scene in India. India being endowed with coal resources of high ash content, the major coal consuming industries have, by and large, adjusted the combustion techniques to suit the quality of coal available. However, wide fluctuations in the quality of coal supplies adversely affect their plant performance. With the coal deposits being localised in the eastern and central parts of peninsular India, the load on railway network in carrying coal to other parts of the country will continue to increase and this will emerge as a major constraint in managing the coal supply to the consuming centres located away from the coal fields. It is in this context, the author has discussed the need of setting up of coal cleaning facilities at the pit heads. The extent to which the transport network will be relieved of carrying avoidable muck in coal has been quantified along with the benefits that will accrue in the form of extra transport capacity, better power plant performance and reduced air pollution and solid waste at consumer end. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  11. Effect of addition of sewage sludge and coal sludge on bioavailability of selected metals in the waste from the zinc and lead industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta; Wystalska, Katarzyna; Grobelak, Anna

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the content of bioavailable forms of selected heavy metals present in the waste from Zn and Pb processing that can potentially have an effect on the observed difficulties in reclamation of landfills with this waste. The particular focus of the study was on iron because its potential excess or deficiency may be one of the causes of the failure in biological reclamation. The study confirmed that despite high content of total iron in waste (mean value of 200.975gkg -1 ), this metal is present in the forms not available to plants (mean: 0.00009gkg -1 ). The study attempted to increase its potential bioavailability through preparation of the mixtures of this waste with additions in the form of sewage sludge and coal sludge in different proportions. Combination of waste with 10% of coal sludge and sewage sludge using the contents of 10%, 20% and 30% increased the amounts of bioavailable iron forms to the level defined as sufficient for adequate plant growth. The Lepidum sativum test was used to evaluate phytotoxicity of waste and the mixtures prepared based on this waste. The results did not show unambiguously that the presence of heavy metals in the waste had a negative effect on the growth of test plant roots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimal use of coal for power generation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Ritu; Chand, Sharat; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2003-01-01

    There is growing consensus among energy planners that electricity requirements in India would increase rapidly in the next couple of decades, and that coal would continue to dominate the generating capacity mix. Comparatively high levels of ash in Indian coal causes concern both in terms of the high costs of coal movement and the associated environmental impacts. As per the notification of September 1997, all power plants located in sensitive areas, metropolitan cities and in areas distant from the coalfields, must use coal with <34% ash. However, little progress has been made towards coal beneficiation and some consumers have already started to import non-coking coal for blending in order to comply with environmental requirements. The importance of planning for optimal utilization and transportation of thermal coal cannot be underestimated, especially at a juncture where the Indian coal industry is already facing competition from rising imports of non-coking coal. This paper assesses the optimality of the current patterns of coal movement and examines the economics of beneficiating thermal coals. A linear programming model has been developed based on the framework of the general transportation problem. The authors conclude that the washery is not economically attractive given the current costs, beneficiation technique and quality of Indian non-coking coal. Model simulations have been attempted to assess the possibility of coal beneficiation based on techno-economic considerations rather than political or other considerations. The paper also stresses the possibility of overall gains to the economy by modifying the current patterns of coal movement

  13. Energy strategy would slow coal's growth, says DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy (NES) recently announced by the Bush Administration would slow the growth in use of coal by hundreds of millions of tons of coal by hundreds of millions of tons after 2000, according to the Department of Energy's (DOE) own figures. If today's policies are continued, coal consumption will nearly triple by 2030. Current annual consumption of more than 900 million tons (19 quadrillion Btus) would rise to 1,550 million tons in 2010 and to nearly 2,600 million tons by 2030. Coal's share of electricity generation, now about 55%, would grow to 75% by 2030 under the current policy base assumptions of the DOE. The NES, however, projects that surge of nuclear power plant construction will stem the growth of coal use. The strategy would still increase coal use, from 19 quadrillion Btus today to about 28 quads in 2010, but to only 32 quads by 2030. By 2030, coal would account for less than 50% of electricity generation under the NES. Total clean coal technologies capacity is substantially lower under the NES scenario case than under the clean coal actions alone. The strategy also contains good news for the coal industry in the short run. It holds out two main goals for coal policy: maintaining coal's competitiveness while meeting environmental, health and safety requirements; and creating a favorable export climate for US coal and coal technology

  14. Analysis of coal mining mechanization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Oak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the remaining 11 coal mines after the rationalization of the industry, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. The statistics of coal industry are as follows. - The production of 1996 was dropped to 4,952 thousand tonne from 5,719 thousand tonne of 1995. - The overall O.M.S was increased to 1.81 ton per man{center_dot}shift from 1.68 ton of 1995. (author). 10 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...

  16. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  17. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  18. Develop international links for cooperative research in coal mining with special emphasis on interaction with international experts for developing industry guidelines for the design of pillars in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JN

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available violent failures, occurring in working sections. The School of Mining Engineering at UNSW and SCT have a joint ACARP grant to evaluate the major pillar design methodologies and applications, and to document industry guidelines for use in underground... – University of Pretoria/SIMRAC, South Africa Gavin Lind – Ingwe/University of Witwatersrand, South Africa/ Coaltech2020 Prof Jim Galvin – UNSW, Australia Prof Bruce Hebblewhite – UNSW, Australia Dr Winton Gale – SCT, Australia David Hill – Strata...

  19. Botanical forest products in British Columbia: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geus, N.

    1994-12-31

    This report gives an overview of the botanical forest products harvest in British Columbia; discusses the issues of sustainability, multiple forest resource use, revenue to government, social and economic factors, health and safety, and interagency coordination; and gives recommendations for managing the industry. The report describes the industry and the harvest in British Columbia and other jurisdictions of wild edible mushrooms; floral and greenery products such cedar foliage and white pine boughs; medicinal and pharmaceutical products such as Cascara bark and Western yew bark; wild berries and fruit; herb and vegetable products; native landscaping plants; craft products; and such miscellaneous products as honey and by-products, syrup, and smoke woods.

  20. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  1. Environmental analysis concerning ICP Coal Beneficiation Plant for Iowa Coal Research Project. [University research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliford, J.B.; Crow, M.M.

    1976-04-27

    An environmental analysis of the Iowa Coal Project Coal Beneficiation Plant in Ames, Iowa is presented. Based on site monitoring and a review of related literature, the impact of the beneficiation plant on the natural environment is analyzed. The present environmental features are described and evaluated with particular emphasis on existing surface and groundwater quality. The component processes of the beneficiation plant are presented and the plant environmental design features are described. This beneficiation plant is not expected to have a significant impact on the area, but the development of a coal beneficiation technology in the State of Iowa can be expected to impact the Iowa coal mining industry significantly.

  2. Present and Projected Australian Coal Supply Capacity : Impacts of Global Recession and Expansion in Coal Exports to China

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Koizumi; Hisaki Yokogoshi

    2010-01-01

    Australias coal exports in 2008 totaled 252 million tons, accounting for 26.9% of global coal trade (in terms of exports) at 938 million tons. Although Indonesia has expanded its coal exports over recent years and reported exports in 2008 at 203 million tons, Australia has remained unshaken as the worlds largest coal exporter. Coal demand in Japan and European industrial countries has plunged on the global financial/economic crisis since the autumn of 2008. Their coal imports have thus declin...

  3. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate a process for upgrading subbituminous coal by reducing its moisture and sulfur content and increasing its heating value using the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) unit. The ACCP unit, with a capacity of 68.3 tons of feed coal per hour (two trains of 34 tons/hr each), was located next to a unit train loading facility at WECo's Rosebud Coal Mine near Colstrip, Montana. Most of the coal processed was Rosebud Mine coal, but several other coals were also tested. The SynCoal® produced was tested both at utilities and at several industrial sites. The demonstration unit was designed to handle about one tenth of the projected throughput of a commercial facility.

  4. Is There Any Future For Coal Power Plants In Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zimakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the policies of EU countries towards coal power plants as well as practical steps taken by their governments. Coal power plants are widely considered to be environmentally harmful which confronts with environmental policies of the EU suggesting Europe-wide cuts of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on that assumption a number of EU countries such asBelgium,Austria,Portugal,Dania,Finland,SwedenandUKare striving to phase out coal power plants and achieved significant progress on this path replacing coal with other generation sources. On the other hand, other EU members are lagging behind as coal phase-out is not an urgent item of their political agenda. This situation is typical forIreland,Netherlands,Italy,Croatia,SloveniaandSlovakia. Domestic coal extracting industry can pose a significant hindering factor for a coal power plants phase-out and can effectively block the process. This is the case inBulgaria,Romania,Hungary,CzechRepublic,GreeceandPoland. ButGermany, which also has a well-developed coal industry, transforms its energy sector towards a green one cutting the share of coal in the generation mix. If this effort of the German government proves successful it will deliver a positive transformation model for other EU countries with a large share of coal in generation-mix due to domestic coal extraction industry. The analysis of the political and economic (both macro and micro processes leads to conclusion that there is no unity among EU member states in their approach towards coal fired power plants phase-out. This will allow for coal power plants to retain their market share in a short to medium term. But in the longer run one can expect a significant decrease of coal fired generation inEurope, even in the countries traditionally dependent on coal.

  5. Coal Transition in the United States. An historical case study for the project 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, Irem

    2017-01-01

    employment in alternative industries. Under Trump administration, potential regulatory relief might ease the pressure on the coal industry.1 Still, President Trump's campaign pledge to revive the coal industry will require more than rolling back the environmental regulations and providing tax concessions to the coal companies. The question remains whether the impacts of coal transition will be managed by additional federal funds under the Trump administration

  6. FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter focuses on methane emissions from the coal and natural gas industries. The petroleum industry is not addressed because of the lack of related quality data. Emission points are identified for each industry, and a discussion of factors affecting emissions is presented. ...

  7. Markets for British Columbia natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerz, D.H.; Coad, L.A.

    1990-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the outlook for the British Columbia natural gas industry and the fundamentals underlying both the increase in activity and the longer-term outlook for the natural gas sector are examined. The basis for the analysis was the North American Regional Gas (NARG) model, to which a number of modifications were made. The level of natural gas resource assumed for northeastern British Columbia corresponds to an ultimate potential of 50 Tcf. Significant growth in production over the outlook period (1988-2007) is predicted. High rates of utilization on the Westcoast system underscore the need for significant capacity expansion if the production levels projected for the mid-1990s are to be achieved. Natural gas production is projected to be sustained at the 800 billion cubic foot level from the mid-1990s onwards, with the majority of the production growth occurring between 1992 and 1997. Significant growth in exports is projected, especially when capacity is available to move gas supplies directly into the California and Rocky Mountain regions in the US. These two transport corridors represent over half the increase in British Columbia production between 1992 and 1997. 53 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs

  8. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  9. The behaviour of coal blends in power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.; Horne, P.A.; McGhee, B.F.; Gibson, J.R. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd., Renfrew (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The milling characteristics of coal blends were studied to provide quantitative information which allows the calculation of the Hardgrove Index (HGI) values of coal blends from those of the constituent coals; to provide data on the power requirement to produce a given mill output fineness, and abrasion rates of mill components when milling coal blends, relative to the behaviour of the constituent coals; to investigate the combustion behaviour of coal blends in pulverized fuel-fired systems by carrying out testwork in a semi-industrial combustion test facility, and to assess the deposition characteristics and the potential for utilization of the ashes produced by the combustion of coal blends. It was found that both the HGI and the Abrasion Index values of coals are additive properties. There were linear correlations between the slope of the Rosin-Rammler plot of the Mini-mill product size distribution and both the blend compositions and the HGI values of the coals and coal blends. Investigations showed that the fusion behaviour of the coal ash blends is rather complex, and that the characteristic ash fusion temperature are not additive in a simple way. A number of correlations were found between the ash fusion temperatures of the coals and coal ash blends. 1 ref., 45 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  10. The directory of US coal and technology export resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of The Directory remains focused on offering a consolidated resource to potential buyers of US coal, coal technology, and expertise. This is consistent with the US policy on coal and coal technology trade, which continues to emphasize export market strategy implementation. Within this context, DOE will continue to support the teaming'' approach to marketing; i.e., vertically integrated large project teams to include multiple industry sectors, such as coal producers, engineering and construction firms, equipment manufacturers, financing and service organizations.

  11. Use of ground penetrating radar in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Johnathon C.; Hainsworth, David W.

    2000-04-01

    This paper reports on a novel application of ground penetrating radar to a longwall steering problem in the coal mining industry. The main goal of the work was to determine whether a radar-based system could be used to detect coal-rock interfaces in order to establish a suitable mining horizon within the coal seam. We investigated the feasibility of the radar unit and determined that a positive correlation exists between the radar data and known coal-rock interface geology. We also highlight some of the unique challenges encountered when attempting to develop electrical equipment that is suitable for hazardous underground coal mining environments.

  12. Coal Tar and Coal-Tar Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about coal-tar products, which can raise your risk of skin cancer, lung cancer, and other types of cancer. Examples of coal-tar products include creosote, coal-tar pitch, and certain preparations used to treat skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.

  13. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  14. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  15. Study of China's coal supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Primary Industries and Energy is funding a joint research project between ABARE and the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission, China's leading organisation undertaking policy-related energy sector research. Together, the two organisations will analyse the economic costs and impacts of moving large quantities of coal from China's northern coal fields to, power stations in the rapidly growing south-eastern coastal provinces. The study will also compare the true economic costs of using domestic coal - including the costs of subsidies on coal production and transport - with the costs of using imported coal. ABARE will use its dynamic model, MEGABARE, to undertake ky parts of the study, taking into account the complex linkages between sectors in an economy and between different economies

  16. Technical problems of coal-liquefaction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakabe, T.

    1974-10-01

    A discussion based partly on the author's experience with a 60 kg/day pilot plant for coal paste liquefaction operated by the Japan National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources from 1956 to 1961 covers the hydrogenation technology developed by I.G. Farbenindustrie in the 1930's, including composition and properties of the coal and the coal/oil/catalyst paste, heat exchange and energy requirement, and reaction conditions, catalysts, and products of the German industrial plants of the 1930's and 1940's, the demonstration plant of the U.S. Bureau of Mines (1949 to 1952), and the Japanese test plant; and brief surveys of the process developed by Carbide and Carbon Chem. Co., the CSF method by Consolidated Coal Co., and the H-Coal process by Hydrocarbon Research, Inc.

  17. Quality of selected coals of Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, E.R.; Rohrbacher, T.J.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Fodor, B.; Gombar, G.; Sebestyen, I.

    2000-07-01

    As part of the activities conducted under the US-Hungarian Science and Technology Fund, a total of 39 samples from five coal mines in five geologically-distinct coal areas in Hungary were selected for proximate and ultimate analyses. In addition, the heat value, forms of sulfur, free-swelling index, equilibrium moisture, Hardgrove grindability index, four-point ash fusion temperatures (both oxidizing and reducing), and apparent specific gravity were determined for each sample. Standard procedures established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, 1999) were used. The analytical results will be available in the International Coal Quality Data Base of the USGS. Results of the program provide data for comparison with coal quality test data from Europe and information of value to potential investors or cooperators in the coal industry of Hungary and Central Europe.

  18. The application of geophysics in South African coal mining and exploration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available and miners has resulted in a shift in attitude towards the application of geophysics in local coal mining and exploration. Furthermore, technological advances have contributed to geophysics being embraced more readily by the coal mining industry, compared...

  19. British Energy privatisation - 18 months on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRoberts, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The TV advertisement which launched the privatisation of British Energy in the summer of 1996 - but just how successful has that privatisation been? And who has benefited - shareholders? The nuclear industry? Our own workforce? Last year, as reported to PIME 97 that the privatisation itself had been successfully completed - following the restructuring of the UK nuclear generation industry, and the creation of British Energy, a new name in the UK - and world energy scene. In simple terms, that privatisation has certainly succeeded - our share price since privatisation has more than doubled, from 2 pounds to well over 4 ponds. Over the last year, it has consistently outperformed the UK electricity sector - particularly over the last winter; it has also out-performed the FR Share Index over the same period, and in December British Energy became one of the UK top 100 listed companies, included in the FTSE 100 having started life at around number 130. This in turn has meant that a number of high quality institutions have taken a second look at British Energy and begun to invest in us as part of a portfolio of FTSE 100 companies. Our success as a private sector company could only be built on the solid foundation of successes as a nuclear utility. Over the five years from 1992 to 1997, our output went up by 64 as Sizewell B came on line and the AGRs achieved their design load factors at last. Safety remains our top priority, and while our profitability increased, so did our safety ratings - accident frequency rates came down by 60%, and collective radiation exposure to our workforce came down 58%. As a result of all this achievement, coupled with reduction in our total workforce, our productivity went up by over 100% - surely proof that nuclear can succeed in a competitive, deregulated electricity market. For future, it has been even more important to sustain that initial success to grow and develop British Energy as a company. The results are there for all to see. In the

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  2. Contraction behaviour of coals and binary blends during coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. MacPhee; L. Giroux; J.F. Gransden; J.T. Price [CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Contraction of coals during coking is of major practical interest since the longevity of industrial coke ovens depends on facilitating smooth coke pushes. Consequently, the prediction of the contraction behaviour of blends from single coal properties is of great importance to cokemakers. The situation is often complicated by the non-additivity of component coal properties. Our approach to simplify this problem involves the examination of the expansion/contraction behaviour of a number of binary coal blends and single coals (Appalachian coals mainly) for which a suite of coal and coke properties has been measured. These properties include coal and coke chemistry; coal petrography; coke optical textures; apparent and true specific gravities; CSR and CRI, etc. Coke yields from the sole-heated oven (D 2014-97) have also been carefully measured and almost all cases indicate that the yield of coke from the binary blends is greater than is predicted from the yields of the component coals. The coke yield data presented provides evidence supporting synergistic interaction between macerals in different coals during pyrolysis. Blends of high- and low-volatile coal coked in a sole-heated oven often produce a larger coke yield than expected from coking the single coals alone. Coke microscopy confirms interaction between the coals in the blend. Flow type textures are increased at the expense of either mosaic or domain textures or both. The sole-heated contraction of the blend may be less than that expected from the single coals. Based on limited observations it is tentatively concluded high-volatile coals with high contractions are the cause of the non-additivity of blend contraction values. They tend to have high thermal rheological properties and be of moderately low rank. Their high contraction values must be discounted in calculations of a blend contraction from the contraction or expansion of the coals in the blend. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  4. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and plants of the tundra zone under the impact of coal-mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, E. V.; Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Kondratenok, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in organic horizons of tundra surface-gleyed soils ( Histic Stagnosols (Gelistagnic) and plants. The total content of PAHs in contaminated soils exceeded the background values by three times. Concentrations of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in soils at different distances from the coalmines were relatively stable. Concentrations of highmolecular weight hydrocarbons had a distinct maximum at a distance of about 0.5 km from the source of emission. The increased values of correlation coefficients were found between PAH concentrations in organic soil horizons, plants, and coal of the Vorkutinskaya mine. Mostly low-molecular weight structures predominated in the organic soil horizons and in the studied plant species. The maximum capacity for the biological accumulation of PAHs was displayed by Pleurozium schreberi and the minimum capacity was displayed by Vaccinium myrtillus. Mosses and lichens actively absorbed polyarenes from the surface; most of the PAHs were transported into the plants. This phenomenon was not observed for Vaccinium myrtillus Concentrations of PAHs on the surface and in plant tissues decreased with an increase in the distance from the mine. Distribution of polyarenes in plant organs was nonuniform. Insignificant excess of concentration of polyarenes was found in dead part of Pleurozium schreberi in comparison with its living part. The accumulation of polyarenes in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus was higher than that in its stems and roots.

  5. Mechanization of coal cutting by plough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Oak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the remaining 11 coal mines after the rationalization of the industry, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. A plough has been tested since Feb. 1997 at the Kyung Dong Colliery. Through several modifications it achieved following performances compared to coal pick. - Reduced working forces from 60 workers per day to 48 workers. - Enhanced advancing rate from 35cm per day to 46cm. - Improved productivity from 8.34 ton/man{center_dot}shift to 12.5 ton at the face. - Increased daily production rate from 500 tonne to 600 tonne. (author). 6 tabs., 17 figs.

  6. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  7. Strategic Factors Influencing the British and American Empires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    sources - half from Britain, half from India and was not composed of conscripts. Most of this force was needed for the protection of Britain’s overseas...colonies, since they had little responsibility for their own defenses, with fully a third stationed in India (paid for by Indian, not British, taxes15...over 50 percent of the world’s iron, coal, and lignite and consuming 50 percent of the world’s cotton.24 Much of this success was fueled by the

  8. British Failure? : Britain’s Relative Economic Decline in an International Context 1935-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Relative economic decline has since long been a research topic in the literature on long-term British economic development. In particular the literature on the post-second world war era suggests that the process of relative economic decline was the result of failure of British industrial policies,

  9. Why investors shy away from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roling, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Why do investors shy away from coal? This may sound like a strange question given the change in ownership of many major coal companies in recent years, but the ongoing consolidation within the coal industry is quite different from any actual new investment in the industry. To begin to understand why, one must return to the early '70s, a time of low-cost, abundant energy. The price of oil was about $2-4/bbl until 1973. The price of natural gas was about 60 cents/M ft 3 , and coal was approximately $7/st. This, however, was before the first Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) shock. The price of coal declined throughout the 1980s, and continues its downward path in some markets. Many coal investments have not achieved their expected return, such as the case of a 1M st/yr mine in West Virginia, which was developed in the early '80s only to be put immediately on a care-and-maintenance basis, where it languished until it was sold in 1990. Other mines, such as the large open-pit mines in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, never reached their targeted production rates. Some of these large mines had equipment that remained in crates for years, only later to be sold at a loss. The extent of losses on investments in coal mines is discussed

  10. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  11. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.

    2001-01-01

    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of

  12. Indian coal set for an overhaul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, S.

    2000-01-01

    A major restructuring is planned for Indian government-owned coal, which is likely to have a significant impact on future productivity and exporting. The Ministry of Mines and Metals is debating whether to wind up Coal India Ltd. (CIL) as a holding company and convert all its subsidiaries into separate corporate entities, or whether to merge all the subsidiaries with CIL and make it a single strong unit. If it takes the first option, a new regulatory body will be put in place for the domestic coal industry. The CIL board will gather feedback and present a recommendation to the ministry. Implications of the restructuring are briefly discussed. 1 photo.

  13. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended.

  14. Coal and the environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiang; Chen Peng

    1993-01-01

    The environment has aroused greater concern recently in many countries. China ranks as the world's highest in coal consumption, although the energy consumption per capita accounts for only one third of the global average. Yet, the Chinese government has determined to pay more attention to environmental control in the development of the economy and the energy industry. They hope to develop sincere cooperation with various countries in the world on the basis of equality and mutual benefit in the development of clean coal technologies using coal in a more effective, clean and inexpensive way, thus eventually improving the environment in China and the world. This paper reviews some of these efforts

  15. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-08

    This is the ninth Technical Progress Report, describing work performed under DOE Contract No. (DE-FC2290PC896631) Development of a Coal Quality Expert.'' The contract is a Cooperative Agreement between the US Department of Energy, CQ Inc., and ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report covers the period from April 1, through June 30, 1992. Four companies and seven host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and ABB/CE to perform the work on this project. The work falls under DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program category of Advanced Coal Cleaning.'' The 45-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and. Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance. (2) Develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests.

  16. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... wedged between two irreconcilable identities, divisions threatened to derail this already enfeebled grouping. Yet leaders of the community, presuming a common Britishness with the Falkland Islanders and Britons in the United Kingdom, sought to intervene in the conflict by reaching out to both...

  17. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus, 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa. The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  18. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The calculated values of life time

  19. Natural radionuclide of Po²¹⁰ in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Lubna; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-20

    Po²¹⁰ can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po²¹⁰ concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Concentration of Po²¹⁰ was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. The activities of Po²¹⁰ in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql⁻¹ whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg⁻¹. The ranges of Po²¹⁰ activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus), 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg⁻¹ dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa). The variation of Po²¹⁰ in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday⁻¹person⁻¹ and 249.30 μSvyr⁻¹ respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po²¹⁰ in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po²¹⁰ can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  20. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.