Sample records for british anti-lewisite

  1. A Method to Determine British Anti-Lewisite in Plasma Utilizing Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Christopher E; Holloway, Evan R; Korte, William D; Smith, John R; Capacio, Bebedict R


    British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is a potential therapeutic compound against the effects of cutaneous sulfur mustard, and an method for its determination in plasma has been developed...

  2. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of british anti-lewisite in plasma. (United States)

    Byers, C E; Holloway, E R; Korte, W D; Smith, J R; Clarkson, E D; Platoff, G E; Capacio, B R


    British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is a potential therapeutic compound when used against the effects of cutaneous sulfur mustard, and a method for its determination in plasma has been developed. BAL and the internal standard (IS) ethane dithiol were isolated from plasma samples through solid-phase extraction and then reacted with 1-pentafluoropropionylimidazole, forming stable pentafluoropropionyl derivates that are sensitive to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. Examination of concentration versus peak-area ratios of the BAL and IS derivatives demonstrated the method to be linear over a concentration range of 0.48 to 124 ng/mL in plasma when fit to a weighted (1/y2) least-squares regression. Correlation coefficients were 0.9943 to 0.9995 for six runs, and coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.5 to 8.7% over the eight concentrations tested. The intra- and interday accuracy and precision of this method was measured by examining six groups of eight unknown test samples (n = 6). Intraday accuracy, as expressed by percent error, was found to range from -15.4 to 0.21%, whereas the precision, expressed as %CV, was less than 9.8% over all sample concentrations. Interday test unknown sample results were similar in that the accuracy was shown to be -7.1 to 0.4%, and precision was 4.7 to 9.5%. BAL levels in frozen plasma (-70 degrees C) remained constant for more than 14 days with a CV of less than 10% for the eight concentrations tested. The data indicate that the method will provide accurate and precise determination of BAL at concentrations down to approximately 1 ng/mL in plasma. This procedure has been applied to determine preliminary time-concentration profile studies of BAL in the hairless guinea pig.

  3. A computational study of detoxification of lewisite warfare agents by British anti-lewisite: catalytic effects of water and ammonia on reaction mechanism and kinetics. (United States)

    Sahu, Chandan; Pakhira, Srimanta; Sen, Kaushik; Das, Abhijit K


    trans-2-Chlorovinyldichloroarsine (lewisite, L agent, Lew-I) acts as a blistering agents. British anti-lewisite (BAL, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) has long been used as an L-agent antidote. The main reaction channels for the detoxification proceed via breaking of As-Cl bonds and formation of As-S bonds, producing stable, nontoxic ring product [(2-methyl-1,3,2-dithiarsolan-4-yl)methanol]. M06-2X/GENECP calculations have been carried out to establish the enhanced rate of detoxification mechanism in the presence of NH3 and H2O catalysts in both gas and solvent phases, which has been modeled by use of the polarized continuum model (PCM). In addition, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis have been performed to characterize the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the transition states. Transition-state theory (TST) calculation establishes that the rates of NH3-catalyzed (2.88 × 10(-11) s(-1)) and H2O-catalyzed (2.42 × 10(-11) s(-1)) reactions are reasonably faster than the uncatalyzed detoxification (5.44 × 10(-13) s(-1)). The results obtained by these techniques give new insight into the mechanism of the detoxification process, identification and thermodynamic characterization of the relevant stationary species, the proposal of alternative paths on modeled potential energy surfaces for uncatalyzed reaction, and the rationalization of the mechanistic role played by catalysts and solvents.

  4. British passports

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    Please note that from 01/01/2009, the passport section of the British Consulate will move from Geneva to Paris. This change is part of a global initiative to rationalize passport services and reduce administrative costs while ensuring that the quality of the service remains high. The aim is to issue new passports within 10 working days of receiving applications (excluding transit time). From 1st January 2009 passport applications should be sent by courier or registered post directly to: British Consulate General BP111-08 75363 Paris CEDEX 08 France For further information please refer to:

  5. British Columbia (United States)

    Walton, Gerald


    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  6. British Sign Name Customs (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel


    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  7. Earthquakes in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This pamphlet provides information about the causes of earthquakes, where earthquakes occur, British Columbia plate techtonics, earthquake patterns, earthquake intensity, geology and earthquake impact...

  8. Chronocentrism and British criminology. (United States)

    Rock, Paul


    Criminologists display a largely unexamined propensity to ignore writings that are more than fifteen or so years old, with evident consequences for the public presentation and validation of expert knowledge. A citation study was combined with detailed observations from British criminologists to ascertain quite how that disavowal of the past was accomplished.

  9. War of the British Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercau, Ezequiel


    The 1982 Falklands War was shrouded in symbolism, bringing to the fore divergent conceptions of Britishness, kinship, and belonging. This article casts light on the persistent purchase of the idea of Greater Britain long after the end of empire, addressing a case that would normally be deemed...... outside its spatial and temporal boundaries. By highlighting the inherent contradictions of this transnational bond, the South Atlantic conflict had a profound effect on an underexposed British community with a lingering attachment to a “British world”: the Anglo-Argentines. As they found themselves...... different “British worlds” against each other....

  10. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock


    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  11. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown


    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  12. Microcomputing in British planning education


    I Masser; G Teet


    The findings of a survey of British planning schools carried out during spring 1986 suggest that the number of microcomputers available in British planning schools has increased by at least two-and-a-half times over an eighteen-month period. However, compulsory courses on computer applications and information management in these schools still tend to be linked with quantitative methods teaching and few opportunities are provided for more advanced training in information management in most sch...

  13. The British Monarchy On Screen


    Merck, Mandy


    Moving images of the British monarchy, in fact and fiction, are almost as old as the moving image itself, dating back to an 1895 American drama, The Execution of Mary Queen of Scots. British monarchs even appeared in the new ‘animated photography’ from 1896, led by Queen Victoria. Half a century later, the 1953 coronation of Elizabeth II was a milestone in the adoption of television, watched by 20 million Britons and 100 million North Americans. At the century’s end, Princess Diana’s funeral ...

  14. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-


    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  15. Medical slang in British hospitals. (United States)

    Fox, Adam T; Fertleman, Michael; Cahill, Pauline; Palmer, Roger D


    The usage, derivation, and psychological, ethical, and legal aspects of slang terminology in medicine are discussed. The colloquial vocabulary is further described and a comprehensive glossary of common UK terms provided in appendix. This forms the first list of slang terms currently in use throughout the British medical establishment.

  16. Larch sawfly in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, L.


    Summary of the history of infestations in British Columbia of the larch sawfly, first introduced into the province in 1930. Information is based on the Forest Insect and Diseases Survey records and data and preliminary observations on the impact of defoliation on growth of western larch. The report describes biology; history of outbreaks in western larch and tamarack; sampling, population assessments, and predictions; damage appraisal; and controls, including parasites, predators, and weather.

  17. Teleoncology uptake in British Columbia. (United States)

    Clarke, Melissa; Barnett, Jeff


    Telehealth enables the delivery of specialized health care to patients living in isolated and remote regions. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the current uptake of teleoncology in mainland British Columbia. Patient appointment data was extracted from the Cancer Agency Information System (CAIS) for the 2009 calendar year. Three types of practitioners used teleoncology in 2009: Medical Oncologists, Genetic Counsellors and Medical Geneticists. In total, 712 telehealth encounters were conducted; Medical Oncologists conducted 595 encounters (83.6%), Genetic Counsellors conducted 112 encounters (15.7%) and Medical Geneticists conducted 5 encounters (0.7%). The most common oncology appointments were Gastro-Intestinal (11.4%) and Lymphoma (11.0%) follow-up appointments with a Medical Oncologist. Telehealth encounters were conducted by 46 individual health care providers however, a single Medical Oncologist conducted 418 encounters and this accounts for more than half (58.7%) of all telehealth appointments in 2009. Radiation Oncologists on the mainland up to this point are not using the technology. The Local Health Areas with the highest number of oncology telehealth appointments were: Kamloops: 203 encounters (34.1%), Penticton: 84 encounters (14.1%), Cranbrook: 58 encounters (9.7%) and the Southern Okanagan: 33 encounter (5.5%). Use of telehealth in rural and remote areas of BC is limited and there is significant room for growth. Further research will be required to identify barriers and restrictions to the use of telehealth in order to increase teleoncology adoption in British Columbia.

  18. Interpersonal perception in Japanese and British observers. (United States)

    Kito, Tsuneo; Lee, Billy


    We compared performance of Japanese and British observers in deciphering images depicting Japanese interpersonal relationships. 201 Japanese and 215 British subjects were assessed by means of a test consisting of 31 photograph problems accompanied by two or three alternative solutions one of which was correct. Japanese subjects outperformed British subjects on the test overall (z = 3.981, p interpersonal relationships, but it may sometimes cause specific errors. Differences in the perceptual cues used suggest that British subjects had difficulty reading Japanese facial expressions.

  19. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen


    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  20. Relationship satisfaction among Turkish and British adults


    Celenk, O.; Van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Goodwin, R.


    We tested three theories (adult attachment, autonomy/relatedness, and gender roles) to understand relationship satisfaction among 150 British and 170 Turkish adults, all involved in romantic relationships. Avoidance, relatedness, autonomy–relatedness, and masculinity mediated the relationship between culture and romantic relationship satisfaction. Additionally, as anticipated, Turkish participants scored lower on relationship satisfaction and autonomy whereas British participants scored lower...

  1. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors. (United States)

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  2. British African Caribbean Women and Depression (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney


    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  3. Indian Education Programs in British Columbia. (United States)

    Kelly, Reg

    The British North America Act of 1867, the founding constitution of Canada, provides that all matters pertaining to Indians and Indian lands are under Federal jurisdiction. Because of this, the province of British Columbia (BC) has not felt it could do much for native peoples and little attention has been paid to the extension of provincial…

  4. Libraries in British Columbia: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... this page: Libraries in British Columbia To use the sharing features ... George University Hospital of Northern BC Northern Health Library Services Learning & Development Centre 1475 Edmonton Street Prince ...

  5. British and American attitudes toward credit cards. (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David


    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  6. Retrenchment in British Universities: Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Simpson, William A.


    A study of 14 British universities that underwent severe retrenchment in 1981-1984 is reported, and successful policies, procedures, philosophies, and techniques that may be applicable to institutions in many countries are outlined. (MSE)

  7. Politics, policy and government in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carty, R. Kenneth


    ... and Gerry Kristiansonvi Contents Part 3: Governing the Province 9 The Government of the Day: The Premier and Cabinet in British Columbia / 143 Terence Morley 10 Provincial Governance and the Pu...

  8. British Teachers' Transnational Work within and beyond the British Empire after the Second World War (United States)

    Whitehead, Kay


    Focusing on British graduates from Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) in London, this article illustrates transnational history's concerns with the reciprocal flows of people and ideas within and beyond the British Empire. GHTC's progressive curriculum and culture positioned women teachers as agents of change, and the article highlights the lives…

  9. Phonemic Transcriptions in British and American Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Šuštaršič


    Full Text Available In view of recent criticisms concerning vowel symbols in some British English dictionaries (in particular by J. Windsor Lewis in JIPA (Windsor Lewis, 2003, with regard to the Oxford Dictionary of Pronunciation (Upton, 2001, this article extends the discussion on English phonemic transcriptions by including those that typically occur in standard American dictionaries, and by comparing the most common conventions of British and American dictionaries. In addition to symbols for both vowels and consonants, the paper also deals with the different representations of word accentuation and the issue of consistency regarding application of phonemic (systemic, broad, rather than phonetic (allophonic, narrow transcription. The different transcriptions are assessed from the points of view of their departures from the International Phonetic Alphabet, their overlapping with orthographic representation (spelling and their appropriateness in terms of reflecting actual pronunciation in standard British and/or American pronunciation.

  10. The British Library's Vulnerable Collection Items Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly C. Kowal


    Full Text Available The British Library embarked on a project in 2007 to better protect collection materials considered vulnerable. Following thefts of maps contained within books, a methodology was developed to firmly identify the unique copies of rare and valuable British Library holdings, using a range of security photography and copy-specific descriptive metadata. The outcome of the project not only served to improve the security of the selected maps, but by revealing these hidden collections, access to and knowledge of them is enhanced.

  11. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata


    of two competing second-generation endogenous growth models to account for the British growth experience. The results suggest that innovative activity was an important force in shaping the Industrial Revolution and that the British growth experience is consistent with Schumpeterian growth theory.......Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...

  12. A critical history of British earthquakes


    R. M. W. Musson


    This paper reviews the history of the study of historical British earthquakes. The publication of compendia of British earthquakes goes back as early as the late 16th Century. A boost to the study of earthquakes in Britain was given in the mid 18th Century as a result of two events occurring in London in 1750 (analogous to the general increase in earthquakes in Europe five years later after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). The 19th Century saw a number of significant studies, culminating in th...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesipov Mikhail Alekseevich


    Full Text Available Communication culture formation belongs to most essential problems for pedagogical theory and practice. The level of a teacher’s communication culture influences greatly the efficiency of his professional communication with colleagues and students. The peculiarities of teachers’ communication culture formation in the British educational system are considered. Main characteristics of a communication-oriented teacher are mentioned. Criteria for specifying the level of British teachers’ communication culture formedness as well as brief description of these levels are given in this article.

  14. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites. (United States)

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian


    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities - particularly amongst older individuals.

  15. British Higher Education and Its Older Clients. (United States)

    Woodley, Alan; Wilson, Jane


    Using results from a survey of British graduates, examined outcomes of higher education for older students, including their current employment situation, relationship of degree to job, and student satisfaction. Found that mature students are an extremely heterogeneous group, with differences in outcomes by age and mode of study. (EV)

  16. Earnings Returns to the British Education Expansion (United States)

    Devereux, Paul J.; Fan, Wen


    We study the effects of the large expansion in British educational attainment that took place for cohorts born between 1970 and 1975. Using the Quarterly Labour Force Survey, we find that the expansion caused men to increase education by about a year on average and gain about 8% higher wages; women obtained a slightly greater increase in education…

  17. British Technology Education. An American View. (United States)

    Hutchinson, John


    The author describes the British Craft, Design and Technology (CDT) curriculum, which is comparable to American technology education. According to the author, CDT is characterized by creative thinking and experimentation. He states, however, that little national coordination or cooperation is evident. (CH)

  18. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia (United States)

    Santos, Ana


    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  19. British physics Newton's law of funding

    CERN Multimedia


    In Britain, fundamental physics is in a pickle ISAAC NEWTON, besides being the founder of modern physics, was also master of Britain's mint. That is a precedent which many British physicists must surely wish had become traditional. At the moment, money for physics is in short supply in Britain.

  20. British used Congreve Rockets to Attack Napoleon (United States)


    Sir William Congreve developed a rocket with a range of about 9,000 feet. The incendiary rocket used black powder, an iron case, and a 16-foot guide stick. In 1806, British used Congreve rockets to attack Napoleon's headquarters in France. In 1807, Congreve directed a rocket attack against Copenhagen.

  1. British scorched earth and concentration camp policies.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    THE BRITISH SCORCHED EARTH AND. CONCENTRATION CAMP POLICIES IN THE. POTCHEFSTROOM REGION, 1899–1902. 1. Prof GN van den Bergh. Research Associate, North-West University. Abstract. The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of. Bloemfontein and Pretoria and ...

  2. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens


    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  3. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  4. The Royal Navy and British Security Policy. (United States)


    development or production. To Kennedy and MacNamara , the decision to cancel the SKYBOLT program in 1962 was only a measure to improve the cost...Kennedy- MacNamara decision to cancel SKYBOLT. Kennedy suc- cessfully solved the British dilemma by offering to sell them the American POLARIS submarine

  5. Demand for wildlife hunting in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.


    We present estimates of the demand for hunting licenses by residents and nonresidents in British Columbia for the period 19712000. We obtain estimates of both short-run and long-run price elasticities and discuss their revenue implications for future fee increases. We find the demand by nonresidents

  6. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955 men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744 and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232 contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community.

  7. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis (United States)

    Shaw, Alison


    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  8. Four former British mining settlements on Spitsbergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Claughton, P.; Mills, C.


    The LASHIPA project participated in the recent International Polar Year to evaluate the large-scale historical exploitation of polar areas. This sub-project looks at the role of British actors in the economic and geopolitical development of the European High Arctic during the early twentieth

  9. African Centered Knowledge: A British Perspective. (United States)

    Christian, Mark


    Considers the impact of African centered knowledge within the United Kingdom. Recent development of African Diaspora studies has forged links between various black Atlantic communities. The United Kingdom has experienced positive grassroots community response to the work of noted African centered scholars, yet within the British academy,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Valerievna Eremina


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to reveal the forms, methods, content of British strategy in Arctic. Arctic is becoming the area of international cooperation among, first of all, Arctic states. Britain has ambitions to get the status of so-called “subarctic state” to prove its international leadership and acquire guarantees of energetic security. Now Britain has been elaborating the two strategies: military and scientific ones. The main instrument to solve the tasks for Britain is to participate in international structures, connected with Arctic. The article pays attention to the aspects that were not previously analyzed, such as: reasons of British interests in Arctic, bilateral and multilateral relationships between Britain and its partners, first of all, cooperation between Russia and Britain; British institutions; positive and negative aspects of British Arctic strategy; factors that have impact on its evolution, mainly EU and Scottish factors. The research allowed to make the conclusion that Britain does not have enough instruments to have a strong disposition in Arctic, though it plans to accelerate its participation in Arctic organizations. The article is based upon system and structural analysis.

  11. subordination across ghanaian and british newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical research in this area is scanty, though this theoretical argumentation is not without contention, especially cross-culturally. Empirical investigation is therefore ... Frimpong: Subordination Across Ghanaian and British Newspaper Editorials: A Register. Perspective. 78. Figure 1: The Components in a register analysis.

  12. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites


    McClelland, A.; S. Khanam; Furnham, A.


    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towa...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma İgüs


    Full Text Available This article examines the life and works of British architect William James Smith and outlines his contributions to nineteenth century Ottoman architecture and presents his prominence as an architectural historian of nineteenth century British architectural work.

  14. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football


    Daniel Kilvington


    This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group). Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work...

  15. British International Schools: The Deployment and Training of Teaching Assistants (United States)

    Tarry, Estelle


    This article reports on research carried out on behalf of the Council of British International Schools (COBIS) as to the role and deployment of British international school teaching assistants. Through questionnaires and a follow up open discussion with headteachers from British international schools it was found that, due to the differing…

  16. The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'British-Imperial' Model of administration: Assembling the South African constabulary, 1900-1902. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... to the colonies but sought guidance from existing institutions throughout the British Isles and Empire in a single 'British-Imperial' model of administration.

  17. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  18. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes (United States)


    ... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series... instructions of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JM7862, Revision 1, dated...

  19. the relationship between british war correspondents in the field

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal ... press corps in the field and British Military Intelligence, especially in the initial and formal part of the Anglo-Boer ..... recognised and acknowledged the Value and Power of the Press by establishing a Newspaper as ...

  20. Negative connotations in speech behaviour of the british and american men and women (british and american drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е М Люльчева


    Full Text Available Use of special linguistic means in the British and American men and women speech is researched in this article. Various linguistic means are typical of the British and American men and women negative emotional speech.

  1. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W. [British Columbia Ministry of Finance, Victoria, BC (Canada). Land Use Coordination Office


    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province.

  2. Russian-British Symposium on Quantum Technologies (United States)

    Zadkov, V. N.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Naumov, A. V.


    In the year 2017, declared 'The Year of Science and Education', the Russian Federation (RF) and the United Kingdom (UK) implemented the Promotion of UK-RF Joint Research in the Field of Quantum Technologies Project. In the framework of this project, Russian scientists from various scientific and science educational institutions in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhnii Novgorod and St. Petersburg and their British colleagues from scientific centres in London, Birmingham and Glasgow exchanged visits.

  3. Metaphor and creativity in British magazine advertising


    Lundmark, Carita


    This thesis is a cognitive linguistic study of the various ways in which conceptual metaphor and related cognitive processes are exploited for creative purposes in advertising texts and accompanying images. The material consists of advertisements collected from British magazines between the years 1996 and 2002, and is classified into four main categories according to how the metaphorical content is signalled in the advertisement. These categories include polysemous words, idiomatic expression...

  4. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change? (United States)


    must create a vision, devise a strategy, and implement it. They require buy -in from the wider Army but this support is not guaranteed. Indeed, many...investigate. However, there is a compulsion element to any change in the British Army. Orders are orders after all. How much room there is for change evident throughout? Whether Senior Leaders had any power to influence change is important due to the compulsion aspect of the

  5. Peer Victimization in British Columbia Youth


    Van Blyderveen, Sherry Lynn


    Peer victimization is an issue which has recently received considerable attention from the media, the school system, and academic literature. The present study examines a number of expected correlates, both risk factors and outcomes, of peer victimization through the use of the Adolescent Health Survey - II conducted by the McCreary Centre Society in the province of British Columbia. Approximately 25,800 youth, from grades 7 through 12, from various regions of the province completed the quest...

  6. British Gujarati Indian immigrants' and British Caucasians' beliefs about health and illness. (United States)

    Jobanputra, Rena; Furnham, Adrian


    This study examined cultural differences in beliefs about health and illness to explore differences in younger and older British Caucasians' and British Gujarati Indian immigrants' beliefs about health and illness. This study required a matched group consisting of first- and second-generation Gujarati Indian immigrants and native British Caucasians to complete a questionnaire assessing their beliefs concerning health and illness. Factor analysis of the health beliefs questionnaire identified six clear factors accounting for 36.04% of the variance. Subsequent ANCOVAs conducted on the factor scores, partialling out the demographic differences between the participants, revealed that Gujarati Indian immigrants agreed with items reflecting supernatural explanations of ill health more than indigenous British Caucasian participants. Older Indian immigrants also rated chance-related factors as more important than older Caucasian immigrants. There were no significant differences between the Gujarati Indian immigrants and British Caucasians in terms of attributions made to psychological factors and self-responsibility, social factors and life circumstances, medical treatment and physical vulnerability and the external environment. Findings are discussed in relation to the model proposed by Helman (2001) and the impact of migration on health beliefs systems; practical implications of the findings are also highlighted.

  7. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN


    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  8. The British Monarchy. On the Teaching of British Affairs at College and School Level (United States)

    Campbell-Doherty, Julian


    Deals with "area study" aspects of the teaching of English in schools and colleges. Using as an example the British monarchy, it is shown how "area study" elements are handled in schoolbooks in use today. Suggestions relating to the subject are also offered. (IFS/WGA)

  9. The British Geological Survey seismic monitoring system (United States)

    Ottemoller, L.; Baptie, B.; Luckett, R.


    The British Geological Survey (BGS) monitors the seismicity in and around the British Isles. The seismic network was started in the seventies and built up over the years to 146 short-period stations. An upgrade of this network started a few years ago and will result in a modern network with broadband seismometers, high dynamic range digitizers and real-time communication (Internet, ADSL, satellite). In total the network will comprise about 50 stations, with only few short-period stations remaining. Equipment is used from both Guralp and Nanometrics, and their respective software for data acquisition is used to bring the data to the centre in near real-time. The automated data processing is done through Earthworm. Event data are analysed using SEISAN. Continuous data are kept for all broadband stations and checked for quality and completeness. Real-time data is also exchanged with neighbouring networks. The data is used for routine monitoring, but also research. The main research objectives are to understand distribution of seismicity and relating earthquakes to tectonics, develop velocity and attenuation models and study the seismic hazard and earthquake effects.

  10. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer


    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  11. Suicide reporting within British newspapers' arts coverage. (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Stevenson, Fiona


    Many suicide prevention strategies promote media guidelines on suicide reporting, given evidence that irresponsible reporting of suicide can influence imitative suicidal behavior. Due to limited resources, monitoring of guideline adherence has tended to focus on news outputs, with a risk of neglecting other journalistic content. To determine whether British newspapers' arts coverage adheres to media guidelines on suicide reporting. Purposive sampling was used to capture current national practice on suicide reporting within newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions. Recent major UK exhibitions by artists who had died by suicide were identified: Kirchner, Rothko, Gorky, and Van Gogh. Content analysis of all UK national newspaper coverage of these exhibitions was performed to measure the articles' adherence to widely accepted media guidelines. In all, 68 newspaper reviews satisfied inclusion criteria, with 100% failing to show full adherence to media guidelines: 21% used inappropriate language; 38% provided explicit descriptions of the suicide; 7% employed simplistic explanations for suicide triggers; 27% romanticized the suicide; and 100% omitted information on sources of support. British newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions deviates considerably from media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. The findings suggest scope to improve journalists' awareness of the importance of this component of suicide prevention strategies.

  12. The truth behind british politeness: some misinterpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto, Rafael Marcos Tort


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse a chart published by the British newspaper The Telegraphabout the most common misunderstandings foreigners face while making use of English as their second language. L2 speakers are said to take every word at face value and therefore making some pragmatic mistakes. Sometimes there can be another meaning behind the spoken words, like it is unsaid for a reason. The pragmatics theories of irony in Attardo (1999 shed light on these translating and intercultural awareness issues by explaining what is behind the misunderstanding which is the secret ofthe so famous British politeness. Some considerations will be made upon the chart so as to understand it, such as an analysis of irony and native speakers’ perspectives on it. In addition to that, we will take into account the opinion of some native speakers of English to unveil some details and clarify how meaningful some sentences may be and if the researched chart is actually accurate

  13. Population Ecology of Caribou in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Seip


    Full Text Available The abundance and geographic range of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou decreased in many areas of British Columbia during the 1900's. Recent studies have found that predation during the summer is the major cause of mortality and current population declines. Increased moose {Alecs alces populations may be related to past and current caribou declines by sustaining greater numbers of wolves (Canis lupus. Mortality rates were greater in areas where caribou calved in forested habitats, in close proximity to predators and moose. Caribou populations which had calving sites in alpine areas, islands, and rugged mountains experienced lower mortality and were generally stable or increasing. A predator-induced population decline in one area appeared to stabilize at low caribou densities, suggesting that the wolf predation rate may be density dependent.

  14. British view of Canadian general practice. (United States)

    Marsh, G N


    The Canadian general practitioner is remunerated by an item-of-service system of payment which encourages servicing demands rather than needs, discourages delegation of work to paramedical workers, and involves his staff in a massive amount of paper work. He has an excellent hospital attachment, which unfortunately is overdone. His community facilities are piecemeal and his office organization is rudimentary. There are few incentives for good general practice in the community. He spends an inordinate amount of time examining well people. The university departments of general practice are extremely good and much should be heard from them very quickly. The patient's attitude towards his doctor is quite different from the one prevailing currently in Britain.I returned happily to British general practice.

  15. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat. (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J


    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  16. The Contradiction in the "Prevent Duty": Democracy vs "British Values" (United States)

    Wolton, Suke


    The duty to monitor "the failure to uphold British Values" in the "Prevent" strategy, introduced in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015, is itself an attack on British democracy. This article explains the contradictory nature of the "Prevent Duty." First, the current state of democracy in Britain is examined…

  17. The Politics of Britishness: Multiculturalism, Schooling and Social Cohesion (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda


    This paper is set against a backdrop of contemporary concerns about Britishness. It explores the dominant view that unprecedented levels of cultural diversity within western contexts such as the UK are undermining social cohesion and are attributable to minority groups' failure to connect or assimilate with mainstream "British" (read…

  18. Southern Cameroons' financial contributions to British Second World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serious damage done to the British economy during World War II compelled the leaders of the British Government to look for ways of repairing the damage. Hence, they turned to the colonies for help. Inter alia, they needed financial assistance because of their inability to pay for imports from the United States. Imports of ...

  19. The Relationship between British War Correspondents in the Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military ...

  20. British and American Journal Evaluation: Divergence or Convergence? (United States)

    Crewe, Ivor; Norris, Pippa


    Presents results of a survey comparing British and U.S. political scientists' familiarity with different journals, evaluations of journal quality, and measures of journal impact. Concludes that British and U.S. subjects agree about quality but read different sets of journals. Reports the two groups' familiarity with different literature,…

  1. Malta Stockholm Syndrome (or why we love the British)


    Duca, Edward


    Between 1798 and 1800, Malta changed hands three times. The feudal Knights were easily replaced by Napoleonic France, whom the Maltese initially welcomed, then revolted against a mere 82 days later ushering in the British Empire.

  2. Editorial. Themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology. (United States)

    Summers, R J


    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the 7th in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (MPGPCR) held at the Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Melbourne Australia from the 6th-8th December 2012. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Genesis of the Open Learning Institute of British Columbia. (United States)

    Moran, Louise


    Discusses the history of distance education and provides historical background on the development of the Open Learning Institute in British Columbia. Topics addressed include the environment of British Columbia; expansion of higher education; political influences; and educational influences, including the role of Simon Fraser University. (Contains…

  4. Political Islam Under British Colonial Administration In Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most serious challenges faced by the British in the occupation of northern Nigeria was where and how to place Islam in the new dispensation. Islam provided the state structure and political machinery, which made it easy for British administrators to rule such a vast area through the Indirect Rule system. On the ...

  5. British Asians, Covert Racism and Exclusion in English Professional Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kilvington


    Full Text Available This article examines the exclusion of British Asians from English professional football. At present, there are eight British Asians with professional contracts out of over 4,000 players. This statistic is increasingly noteworthy when we consider that, first, football is extremely popular across British Asian groups and, second, Britain is home to over 4 million British Asians (the UK’s largest minority ethnic group. Following a brief introduction as well as a discussion of racisms, the work will provide an overview of the barriers that have excluded British Asian football communities from the professional ranks. In particular, I shall discuss some of the key obstacles including overt racism, ‘all-Asian’ football structures and cultural differences. However, the focus of this paper is to explore the impact and persist-ing nature of institutional racism within football. With the aid of oral testimonies, this work shall present British Asian experiences of covert racism in the game. I shall therefore demonstrate that coaches/scouts (as gatekeepers have a tendency to stereotype and racialize British Asian footballers, thus exacerbating the British Asian football exclusion. Finally, the article will offer policy recommendations for reform. These recommendations, which have come out of primary and secondary research, aspire to challenge institutional racism and combat inequalities within the game.

  6. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.


    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  7. BCASP and the Evolution of School Psychology in British Columbia (United States)

    Agar, Douglas J.


    Since 1992, the British Columbia Association of School Psychologists (BCASP) has been the professional body for school psychologists in British Columbia. In the intervening 24 years, BCASP has been very successful in performing the dual roles of a certifying body and a professional development organization for school psychologists in British…

  8. British Columbia log export policy: historical review and analysis. (United States)

    Craig W. Shinn


    Log exports have been restricted in British Columbia for over 100 years. The intent of the restriction is to use the timber in British Columbia to encourage development of forest industry, employment, and well-being in the Province. Logs have been exempted from the within-Province manufacturing rule at various times, in varying amounts, for different reasons, and by...

  9. The British scorched earth and concentration camp policies in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated the British High Command. In the case of the Potchefstroom region, British aggravation came to focus on the successful resurgence of the Potchefstroom ...

  10. The Planetary Consciousness of British Travel Writers (United States)

    Henry, H.


    Global travel, advanced in the early 20th century by trains, automobiles, and airplanes, transformed modernist thought and experience. Stephen Kern has commented that in the modern period “a series of sweeping changes in technology and culture created distinctive new modes of thinking about and experiencing of time and space. Technological innovations including the telephone, wireless telegraph, x-ray, cinema, bicycle, automobile, and airplane established the material foundation for this reorientation.” (1983, pp. 1-2). Emerging travel technologies not only hurled passengers through multiple time zones in a day but also brought to the fore a global awareness regarding Earth as a globe in space and one's position on it. As early as 1909, while traveling in Florence, Virginia Woolf had noted in her diary, “It is strange how one begins to hold a globe in one's head: I can travel from Florence to Fitzroy Square on solid land all the time” (1984, p. 399). This paper traces the ways modernist British travel writers challenged England's geographical and geopolitical imagination at the turn of the 20th century through their travel narratives.

  11. The Fractured Nature of British Politics

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Smith, Duncan; Batty, Michael


    The outcome of the British General Election to be held in just over one week's time is widely regarded as the most difficult in living memory to predict. Current polls suggest that the two main parties are neck and neck but that there will be a landslide to the Scottish Nationalist Party with that party taking most of the constituencies in Scotland. The Liberal Democrats are forecast to loose more than half their seats and the fringe parties of whom the UK Independence Party is the biggest are simply unknown quantities. Much of this volatility relates to long-standing and deeply rooted cultural and nationalist attitudes that relate to geographical fault lines that have been present for 500 years or more but occasionally reveal themselves, at times like this. In this paper our purpose is to raise the notion that these fault lines are critical to thinking about regionalism, nationalism and the hierarchy of cities in Great Britain (excluding Northern Ireland). We use a percolation method (Arcaute et al. 2015) to...

  12. Unity is strength: staff college and the British officer corps. (United States)

    King, Anthony


    Utilizing Bourdieu's concept of the habitus, Keith Macdonald has recently examined the elite social origins of the British officer corps. His analysis is valid as far at it goes but it ignores the professional practices of British officers. This article examines Britain's Joint Services Command and Staff College to assess the unification of the three services around common forms of military practice. It argues that while the new staff college has been effective in disseminating new forms of professional expertise among British officers, various practices have been institutionalized which actively undermine the unity of the officer corps.

  13. British participation in the first Solvay Councils on physics (United States)

    Heilbron, J. L.


    Analysis of the makeup and contributions of the British contingents to the first two Solvay Councils can elucidate the character of British mathematical physics and its internal dynamics at a critical time in its development. The paper provides this analysis, outlines the process of selection of the participants, parses the meaning of "international" in the Solvay context, and offers an explanation of the differential attendance of the British at the two Councils. Most of those invited to the first refused whereas all but one of those invited to the second accepted. The unusual social and scientific views of Ernest Solvay help to explain this divergence.

  14. Affective norms for 210 British English and Finnish nouns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eilola, Tiina M; Havelka, Jelena


    .... The norms were collected with 135 native British English and 304 native Finnish speakers, who rated the words according to their emotional valence, emotional charge, offensiveness, concreteness, and familiarity...

  15. British Columbia, Canada Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Columbia, Canada Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  16. British Columbia 3 arc-second Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 3 arc-second British Columbia DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM covers the coastal area...

  17. Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ceia, Carlos


    In his article "Genre Categorization in Contemporary British and US-American Novels" Carlos Ceia discusses a certain type of resistance to genre categorization in many novels in contemporary literature...

  18. Malaysia as the Archetypal Garden in the British Creative Imagination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Siti Nuraishah


    ...) of Malaysia as a garden. In order to ascertain the ways in which the garden archetype has been deployed by the British creative imagination in the past and the present, novels from the colonial and postcolonial periods...

  19. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic was produced for Anegada, British Virgin Islands, from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  20. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  1. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ASCII XYZ point cloud data for a portion of the environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова


    .... The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized...

  3. Geology of British Columbia: a journey through time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannings, Sydney G; Nelson, JoAnne; Cannings, Richard


    "In this completely updated edition of the bestselling Geology of British Columbia, authors Sydney Cannings, JoAnne Nelson and Richard Cannings describe the various geological forces that have created...

  4. Shared Concerns: Thoughts on British Literature and British Music in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allis


    Full Text Available As part of the growth of interdisciplinary studies, a number of recent writings have focused upon links between music and literature in the long nineteenth century. In addition to the general significance of music in the work of individual authors and poets, scholars have highlighted particular imagery used in the literary representation of music (charting its effect on narrative and characterisation, and explored the literary reception of several composers. Within this growing body of literature, references to nineteenth- and early twentieth-century British music are significant by their absence. This article therefore aims to redress the balance by suggesting that there are connections between British music and literature in this period, and that these connections are significant. A number of approaches are discussed to highlight their potential, including composer-author affinities, collaborations, generic parallels, hidden narratives, and the suggestion that musical settings of texts can represent critical ‘readings' of those texts. A range of examples (with musical illustrations and sound clips suggest how this particular interdisciplinary focus can lead to the reassessment of individual musical and literary works, and help to explore wider cultural connections within the Victorian and Edwardian era.

  5. Society and the British Army: Implications for Fighting Spirit (United States)


    British one accepts some diversity, but within a tightly bounded community that insists on much conformity. In such an organisation , individualism, self...Used to ‘Bridge the Gap’ between the Attitudes and Culture of British Army Recruits and the Army’s Organisational Culture?” (Master’s diss...of military authority combines coercive and hierarchical elements typical of a military organization with ‘group consensus ’ and persuasive forms of

  6. Cultural change and lodestones in the British Police


    Grint, Keith


    • Purpose: This Research Paper considers a challenge to an occupational jurisdiction in the British police. Historically, street cops have defended the importance of operational credibility as a way of sustaining the value of experience, and inhibiting attempts to introduce external leaders. This has generated a particular form of policing and leadership that is deemed by the British government as inadequate to face the problems of the next decade. \\ud • Design: The project used the High Pote...

  7. ABC: A Franco-British Intra-Group Comparison


    John, Innes; Pierre, Mevellec; University of Dundee; University of Nantes


    This case study describes the implementation of ABC in two factories within the one British multinational group in France and Britain. It also explores the similarities and differences between the assessment, implementation and use of the ABC system in these two factories. The French managers assessed ABC with the major objective of product costing whereas in the British factory ABC was used mainly for cost management. However, it is important to realise that the French homogeneous cost pools...

  8. The Civilisers, British Engineers, Imperialism and Africa 1880-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper


    The thesis analyses the connections between British civil engineers and British imperialism in the period 1880-1914. The thesis works at the intersection of intellectual history, history of technology, and imperial history. The thesis argues that Britain and the Empire should be studied as an int......' through which knowledge circulated, people travelled, and through which trust and authority was negotiated. It is furthermore a contribution to the cultural and intellectual history of engineering....

  9. British-Zionist Military Cooperation in Palestine, 1917-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Saleh


    Full Text Available The essence of the British military and security formula in Palestine was the smooth establishment of the Jewish national home with minimum costs of lives and money. However, this British pro-Zionist policy created a continuous security problem, and opened the door to all possibilities of Palestinian revolts and uprisings of both national and religious nature. The British were very active in disarming the Arabs and adopted stringent measures to crush their uprisings and revolts. But, they turned a blind eye to the Jewish arms smuggling and Jewish military organizations, especially, the Hagana, which later became the backbone of the Israeli Army. During Palestinian uprisings of 1920, 1921 and 1929 against the Zionists, most of the Palestinian casualties were inflicted by the British forces despite the fact that the Palestinians avoided attacking the British. The British-Zionist cooperation reached its peak during the Palestinian revolt of 1936-1939, and took different forms, including allowing the Jews to establish a military force of twenty two thousand men under the pretext of protecting the Jewish community.

  10. Explaining British Political Stability After 1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Davis


    Full Text Available Though not its main focus, Goldstone's Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World (1991 threw considerable new light on 19th century Europe's revolutions and near-revolutions. While Goldstone stresses the role of an expanding and industrializing economy in absorbing 19th century England's demographic shocks, we accept this analysis but argue alongside it for similar attention to the vector of emigration, settler-colonialism, and imperial state expansion into which at least some of the exhaust fumes of the population explosion were vented. Furthermore, it is important to note the crucial role of a highly interventionist state and 'big' government in the background to these dynamics—a far cry from the light-touch, laissez-faire qualities with which the 19th century British state is often associated. To make our case, this article takes advantage of secondary literature and raw data not available prior to the publication of Goldstone's book. Of crucial importance here is our unique dataset of fatality-inducing political violence events in Britain and Ireland from 1785 to 1900. This is the first research paper to utilise this dataset. We draw upon this in the following section, which seeks to establish what the real level of political instability was in 19th century Britain—thus cross-referencing Goldstone's account with more recent data—before moving on in the following section to a more detailed overview of the socio-economic conditions underlying events at the political level. This is followed by our account of the emigration-settler-colonialism-imperial state expansion vector and the interventionist state policy behind it, which we argue was crucial to making 19th century Britain relatively 'revolution-proof'—alongside the expanding economic opportunities rightly highlighted by Goldstone. Lastly come our brief concluding remarks, which lay out the implications, as we see them, of this article's findings for research on

  11. Part II: Muslims perceptions of British cobat troops. (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid; Hughes, Jamie Hacker


    On the 22nd May 2017, suicide bomber Salman Abedi detonated an improvised explosive device (IED) in the Manchester Arena killing 22 people and injuring 116 others. Following the 'massacre in Manchester', the leader of the Labour Party, Jeremy Corbyn, linked UK foreign policy with terrorism on British soil. Controversial and contentious though Corbyn's claims may be, the terrorists themselves have also reported that what motivates them to carry out their abominable atrocities are British military operations in Muslim majority countries. Indeed, on the 22nd May 2013, British serviceman, Lee Rigby, was brutally attacked and killed by Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale near the Royal Artillery Barracks in Woolwich, southeast London. The perpetrators of this heinous act told passers-by at the scene that they wanted to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British Armed Forces. We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study on Muslim perceptions of British combat troops and UK foreign policy. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. We crafted a survey that explored Muslim perceptions of the British military and the government's foreign policy. Response items were on a Likert-scale and there was white space for free text comments which were subjected to thematic analyses. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). 66/75 (88%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that British military operations in Muslim majority countries have negatively influenced perceptions towards combat troops. 42/75 (56%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that contact with a combat troops or veterans would positively influence their perceptions towards them. Themes of free text comments included the role that the media plays in demonising Muslims, the transcendental bond that Muslims around the world

  12. British sociology and public intellectuals: consumer society and imperial decline. (United States)

    Turner, Bryan S


    The following is the lecture given for the BJS 2005 Public Sociology Debate given at the London School of Economics and Political Science on ll October 2005. This lecture on the character of British sociology provides a pretext for a more general inquiry into public intellectual life in postwar Britain. The argument put forward falls into several distinctive sections. First, British social science has depended heavily on the migration of intellectuals, especially Jewish intellectuals who were refugees from fascism. Second, intellectual innovation requires massive, disruptive, violent change. Third, British sociology did nevertheless give rise to a distinctive tradition of social criticism in which one can argue there were (typically home-grown) public intellectuals. The main theme of their social criticism was to consider the constraining and divisive impact of social class, race and gender on the enjoyment of expanding social citizenship. Fourth, postwar British sociology came to be dominated by the analysis of an affluent consumer society. Finally, the main failure of British sociology in this postwar period was the absence of any sustained, macro-sociological analysis of the historical decline of Britain as a world power in the twentieth century.

  13. British auditors in Poland in the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Cieślik


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of historical research on the operation of British accounting firm Whin-ney, Murray & Co in Poland before World War II. Based on our findings this was the only foreign ac-counting firm active in Poland at that time. Following their clients, British accounting firms expanded their operations abroad at the turn of the 19th century. During the 1920s and 1930s the number of audit assignments on the European continent increased rapidly, which necessitated the establishment of branches (offices in major European cities and industrial districts. Whinney, Murray & Co set up an office in Warsaw in 1932 taking into account its convenient location as a base for undertaking audit assignments throughout the Eastern European region. The Warsaw office concentrated initially on inter-national clients active in Poland but was also engaged in audits of Polish power plants and participated as financial advisor in the electrification program of Polish railways with involvement of British investors. Whinney, Murray & Co contributed to the development of Polish-British economic cooperation before World War II. Its representative was one of the founders of the Polish-British Chamber of Commerce established in Warsaw in 1933.

  14. British Minister over the moon after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    The UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson MP, recently visited CERN. Ian Pearson, UK Minister for Science and Innovation (back row, third left), in the LHC tunnel with Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson (back row, centre), John Ellis (back row, third right), Simon Featherstone, UK Ambassador to Switzerland (back row, far left), Keith Mason, Chief Executive of STFC (the UK funding agency) (back row, second from right), and British scientists working at ATLAS.On the 15 April UK Minister for Science and Innovation, Ian Pearson, made his first trip to CERN. The UK is one of the founding Member States of CERN, and the British contingent is one of the largest of any country with around 650 British scientists and a further 250 staff members working here. After an introduction to the facilities by Director-General Robert Aymar, who expressed CERN’s gratitude for UK government support through its Science and Technology Facilitie...

  15. Electricity and Empire in 1920s Palestine under British Rule. (United States)

    Shamir, Ronen


    This article examines some techno-political aspects of the early years of electrification in British-ruled 1920s Palestine. It emphasizes the importance of local technical, topographical and hydrological forms of knowledge for understanding the dynamics of electrification. Situating the analysis in a general colonial context of electrification, the study shows that British colonial rulers lagged behind both German firms and local entrepreneurs in understanding the specific conditions pertaining to electrification in Palestine. Subsequently, the study shows that the British had limited control of the actual electrification process and its declared/professed developmental purposes, thereby complicating assumptions about electrification as a tool of the Empire/tool of empire. Finding some similarities between the cases of electrifying Palestine and India, the article's findings may shed further light on the importance of micro-politics of knowledge for understanding the trajectory of electrification in the colonies.

  16. British Coal Opencast deals the 'ace'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.N. (British Coal Opencast, Mansfield (UK))


    1992 will see the introduction of the 4000 t Harnischfeger P H 757 'Ace of Spades' electric walking dragline into the Stobswood Opencast Coal Site in Northumberland which will complete a 16 million pound investment by British Coal Opencast in addition to a similar investment by Contractor Crouch Mining to fully equip the most modern opencast mine in the United Kingdom to produce 12 Mt of coal into the 21st century. This paper examines the background to the Stobswood Site and the selection and use of the latest mining equipment by British Coal Opencast and Crouch Mining to complement the mining method, devised by Crouch to ensure that Stobswood Site will be British Coal Opencast's flagship to low cost coal production in the North East of England. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Postponement and childlessness - Evidence from two British cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Joshi


    Full Text Available This paper starts by reviewing existing projections of childlessness among British men and women. Low current fertility implies high eventual childlessness unless the postponement of parenthood is taken into account. Such re-timing of first births appears to be occurring differentially across social groups. Exploiting the disaggregated evidence of two British cohort studies, the 1958 National Child Development Study and the 1970 British Cohort Survey, this paper investigates the extent of postponement across cohorts and projects its impact on eventual levels of childlessness. Men and women are considered separately in our models of a population stratified by educational attainment. We find the most striking postponement occurring among graduate men. Among graduate women, after taking family building intentions into account, we estimate that about a quarter of 1970 born graduate women will remain childless, rather than something nearer 40 per cent as had been conjectured elsewhere.

  18. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations]. (United States)

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C


    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Manual of engineering drawing to British and international standards

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Colin H; Maguire, Dennis E


    The Manual of Engineering Drawing has long been recognised as the student and practising engineer's guide to producing engineering drawings that comply with ISO and British Standards. The information in this book is equally applicable to any CAD application or manual drawing. The second edition is fully in line with the requirements of the new British Standard BS8888: 2002, and will help engineers, lecturers and students with the transition to the new standards.BS8888 is fully based on the relevant ISO standards, so this book is also ideal for an international readership. The comprehen

  20. Disability management: The Insurance Corporation of British Columbia experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Harder


    Full Text Available Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC is a Crown Corporation created by the Provincial Government in 1974 to provide compulsory auto insurance. It is a common-law or tort system with 'add-on' no-fault provisions (medical/rehabilitation and disability benefits. ICBC insures 2 million British Columbia (BC residents and pays out over $2 billion (Cdn. in claims annually. One billion of this is for injury claims. Currently, one percent of these claims are catastrophic losses (paraplegic, quadriplegic, traumatic brain injury with the remainder being non-catastrophic claims. Seventy percent of these non-catastrophic claims are soft tissue (primarily whiplash injuries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Philip Connors


    Full Text Available The history of British industrial decline since 1945 has focused on whether the decline was relative or an absolute process. As a British industry, shipbuilding illustrates many contradictions inherent in both views; although overtaken by Japanese competition from the mid 1950’s, between 1945-1973 the output and productivity of British shipbuilding increased faster than at any point previously. This paper will discuss the role of the state in this process by using the negotiations between government and the Scott Lithgow shipyard in Scotland concerning the market for 250,000-ton crude oil carriers as an example, demonstrating that the agency of both management and government influenced the eventual outcome more than prevailing market conditions of the time.

  2. Learning to Be. A Perspective from British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Halbert, Judy; Kaser, Linda


    This article describes how "learning to be", with a specific focus on social-emotional competencies, has become part of the educational mindset--and educational policy--in British Columbia, Canada. The development of a set of learning progressions for social responsibility, an emphasis on social emotional learning in the new curriculum…

  3. Educational Developments in the British West Indies: A Historical Overview (United States)

    Coates, Chad O.


    Formal education within the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM) may be traced back to the establishment of Codrington grammar school in Barbados in 1743. After more than two centuries of British colonial rule the educational systems within CARICOM states continue to reflect the academic traditions of their former colonizer. Prior to…

  4. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.M.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.


    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous

  5. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is rooted in the British tradition, its possible evolution on the American model is demonstrated, and thus the role of the dictionary in a postcolonial community is briefly discussed. Keywords: lexicography, dictionary, definition, social labeling, race, racism, ethnicity, english, south africa, afrikaans, epithets, usage labels ...

  6. A Pragmatic Study of Exaggeration in British and American Novels (United States)

    Abbas, Qassim; Al-Tufaili, Dhayef


    The main concern of this study is to tackle exaggeration in British and American situations taken from "Mrs. Dalloway" and "The Great Gatsby" novels. From a pragmatic point of view, exaggeration in the field of literature has not been given enough attention. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to develop a model for the…

  7. Graduate Evaluation of British Higher Education Courses: An Exploration. (United States)

    Johnston, R. J.


    The retrospective evaluations of their degree courses by 8,948 British 1980 graduates suggested 2 routes of analysis--one based on respondents' satisfaction in becoming an educated person and one based on satisfaction in acquiring an interesting job with a good income. Graduates differed according to the relative importance of the route used. (DB)

  8. Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information was also gathered from some chiefs and educationists who hail from the area, and from University dons who have provided written material about the area. Other relevant secondary source material, such as from books, enriched the study. The study found out that the British imposed levies on the caravan transit ...

  9. During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore Biological Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore. Biological Programme (latterly Pelagic Ecosystem. Studies Programme), two specimens of a cephalopod belonging to the squid family Chiroteuthidae were caught in the Scotia Sea by rectangular midwater trawl. (Baker et al. 1973). The material closely resembles. Chiroteuthis ...

  10. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie


    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  11. Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe


    This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

  12. Deaf People as British Sign Language Teachers: Experiences and Aspirations (United States)

    Atherton, Martin; Barnes, Lynne


    Little research has been undertaken into the profession of British Sign Language (BSL) teaching, despite a huge increase in the number of BSL classes offered over the past twenty years. Following the introduction of Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills standards in 2007, BSL teachers working in "further education" (FE) colleges were…

  13. The British Telecom radiopaging service in general practice (United States)

    Cole, F. H.


    This paper reports a new radiopaging service supplied by British Telecom that will eventually cover the whole United Kingdom. The use of this service by a three-man practice is described. The service is considered to be a major development in communications that will be of interest to most general practitioners. PMID:7328548

  14. British colonial rule and food crops production in Esan, Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the conquest and imposition of colonial rule, the British authorities imposed new demands on the people; the production of raw materials such as rubber, palm oil and kernels among others. The production of these raw materials impeded the cultivation of food crop in Esan. This paper therefore, examines the factors ...

  15. Collecting Grey Literature : A British Library Lending Division Perspective (United States)

    Chillag, John

    Grey literature in its various aspects presents many problems for producers, intermediaries and end users. The paper describes the British Library Lending Division's activities in this field in the hope that organizations elsewhere will find some of them helpful in overcoming similar difficulties.

  16. Judging Risk: Key Determinants in British Domestic Violence Cases (United States)

    Robinson, Amanda L.; Howarth, Emma


    Data from the largest study to date of the working practices of British victim support workers (known as Independent Domestic Violence Advisors or IDVAs) are used to provide insight into how "risk judgments" are made in cases of domestic violence. Using data from more than 2,000 victims, this study found a convergence between actuarial…

  17. Understanding British Strategic Failure in America: 1780-1783 (United States)


    subject to this country or independent.”10 With the clairvoyance of hindsight, however, the British decision to employ force in the spring of 1775 rested...warfare. He possessed the presence of mind and clairvoyance of thought to employ a hybrid combination of conventional and non-conventional methods in

  18. Delivery of genetic gain in the interior of British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albricht, M.


    The forest industry is important for the province of British Columbia, Canada. Timber harvest is regulated on a sustained yield basis. Productivity can be increased by enhanced reforestation, stand tending and tree improvement thus reducing the area needed to provide the required amount of

  19. The Dutch, French and British species of Psathyrella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kits van Waveren, E.


    The sole object of the present work is to furnish a monograph dealing exclusively with the species of the genus Psathyrella (exclusive of Lacrymaria, see Chapter VI) reported from the Netherlands, France and the British Isles. Ever since 1958 we intensively collected, described, depicted and stored

  20. Subordination Across Ghanaian And British Newspaper Editorials: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a corpus-based empirical study which argues in the light of the register theory that grammatical categories are functional and relate to their situational context of use. Using editorials from Ghanaian and British newspapers, this paper examined the usage dynamics and the functional motivations behind the use of ...

  1. Identifying British Army infantry recruit population characteristics using biographical data. (United States)

    Kiernan, M D; Arthur, A; Repper, J; Mukhuty, S; Fear, N T


    The infantry accounts for more than a quarter of the British Army but there is a lack of data about the social and educational background of its recruits. To provide an insight into British Army infantry recruits' personal, social and educational background prior to enlistment. The study sample consisted of infantry recruits who enlisted into the British Army School of Infantry. Each recruit completed a 95-item biographical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample in terms of demographic, physical, personal, social and educational attributes. The study sample consisted of 1000 male recruits. Over half of the recruits were consuming alcohol at a hazardous or harmful level prior to enlistment and 60% of recruits had used cannabis prior to joining the Army. Academic attainment was low, with the majority of recruits achieving GCSE grade C and below in most subjects, with 15% not taking any examinations. Over half the recruits had been in trouble with the police and either been suspended or expelled from school. Substance misuse and poor behaviour are highly prevalent among recruits prior to enlistment. Taken alongside existing evidence that some of these problems are commonplace among personnel in regular service, the assumption that the British Army infantry is, in itself, a cause of these behaviours should be questioned. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. British army commisions by purchase | Usher | Scientia Militaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. British army commisions by purchase. HJ Dick ...

  3. Rethinking Apprenticeship Training in the British Construction Industry (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed


    The British government continued intervention to support apprenticeship training across the economy has been notable in recent years. The construction industry is the only sector to retain a levy/grant scheme (that supports training including apprenticeships) since 1964, yet it still faces the problem of skills shortages. This article thus reviews…

  4. Health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; van den Brink, H.M.


    In this article, changes in the quality of health-adjusted life expectancy of the British population between 1991 and 1998 are analysed. It is found that at all given age levels, life expectancy increased during this period. Life expectancy at birth increased by 1 year for women and by 1.5 years for

  5. British colonial administration, development of Islam and lslamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    British policy towards religion in colonial Africa was influenced by its intrinsic value to the maintenance of a very strong administration over the continent and achieving the socio-economic objectives Britain set itself at the beginning of its colonization. The Benin Kingdom had been largely untouched by any world religion ...

  6. Pitch Alterations in British Motherese: Some Preliminary Acoustic Data. (United States)

    Shute, Brenda; Wheldall, Kevin


    Analysis of speech samples from British female adults (N=8) revealed that the subjects increased vocal pitch when addressing young children, but not as much as previously studied North American subjects did. Pitch increases were more commonly observed in free speech than in reading-aloud conditions. (23 references) (Author/CB)

  7. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities (United States)

    Pulman, Mark


    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  8. Ethnic, Gender and Class Intersections in British Women's Leadership Experiences (United States)

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin; Bebbington, Diane


    A qualitative study was conducted to examine how gender and ethnicity influenced leadership experiences of a mixed ethnic sample of British women. An intersectional framework was used which took the viewpoint that socio-demographic identities should be considered simultaneously in order to challenge universalist, gender and ethnic neutral…

  9. Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russian perceptions of the Boer and British Armies: An introduction through Russian documents. DR GENNADY SHUBIN. Institute for African Studies, Moscow. On the eve of the outbreak of the All'glo-Boer War in South Africa, Colonel. N.S. Yermolov, the Russian Military agent [attache] in London reported on October I,.

  10. British Columbia Library Network: A Study of Feasibility. Revised. (United States)

    Shoffner, Ralph M.; Madden, Mary A.

    This feasibility study was conducted to collect financial, operational, and other data concerning the alternatives of continuing with the University of Toronto Library Automation System (UTLAS), the present supplier of catalog support to the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC) participating libraries, or of replicating the Washington Library…

  11. integration and disintegration in british colonial west africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually attributed largely to the mood or the British public and parliament rather than to the ..... amongst Tribes hostile to each other. is a hot bed of intrigue. and from the ... arise which would seriously affect the interests or Lagos. In such an.

  12. Spanish listeners’ perception of American and Southern British English vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, P.; Chládková, K.


    L2 studies demonstrate that learners differ in their speech perception patterns. Recent explanations attribute this variation to the different initial stages with which learners start their L2 development. Spanish listeners' categorization of Standard Southern British English and American English

  13. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect (United States)

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.


    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  14. Physical Punishment by Mothers and Fathers in British Homes. (United States)

    Nobes, Gavin; Smith, Marjorie; Upton, Penney; Heverin, Andrea


    British mothers (n=362) and fathers (n=103) of randomly selected children from 366 two-parent families were interviewed concerning physically punishing their children. The proportion of mothers and fathers who had used physical punishments were similar. Percentages of types and severity of punishments varied. These findings are discussed in…

  15. Colors in French, American and British dictionaries | Williams | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colors have senses specific to particular fields such as physics and printing, in addi-tion to senses used in everyday life. This article examines the specialized information found in color definitions in French, American and British dictionaries. We explore whether specialized and non-specialized definitions are lumped or split ...

  16. American and British Business-Related Spelling Differences (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert


    English language business-related documents around the world contain purposeful spelling differences that reflect two standards, American English and British English. Given the importance of culturally acceptable spelling, the need to be aware of and sensitive to cultural differences, and strong reactions to variation in spelling, it is important…

  17. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.


    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  18. Bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersen, van J.F.


    On the basis of the morphology and stratigraphic positions, the bauxite deposits in Suriname and Demerara (British Guiana) were divided into four main groups, namely: 1. Plateau type bauxite, 2. High-level type bauxite, 3. Medium-level type bauxite, 4. Low-level type bauxite. The age of these

  19. Algorithm for Concrete Mix Design Based on British Method | Ezeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained from the algorithm were compared with those obtained based on the British method and the differences between them were found to be less than 10% in each example. Hence, the algorithm developed in this paper is working with minimum error. It is recommended for use in obtaining good results for ...

  20. Farmland Preservation Verdicts - Rezoning Agricultural Land in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, T.; Eagle, A.J.; Cotteleer, G.; Kooten, van G.C.


    The Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, is a provincial zoning scheme designed to protect agricultural land from development. Since 1973, landowners have not been permitted to use ALR land for nonagricultural purposes, prompting some to seek recovery of development

  1. Nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British national newspapers. (United States)

    Gillett, Karen


    To explore nostalgic constructions of nurse education in British National newspapers. British newspaper discourse relating to the increased academic level of nurse education in the UK is negative, evoking comparisons between negative constructions of nurse education in the present and an idealized nostalgic view of the past. Discussion paper. This study used a critical discourse analysis approach to analyse 11 British Newspaper articles, which exemplify nostalgic constructions of nurse education. This was a purposive sample from a database search (LexisNexis) of British national newspaper articles relating to the increasing academic level of nurse education in the period from 1999-2012. A dominant nostalgic discourse constructs a 'golden era' of nurse education, which idealizes the past, making the present flawed in comparison. Nostalgic constructions create group identities creating contrasting 'caring' nurses educated in the idealized past with those educated now, who are perceived as too educated to care. An inherent characteristic of the nostalgic discourse is the notion that the solution to current problems with nurse education is a return to an idealized version of the past. Another less common newspaper discourse views nostalgia as a problematic construct. Nostalgic discourse with a focus on the past potentially acts as a barrier to creating an effective nurse education system for the 21(st) Century. This focus on an idealized past also has potential consequences in terms of public opinion and legitimization of government policy, which might otherwise be viewed as retrograde. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sex Ratios Among Births in British Columbia, 2000-2013. (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Lee, Lily; Williams, Kim


    Previous studies have reported distorted sex ratios among live births within specific immigrant groups in Canada. We carried out an investigation into sex ratios in British Columbia. All stillbirths and live births to residents of British Columbia from April 2000 to March 2013 were included in the study, with data obtained from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. We examined sex ratios among births and among pregnancy terminations that resulted in a stillbirth or live birth. Analyses were stratified by congenital anomaly status, maternal residence, and parity. The study population included 567 225 stillbirths and live births. In the Fraser Health Authority, the sex ratio among births without congenital anomalies was 51.3% males (95% CI 51.1 to 51.5); this was significantly higher than the sex ratio of 40.7% males (95% CI 33.2 to 48.6) among late pregnancy terminations without congenital anomalies (P = 0.008). However, in British Columbia, excluding the Fraser Health Authority, the same sex ratios were 51.1% (95% CI 50.9 to 51.3) and 51.1% (95% CI 45.5 to 56.7), respectively (P = 0.99). Sex ratios among births to multiparous women were also significantly different in the Fraser Health Authority. Only a negligible fraction of the shortfall in female births in the Fraser Health Authority could be explained by sex ratio distortions among late pregnancy terminations. Sex ratios among stillbirths and live births to residents of the Fraser Health Authority are distorted relative to those observed elsewhere in British Columbia. This is likely due to sex differences in early pregnancy terminations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. All rights reserved.

  3. The Great British Music Hall: Its Importance to British Culture and ‘The Trivial’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gerrard


    Full Text Available By 1960, Britain’s once-thriving Music Hall industry was virtually dead. Theatres with their faded notions of Empire gave way to Cinema and the threat of Television. Where thousands once linked arms singing popular songs, watch acrobatics, see feats of strength, and listen to risqué jokes, now the echoes of those acts lay as whispers amongst the stalls’ threadbare seats. The Halls flourished in the 19th Century, but had their origins in the taverns of the 16th and 17th Centuries. Minstrels plied their trade egged on by drunken crowds. As time passed, the notoriety of the Music Hall acts and camaraderie produced grew. Entrepreneurial businessman tapped into this commerciality and had purpose-built status symbol theatres to provide a ‘home’ for acts and punters. With names like The Apollo giving gravitas approaching Olympian ideals, so the owners basked in wealth and glory. The Music Hall became the mass populist entertainment for the population. Every town had one, where everyone could be entertained by variety acts showing off the performers’ skills. The acts varied from singers, joke-tellers, comics, acrobats, to dancers. They all aimed to entertain. They enabled audiences to share a symbiotic relationship with one another; became recruitment officers for the Army; inspired War Poets; showed short films; and they and the halls reflected both the ideals and foibles of their era. By using Raymond Williams’ structures of feeling as its cornerstone, the article will give a brief history of the halls, whilst providing analysis into how they grew into mass populist entertainment that represented British culture. Case studies of famous artistes are given, plus an insight into how Music Hall segued into radio, film and television.

  4. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study (United States)


    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  5. Structural Impediments to African Growth? New Evidence from British African Real Wages, 1880-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.


    British colonial rule has often been praised for its comparatively benign features, such as its support of local educational development. This study argues that the impact of British educational policies and investments on the supply of schooling in British Africa should not be overstated. Until

  6. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  7. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream... Service Information BAE Systems (Operations) Limited has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA020741, dated November 2, 2002; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100...

  8. 75 FR 59170 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Models Jetstream Series 3101 and... (United States)


    ... British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009; and British Aerospace Regional Aircraft has issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 05-JA090143, dated April 30, 2009. (2) Replace the...

  9. Attitudes toward buying online as predictors of shopping online for British and American respondents. (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David; James, Simon


    This study compared the attitudes toward online shopping of British and American individuals. Using a sample of 327 British and American university students, the British respondents were found to have less favorable attitudes toward online shopping. Attitudes toward online shopping were found to be significant predictors of making online purchases. The implications of these results were discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  10. Governing the "New Administrative Frontier:" "Cohering" Rationalities and Educational Leadership in British Columbia (United States)

    Stack, Michelle; Mazawi, Andre Elias


    In 2005, the School Leadership Society, later renamed the British Columbia Educational Leadership Council (BCELC), was launched with the assistance of the British Columbia Ministry of Education to transform the goals and objectives of educational leadership and management in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. In this paper the authors…

  11. The Evolution of Capitalism: A Comparison of British and American Literature (United States)

    Stanwick, Peter A.


    This paper discusses the evolution of capitalism in British and American literature. The impact of capitalism on the lives of individuals has been well represented in both American and British literature throughout the centuries. The paper will discuss how seminal British authors such as Thomas More, William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens and George…

  12. Educating for British Values: Kant's Philosophical Roadmap for Cosmopolitan Character Education (United States)

    Hildebrand, Carl


    The UK's 2016 decision to exit the European Union and the discussion surrounding it indicate that public understanding of British identity has important consequences, one way or another. Defining British identity will be an important task in the years to come. The UK government not long ago provided some guidance on the matter of British identity…

  13. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot


    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  14. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium malmoense in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Al-Moamary


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium malmoense was first described in northern Europe and the United Kingdom in 1977. Since then, reports have appeared with increasing frequency. Cases have, however, rarely been reported from the United States, and, until now, none have been reported in Canada. This may reflect either true low prevalence of the disease or underdiagnosis by laboratories due to slow growth of the organism. This report describes a case of pulmonary disease caused by M malmoense in a 44-year-old man from British Columbia who was successfully treated with an 18-month course of conventional antituberculous drugs combined with a macrolide. This is the first report of this disease in British Columbia and, to our knowledge, in Canada.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asratyan, Z.D.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of some aspects of the British conceptual world on the basis of contemporary imaginative literature examination. Concept is understood as the individual author’s vision of the reflected world, as a predication of the topic to its author’s interpretation. The work analyses concepts reflecting the collective unconscious of the nation which turns them into linguo-cultural ones. The article examines the concept of tolerance through cause-effect relations of crime and punishment. The problems of children-parents relations in the British Muslim culture are also touched upon. The work shows the differences of some basic linguo-cultural concepts in Britain and in Russia.

  16. Language and identity among British South Asians: a theoretical review.


    Jaspal, Rusi


    Given the pervasiveness of language in social life and the implications that language use can have for one’s individual and collective identities, attempts were made to explore the theoretical and empirical advantages in connecting social psychological theories of identity and sociological/sociolinguistic approaches to language use and language choices in order to make sense of language and identity among second-generation British Asians. The current theoretical essay features a brief overvie...

  17. Still Invisible? Women artists in British public collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Montfort


    Full Text Available Does women's work in British public collections receive curatorial care and scholarly attention? And if or when it does not—when it lingers on the darkest racks of museums stores, collected for a posterity it will never achieve—how has this happened, and why? Or should we be especially concerned about the display of women’s work in public collections, in an age of digital images and online archives?

  18. Tracing Sydenham's chorea: historical documents from a British paediatric hospital


    de Martino, D.; Tanner, A.; Defazio, G.; Church, A J; Bhatia, K.P.; Giovannoni, G.; Dale, R. C.


    Sydenham's chorea (SC) became a well defined nosological entity only during the second half of the nineteenth century. Such progress was promoted by the availability of large clinical series provided by newly founded paediatric hospitals. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical features of patients with chorea admitted to the first British paediatric hospital (the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London) between 1852 and 1936. The seasonal and demographic characterist...

  19. Popular Music Pedagogy: band rehearsals at British universities


    Pulman, Mark


    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis of participants’ interview responses suggested their perceptions could be grouped into three over-arching categories: operational mechanics of rehe...

  20. Identifying and characterising price leadership in British supermarkets


    Seaton, Jonathan S.; Waterson, Michael


    Price leadership is a concept that lacks precision. We propose a deliberately narrow, falsifiable, definition then develop it, illustrate its feasibility and test it using the two leading British supermarket chains. We find both firms engaging in leading prices upward over a range of products, with the larger being initially more dominant but the smaller increasing leadership activity to take overall leadership over time. However, more price leadership events are price reductions than price i...

  1. Confrontations : French Criminology seen by British criminologists (janvier 2004)


    Jean-Paul Jean


    The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, edited by Mike MAGUIRE, Rod MORGAN and Robert REINER and justly considered as the reference in the British criminology world because of the enormous knowledge it contains, has no equivalent in the French language. A simple review of the summary gives an idea of the extent of the scientific fields examined, and also by the way, that of the distance that must be covered before French criminology, traditionally dominated by sociology, becomes a « total ...

  2. The British warning; L'avertissement britannique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Just as the Stone Age did not come to an end for want of stones, the end of the LPG Age will not occur due to a shortage of LPG. This witticism, offered by Tom Fidell (the Director-General of the British LP Gas Association) conceals a serious warming: these needs to be a fast response in terms of technology, as the advantages of autogas are being reduced by competing fuels and their supporting technologies. (authors)

  3. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement


    Zahn, Rebecca


    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  4. Ecological factors drive differentiation in wolves from British Columbia


    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Darimont, Chris T.; Wayne, Robert K.; Paquet, Paul C.; Leonard, Jennifer A.


    Aim Limited population structure is predicted for vagile, generalist species, such as the grey wolf (Canis lupus L.). Our aims were to study how genetic variability of grey wolves was distributed in an area comprising different habitats that lay within the potential dispersal range of an individual and to make inferences about the impact of ecology on population structure. Location British Columbia, Canada – which is characterized by a continuum of biogeoclimatic zones across which grey w...

  5. Directors in British and Irish cinema 


    Murphy, R. P.


    Directors in British and Irish Cinema is an assessment of the careers and achievements of over a thousand directors, most of whom have received little scholarly attention. It draws upon the expertise of over sixty contributors. Each of the 1028 entries has been provided with a comprehensive filmography (which for some of the silent film directors includes over a hundred films). Comprehensive coverage have made it a standard reference work. Collaboration with the BFI-based website Screenonli...

  6. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning


    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan


    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  7. Western false hemlock looper in British Columbia, 1947-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, R.L.


    Compilation and summary of published and unpublished data on western false hemlock looper in British Columbia since its discovery near Chase in 1942. Information is based on file reports of the Insect and Disease Survey for Pacific and Yukon Regions. The report describes biology, methods of detection, tree mortality and incremental loss, and controls, including insect parasites, bacterial and viral disease, predators, and chemical insecticides.

  8. British political values, attitudes to climate change, and travel behaviour


    Johnston, Ron; Deeming, Christopher


    The UK is committed to a sharp reduction of greenhouse gases. Progress towards its goal will depend on whether the public can be persuaded to change their travel behaviour. Using British Social Attitudes 2011 survey data, analyses show that the majority of adults – especially the young and better-educated – believe that climate change is occurring but even concerned believers appear reluctant to modify their behaviour. Policies designed to alter transport habits and induce behaviour change ne...

  9. Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Underdiagnosed in British Columbia. (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Goshen, Oran; Pauwels, Julie; Kozak, Frederick K; Tilley, Peter; Krajden, Mel; Gantt, Soren


    Records were reviewed from all infants tested for congenital cytomegalovirus infection in British Columbia, Canada from 2006 to June 2014. Fourteen of 701 infants, or approximately 4.2 per 100,000 live births, had a positive test, indicating that >90% of expected symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection cases were not diagnosed using clinician-initiated testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. British Air Power in Peripheral Conflict, 1919-1976 (United States)


    the Somaliland cam - paign, however, was its effect on British internal security policy in a more recent imperial acquisition: the territory of...unquestionably a critical element in the successful prosecution of the counterinsurgency cam - paign. Air Vice-Marshal N. M. Maynard cites transport as...than a coffee planta - tion with a few tents pitched at the side of a 400-yard soil airstrip. Mweiga nevertheless became the nerve center of the

  11. Patterns of outdoor recreational injury in northern British Columbia. (United States)

    Besserer, Floyd A; Caron, Nadine R


    The objective of this study was to examine the patterns of severe injury documented at a northern British Columbia regional trauma center based on age, sex, month of year, activity type, injury type, and injury severity as they relate to participation in outdoor recreational activities. A retrospective analysis of data abstracted from the British Columbia Trauma Registry for patients sustaining injuries between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, while engaged in outdoor recreational activities in the Northern Health Authority. The British Columbia Trauma Registry inclusion criteria are as follows: 1) admitted for treatment of injuries sustained from the transfer of external energy or force; 2) admitted to the facility within 7 days of injury; and 3) length of stay more than 2 days or in-hospital mortality. In all, 159 patients met study criteria. August and September were peak injury months (mean 7.3 and 7.0 per month, respectively). The highest injury patterns involved cycling (n = 31), all-terrain vehicle operation (n = 30), horseback riding (n = 22), and snowmobiling (n = 22). Of the 159 patients, 76.1% were male, with a peak age distribution between 10 years and 19 years (22%). Males were more commonly injured than females among cycling (83.9%), all-terrain vehicle (86.7%), and snowmobile (100%) traumas. Females were more commonly injured from horseback riding events (42.1%). This study emphasizes the need for rapid translation of research findings into injury prevention awareness and programming in northern British Columbia, particularly relating to cycling, horseback riding, snowmobiling, and all-terrain vehicle operation. Further investigation is required to analyze long-term outcomes for this common injury population. Wilderness Medical Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Мурзинова


    Full Text Available The article clarifies the concept of the encyclopedic zone as a semantic component of a linguistic and cultural concept and methodology of its study. The author examines a set of semantic characteristics that make up the encyclopedic area of the linguistic personality type "the British Queen", a concept of a typified personality, actualized in everyday, mass-media, encyclopedic types of discourse. The relevance of the problem is evidenced by the need to study the most important concepts in the British culture, including both their universal characteristics and cultural peculiarities, which will undoubtedly contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most important for external cultures and optimize cross-cultural communication in general. The study is based on the theory of linguistic personality types, which is being developed at present at the junction of linguistics, linguistic conceptology, linguistic personology, semiotics and axiological linguistics. We used methods of linguistic research (conceptual, definitional, contextual, interpretive types of analysis, the method of quantitative analysis, the method of questionnaire, and the scientific methods (hypothetical-deductive analysis, data integration and classification, introspection. The most general paradigmatic components of “the British Queen” concept have been revealed, demarcating the semantic component of the linguistic personality type “the British Queen” from other concepts. The results can be used for scientific research in the field of linguistics and related sciences, in particular, for the further development of the theory of linguistic personality types as one of the areas of linguistics, as well as in teaching (in university courses of linguistics, intercultural communication, country specific studies (focusing on Britain, the theory of linguistic personality types, linguistic personality and studies,  linguistic conceptology, semiotics, axiological

  13. Caribou in British Columbia: A 1996 status report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard


    Full Text Available Caribou (Rangifer tarandus in British Columbia are classified into mountain, northern and boreal ecotypes based on behavioural and ecological characteristics. We recognized 12 mountain caribou herds, 27 northern caribou herds, and an area occupied by low density boreal caribou dispersed in the boreal forests of the northeast portion of the province. Abundance estimates were usually based on attempts at total counts made from the air. Trends were based on repeated population estimates or the difference between recruitment and mortality rates for each herd. In 1996 there were approximately 18 000 caribou in British Columbia; 2300 mountain and 15 600 northern and boreal. These estimates suggest a slight increase in the numbers of both ecotypes over the last 18 years. Fifteen percent of the herds were reportedly increasing, 10% were decreasing, 31% were stable, but for 44% of the herds the trend was unknown. Historically caribou were found throughout 8 of the 14 biogeoclimatic zones in B.C. Caribou are now rarely found in the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, likely due to increased predation from wolves that increased in response to increasing moose numbers. Ranges of several herds in the Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra zones of south-eastern British Columbia are also reduced relative to historic conditions, probably because of habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, predation and hunting. Forest harvesting represents the greatest threat to caribou habitat and current research focuses on the mitigation of forest harvesting impacts.

  14. Whither British labour law crisis, what crisis? an historical perspective on the juridification of British industrial relations


    Welch, Roger


    This paper is largely historical in that it reflects on the reasons why the British system of industrial relations was transformed from a system rooted in voluntarism or legal abstentionism to one which became increasingly juridified from the 1960s onwards. Juridification can be understood as a combination of judicial intervention in the arena of industrial conflict and the enactment of substantial legislation in areas previously left to employment contracts between employers and their employ...

  15. Perceptions of Quality and Approaches to Studying in Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Chinese and British Postgraduate Students at Six British Business Schools (United States)

    Sun, Haoda; Richardson, John T. E.


    Previous studies of "the Chinese learner" have confounded the effects of culture and context or have used heterogeneous samples of students. In this study, 134 British students and 207 students from mainland China following 1-year postgraduate programmes at six British business schools completed the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ)…

  16. Conventional natural gas play atlas, northeast British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson, Calgary, AB (Canada); Davidson, J.; Feduniak, B. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hayes, M.; Walsh, W.; Ferri, F.; Hickin, A.; Richardson, D.; Fournier, M.; Adams, C.; Kerr, B.; Lee, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC (Canada); Johnson, J.; Mclean, D.; Barker, J.; Walker, D.; Farr, G. [British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC (Canada)] (and others)


    This report provides an assessment of British Columbia's undiscovered resources. Although it covers all of the province's gas potential areas, its main focus is the quantification of the remaining undiscovered conventional gas potential of northeast British Columbia. The Conventional natural gas play atlas for northeast British Columbia contains both established and conceptual plays. Play definitions include resources that are considered proven and developable with current technology. They include exploration concepts that have been typically exploited in the province's portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Play descriptions were also provided. Unconventional plays such as coalbed gas, some tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates were also included, although they were deemed not currently productive. The atlas provides a framework for the assessment process as well as a reference point for future analyses. The current play definitions are expected to evolve with new geological concepts, technological developments and changing commodity prices. The northeast BC geographic areas covered in this report include the Deep Basin; Liard Basin and Fold Belt; the Northern Foothills; the southern Foothills; Fort St. John; and, Fort Nelson/Northern Plains. A series of maps were created to spatially display cumulative data for all plays throughout northeast BC. Values for the following categories were assigned to PNG and NTS grid units: discovered gas in place; discovered initial established marketable gas; discovered remaining marketable gas; cumulative marketable gas produced; undiscovered gas in place; undiscovered marketable gas; ultimate gas in place; ultimate marketable gas and ultimate remaining marketable gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Pessimism Preserved: Real Wages in the British Industrial Revolution


    Robert Allen; Allen, Robert C.


    The paper compares Feinstein`s and Clark`s consumer price and real wage indices for the British industrial revolution. The sources for their weights and component price series are evaluated. While some of Clark`s innovations are improvements, many of his changes degrade the price index. A new price index is developed using the best components of Clark`s and Feinstein`s. This index is much closer to Feinstein`s than to Clark`s. The implied growth in real wages is also close to Feinstein`s and ...

  18. Status report : British Columbia`s economic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A sector-by-sector update of actions taken under British Columbia`s three-year economic plan is outlined and the progress to date reviewed. The three year plan includes the support for industry growth in partnership with the private sector, making Vancouver a major international conference destination, and developing Vancouver International Airport into a major gateway to the Pacific. The plan also includes the promotion of adventure tourism in major international markets, and promoting aboriginal tourism and culture. The government also plans to stimulate the economy by providing $973 million in tax reductions for BC families and business. 1 tab.

  19. Locating Ancestry in Notions of Britishness/Germanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Pöllmann


    Full Text Available This article focuses on ancestry as a controversial marker of Britishness/Germanness. Considering developments in nationality law and large-scale survey data for England and Germany, it illustrates that macrocontextual distinctions into civic and ethnic nations tend to overestimate cross-national differences, while underestimating important within-country variations according to people’s educational background. The fact that—in both countries—higher levels of formal education are strongly associated with more ethnically inclusive notions of legitimate national membership underlines the formative potential of formal education in contemporary multicultural societies.

  20. Robinson Crusoe: the fate of the British Ulysses. (United States)

    Pimentel, Juan


    If travel has been one of the leitmotifs of Western imagination, Robinson Crusoe has certainly been one of its foremost incarnations. This British Ulysses foretold the global village, but also its problems. He predicted the end of distance, but also the triumph of isolation and anaesthetized loneliness. This paper provides an overview of the connections between Defoe's narrative and the new science and explores two versions of the story by two contemporary writers, Julio Cortazar and John Maxwell Coetzee. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Community Paramedicine Initiative: Transforming Paramedicine in British Columbia. (United States)

    Calderone, Colton; Brittain, Michelle; Sirivar, Daniel; Kotani, Nancy


    British Columbia's health care system is facing challenges related to rural access to care and an ever increasing demand for services. These variables are compounded by the anticipated needs of an aging population that can expect to live several of their golden years with a chronic illness. The introduction of community paramedicine in BC allows for a care delivery model that expands the role of qualified paramedics to include the delivery of prevention, health promotion and primary care services in the community. The implementation of the Community Paramedicine Initiative in rural and remote BC highlights a transformational approach to health care delivery empowered by a technology enabled perspective of community needs.

  2. A Lass and a Lack? Women in British Silent Comedy


    Porter, Laraine


    This chapter considers the role of women in British silent film comedy from 1895 to the end of the 1920s and their legacy into the early sound period. It argues that women comedians became increasingly marginalized as cinema developed into an industry, with the codes, form and style of the “mature silent cinema” restricting women into a narrow range of stereotypes that negated female agency and prioritized looks and glamour over personality or character. The dominance of a few male directors ...

  3. Joseph Kestner, Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880–1915


    Pham-Thanh, Gilbert


    Masculinities in British Adventure Fiction, 1880-1915 compte deux cent treize pages, dont cent soixante-seize réservées à l’étude à proprement parler. La formulation inaugurale plurielle du titre place l’analyse dans le cadre des Masculinities Studies, Joseph Kestner (université de Tulsa, USA) posant ainsi implicitement que la société phallocentrique de la Grande-Bretagne est traversée par la « crise de la masculinité dont parle Elaine Showalter. En outre, le même titre indique que cette remi...

  4. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.


    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  5. The British species of Enicospilus (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Broad


    Full Text Available The nine British and Irish species of Enicospilus are revised, mapped and an identification key provided. One species, Enicospilus myricae sp. nov., is described as new; Enicospilus merdarius (Gravenhorst, 1829 is a senior synonym of E. tournieri (Vollenhoven, 1879 syn. nov.; the only available name for E. merdarius auctt. is Enicospilus adustus (Haller, 1885 stat. rev., and a neotype is designated for Ophion adustus Haller, 1885. Enicospilus cerebrator Aubert, 1969 and E. repentinus (Holmgren, 1860 are newly recorded from Britain. Some host data are available for eight of the nine species.

  6. Negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. (United States)

    Brar, Amandip; Moneta, Giovanni B


    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian and White college students. Based on a study of levels of alcohol consumption (Spada & Moneta, 2004), it was hypothesized that the association between negative emotions and alcohol dependence symptoms would be present only in British White students. A sample of 150 British Indian students and 150 British White students completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Structural regression modeling indicated that negative emotions predict higher levels of alcohol dependence symptoms in British White students, and do not predict alcohol dependence symptoms in British Indian students. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. What did British nuclear report really say: an EEI perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The British Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution was instituted ''to advise on matters, both national and international, concerning the pollution of the environment; on the adequacy of research in this field; and the future possibilities of danger to the environment.'' The decision to undertake a study of nuclear power was made early in 1974; the final report, Sixth Report, Nuclear Power and the Environment, was submitted to Parliament in September 1976. Generally, the Commission has given nuclear power a clean bill of health, but the Commission's positive findings have been obscured. One of its recommendations says, ''the abandonment of nuclear fission power would, however, be neither wise nor justified. But a major commitment to fission power and a plutonium economy should be postponed as long as possible.'' It is felt that this is a new weapon for the opponents of nuclear power. A major impact of its misinterpretation is expected in the United States. The head of the Commission has said the statements concerning the ''plutonium economy'' were made in the context of looking far into the future. Comments from the Secretary of State for the Environment, a spokeman from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., and a spokesman from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority are included. (MCW)

  8. Mach's phenomenalism and the British reception of Mendelism. (United States)

    Sloan, P R


    The assimilation of Mendel's paper into Britain took place in an Edwardian social context. This paper concentrates on the interplay of empirical and philosophical issues in this reception. A feature of the British reception of mendelism, not duplicated elsewhere, was the role of phenomenalist philosophies of science as developed by the physicist-mathematician and scientific methodologist Karl Pearson from the philosophical positions of Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and British mathematician William Clifford. Pearson's philosophy of science forms the background to his subsequent collaboration with the zoologist W.F.R. Weldon. In this collaborative work, Pearson developed powerful statistical techniques for analyzing Weldon's empirical data on organic variation. Pearson's statistical analysis of causation and his rejection of hidden entities and causes in the explanation of evolutionary change formed the philosophical component of this program. The arguments of Pearson and Weldon were first brought to bear against the pre-Mendel 'discontinuist' analyses of variation of William Bateson. The introduction of Mendel's paper into these empirical and methodological debates consequently resulted in mathematically sophisticated attacks on Mendel's claims by Pearson and Weldon. This paper summarizes this history and argues for the creative importance of this biometrical resistance to Mendelism.

  9. Dental anxiety levels in British servicemen and women. (United States)

    Grimshaw, G P; Boyle, C A; Newton, T


    The objectives of the study were to determine: 1, the level of dental anxiety in British Service personnel; 2 whether there was a difference in dental anxiety levels across the three Services; and, 3, the relationship between number of operational tours and level of dental anxiety. Cross sectional questionnaire survey of individuals attending 3 Armed Services dental treatment centres in the UK. The questionnaires were completed between February 2008 and April 2009. 50 patients each from the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force, selected consecutively from those attending the centres for treatment. There was a 100% response rate. Dental fear as assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and scores on a scale of fear of dental injections. 27% of the Armed Services experienced severe dental anxiety: a level similar to that found in the general population. There was no difference in the level of dental anxiety or fear of dental injections across the three Armed Services. There was no relationship between number of operational tours undertaken and level of dental anxiety. Dental anxiety is found amongst members of the British Armed Services at levels similar to that in the general population. This represents a challenge for service provision, particularly in operational settings.

  10. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults. (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner


    To explore ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults, and the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in those inequalities. We analysed data on 1925 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults living in an ethnically diverse and socially deprived area. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD)≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA)≥4 mm. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal measures were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (gender and age groups) and SEP indicators (education and socioeconomic classification). Compared to White British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Asian Others had more teeth with PPD≥4 mm whereas White East European, Black African and Bangladeshi had more teeth with LOA≥4 mm, after adjustments for demographic and SEP measures. The association of ethnicity with periodontal disease was moderated by education, but not by socioeconomic classification. Stratified analysis showed that ethnic disparities in the two periodontal measures were limited to more educated groups. This study showed considerable ethnic disparities in periodontal disease between and within the major ethnic categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery (United States)

    Morrell, Peter


    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  12. Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement. (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine


    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for "signs" that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid-twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins' (1969, 1970) research on the "lesbian personality." This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins' research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge


    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  14. Introduction to British Sculpture Abroad in the 1960s

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    Jon Wood


    Full Text Available In the 1960s, British sculpture enjoyed a complex transitional life, taking on a new, bold, and increasingly internationalized profile, at the very same time that its forms and meanings were being challenged and contested. Both in Britain and beyond its shores, sculpture experienced substantial reorientation at the same time as it developed a rich and complicated “import” and “export” life, conceptually, commercially, and curatorially. When “Sculpture” was “British” and “Abroad”, its “abroad-ness” was not always so explicitly visible, since its forms and concerns frequently chimed with sensibilities and approaches that were emerging elsewhere too, whether they were figurative or abstract, Constructivist or Pop. At the same time, when sculpture was being displayed in Britain, whether in terms of groups, schools, and/or recent tendencies, it was increasingly described as “British Sculpture”. Visual evidence of foreign impact and exchange gradually emerged at the same time as this national and generational trope became a cultural identifier on a broader cultural landscape.

  15. Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections in British Hajj pilgrims (United States)

    Rashid, H; Shafi, S; Booy, R; El Bashir, H; Ali, K; Zambon, MC; Memish, ZA; Ellis, J; Coen, PG; Haworth, E


    Viral respiratory infections including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been reported during the Hajj among international pilgrims. To help establish the burden of these infections at the Hajj, we set up a study to confirm these diagnoses in symptomatic British pilgrims who attended the 2005 Hajj. UK pilgrims with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) were invited to participate; after taking medical history, nasal swabs were collected for point-of-care testing (PoCT) of influenza and for subsequent PCR analysis for influenza and RSV. Of the 205 patients recruited, 37 (18%) were positive for either influenza or RSV. Influenza A (H3) accounted for 54% (20/37) of the virus-positive samples, followed by RSV 24% (9/37), influenza B 19% (7/37), and influenza A (H1) 3% (1/37). Of the influenza-positive cases, 29% (8/28) had recently had a flu immunisation. Influenza was more common in those who gave a history of contact with a pilgrim with a respiratory illness than those who did not (17 versus 9%). The overall rate of RSV was 4% (9/202). This study confirms that influenza and RSV cause acute respiratory infections in British Hajj pilgrims. Continuing surveillance and a programme of interventions to contain the spread of infection are needed at the Hajj, particularly when the world is preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:22460211

  16. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

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    Anthony Dawson


    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  17. Prevalence of problematic mobile phone use in British adolescents. (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Honrubia-Serrano, Luisa; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Gibson, Will


    The problematic use of mobile phones among adolescents has not been widely studied. There are very few instruments for assessing potential technological addiction to mobile phones, or for categorizing different types of users or uses. The most widely used scale is the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS), which is used to study adult populations, and has been applied in various forms in international contexts. The aims of this study were to adapt the Spanish version of this scale (MPPUSA) to British adolescents, and then to estimate the prevalence of possible problematic users. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,529 secondary school pupils aged between 11 and 18 years, with 1,026 completed questionnaires being collected. The analysis showed that the factor and construct validity and reliability were comparable to those obtained in previous studies. The prevalence of problematic users among the students was 10%, and the typical problematic user tended to be an adolescent between 11 and 14 years old, studying in a public school, who considered themselves to be an expert user of this technology, who made extensive use of his/her mobile phone, and who attributed the same problem of use among their peers. These users presented notable scores in all the symptoms covered by the scale used to assess problematic use. In conclusion, the adaptation of the MPPUSA as a screening scale for British adolescents presents good sensitivity and specificity for detecting the main addictive symptoms proposed in this validated version.

  18. Legionum Urbs and the British Martyrs Aaron and Julius

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    Andrew Breeze


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the localization of the martyrdom of the British saints Aaron and Julius, known of solely from Gildas, writing in the early 530s. His remarks were taken up by Bede (d. 737, so that the two saints have never been forgotten, their cult surviving to this day. The author provides a detailed survey of discussion of Aaron and Julius over the centuries, and argues that their martyrdom was neither at Caerleon (in south-east Wales nor Chester (in north-west England, as suggested by numerous scholars, but at Leicester, another major city of Roman Britain. Working from epigraphic sources and taking into account ancient models of naming, the author attempts a reinterpretation of Legionum urbs in the original texts by emending it to Legorum urbs “city of the Legores,” the Celtic people of the Leicester region. The latter, by the time of Gildas, was occupied by the Angles, while the city itself was abandoned, which may explain Gildas’s remarks, otherwise unclear if one identifies Legionum urbs with Caerleon or Chester. The author adduces both historical and linguistic arguments for his proposal and shows that it sheds new light on the history of early British Christianity.

  19. The link between copper and Wilson's disease. (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert


    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in the liver and extrahepatic organs such as the brain and cornea. Patients may present with combinations of hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Copper is the therapeutic target for the treatment of Wilson's disease. But how did copper come to be linked with Wilson's disease? The answer encompasses a study of enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs in the 1930s, the copper-chelating properties of British Anti-Lewisite, and the chemical analysis for copper of the organs of deceased Wilson's disease patients in the mid-to-late 1940s. Wilson's disease is one of a number of copper-related disorders where loss of copper homeostasis as a result of genetic, nutritional or environmental factors affects human health.

  20. Detoxification of mercury species--an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood. (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Björn; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Buscher, Wolfgang; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe


    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg2+) and methylmercury (MeHg+, CH3Hg+) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC.

  1. Detoxification of mercury species - an in vitro study with antidotes in human whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truempler, Stefan; Nowak, Sascha; Meermann, Bjoern; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany); Wiesmueller, Gerhard A. [University Hospital Muenster, Environmental Specimen Bank for Human Tissues, Muenster (Germany); Sperling, Michael [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Muenster (Germany); European Virtual Institute for Speciation Analysis, Muenster (Germany)


    To investigate the effects of mercury species intoxication and to test the efficiency of different commonly applied antidotes, human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples were spiked with inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}, CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) prior to treatment with the antidotes 2,3-dimercaptopropan-1-ol (British Anti Lewisite), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For mercury speciation analysis in these samples, liquid chromatography was coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Adduct formation between mercury species and physiological thiols (cysteine and glutathione) was observed as well as the release of glutathione under treatment with the antidotes DMSA and NAC. (orig.)

  2. Geographical aspects of British overseas trade: a framework and a review


    A G Hoare


    This paper is an overview of geographical studies into the British involvement in international trade. A conceptual framework comprising three elements is presented: internal regional economies, British trading ports, and overseas trading partners. The interactions among these three elements are discussed in order to review the rationale for an academic interest in British geography of overseas trade. The existing literature on the subject is also briefly discussed.

  3. Public ownership, privatisation and regulation: social welfare counterfactuals for British Telecom


    Puglisi, Riccardo; Florio, Massimo


    Is privatization per se socially beneficial? Or do those benefits depend on the subsequent changes in the regulatory regime? In this paper, building on Vogelsang, Jones and Tandon (1994), we answer these questions by analyzing three different counterfactuals about British Telecom privatization and regulation. In the factual scenario, the British government decided to privatize British Telecom, and at the same time to establish an independent agency (OFTEL), which was to impose a price cap mec...

  4. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter


    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  5. Multiculturalism and Contemporary British Fiction: Londonstani and The Islamist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Elia


    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century, the need to move beyond post-colonial and cultural studies somewhat abstract categories seems to be stronger than ever. In order to analyse all-encompassing issues such as ‘Europe', ‘black' and ‘white', a reification of post-colonial theoretical tools is made possible by an ever-increasing permeability of the boundaries between subjects such as literature, sociology, contemporary history, political science, international relations, anthropology. By pursuing an interdisciplinary and pragmatic approach, one finds it difficult to identify a persuasive idea of ‘Europe' when even its ‘capital' Brussels has to face an identity compromise between Flemish and Walloons (Castells, AlSayyad: 2002; by the same token, it is hard to imagine that, say, Scottish people would define themselves first as Europeans, and then as British and Scottish - the opposite sequential order is much more likely. Traditional categories such as ‘black' and ‘white' are also being repeatedly challenged and disrupted, witness the recent publication of novels such as Gautam Malkani's Londonstani (2006 and Ed Husain's The Islamist (2007. The former displays a religion-free kind of identity describing the life in Hounslow of apolitical British-Asian teenage rude-boys ironically embracing the traditionally opposed black hip-hop culture. The latter, instead, is based on a real account of a British Muslim who, after becoming an Islamic fundamentalist, rejected political Islam and returned to normal life. My essay aims to investigate this anti-essentialist notion of the South-Asian community in contemporary Britain by reflecting on the passionate debate between those who keep celebrating multiculturalism as the necessary path to a more tolerant society, and those who blame the policy of appeasement that supposedly fostered the growth of Muslim fundamentalism in Britain. Bearing in mind the diverse colonial histories and the dangers of

  6. Gaps and spaces: representations of dementia in contemporary British poetry. (United States)

    Zeilig, Hannah


    This article considers the work of a number of contemporary British poets who have attempted to articulate some of the experiences that dementia entails. The unique potential of poetry as a means of portraying the dislocations and reinventions of self that dementia involves has been mostly overlooked. The insights offered by critical gerontology are central to this article. This perspective calls for critical thought about the ways in which dementia has been socially constructed. The challenges posed by poets such as Vuyelwa Carlin, Valerie Laws and Jo Shapcott in particular, are examined. The complex poetic representations offered by these poets acknowledge the pathological declines of dementia and simultaneously celebrate the individuality and life of their subjects. Considering dementia with reference to the work of contemporary poets and critical gerontology is one way in which we can deepen our understanding of what this illness involves and humanise those who suffer from it.

  7. The Electronic Agora of the British Society in Bulgaria

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    D. Rangelova


    Full Text Available H. Rheyngold (1993 introduces the concept of "electronic agora", claiming that virtual communities act on the square - an open space where it all happens. The theoretical framework of this paper will be set by the theory of Schutz for multiplication of reality and will build on the theory of Muggleton virtual identity. Commonwealth in Bulgaria communicates in a parallel to the real world to the virtual. Through virtual identity can reinvent itself, moving freely between multiple online roles, to be the opposite sex, younger, older, anonymous and thus to avoid the presentation of the true self. What roles occupy the British in Bulgaria in the early 21st century in cyberspace and how it used? Do they experiment with their identity? Do they develop strong relationships in social groups? Answers to these questions will be looking for in this study.

  8. The Language in British and Slovene Football Anthems

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    Agata Križan


    Full Text Available Football is probably the world’s most popular game, with a huge number of fans. There are numerous ways in which football fans express dedication to their club and the feelings they have for their team, for example, wearing certain colours, waving banners and flags, and singing. Football anthems are nothing new for football fans, and many clubs have a long-established tradition of them. In this paper, I will address and compare the language in some popular British and Slovene football anthems, and attempt to explain its contribution to the creation of fan identity, to the fans’ sense of belonging, unity, and motivation. The linguistic analysis identities the linguistic resources used in football anthems to express attitudes, form bonds and create identities.

  9. Economic Consequences of BREXIT after the British Referendum

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    Critian PĂUN


    Full Text Available The European Union project is strongly challenged today by the historical decision of United Kingdom’s citizens to exit from this structure, with all consequences assumed. United Kingdom will be the first nation that will quit this ambitious initiative and the decision is transmitted by the organized national referendum’s results in this respect. The population’s opinion expressed by a huge number of voting persons should be taken into consideration by British politicians and transposed very soon into political actions that could have a strong and clear economic impact on both sides. This paper will discuss the possible economic consequences of such historical decision, including potential effects on a small country like Romania.

  10. British Coal Corporation Medical Service annual report 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This annual report reviews the work of British Coal's Medical Service over the period 1988-89. Recruitment was at a lower level resulting in a reduction in the number of pre-employment medical examinations. Statistics are given for these, and for consultations during the year. The work of the rescue service is described. Results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners from 1961 to 1988 are presented in detail. The fall in prevalence continued. Continued attention has been paid to compliance with COSHH regulations, to encouraging the use of physiotherapy and to educating workers in lifting and handling methods. Following an incidence of Legionnaires Disease an investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection in an underground refrigeration plant. Studies on the mortality of coke workers have progressed. Reports are given on first aid and nursing services and on the administration of pethridine to injured miners.

  11. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1993-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The annual report reviews the work of the Occupational Health Service of British Coal during 1993. The report summarises medical examinations and consultations carried out; presents, in detail, the reports of the Periodic X-ray surveys (1993 was the final year of the eighth round of surveys); reports on various hazards and problems such as noise, temperature, detection inks, occupational stress; discusses activities relating to compliance with health and safety regulations; reports on work of the toxicology unit on hazardous substances and on carcinogenicity; reports on injuries and treatments (including counselling after the Bilsthorpe Accident in August 1993) and on the nursing service, and summarises research on 1-hydroxypyrene as a monitor of exposure to coal liquefaction workers and on monitoring exposure to benzene.

  12. British Museum Exhibition Review: The Jericho Skull, Creating an Ancestor

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    Cara Hirst


    Full Text Available The temporary exhibit at the British Museum, open 15th December-19th February, and located to the right of the main entrance in the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gallery (Room 59; is dedicated to a single Neolithic crania from Jericho, known as the Jericho Skull. This exhibit demonstrates the value of relatively recent technologies in archaeological research, highlighting the previously hidden information made possible through CT scanning and the value of these methods in both archaeological research but also in communicating archaeology in a visually stimulating manner which allows an exhibit to take a single item, and create an in depth exhibit featuring both the original material and two cranial 3D prints along with a facial reconstruction.

  13. Appearance of bacteriology in the British medical school curriculum. (United States)

    Hardy, S P


    Published histories of bacteriology concentrate on the scientific concepts, exemplified by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch. Arguably, the early British bacteriological studies are headed by Lord Lister, whereas other notables such as Ronald Ross, Robert Bruce and Patrick Manson are honoured for their discoveries of 'tropical' microbes, accomplished abroad. What then was happening in Great Britain? The introduction of bacteriology into the medical school curriculum is examined according to the published lectures in The Lancet between 1889 and 1901 and the dates are reviewed in light of other published sources. The names of the people delivering bacteriology at the medical schools in Great Britain and Ireland provide a guide to the relevance of crediting Lister as the leading light for microbiology in the UK. The diversity of names and backgrounds suggests that a critical reassessment of the perceived late and limited start of UK medical bacteriology is needed.

  14. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis. (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R


    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  15. The origins of Muslim nationalism in British India

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    Enrique Baltar


    Full Text Available British rule of India stripped Muslim elites of their traditional status of ruling class and reduced them to the status of a religious minority doubly pressured by the new conditions of colonial society and competition of the majority Hindu community. These pressures strengthened in the collective imagination the perception of a minority at a disadvantage and it helped the Muslim elites to become gradually aware of their right to constitute in nationhood and the need to organize politically to defend their interests. This article aims to analyze how Islamic nationalism was taking shape during the second half of the nineteenth century and an early twentieth century from two fundamental assumptions: the backwardness of the Muslim community and the fear of Hindu hegemony.

  16. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel


    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  17. Keeping up Appearances on the Romano-British Frontier

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    Barbara Birley


    Full Text Available Roman Vindolanda lies on the Stanegate Road to the south of Hadrian's Wall, on the northern frontier of the Romano-British province. It has complex stratigraphy with at least ten layers of occupation dating from around AD 85 to its abandonment in the 5th century, but it is the first five levels from AD 85 to AD 130-139 that have produced some of the most significant organic objects from the Empire, including the Vindolanda writing tablets (Birley 2009. One of the distinctive aspects of the Vindolanda collection is the large number of wooden hair combs found in these levels. Over 160 boxwood hair combs have been unearthed from the site. Resembling modern nit combs, these small objects had the primary function of cleaning and detangling hair, but further examination of the collection allows for the exploration of different aspects of style and function.

  18. Finding official British information official publishing in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Inman, Jane; Purushothama, B


    Examining the different bodies that publish official material, this book describes the types of material published, how it is made available and how it is recorded. Finding Official British Information focuses on the digital availability of official information and considers how much is now freely available on the web and how to locate it as well as addressing issues of web only publishing. It covers public bodies in the UK and includes publications issued by central and local government as well as the devolved assemblies and the many other organisations that issue official publications. Quick 'how to find' section for each area Designed for the non-specialist Covering central and local government, the devolved assemblies and other public bodies in the UK.

  19. Assessing the impact of human activities on British Columbia's estuaries. (United States)

    Robb, Carolyn K


    The world's marine and coastal ecosystems are under threat and single-sector management efforts have failed to address those threats. Scientific consensus suggests that management should evolve to focus on ecosystems and their human, ecological, and physical components. Estuaries are recognized globally as one of the world's most productive and most threatened ecosystems and many estuarine areas in British Columbia (BC) have been lost or degraded. To help prioritize activities and areas for regional management efforts, spatial information on human activities that adversely affect BC's estuaries was compiled. Using statistical analyses, estuaries were assigned to groups facing related threats that could benefit from similar management. The results show that estuaries in the most populated marine ecosections have the highest biological importance but also the highest impacts and the lowest levels of protection. This research is timely, as it will inform ongoing marine planning, land acquisition, and stewardship efforts in BC.

  20. Acute hepatitis A virus infections in British Gurkha soldiers. (United States)

    Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S


    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.

  1. Towards targeted screening for acute HIV infections in British Columbia. (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Cook, Darrel A; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Haag, Devon; Tsang, Peggy; Wong, Elsie; Brooks, James I; Merks, Harriet; Rekart, Michael L


    Our objective was to describe the characteristics of acute and established HIV infections diagnosed in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Province-wide HIV testing and surveillance data were analyzed to inform recommendations for targeted use of screening algorithms to detect acute HIV infections. Acute HIV infection was defined as a confirmed reactive HIV p24 antigen test (or HIV nucleic acid test), a non-reactive or reactive HIV EIA screening test and a non-reactive or indeterminate Western Blot. Characteristics of unique individuals were identified from the British Columbia HIV/AIDS Surveillance System. Primary drug resistance and HIV subtypes were identified by analyzing HIV pol sequences from residual sera from newly infected individuals. From February 2006 to October 2008, 61 individuals met the acute HIV infection case definition, representing 6.2% of the 987 newly diagnosed HIV infections during the analysis period. Acute HIV infection cases were more likely to be men who have sex with men (crude OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.01-2.89], to have had a documented previous negative HIV test result (crude OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.52-5.51), and to have reported a reason for testing due to suspected seroconversion symptoms (crude OR 5.16; 95% CI 2.88-9.23). HIV subtypes and rates of transmitted drug resistance across all classes of drugs were similar in persons with both acute and established HIV infections. Targeted screening to detect acute HIV infection is a logical public health response to the HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest that acute HIV infection screening strategies, in our setting, are helpful for early diagnosis in men who have sex with men, in persons with seroconversion symptoms and in previously negative repeat testers.

  2. Electricity and Static: Franklin and his British compatriots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mankin


    Full Text Available Les découvertes en électricité de Benjamin Franklin ont mobilisé des chercheurs depuis des décennies. Cet essai ne traite pas de ces découvertes au sens strict, mais étudie le contexte dans lequel Franklin a présenté certains de ses travaux scientifiques et politiques en 1751, ainsi que leur réception en Grande-Bretagne. L’essai suggère que Franklin ne fut ni l’enfant des Lumières britanniques ou européennes, ni un de leurs jouets. Bien que célébré très généralement par son siècle, Franklin demeurait comme une force étrangère à laquelle les Lumières britanniques devaient faire face, tant sur le plan intellectuel que politique. Peut-être que cette situation explique pourquoi il fut un adversaire si redoutable pour l’Etat britannique.Franklin’s discoveries in electricity have rewarded scholarly attention for many decades. This short essay is not about electricity in the strict sense, but about the context in which Franklin presented some of his work in science and in politics in 1751, and about the way that work was received in Britain. The aim of the essay is to suggest that Franklin was neither a child of the British or European Enlightenment nor one of its toys. And though he may have been touted very generally as an inspiration, he was closer to a foreign force with which, intellectually as well as a politically, it had to contend. This may help in explaining why he proved so considerable a foe to the British state.

  3. Alexander von Humboldt and British artists: the Oriental taste

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    Garrido, Elisa


    Full Text Available Humboldtian landscape is the best result of a close relationship between artists and scientists in the context of the Enlightenment. Many artists inspired Humboldt to develop his concept of landscape as the best way of representing Nature, but some British artists in particular were a strong reference for him. Thomas Daniell and William Hodges had travelled to Asia creating a particular imagery, which inspired the desire to travel and the feeling of the exotic taste in Humboldt. Around Humboldt, mainly two types of artists have been studied: on the one hand, painter travellers who received direct instructions from Humboldt after his experience in America, and on the other, artists who started their trips by themselves after reading his works. However, this paper is focused on the links between Humboldt and these British painters of the Orient, whom he met on a European tour with Georg Forster, before making his trip to America.El paisaje teorizado por Humboldt es el resultado de una estrecha relación entre artistas y científicos, en el contexto de la Ilustración. Muchos artistas inspiraron a Humboldt a desarrollar su concepto del paisaje como la mejor forma de representar la naturaleza pero particularmente, algunos artistas británicos supusieron una fuerte referencia para él. Principalmente, alrededor de Humboldt se han estudiado dos tipos de artistas: por una parte, los pintores viajeros que recibieron instrucciones directas de Humboldt tras su experiencia en América y por otra, los artistas que iniciaron sus viajes por iniciativa propia tras haber leído los sus trabajos. Sin embargo, este texto se centra en las relaciones entre Humboldt y los pintores británicos de Oriente, a quienes él conoció en su viaje europeo junto a Georg Forster, antes de realizar su viaje americano.

  4. British surgeons' experiences of mandatory online workplace-based assessment. (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Dean, Benjamin J F


    An online workplace-based assessment tool, the Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme (ISCP), has become mandatory for all British surgical trainees appointed since August 2007. A compulsory pound125 annual trainee fee has also been introduced to fund its running costs. The study sought to evaluate user satisfaction with the ISCP. A total of 539 users across all surgical specialties (including 122 surgeons acting as assessors) were surveyed in late 2008 by online questionnaire regarding their experiences with the ISCP. Sixty-seven percent had used the tool for at least one year. It was rated above average by only 6% for its registration process and only 11% for recording meetings and objectives. Forty-nine percent described its online assessments as poor or very poor, only 9% considering them good or very good. Seventy-nine percent rated the website's user friendliness as average or worse, as did 72% its peer-assessment tool and 61% its logbook of procedures. Seventy-six percent of respondents had carried out paper assessments due to difficulties using the website. Six percent stated that the ISCP had impacted negatively on their training opportunities, 41% reporting a negative impact overall upon their training; only 6% reported a positive impact. Ninety-four percent did not consider the trainee fee good value, only 2% believing it should be paid by the trainee. The performance of the ISCP leaves large numbers of British surgeons unsatisfied. Its assessments lack appropriate evidence of validity and its introduction has been problematic. With reducing training hours, the increased online bureaucratic burden exacerbates low morale of trainees and trainers, adversely impacting potentially upon both competency and productivity.

  5. Dental caries experience of British children in an international context. (United States)

    Downer, M C; Drugan, C S; Blinkhorn, A S


    To document data on current and past levels of dental decay in British children and compare trends with those in other countries, in Europe in particular. Data were abstracted from multiple sources and collated and tabulated. The dental health of the majority of British children has improved dramatically since the early 1970s. Twelve-year-old children now have on average less than one decayed, missing (extracted) or filled tooth. Levels of dental decay in UK children at 5 and 12 years are among the lowest in the world. There are still marked inequalities in the dental decay experience of children between the territorial regions of the UK, high and low socio-economic groups, and regular and symptomatic dental attenders. Many children in areas of deprivation are either not motivated to seek dental treatment or experience barriers in obtaining it. In parallel with improvements in the dental health of the majority of children, the proportion of UK adults who have no natural teeth has fallen from 37% to 12% over the past four decades. Total tooth loss is now confined almost entirely to individuals over 45 years of age. Most of the improvements in children's dental health are attributable to environmental factors, in particular the widespread availability of fluoride containing toothpastes since the 1970s. There are clear benefits from fluoridation of public water supplies over and above those attributable to other factors. The findings suggest initiatives should be directed to bringing children from deprived backgrounds under the umbrella of dental care. To help alleviate the inequalities in dental health, water fluoridation should be implemented, in urban industrial areas in particular, where levels of dental decay are still unacceptably high.

  6. Barossa Night: cohesion in the British Army officer corps. (United States)

    Bury, Patrick


    Contrasting the classical explanation of military group cohesion as sustained by interpersonal bonds, recent scholars have highlighted the importance of ritualized communication, training and drills in explaining effective military performance in professional armies. While this has offered a welcome addition to the cohesion literature and a novel micro-sociological method of examining cohesion, its primary evidential base has been combat groups. Indeed, despite their prominent role in directing operations over the past decade, the British Army's officer corps has received relatively little attention from sociologists during this period. No attempt has been made to explain cohesion in the officer corps. Using a similar method to recent cohesion scholars, this paper seeks to address this imbalance by undertaking a micro-sociology of one ritual in particular: 'Barossa Night' in the Royal Irish Regiment. Firstly, it draws on the work of Durkheim to examine how cohesion amongst the officer corps is created and sustained through a dense array of practises during formal social rituals. It provides evidence that the use of rituals highlights that social solidarity is central to understanding officer cohesion. Secondly, following Hockey's work on how private soldiers negotiate order, the paper shows how this solidarity in the officer corps is based on a degree of negotiated order and the need to release organizational tensions inherent in a strictly hierarchical rank structure. It highlights how the awarding of gallantry medals can threaten this negotiated order and fuel deviancy. In examining this behaviour, the paper shows that even amongst an officer class traditionally viewed as the elite upholders of organizational discipline, the negotiation of rank and hierarchy can be fluid. How deviant behaviour is later accepted and normalized by senior officers indicates that negotiated order is as important to understanding cohesion in the British Army's officer corps as it is

  7. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology. (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford


    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles

  8. British ‘Bollocks’ versus American ‘Jerk’: do native British English speakers swear more –or differently- compared to American English speakers?


    Dewaele, Jean-Marc


    The present study investigates the differences between 414 L1 speakers of British and 556 L1 speakers of American English in self-reported frequency of swearing and in the understanding of the meaning, the perceived offensiveness and the frequency of use of 30 negative emotion-laden words extracted from the British National Corpus. Words ranged from mild to highly offensive, insulting and taboo. Statistical analysies revealed no significant differences between the groups in self reported freq...

  9. British History is Their History: Britain and the British Empire in the History Curriculum of Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia 1930-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jackson


    Full Text Available This article investigates the evolving conceptions of national identity in Canada and Australia through an analysis of officially sanctioned history textbooks in Ontario, Canada and Victoria, Australia. From the 1930s until the 1950s, Britain and the British Empire served a pivotal role in history textbooks and curricula in both territories. Textbooks generally held that British and imperial history were crucial to the Canadian and Australian national identity. Following the Second World War, textbooks in both Ontario and Victoria began to recognize Britain’s loss of power, and how this changed Australian and Canadian participation in the British Empire/Commonwealth. But rather than advocate for a complete withdrawal from engagement with Britain, authors emphasized the continuing importance of the example of the British Empire and Commonwealth to world affairs. In fact, participation in the Commonwealth was often described as of even more importance as the Dominions could take a more prominent place in imperial affairs. By the 1960s, however, textbook authors in Ontario and Victoria began to change their narratives, de-emphasizing the importance of the British Empire to the Canadian and Australian identity. Crucially, by the late 1960s the new narratives Ontarians and Victorians constructed claimed that the British Empire and national identity were no longer significantly linked. An investigation into these narratives of history will provide a unique window into officially acceptable views on imperialism before and during the era of decolonization.

  10. Using Web-Based Technologies and Tools in Future Choreographers' Training: British Experience (United States)

    Bidyuk, Dmytro


    In the paper the problem of using effective web-based technologies and tools in teaching choreography in British higher education institutions has been discussed. Researches on the usage of web-based technologies and tools for practical dance courses in choreographers' professional training at British higher education institutions by such British…

  11. British Policy Towards Loyalists in the Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778 (United States)


    Loyalists. The Queens Rangers provide clear evidence of the potential that resided within the Loyalist volunteers. The British publicly acknowledged...University of North Carolina Press, 1941. Davies, K. G. “The Restoration of Civil Government by the British in the War of Independence.” In. Red

  12. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.; Thorsen, E.


    This chapter investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Almost a quarter of the British and nearly half of the Dutch candidates shared their thoughts, visions, and experiences on Twitter. Subsequently, these tweets were increasingly

  13. How British-Chinese Parents Support Their Children: A View from the Regions (United States)

    Gates, Peter; Guo, Xumei


    Although the high level of achievement experienced by British-Chinese pupils in schools is well documented, the Chinese community in the UK is a relatively under-researched ethnic group. There is only patchy information on ways in which British-Chinese parents and children engage with education. It is often presumed the success of Chinese pupils…

  14. Why Do British Indian Children Have an Apparent Mental Health Advantage? (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Patel, Vikram; Leon, David A.


    Background: Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown. Methods: Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The…

  15. Comics Unmasked: A Conversation with Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library

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    Ernesto Priego


    Full Text Available In this interview Adrian Edwards, lead curator of Printed Historical Sources, The British Library, talks to Ernesto Priego about the Comics Unmasked: Art and Anarchy in the UK exhibition at The British Library, 2 May – 19 August 2014.

  16. British Chemists Abroad, 1887-1971: The Dynamics of Chemists' Careers (United States)

    Roberts, Gerrylynn K.; Simmons, Anna E.


    This paper investigates the extent of overseas migration by British chemists over the period 1887-1971. Notwithstanding the "brain drain" alarms of the 1960s, overseas employment was characteristic of some 19% of British chemists' careers throughout our period, though its nature changed considerably. Our study examines the overseas…

  17. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated January 18, 2010. (2... defined in paragraph 2.D.(4) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32... bores for cracks. Do the inspections following British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service...

  18. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1... (United States)


    ... Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series 3101, and... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...

  19. "Try a taste of Turkey": an analysis of Turkey's representation in British newspapers' travel sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; Kuipers, G.M.M.; van Zoonen, L.


    This article explores the cultural representation of Turkey as a travel destination for British tourists. Drawing on findings from a qualitative content analysis of 99 travel features published in three British broadsheet and three tabloid papers over a five-year period, we investigate the content

  20. Green Consciousness or Dollar Diplomacy? The British Response to the Threat of Ozone Depletion. (United States)

    Maxwell, James H.; Weiner, Sanford L.


    Discusses the British role in the regulation of believed ozone-depleting substances such as chlorofluorocarbons. Recounts the history of the British policies during the emergence of the issue from 1974-80; a period of tactical resistance from 1980-87; and a change in policy from 1987-90. (66 references) (MDH)

  1. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.


    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999

  2. Proposal to Fund the Establishment of a Computer Based Library Service Utility in British Columbia. (United States)

    British Columbia Union Catalogue, Richmond.

    Sponsored by the 28 member libraries of the British Columbia Union Catalogue (BCUC), this proposal requests funds from provincial government to establish the British Columbia Library Network (BCLN), a computerized library information system based on the existing BCUC organization and database. Chapters describe the need for the establishment of…

  3. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency (United States)


    Iberian Peninsula, some twenty-five years later, suggesting perhaps that at least some officers in the British Army did absorb key lessons from 20 the...lived 1723-1786. A career British officer he was wounded serving in 60th Foot under Wolfe at Quebec. He was promoted Colonel in September 1775

  4. "I dumped my husband for a Turkish toyboy": romance tourism and intersectionality in British tabloid newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamid-Turksoy, N.; van Zoonen, L.; Kuipers, G.M.M.


    In this article, we analyse how British tabloid newspapers represent relationships between mature British women and the younger Turkish toyboy lovers they meet (and sometimes look for) on their holiday; a practice that is often considered as the female counterpart to male sex tourism, albeit

  5. Is the Culture of the British Army Conducive to the Successful Execution of Mission Command (United States)


    John W. Creswell , Research Design : Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2014), 14, the U.S., British, and Israeli Armies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011. Creswell , John W., Research Design : Qualitative ...The research for this paper was qualitative in nature. It investigated the relationship between two elements, Mission Command and British Army

  6. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.


    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  7. Beauty Contest for British Bulldogs? Negotiating (Transnational identities in Suburban Melbourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wills


    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the absence of bulldogs, Britfest with its re-creation and representation of Britishness provides an entry point for investigating the complex meanings within the transitional narratives of migrancy, ethnicity and ‘belonging’ among British migrants in modern Australia. The identification and promotion of Britishness at this event reflects recent trends in the re-imagining of that Britishness, which has also become the focus of popular and scholarly debate. In much of this debate, events such as Britfest are seen as representative of a newly emergent sense of identity among British migrants—as an organic reawakening of community pride, nationhood and sense of (an often privileged place in Australia.

  8. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello


    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora. PMID:28069962

  9. Content analysis of 150 years of British periodicals. (United States)

    Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Thompson, James; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello


    Previous studies have shown that it is possible to detect macroscopic patterns of cultural change over periods of centuries by analyzing large textual time series, specifically digitized books. This method promises to empower scholars with a quantitative and data-driven tool to study culture and society, but its power has been limited by the use of data from books and simple analytics based essentially on word counts. This study addresses these problems by assembling a vast corpus of regional newspapers from the United Kingdom, incorporating very fine-grained geographical and temporal information that is not available for books. The corpus spans 150 years and is formed by millions of articles, representing 14% of all British regional outlets of the period. Simple content analysis of this corpus allowed us to detect specific events, like wars, epidemics, coronations, or conclaves, with high accuracy, whereas the use of more refined techniques from artificial intelligence enabled us to move beyond counting words by detecting references to named entities. These techniques allowed us to observe both a systematic underrepresentation and a steady increase of women in the news during the 20th century and the change of geographic focus for various concepts. We also estimate the dates when electricity overtook steam and trains overtook horses as a means of transportation, both around the year 1900, along with observing other cultural transitions. We believe that these data-driven approaches can complement the traditional method of close reading in detecting trends of continuity and change in historical corpora.

  10. Perceptions of technology at sea amongst British seafaring officers. (United States)

    Allen, Paul


    The use of Information Communication Technology is growing in the maritime industry as more systems become monitored remotely and new technologies are introduced to aid environmental awareness and increase safety. An exploratory survey was conducted as part of the EU project 'FLAGSHIP' to assess how seafarers perceive the current state of technology onboard ship and to identify areas of resistance to advancements in this area. Only 5.8% of the sample of British officers (overall n = 805) reported feeling resistant to new technology either 'quite a lot' or 'a great deal' at a general level compared to 82.8% when asked about the specific issue of training. Logistic regression analysis revealed older seafarers and those with low computer literacy to show greater resistance to new technology. Resistance was also higher on vessels with smaller crews, although a confound with vessel type is likely. Technology training for seafarers should be improved but not as a means of compensating for equipment developed without reference to user-centred design principles. Around 90% of all goods are transported by ship yet ergonomic research into the onboard environment is extremely limited. New technology is being introduced to substitute for the human element but little has been done to investigate how work processes have adapted. Seafarers' perceptions of new technology are examined here.

  11. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils

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    R. Corstanje


    Full Text Available Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  12. Regional landslide hazard susceptibility mapping for pipelines in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leir, M.; Ramsay, S. [BGC Engineering Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Mitchell, A. [Terasen Gas Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)


    Terasen Gas Inc. is a major supplier of natural gas in British Columbia. Much of its network of gas distribution pipelines passes through rugged and varied terrain. In an effort to manage ground movement hazards that may potentially affect the operation of their system, Terasen conducted a mapping project to identify slow progressive, subsurface ground deformations that could cause leaks in buried gas pipelines. This paper describes the mapping program and the challenges of the GIS based regional scale landslide hazard susceptibility mapping project that ranked and prioritized the 88 communities serviced by Terasen according to which ones required further hazard and risk studies. Landslide subtypes were restricted to earth and debris slides; earth and rock flows; and, earth and rock creep. An international framework for probabilistic hazard and risk management was used during the project along with landslide hazard zonation and simple Fuzzy Logic operators. The landslide causal factors used in the study were: slope angle, surficial geology, bedrock geology, proximity to water bodies, and proximity to faults. A score was assigned to each community. This study provides useful information to those involved in geohazard management and hazard zonation, geoscience data providers, municipal planners and pipeline integrity personnel. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. HIV/AIDS in Vancouver, British Columbia: a growing epidemic (United States)

    McInnes, Colin W; Druyts, Eric; Harvard, Stephanie S; Gilbert, Mark; Tyndall, Mark W; Lima, Viviane D; Wood, Evan; Montaner, Julio SG; Hogg, Robert S


    The prevalence of HIV in Vancouver, British Columbia was subject to two distinct periods of rapid increase. The first occurred in the 1980s due to high incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), and the second occurred in the 1990s due to high incidence among injection drug users (IDU). The purpose of this study was to estimate and model the trends in HIV prevalence in Vancouver from 1980 to 2006. HIV prevalence data were entered into the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) where prevalence trends were estimated by fitting an epidemiological model to the data. Epidemic curves were fit for IDU, MSM, street-based female sex trade workers (FSW), and the general population. Using EPP, these curves were then aggregated to produce a model of Vancouver's overall HIV prevalence. Of the 505 000 people over the age of 15 that reside in Vancouver, 6108 (ranging from 4979 to 7237) were living with HIV in the year 2006, giving an overall prevalence of 1.21 percent (ranging from 0.99 to 1.43 percent). The subgroups of IDU and MSM account for the greatest proportion of HIV infections. Our model estimates that the prevalence of HIV in Vancouver is greater than one percent, roughly 6 times higher than Canada's national prevalence. These results suggest that HIV infection is having a relatively large impact in Vancouver and that evidence-based prevention and harm reduction strategies should be expanded. PMID:19265531

  14. British Coal Medical Service annual report 1989-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report contains detailed results of surveys on the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in coal miners of various age groups from 1962 to 1989. Only 0.6% of 14,300 men X-rayed in 1989 showed any sign of the disease and the overall figure for the 112 collieries surveyed after the completed seventh round of surveys was 0.7%. Emphasis has continued on dust control measures on coal faces and in drivages - dust concentration of 3.1 mg/m {sup 3} in 1989-90 was in keeping with the trend since 1970. A 'cohort' of young miners is being monitored to develop an early warning system to identify changes in the incidence of pneumoconiosis. The role of Medical Service in treating injuries, skin diseases, back pain etc. and problems caused by noise and chemicals is explained. Continued attention has been paid to implication of the COSHH regulations and audiometry has been introduced to all British Coal's employees. Services are now provided to workers of Coal Products Ltd. Reports of first aid and nursing services are included. Use of pethidine for relieving pain is now being advocated. 6 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. The Biographical Management of Risk and Uncertainty—British Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O. Zinn


    Full Text Available How individuals deal with risk and uncertainties in the context of an organizational culture is a neglected area in the sociology of risk and uncertainty. This contribution reports from an explorative qualitative study (n=14 which examines the intersection of biographical experiences and organizational culture in the perspective of risk and uncertainty. This study with ex-serviceman of the British Armed Forces shows that coming from different biographical contexts, young adults become soldiers for different reasons and they experience their time as soldiers differently. Some chose the certainty culture of the military as a life perspective; others see it rather as a stage in their life. It is the group which assimilates most into military culture which has serious problems with the transition into civil life. But these problems seem to be rooted in the way in which soldiers adopt the military certainty culture rather than the transition itself. Soldiers who maintain competing interpretations and biographical projects are less assimilated but better prepared to deal with all kinds of issues such as drinking culture, ethical and life and death issues. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001102

  16. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bustinduy


    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  17. Physical soil quality indicators for monitoring British soils (United States)

    Corstanje, Ron; Mercer, Theresa G.; Rickson, Jane R.; Deeks, Lynda K.; Newell-Price, Paul; Holman, Ian; Kechavarsi, Cedric; Waine, Toby W.


    Soil condition or quality determines its ability to deliver a range of functions that support ecosystem services, human health and wellbeing. The increasing policy imperative to implement successful soil monitoring programmes has resulted in the demand for reliable soil quality indicators (SQIs) for physical, biological and chemical soil properties. The selection of these indicators needs to ensure that they are sensitive and responsive to pressure and change, e.g. they change across space and time in relation to natural perturbations and land management practices. Using a logical sieve approach based on key policy-related soil functions, this research assessed whether physical soil properties can be used to indicate the quality of British soils in terms of their capacity to deliver ecosystem goods and services. The resultant prioritised list of physical SQIs was tested for robustness, spatial and temporal variability, and expected rate of change using statistical analysis and modelling. Seven SQIs were prioritised: soil packing density, soil water retention characteristics, aggregate stability, rate of soil erosion, depth of soil, soil structure (assessed by visual soil evaluation) and soil sealing. These all have direct relevance to current and likely future soil and environmental policy and are appropriate for implementation in soil monitoring programmes.

  18. The dental status of asthmatic British school children. (United States)

    McDerra, E J; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E


    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of dental disease in British school children with asthma. A convenience sample of 100 asthmatic children (aged 4-16 years) was examined for dental caries, periodontal condition, and tooth surface loss. School children, equated for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status were chosen for comparison. Children were divided into two age ranges; 4-10 and 11-16 years. A significant difference was found in DMFT (0.96 vs. 0.31) and DMFS (1.37 vs. 0.37) between the 4-10-year-old asthmatic children compared with healthy control children. In the 11-16-year age range, the asthmatic children had a DMFT and DMFS of 2.48 and 3.39 compared with the control children who had a DMFT and DMFS of 1.11 and 1.97 respectively. Asthmatic children had significantly more plaque, gingivitis, and calculus compared with the control group. There was a significant difference in the severity and number of teeth affected by tooth surface loss affecting labial surfaces of the anterior teeth and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth of asthmatic children. It was concluded that asthmatic children have more decay affecting their permanent teeth, poorer periodontal status, and more tooth surface loss than healthy controls.

  19. Questionnaire survey of proliferative enteropathy on British pig farms. (United States)

    Smith, S H; McOrist, S; Green, L E


    Risk factors for proliferative enteropathy were investigated by means of a postal questionnaire survey of randomly selected British pig farms. Replies were received from 319 (56 per cent) of the 569 questionnaires posted, representing 1.5 per cent of the total number of pig farms in Britain. Thirty-one per cent of the farms had experienced at least one episode of proliferative enteropathy within the previous three years, usually confirmed by their veterinary surgeon. There was a strong association for the occurrence of proliferative enteropathy in herds of over 500 sows (P proliferative enteropathy, compared with the use of straw bedding or solid floors. The destocking of entire buildings containing pigs two to four months old before the introduction of fresh pigs, was associated with a reduced risk (P < 0.05), but the destocking of selected pens rather than the whole building had no such association. The type of diet, or feeding or watering system and the types of buildings used were not identified as risk factors.

  20. Funding, Performance and Participation in British Olympic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava Goranova


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport funding, performance and mass participation. Elite sport development has become a key component in countries’ sport systems. National governing bodies continuously invest money and resources in developing effective sport structures for future current athletes. It could be suggested that with continuously rising sport competition, the British Elite sport funding system needs to be revised to optimize the support for elite athletes in more sports with potential to win medals and in that way increase competitiveness and dominance across a wider range of sports, as well as to minimize the threat for the nation to be surpassed by its rivals (Duffy et al. 2006. A historical database of funding (UK Sport, performance (Olympic medals and participation (Active People Survey statistics has been constructed. All Olympic sports from Sydney 2000 to London 2012 with Team GB representation have been included. Bivariate correlation was used to test the relationship between variables and results indicate no strong correlation to exist. We discuss the implications and limitations of our findings in the context of current sport policy in the UK before making suggestions for future research in this area.

  1. Short Legal Study on “British Exit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Stancu


    Full Text Available After waiting nearly 13 years to become member of the European Union (EU, the United Kingdom, by the referendum in June 2016, it wants to be the first country leaving the European construction structures. However, the manner by which it was decided to exit the EU, namely the “referendum” raises many legal constitutional debates within the United Kingdom, even to the admission of the possibility to invoke the nullity of the vote of the British people. However, the London Government reaffirmed their desire to abandon the European ship. Thus, engaging the technical procedures for negotiating the conclusion of exiting from the EU cannot be sustained for too long. However, the future relationship between the European Union and Britain gives rise to many uncertainties. It puts in question the type of framework agreement which will regulate the cooperation between the EU and the UK. Maybe it will take as a model the existing agreement, such as that between the Union and the Switzerland or Russia, or it will be preferred the agreement “sur mesure” (customized according to their interests? Also, another question is that of knowing the effects of exiting, in terms of international relations. The European Union is party to various international treaties, the United Kingdom, through its membership, has enjoyed the benefits of these international agreements. Since the Union is no longer serving as interface, should Britain renegotiate bilaterally these treaties? To all these questions we will give an objective answer in this article.

  2. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barroetavena Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Methods Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. Results There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. Conclusion The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  3. Breast cancer treatment and ethnicity in British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Yavari, Parvin; Barroetavena, Maria Cristina; Hislop, T Greg; Bajdik, Chris D


    Racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence, stage at diagnosis, survival and mortality are well documented; but few studies have reported on disparities in breast cancer treatment. This paper compares the treatment received by breast cancer patients in British Columbia (BC) for three ethnic groups and three time periods. Values for breast cancer treatments received in the BC general population are provided for reference. Information on patients, tumour characteristics and treatment was obtained from BC Cancer Registry (BCCR) and BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) records. Treatment among ethnic groups was analyzed by stage at diagnosis and time period at diagnosis. Differences among the three ethnic groups were tested using chi-square tests, Fisher exact tests and a multivariate logistic model. There was no significant difference in overall surgery use for stage I and II disease between the ethnic groups, however there were significant differences when surgery with and without radiation were considered separately. These differences did not change significantly with time. Treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy did not differ among the minority groups. The description of treatment differences is the first step to guiding interventions that reduce ethnic disparities. Specific studies need to examine reasons for the observed differences and the influence of culture and beliefs.

  4. British women's attitudes towards oocyte donation: ethnic differences and altruism. (United States)

    Purewal, S; van den Akker, O B A


    This study assessed the importance of altruism and willingness to donate oocytes in British Asian and Caucasian samples. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was used to test the importance of attitudes towards oocyte donation, normative and control beliefs to attitudes to donate oocytes. One hundred and one participants (55% Asian, 45% Caucasian) completed questionnaires measuring altruism and attitudes to Oocyte donation. There were no socio-demographic differences between ethnic groups. Few women were willing to donate oocytes, Asian women were least likely to donate oocytes, and altruism was not related to willingness to donate. Forty-one participants considered themselves 'possible' oocyte donors and 54 as definite 'non' donors. Possible donors reported significantly more positive attitudes towards egg donation; asking women to donate under various circumstances; to the consequences of donating their eggs; positively experiencing egg donation and to factors that would induce women to donate. Subjective norms and behavioural control also influenced intention to donate. A number of components of the TPB were able to predict possible oocyte donation, and non-oocyte donation. This study provides some empirical support for specific factors influencing cultural differences in gamete donation in the UK. A future culturally appropriate targeted approach to donation education could redress the present imbalance in supply and demand of gametes in infertility treatment.

  5. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.


    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  6. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey


    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  7. Sinonasal aspergillosis in a British Shorthair cat in the UK

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    Alice Tamborini


    Full Text Available Case summary A 13-year-old, castrated male, British Shorthair cat presented for investigation of chronic, intermittent, bilateral epistaxis and stertor. CT revealed severe asymmetric bilateral intranasal involvement with extensive turbinate lysis, increased soft tissue attenuation and lysis of the sphenopalatine bone and cribriform plate. On retroflexed pharyngoscopy, a plaque-like mass occluded the choanae. Rostral rhinoscopic examination revealed extensive loss of nasal turbinates, necrotic tissue and mucosal fungal plaques in the left nasal cavity. The right nasal cavity was less severely affected. The nasal cavities were debrided extensively of plaques and necrotic tissue. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated on fungal culture, and species identity was confirmed using comparative sequence analysis of the partial β-tubulin gene. On histopathology of nasal biopsies, there was ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, and fungal hyphae were identified on nasal mucosa, consistent with a non-invasive mycosis. The cat was treated with oral itraconazole after endoscopic debridement, but signs relapsed 4.5 months from diagnosis. Residual left nasal fungal plaques were again debrided endoscopically and oral posaconazole was administered for 6 months. Fourteen months from diagnosis, the cat remains clinically well with mild intermittent left nasal discharge secondary to atrophic rhinitis. Relevance and novel information This is the first case of rhinoscopically confirmed sinonasal aspergillosis to be diagnosed in a cat in the UK. Endoscopic confirmation of resolution of infection is useful in cases where mild nasal discharge persists after treatment.

  8. Air quality health index variation across British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselback, P. [Interior Health Authority, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Taylor, E. [British Columbia Ministry of Health Living and Sport, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    The new Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a tool aiming to present the health risks related to air pollution in Canada. This index can be used by individuals to help them reduce their health risk resulting from poor air quality. An assessment of the short term health risk induced by poor air quality is provided to Canadians through the AQHI. The AQHI is based on three factors: ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and ozone, the local air quality information being presented on an hourly and daily basis and being calculated each hour for several locations across Canada. Pulmonary disorders and impacts on cardiac function are the more significant short term health risks. Longer term exposure to poor air quality is associated with increased rates of allergies and asthma, low birth weight, atherosclerosis, poorer lung development in children, lung cancer and ear infections. Information on the AQHI and on the variation across British Columbia of the health risk associated with this index are presented in this document. 19 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Issues of Caribou Management in Northeastern British Columbia

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    Scott Harrison


    Full Text Available Woodland caribou inhabit most of Northeastern British Columbia. They live across a variety of climatic and geographic gradients and in areas with as many as seven other ungulate species and seven predatory species. This apparent variability in habitat use may suggest that caribou in the Northeast are wide ranging and ecologically plastic. Conversely, caribou in Northeastern B.C. may live in discrete groups that have adapted to local conditions. There are few published data of woodland caribou in Northeastern B.C. Information is lacking on the number of caribou, their seasonal movements, their habitat requirements, and their interactions with other species. Logging, seismic activity, pipeline construction, oil and natural gas drilling, hydro-electric dams, and prescribed burning have all impacted habitat in previously undeveloped areas. The manner and rate at which these activities are changing habitats far exceeds our growth in knowledge of caribou ecology. Given this combination of few data and rapid habitat alteration, resource managers cannot know the impact of these habitat changes. We believe that this jeopardises the conservation of viable caribou populations.

  10. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies


    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  11. The British Museum: An Imperial Museum in a Post-Imperial World

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    Emily Duthie


    Full Text Available This article examines the British Museum’s imperialist attitudes towards classical heritage. Despite considerable pressure from foreign governments, the museum has consistently refused to return art and antiquities that it acquired under the aegis of empire. It is the contention of this article that the British Museum remains an imperialist institution. The current debates over the British Museum’s collections raise profound questions about the relationship between museums and modern nation states and their nationalist claims to ancient heritage. The museum’s inflexible response to repatriation claims also encapsulates the challenges inherent in presenting empire and its legacy to contemporary, post-imperial audiences.

  12. Selective Memory: British Perceptions of the Herero-Nama Genocide, 1904-1908 and 1918

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt Nielsen, Mads


    This article examines British officials’ perceptions of, and degree of involvement in, the Herero–Nama war and subsequent genocide in German South-West Africa in 1904–1908. By examining contemporary British correspondence on this event and comparing it to the British ‘Blue Book’ of 1918, the arti...... to German colonial history, this article challenges the idea of German colonial exceptionalism and the approach to this genocide within a historical framework of the Third Reich. Instead, this event should be understood within the wider transnational context of imperial history....

  13. Surveillance for Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes Ticks and Small Rodents in British Columbia. (United States)

    Morshed, Muhammad G; Lee, Min-Kuang; Man, Stephanie; Fernando, Keerthi; Wong, Quantine; Hojgaard, Andrias; Tang, Patrick; Mak, Sunny; Henry, Bonnie; Patrick, David M


    To determine the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in British Columbian ticks, fieldwork was conducted over a 2-year period. In all, 893 ticks (Ixodes pacificus, I. angustus, I. soricis, Ixodes spp., and Dermacentor andersoni) of different life stages were retrieved from 483 small rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus, Perognathus parvus, and Reithrodontomys megalotis). B. burgdorferi DNA was detected in 5 out of 359 tick pools, and 41 out of 483 mice were serologically confirmed to have antibodies against B. burgdorferi. These results were consistent with previous studies, data from passive surveillance in British Columbia, and data from neighboring states in the Pacific Northwest, suggesting a continually low prevalence of B. burgdorferi in British Columbia ticks.

  14. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880. (United States)

    Logan, John R; Shin, Hyoung-Jin


    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19(th) Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities.

  15. Perspectives for Researching British Appeasement of Nazi Germany in the Inter-War Years Using the Digitized Newspaper Collections of the British Library

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    Andrei Vasiliu


    Full Text Available This paper aims to verify that the methods for researching the British appeasement policy towards Germany in the inter-war years can include the new method of studying the digitized collections of newspapers of the British Library. The policy of appeasement led by Great Britain during the inter-war years still represents a very attractive subject of research. The challenge lies not only in the new data harvested from primary sources such as documents and newspapers but also in the new methods of researching that may be applied, and that may increase the interest of scholars. Today, researching the digitized collections of archives are not even a futuristic resource, but a growing necessity. Accessing the British Library's digitized collections through the British Newspaper Archive website is often easier and more efficient than going to the archives. The site has more than 40 million digitized newspapers, mainly local periodicals, which can be accessed by searching for keywords, establishing filters and saving results to retrieve them later. The electronic resources of the digitized collections provide valuable help in my doctoral research on the Anglo-French appeasement reflected in the newspapers, which proves to be a great challenge, given the fact that the subject was widely covered in many of the central newspapers. But, of course, this method immediately poses multiple questions: is this method of research as rigorous as the traditional research conducted in the archives? Does this method provide the intercoder reliability framework required for such works? These are the research questions that remain at the center of this article. Previous research on the subject of digitized collections and also the analysis of the resources of the British Newspaper Archive in comparison with the traditional British Library resources can provide an answer.

  16. Cancer incidence in relatives of British Fanconi Anaemia patients

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    Hodgson Shirley V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fanconi anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive DNA repair disorder with affected individuals having a high risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia and certain solid tumours. Thirteen complementation groups have been identified and the genes for all of these are known (FANCA, B, C, D1/BRCA2, D2, E, F, G, I, J/BRIP1, L, M and N/PALB2. Previous studies of cancer incidence in relatives of Fanconi anemia cases have produced conflicting results. A study of British FA families was therefore carried out to investigate this question, since increases in cancer risk in FA heterozygotes would have implications for counselling FA family members, and possibly also for the implementation of preventative screening measures in FA heterozygotes. Methods Thirty-six families took part and data was collected on 575 individuals (276 males, 299 females, representing 18,136 person years. In this cohort, 25 males and 30 females were reported with cancer under the age of 85 years, and 36 cancers (65% could be confirmed from death certificates, cancer registries or clinical records. Results A total of 55 cancers were reported in the FA families compared to an estimated incidence of 56.95 in a comparable general population cohort, and the relative risk of cancer was 0.97 (95% C.I. = 0.71–1.23, p = 0.62 for FA family members. Analysis of relative risk for individual cancer types in each carrier probability group did not reveal any significant differences with the possible exception of prostate cancer (RR = 3.089 (95% C.I. = 1.09 – 8.78; Χ2 = 4.767, p = 0.029. Conclusion This study has not shown a significant difference in overall cancer risk in FA families.

  17. Mortality from multiple sclerosis in British military personnel. (United States)

    Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T; Cox, Vanessa; Darnton, Andrew; Osman, John; Coggon, David


    While analysing trends in occupational mortality in England and Wales, we noticed an unexpectedly elevated proportion of deaths from multiple sclerosis (MS) among men in the armed forces. To document and explore possible explanations for the observed excess. We analysed data on underlying cause of death and last full-time occupation for 3,688,916 deaths among men aged 20-74 years in England and Wales during 1979-2010, calculating proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) standardised for age. We compared PMRs for MS in the armed forces with those for each main social class, and in selected other occupations. We also compared PMRs for MS with those for motor neurone disease (MND). The overall PMR for MS in the armed forces during 1979-2010 was 243 (95%CI 203-288). The excess was apparent in each of three separate decades of study (PMRs, ranging from 220 to 259), and across the entire age range. PMRs for MS were not elevated to the same extent in comparator occupations, nor in any of the main social classes. There was no parallel increase in PMRs for MND. These findings suggest that the high proportional mortality from MS in British military personnel is unlikely to have occurred by chance, or as an artefact of the method of investigation. However, the only military cohort study with published results on MS does not support an increased risk. It would be useful to analyse data on MS from other established military cohorts, to check for evidence of a hazard.

  18. Direct health care costs associated with asthma in British Columbia (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Lynd, Larry; Marra, Carlo; Carleton, Bruce; Tan, Wan C; Sullivan, Sean; FitzGerald, J Mark


    BACKGROUND: A better understanding of health care costs associated with asthma would enable the estimation of the economic burden of this increasingly common disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the direct medical costs of asthma-related health care in British Columbia (BC). METHODS: Administrative health care data from the BC Linked Health Database and PharmaNet database from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed for BC residents five to 55 years of age, including the billing information for physician visits, drug dispensations and hospital discharge records. A unit cost was assigned to physician/emergency department visits, and government reimbursement fees for prescribed medications were applied. The case mix method was used to calculate hospitalization costs. All costs were reported in inflation-adjusted 2006 Canadian dollars. RESULTS: Asthma resulted in $41,858,610 in annual health care-related costs during the study period ($331 per patient-year). The major cost component was medications, which accounted for 63.9% of total costs, followed by physician visits (18.3%) and hospitalization (17.8%). When broader definitions of asthma-related hospitalizations and physician visits were used, total costs increased to $56,114,574 annually ($444 per patient-year). There was a statistically significant decrease in the annual per patient cost of hospitalizations (P<0.01) over the study period. Asthma was poorly controlled in 63.5% of patients, with this group being responsible for 94% of asthma-related resource use. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of asthma is significant in BC, with the majority of the cost attributed to poor asthma control. Policy makers should investigate the reason for lack of proper asthma control and adjust their policies accordingly to improve asthma management. PMID:20422063

  19. Repeated regulatory failures: British electric utilities, 1919--1937 (United States)

    van der Werf, Ysbrand John

    This dissertation uses previously unexamined firm-level data to look at British electric utilities during the 1919--1937 period. The persistent influence of the 1882 and 1888 Electric Lighting Acts had a significant role in perpetuating the inefficient market structure and high costs of the industry. First, I examine factors that influence costs in 1919 and compare the relative cost efficiency of municipally-owned and investor-owned utilities (munis and IOUs). Scale and load factor are found to be more important than ownership in influencing costs, although IOUs enjoy a scale advantage. Given costs, there is no difference in prices between IOUs and munis, and on average prices were 20 percent below monopoly prices. Looking at the 1919--1928 period and examining changes in the industry as measured by the firms' choices in frequency, current, and interconnections with other utilities shows evidence for a great deal of change, which occurred in statistically predictable ways. Utilities are standardizing the type of current produced, and the eventual localized standard frequencies were selected by 1907. There is little in the way of market rivalry between mum's and IOUs but large munis are less likely to build networks and sell in the wholesale market. Finally, I compare the changes that occurred during the 1919--1928 period, under the weak intervention of the Electricity Commissioners, with those of the 1928--1937 period, under the strong intervention of the Central Electricity Board. Without the CEB localized frequency standards would likely have remained in place. The CEB intervened directly in the wholesale market, but contrary to common perceptions, this strong intervention had relatively little impact on trends observed in the industry under the weak intervention of the 1919--1928 period: the CEB reduced prices and costs by no more than about 15 percent and was responsible for at most a quarter of their decline during the 1928--37 period.

  20. National diet and nutrition surveys: the British experience. (United States)

    Ashwell, Margaret; Barlow, Susan; Gibson, Sigrid; Harris, Caroline


    The National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) are a series of government-funded surveys of food intake, nutrient intake and nutritional status of individuals, undertaken to support nutritional policy and risk assessment. This paper summarises a review that considered the extent to which NDNS met the needs of users and suggested options for the future. The Food Standards Agency has since progressed favoured options. This paper aims to help others wishing to obtain this type of information within their own populations. A detailed questionnaire was used to probe use of data and gather opinions from users, producers and managers of the NDNS. It asked about general information needs from NDNS and changes that might be made. This was followed by a two-day workshop which included discussion of the main issues and the generation of 19 possible future options for consideration by the Agency. Options to improve effectiveness included methods to prioritise breadth and depth of coverage and possible ways of improving response and compliance. Strategies to make surveys more efficient and timely, such as adopting a rolling programme, disaggregating survey components, integrating with other studies and improving data access, were also suggested. A rolling programme, in which data are collected continuously, was the favoured option to address some of the concerns and a strategy is now in place to achieve this. There is widespread support for the NDNS from its users. There is no alternative source for such high-quality data on food and nutrient consumption and nutritional status and physical measurements in the same individuals. Useful information, such as the potential value of using a rolling programme from the outset, can be gained from this British experience by others wishing to measure food and nutrient intakes and status in their own populations.

  1. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): mind the gap! (United States)

    Orfanidou, Eleni; McQueen, James M; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary


    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were preceded by nonsense signs which were produced in either the target location or another location (with a small or large transition). Half of the transitions were within the same major body area (e.g., head) and half were across body areas (e.g., chest to hand). Deaf adult BSL users (a group of natives and early learners, and a group of late learners) spotted target signs best when there was a minimal transition and worst when there was a large transition. When location changes were present, both groups performed better when transitions were to a different body area than when they were within the same area. These findings suggest that transitions do not provide explicit sign-boundary cues in a modality-specific fashion. Instead, we argue that smaller transitions help recognition in a modality-general way by limiting lexical search to signs within location neighbourhoods, and that transitions across body areas also aid segmentation in a modality-general way, by providing a phonotactic cue to a sign boundary. We propose that sign segmentation is based on modality-general procedures which are core language-processing mechanisms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Mitchell


    Full Text Available This essay summarizes a larger study into radicalization in secondary schools (Grades 8-12 in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, from the perspective of school principals and vice-principals (PVPs. In addition to determining the extent of radicalization, the study further explored the extent to which PVPs felt they were prepared to cope with radicalization in a school environment, and obtained their assessment of the training and resources available to help them deal with this phenomenon. Quantitative and qualitative data was acquired using a survey as well as interviews with PVPs. Research participants reported an unexpectedly low level of engagement by students in radical, extremist, or violent extremist behaviour during the 2014-2015 school year. Only 3% of PVPs surveyed believed that extremist or violent extremist behaviours had increased in their own schools during the previous three-year period, while 6.6% believed it had actually declined somewhat—or even substantially—during this timeframe. There was wide variance in the levels of confidence exhibited by PVPs in their capacity to deal with incidents of extreme or violently extreme behaviours, but most stated that they would welcome additional training on dealing with potential incidents. Only half of the interview participants claimed that the procedures and protocols in place to deal with incidents involving extremist behaviours were adequate. A consistently low level of radicalization was apparent in school environments where some factors that otherwise might trigger student radicalization were identified, explored, and resolved in a supportive and open minded manner by school staff.

  3. An aminostratigraphy for the British Quaternary based on Bithynia opercula. (United States)

    Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Bridgland, David R; Keen, David H; Meijer, Tom; Parfitt, Simon A; White, Tom S; Collins, Matthew J


    Aminostratigraphies of Quaternary non-marine deposits in Europe have been previously based on the racemization of a single amino acid in aragonitic shells from land and freshwater molluscs. The value of analysing multiple amino acids from the opercula of the freshwater gastropod Bithynia, which are composed of calcite, has been demonstrated. The protocol used for the isolation of intra-crystalline proteins from shells has been applied to these calcitic opercula, which have been shown to more closely approximate a closed system for indigenous protein residues. Original amino acids are even preserved in bithyniid opercula from the Eocene, showing persistence of indigenous organics for over 30 million years. Geochronological data from opercula are superior to those from shells in two respects: first, in showing less natural variability, and second, in the far better preservation of the intra-crystalline proteins, possibly resulting from the greater stability of calcite. These features allow greater temporal resolution and an extension of the dating range beyond the early Middle Pleistocene. Here we provide full details of the analyses for 480 samples from 100 horizons (75 sites), ranging from Late Pliocene to modern. These show that the dating technique is applicable to the entire Quaternary. Data are provided from all the stratotypes from British stages to have yielded opercula, which are shown to be clearly separable using this revised method. Further checks on the data are provided by reference to other type-sites for different stages (including some not formally defined). Additional tests are provided by sites with independent geochronology, or which can be associated with a terrace stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. This new aminostratigraphy for the non-marine Quaternary deposits of southern Britain provides a framework for understanding the regional geological and archaeological record. Comparison with reference to sites yielding independent geochronology, in

  4. Forming Pedagogical Aesthetic Culture of Students in British Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papushyna Valentyna


    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes the concept and primary factors of personality aesthetic culture development in the context of higher education in England. The scholars’ works and pedagogical advanced experience of the country nowadays pay special attention to forming personal creativity and self-realization of modern specialists. They are grounded on a high level of aesthetic culture. Among these essential conditions, the following are indicated: solving the issue of forming aesthetic culture at the national level, financing educational cultural projects and the cultural environment in educational institutions, functioning a wide network of cultural centers, which create the opportunities for everybody to aspire to cultural development. Determining the role of control and coordination of the process of forming students’ aesthetic culture, the author highlights the state policy that is interested in education of personal aesthetic culture as well as encourages students’ creative projects. The pedagogical factors of forming aesthetic culture in higher education institutions have been distinguished, namely, aestheticization of the education process, integration of academic subjects and art, implementation of art disciplines, introduction of new methodologies and technologies in the education process. In the article, there have been shown the best standards of experience of English pedagogy for higher education institutions, indicated on the research base of foreign and native scholars. They deserve a thorough study and adoption: collaboration between artists, culture experts an educational institutions, aesthetic practice of students as a part of public life, support of modern cultural-aesthetic environment of educational institutions. It has been concluded that the British education system offers exciting possibilities for development of aesthetic interests for everybody who aims at cultural growth with the help of the wide network of

  5. Anatomy of the Kitimat fiord system, British Columbia (United States)

    Shaw, John; Stacey, Cooper D.; Wu, Yongsheng; Lintern, D. Gwyn


    The geomorphic complexity of the Kitimat fiord system, on the active margin of British Columbia, Canada, is analysed from several perspectives. Sub-glacial landforms and sediments show that grounded ice exiting the fiord system at the last glacial maximum streamed down Moresby Trough towards the Queen Charlotte trough mouth fan. After brief halts on the inner shelf, grounded ice margins cleared the fiord threshold perhaps by c. 15.5 ka cal. yrs BP, and certainly before 13 ka cal. yrs BP. Just outside the fiords, meltwater plumes deposited stratified glaciomarine sediments interbedded with submarine slides. Inside the fiords, thick glaciomarine sediments were deposited, and large transverse moraines formed during temporary halts in retreat. Several glacial outburst floods eroded the Kitkiata moraine and deposited distinctive mud deposits. Postglacial sedimentation on fiord floors has been spatially variable: drifts of mud > 90 m-thick corresponding with areas of low current velocity alternate with areas of non-deposition and erosion corresponding with areas of high velocity. The fiord system hosts more than a hundred morphologically diverse fan deltas that can be classified in the Prior and Bornhold (1989, 1990) system. Submarine mass transport was most frequent immediately following ice retreat (15.5-11.5 ka cal. yrs BP). The largest event ( 1.2 km3) involved failure of glaciomarine sediment on a submarine moraine at Squally Channel, and consequent movement of material into the adjacent deep basin. This event occurred post-13 ka cal. yrs BP. In the postglacial phase, mass transport continued on a lesser scale up to the present day, most intensively in Kitimat Arm. From the perspective of glacial landforms, postglacial sedimentation and mass transport, this Pacific active margin fiord system has some parallels with fiord systems on Canada's east coast passive margin, and with Norwegian fiords, but the intensive development of Holocene fan deltas is strongly

  6. Three thousand families: English Canada's colonizing vision and British family settlement, 1919-39. (United States)

    Mancuso, Rebecca J


    After the First World War, Canada's immigration policy became more restrictive and immigration more controlled. For English Canadians, immigration of the "right type" of people—those from the British Isles—remained vital to strengthening the nation. This article examines the 3,000 Family Scheme, a joint British-Canadian settlement project in which British families, comprised of over 18,000 individuals, were relocated to homesteads as colonizers of Canada's remote areas. There, many endured isolation and hardship, and were largely blamed for their own plight. A nation-building project that failed, the 3,000 Family Scheme reveals the connections among several enduring national myths in the interwar years: the potential for agricultural expansion, British superiority, and the capabilities of a maturing Canadian state to control the settlement process.

  7. Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.


    Die Rhizostomeen-Sammlung des British Museum (Natural History) in London (South Kensington), die ich wahrend eines kurzen Aufenthaltes daselbst untersuchen konnte, umfasst folgende Formen: Cassiopea andromeda Eschscholtz, Australien, Mozambique, Madagascar, Suez. „ „ var. maldivensis Browne,

  8. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  9. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen


    We analysed the reports of government-appointed inspectors from 192 zoos between 2005-2008 to provide the first review of how animal welfare was assessed in British zoos since the enactment of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenton Storey


    ....2 This article explores Fraser's work for the London Times, charting his development as a journalist during the California gold rush in 1849 and then between 1858 and 1866 when he wrote about British Columbia...

  11. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Nielen-Kiezebrink, van M.F.; Locking, T.


    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology - multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins - and lateral channel stability We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper

  12. British domestic synchronous clocks 1930-1980 the rise and fall of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pook, Leslie Philip


    This book complements available one-make books on domestic synchronous clocks. It is also a history of science book that sets British domestic synchronous clocks, their manufacturers and technology in their social context. Part I covers the historical background, British domestic synchronous clock manufacturers and brands, how synchronous clocks work, domestic synchronous clock cases, practical advice on the servicing of domestic synchronous clocks, and analysis of the marketing and reliability of British domestic synchronous clocks. This analysis provides an explanation of the rise and eventual fall of their technology. Part II contains galleries of a selection of British domestic synchronous clocks, and of the movements with which they are fitted. There is a front and back view of each clock, together with a brief description. Views of each movement include views with the movement partly dismantled, together with a brief technical description of the movement. This profusely illustrated book is primarily fo...

  13. Outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 1 infection in British tourists visiting Mallorca, June 1996. (United States)

    Wall, P; Ward, Linda; Crespi, S; Furtado, C


    Three British tourists became ill while on holiday in the same hotel in Alcudia, Mallorca from 11 to 25 June 1996; Salmonella enteritidisinfections were diagnosed upon their return to England. An environmental health officer informed the Gastrointestinal

  14. Number Agreement in British and American English : Disagreeing to Agree Collectively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, K.; Butterfield, S.; Cutler, A.; Cutting, J.C.; Eberhard, K.M.; Hunphreys, K.R.


    British and American speakers exhibit different verb number agreement patterns when sentence subjects have collective head nouns. From linguistic and psycholinguistic accounts of how agreement is implemented, three alternative hypotheses can be derived to explain these differences. The hypotheses

  15. Archive of Geosample Information from the British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The British Ocean Sediment Core Research Facility (BOSCORF), National Oceanography Centre, is a contributor to the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  16. Steering under Conditions of Retrenchment in Higher Education: The British Experiences from a German Perspective. (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar


    The West German and British experiences in higher education planning and governance during a period of retrenchment are compared. Changes are interpreted in terms of the underlying characteristics of the two systems and their governance. (Author/MSE)

  17. Forming Communicative Competence of Future Tesol Teachers by Microteaching (Based on British Experience)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natalya Bidyuk


    The article deals with the analysis of the process of forming communicative competence of future TESOL students by means of microteaching based on the experience of leading British higher education institutions...

  18. Food habits of wolverine Gulo gulo in montane ecosystems of British Columbia, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eric C. Lofroth; John A. Krebs; William L. Harrower; Dave Lewis


    Abstract We examined the seasonal food habits of wolverine Gulo gulo in subboreal and interior wet-belt montane environments in British Columbia by analyzing scats collected during the course of two...

  19. The British Labour Party and the Trade Unions: Crisis and Compact (United States)

    Minkin, Lewis


    The article offers an historical overview of the changing social and economic environment in which the English political parties and labor unions have operated, discussing the links between the two groups and the ensuing problems facing the British government. (MW)

  20. The social construction of identities by British-Muslim pupils aged 14-15 years


    Archer, Louise


    The research reported in this thesis examines the social construction of ethnic and gender identities by British-Muslim pupils, from a critical, feminist, discursive position. The research draws upon critical, feminist conceptualisations of identity which challenge positivistic Social Psychological theories of ethnic identity for constructing British-Muslim young people in racist and sexist ways. The aims of this study were to (i) identify ways in which young people conceptualise their identi...

  1. CAM, free speech, and the British legal system: overstepping the mark? (United States)

    Milgrom, Lionel R


    The British Chiropractic Association recently won a libel case against the science writer and CAM 'skeptic' Dr Simon Singh for publishing an article in a British newspaper in which he accused them of promoting 'bogus' treatments. This has ignited a campaign in the UK to 'keep the libel laws out of science'. In this article, the tension between media freedom of expression and defamation law is examined, and possible ramifications for CAM in the UK explored.

  2. The British Government, Ernest Shackleton, and the rescue of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition


    J. R. Dudeney; Sheail, J.; Walton, D.W.H.


    The remarkable rescue of Shackleton's men from Elephant Island, after the sinking of Endurance, and from Ross Island, has been recounted many times by both participants and historians. There has been little critical examination of the part played by governments, nor assessment of some of Shackleton's own actions. In this paper we explore more fully from official British archival sources the extent to which the British Government was prepared to underwrite the rescue efforts; the importance of...

  3. Concreteness in Business letters : a Corpus-based Analysis of British and Pakistani English


    Ali, Akbar


    Linguistic features of business letters have been a research target of both linguists and business writers. In this study, the language of British and Pakistani Business letters was compared and contrasted in terms of concreteness and abstractness. A corpus of 100 business letters from Inner Circle and Outer Circle writers were collected for analysis. The findings of the study revealed that British writers use more specific and concrete nouns, definite determiners, numeral, possessive and dem...

  4. Difference in treatment outcome of British and Japanese surgical class III patients associated with mandibular setback


    Nakamura, Koyo; Nagata, Norio; IIDA, YOSHIRO; Iida, Kayo; KAGEYAMA, TORU; Ishii, Nobuyuki


    The purpose of this clinical research was to examine the racial differences in skeletal morphology of skeletal Class III abnormalities and in the ortho-surgical treatment outcome of Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular setback sagittal osteotomy between Japanese and British Caucasian female adult Class III patients. The sample consisted of 35 Class III Japanese female surgical subjects in MDU Hospital and 30 Class III British subjects (23 female and 7 male). The operative procedu...

  5. Social representations, identity and social relations among non-heterosexual British Asian men


    Jaspal, Rusi


    This chapter explores and compares social representations, identity and social relations among non-heterosexual British Asian Indian and British Pakistani men. After an overview of two relevant theories from social psychology - Identity Process Theory and Social Representations Theory, the chapter outlines dominant social representations of sexuality that inform individuals’ meaning-making, the impact of these representations for identity processes, how individuals cope with potential threats...

  6. The Problems of the Status of British Troops in Egypt After the Occupation in 1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khizriev Ali Khizrievich


    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of defining the status of the British occupational troops in Egypt from 1882 to 1922 and the diplomatic struggle of the great European states of that time over this problem. This whole problem is described in detail in its development since the establishment of the “veiled protectorate” designed to hide the true purpose of the British Government in the region, to the formal approval of the Protectorate status of the British Empire. It attempts to find the motives and methods of management of the British Foreign Office in this difficult situation considering counter of such powers as Russia and France. Herewith it provides data from the archives of the British Foreign Office, confirming all these facts. The evidences of the contemporaries of those events – Lord Milner and Cromer – who were representatives of the occupation authorities and published their memoirs, complete the picture. In addition to these documents we used the archival materials of India Records Office in the British Library. All these sources indicate that the official declaration of the Protectorate in 1914 only temporarily solved the problems creating additional difficulties for those officials who were responsible for the situation in the country. This decision allowed the British officials to conceal the explicit nature of the occupation and the British military presence in the Suez Canal zone. However, such policy aroused some problems, which led to a new round of the Egyptian national liberation movement in the future, and needed new solutions which were made only after the World War I and the fall of the Ottoman Empire.

  7. Jews and British Sport: integration, ethnicity and anti-semitism, c1880-c1960


    Dee, David Gareth


    Between the 1890s and the 1960s, sport had a distinctive and varied impact on the social, cultural, political and economic life of the British Jewish community. During this period, Anglo-Jewry developed a clear sporting tradition, in both a direct and indirect sense, and their participation in the world of British sport had a significant impact on processes and discourses surrounding integration, ethnicity and anti-Semitism. Through a broad analysis of archival materials, newspaper source...

  8. Survey of instructions to authors in Indian and British Dental Journals with respect to ethical guidelines. (United States)

    Mathur, V P; Dhillon, J K; Kalra, G; Sharma, A; Mathur, R


    Publication can become a symbol of presenting how meticulously a person has followed ethical principles in research. It is the duty of the investigators or authors to carefully read the instructions to authors and generate data with honesty and genuineness. In fulfillment of the basic requisite to publish, clearly defined instructions to authors should be provided by the journal. To assess the pattern of instructions regarding the ethical requirements given to authors in Indian Dental Journals and tried to compare the same with British Dental Journals. A cross-sectional survey of 'instructions for authors,' for analysis of guidelines on ethical processes, was done. Instructions to authors of Indian and British Dental Journals indexed in PubMed were reviewed for guidelines with regard to seven key ethical issues. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed in percentages as well as numbers. Of the 10 Indian Dental Journals, 7 (70%) cited ethical guidelines such as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines whereas out of 27 British Dental Journals, 16 (59.25%) cited these. Protection of human subjects such as approval from an institutional/independent ethics committee, obtaining informed consent and maintenance of confidentiality of patient records was covered with 8 (80%) Indian and 19 (70.3%) British Dental Journals. Four (40%) Indian and 13 (48.1%) instructed about animals welfare. Nine (90%) of the Indian and 25 (92.5%) British Dental Journals required declaration of conflicts of interest by authors. Publication issues and authorship/contributorship criteria were specified by all 10 Indian and 25 (92.5%) and 24 (88.8%) British journals respectively. 6 (60%) of Indian and 11 (40.75%) of British Journals explained about data management, in case of clinical trials. A significant proportion of Indexed Indian and British Dental Journals did not provide adequate

  9. Vatican ceremonies and tourist culture in nineteenth-century British travelogues


    Martens, B.


    Nineteenth-century British tourists who attended Catholic ceremonies in Italy were more than mere passive observers. Their accounts of Holy Week in the Vatican reveal a tension between, on the one hand, British tourists’ denigration of Catholic rituals stemming from theological or perceived cultural differences and, on the other, their fascination with spectacle. This fascination undermines their self-image as culturally superior to sensuous South Europeans and suggests the increasing attract...

  10. The Assessment of Animal Welfare in British Zoos by Government-Appointed Inspectors


    Draper, Chris; Harris, Stephen


    Simple Summary Since 1984, British zoos have been required to meet the animal welfare standards set out under the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. Zoos are regularly assessed by government-appointed inspectors, who report on animal welfare standards in each zoo. This is the first analysis of those reports from a representative sample of British zoos. We highlight a number of concerns about the inspection process itself, and identify areas where changes would lead to improvements in both the inspection...

  11. Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?


    Draper, Chris; Browne, William; Harris, Stephen


    Simple Summary Key aims of the formal inspections of British zoos are to assess compliance with minimum standards of animal welfare and promote improvements in animal care and husbandry. We compared reports from two consecutive inspections of 136 British zoos to see whether these goals were being achieved. Most zoos did not meet all the minimum animal welfare standards and there was no clear evidence of improving levels of compliance with standards associated with the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. ...

  12. An Evaluation of Change Management at British Airways: A Case Study


    Khicha, Nidhi


    Organizational change and innovation are essential for a company's growth and development. Having understood the importance of managing organizational change and innovation, many researchers have formulated theories related to change management. These theories have been critically analyzed in this paper along with an example of British Airways. The innumerable changes taking place at British Airways give a deeper understanding of change is implemented in organizations. This paper confirms the...

  13. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics


    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  14. Risk, Transgression and Substance Use: An Ethnography of Young British Tourists in Ibiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Briggs


    Full Text Available British youth have a notorious reputation for binge drinking, drug use, sex and risk behaviours within most major European holiday resorts. Consequently, there is much concern about their social activities abroad – especially in the Spanish Balearics. While research has documented these behaviours among British youth on these islands, it has tended to rely on survey data and offered little understanding of why these behaviours might take place. This is the principle aim of our paper. Our research aims were to examine the drinking attitudes among British youth abroad and investigate the reasons that underpin these attitudes. Additional research interests were drug use, sex and risk behaviours. The paper is based on findings from ethnographic research with British youth in San Antonio, Ibiza. We spent one week with British youth and undertook participant observation and 17 focus groups (equating to 97 young people aged 17 to 31. The data suggests that British youth engage in these behaviours because they are exciting; to escape the constraints of work and family in the UK; and because these behaviours are integral to the construction of their life biographies and identities. The data also indicates that these behaviours are aggressively endorsed by various aspects of the social context of Ibiza.

  15. A journey to citizenship: constructions of citizenship and identity in the British Citizenship Test. (United States)

    Gray, Debra; Griffin, Christine


    The British Citizenship Test was introduced in 2005 as one of a raft of new procedures aimed at addressing the perceived problems of integration and social cohesion in migrant communities. In this study, we argue that this new citizenship procedure signals a shift in British political discourse about citizenship - particularly, the institutionalization of a common British citizen identity that is intended to draw citizens together in a new form of political/national community. In line with this, we examine the British Citizenship Test from a social psychological perspective to interrogate the ways in which the test constitutes identity, constitutes citizenship, and constitutes citizenship-as-identity. Analysis of the test and its associated documents highlights three ways in which Britishness-as-identity is constituted, that is, as a collective identity, as a superordinate and national identity, and finally as both a destination and a journey. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for models of citizenship and models of identity. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. To What Extent Do Educated British Users of English Accept Certain Established Norms in Selected Non-British Inner Circle and Outer Circle Englishes? (United States)

    Sykes, Abdel Halim


    Drawing on work that has attempted to describe and codify features of World Englishes, this study sought to address the question of whether certain established norms common to several varieties of English would be accepted by educated British users of English. The findings revealed that the respondents did not accept most of the selected norms.…

  17. Submarine glaciated landscapes of central and northern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Shaw, John; Lintern, Gwyn


    Recent systematic multibeam sonar mapping and ground-truthing surveys in the fjords and coastal waters of central and northern British Columbia, Canada, provide information on glacial processes associated with the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, and also on postglacial processes that have strongly modified the glacial terrain. During the last glacial maximum, ice covered the Coast Range, except for nunataks. Convergent streamlined glacial landforms in the Strait of Georgia testify to a strong flow of ice towards the southeast, between Vancouver Island and the mainland. During ice retreat, thick deposits of acoustically stratified glaciomarine mud were deposited in glacially over deepened basins. Retreat through the Douglas Channel fjord system was punctuated by still stands, resulting in a series of submarine moraines. Postglacial processes have created a suite of landforms that mask the primary glacial terrain: 1) Fjord floors host thick deposits of acoustically transparent postglacial mud with highly variable distribution: banks up to 80-m thick are commonly adjacent to erosional zones with glaciomarine mud exposed at the seafloor; 2) In this region of high precipitation and snowpack melt, numerous cone-shaped Holocene fan deltas developed on the fjord sidewalls transport coarse sediment to the fjord floors. Larger deltas are developed at fjord heads, notably at Kitimat and Kildala; 3) Submarine slope failures in this tectonically active area have resulted in a suite of mass transport deposits on sidewalls and fjord floors. The very large submarine slope failures at Camano Sound and KitKat Inlet occurred on the steep, rear facets of large transverse moraines, and involved the failure of glaciomarine sediment that moved into deeper basins, perhaps as a retrogressive failure. The ages of these events are unknown, although the presence of postglacial mud in the slide scar at Caamano suggests that the event at that location occurred in the late glacial or early Holocene. Also

  18. Mortality among British Columbians testing for hepatitis C antibody. (United States)

    Yu, Amanda; Spinelli, John J; Cook, Darrel A; Buxton, Jane A; Krajden, Mel


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major preventable and treatable cause of morbidity and mortality. The ability to link population based centralized laboratory HCV testing data with administrative databases provided a unique opportunity to compare mortality between HCV seronegative and seropositive individuals. Through the use of laboratory testing patterns and results, the objective of this study was to differentiate the viral effects of mortality due to HCV infection from risk behaviours/activities that are associated with acquisition of HCV infection. Serological testing data from the British Columbia (BC) Centre for Disease Control Public Health Microbiology and Reference Laboratory from 1992-2004 were linked to the BC Vital Statistics Agency death registry. Four groups of HCV testers were defined by their HCV antibody (anti-HCV) testing patterns: single non-reactive (SNR); serial multiple tested non-reactive (MNR); reactive at initial testing (REAC); and seroconverter (SERO) (previously seronegative followed by reactive, a marker for incident infection). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated to compare the relative risk of all cause and disease specific mortality to that of the BC population for each serological group. Time dependent Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compare hazard ratios (HRs) among HCV serological groups. All anti-HCV testers had higher SMRs than the BC population. Referent to the SNR group, the REAC group had higher risks for liver (HR: 9.62; 95% CI=8.55-10.87) and drug related mortality (HR: 13.70; 95% CI=11.76-16.13). Compared to the REAC group, the SERO group had a lower risk for liver (HR: 0.53; 95% CI=0.24-0.99), but a higher risk for drug related mortality (HR: 1.54; 95% CI=1.12-2.05). These findings confirm that individuals who test anti-HCV positive have increased mortality related to progressive liver disease, and that a substantial proportion of the mortality is attributable to drug use and risk

  19. Historical Meadow Dynamics in Southwest British Columbia: a Multidisciplinary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lepofsky


    Full Text Available The recent encroachment of woody species threatening many western North American meadows has been attributed to diverse factors. We used a suite of methods in Chittenden Meadow, southwestern British Columbia, Canada, to identify the human, ecological, and physical factors responsible for its historical dynamics and current encroachment by woody vegetation. We evaluated three hypotheses about the origin and processes maintaining the meadow: the meadow is (1 of recent human origin; (2 of ancient human origin, maintained by aboriginal burning; and (3 of ancient non-human origin, not maintained by aboriginal burning. Our data supported the idea that the meadow had ancient non-human origins and its recent history and current status have resulted from complex interactions among landform, climate, and fire. Soil properties (both horizonation and charcoal content indicate that the meadow is of ancient, non-human origin. Tree ages in the meadow and surrounding forest indicate that encroachment is recent, not related to a variety of recent human activities, and is probably a result of increasing spring temperature and decreasing spring snow depth. Although ethnographic surveys and historical documents revealed indigenous use of the general area over millennia, including the use of fire as a management tool, we found little direct evidence of indigenous use of the meadow. However, there was no proxy record of fire frequency in the meadow that we could have used to determine the role of fire in maintaining the meadow in the past, or the role of humans in igniting those fires. Thus, the historical role of humans in the maintenance of the meadow by prescribed fire remains indeterminate. Based on these conclusions, we combined hypotheses (2 and (3 into an a posteriori hypothesis that reflects changing interactions among people, fire, and climate over time. Without management intervention, we expect that tree encroachment will continue. Several general lessons

  20. Systemic Medication and Intraocular Pressure in a British Population (United States)

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.


    Objective To determine the association between systemic medication use and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population of older British men and women. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants We included 7093 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer–Norfolk Eye Study. Exclusion criteria were a history of glaucoma therapy (medical, laser, or surgical), IOP asymmetry between eyes of >5 mmHg, and missing data for any covariables. The mean age of participants was 68 years (range, 48–92) and 56% were women. Methods We measured IOP using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Three readings were taken per eye and the best signal value of the Goldmann-correlated IOP value considered. Participants were asked to bring all their medications and related documentation to the health examination, and these were recorded by the research nurse using an electronic case record form. The medication classes examined were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, nitrates, statins, insulin, biguanides, sulfonylureas, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We examined associations between medication use and IOP using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Models containing diabetic medication were further adjusted for glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Main Outcome Measures Mean IOP of the right and left eyes. Results Use of systemic β-blockers (−0.92 mmHg; 95% CI, −1.19, −0.65; P<0.001) and nitrates (−0.63 mmHg; 95% CI, −1.12, −0.14; P = 0.011) were independently associated with lower IOP. The observed associations between statin or aspirin use with IOP were no longer significant after adjustment for β-blocker use. Conclusions This is the first population-based study to demonstrate and quantify clinically significant differences in IOP among participants using systemic

  1. The Diasporic Dimensions of British Caribbean Federation in the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Duke


    Full Text Available [Second and third pragraph] While much has been written on the significance of British Caribbean activists in various movements associated with black diaspora politics in the twentieth century, particularly their important roles in Pan-African struggles, little has been written on how the various British Caribbean colonies themselves were envisioned among diaspora activists and within the scope of black diaspora politics. Did such Caribbean activists, especially those interested in and connected to diasporic movements beyond the British Caribbean, and their African American and African counterparts forsake the British West Indies as a focus of political engagement for other lands and causes? If not, what was the place of “West Indian liberation” and nation building in the British Caribbean in relation to black diasporic struggles in the early twentieth century? This article address these questions through an examination of how the idea of a united “West Indian nation” (via a federation or closer union among British Caribbean colonies was envisioned within black diaspora politics from the turn of the twentieth century through the 1920s, and the ways in which racial consciousness and motivations informed conceptualizations of such a nation among black political activists of the British Caribbean and other parts of the diaspora. This study argues that efforts to create a federation in the Anglophone Caribbean were much more than simply imperial or regional nation-building projects. Instead, federation was also a diasporic, black nation-building endeavor intricately connected to notions of racial unity, racial uplift, and black self-determination.

  2. Digital Field Mapping with the British Geological Survey (United States)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Nichola; Jordan, Colm


    The BGS•SIGMA project was initiated in 2001 in response to a major stakeholder review of onshore mapping within the British Geological Survey (BGS). That review proposed a significant change for BGS with the recommendation that digital methods should be implemented for field mapping and data compilation. The BGS•SIGMA project (System for Integrated Geoscience MApping) is an integrated workflow for geoscientific surveying and visualisation using digital methods for geological data visualisation, recording and interpretation, in both 2D and 3D. The project has defined and documented an underpinning framework of best practice for survey and information management, best practice that has then informed the design brief and specification for a toolkit to support this new methodology. The project has now delivered BGS•SIGMA2012. BGS•SIGMA2012 is a integrated toolkit which enables assembly and interrogation/visualisation of existing geological information; capture of, and integration with, new data and geological interpretations; and delivery of 3D digital products and services. From its early days as a system which used PocketGIS run on Husky Fex21 hardware, to the present day system which runs on ruggedized tablet PCs with integrated GPS units, the system has evolved into a complete digital mapping and compilation system. BGS•SIGMA2012 uses a highly customised version of ESRI's ArcGIS 10 and 10.1 with a fully relational Access 2007/2010 geodatabase. BGS•SIGMA2012 is the third external release of our award-winning digital field mapping toolkit. The first free external release of the award-winning digital field mapping toolkit was in 2009, with the third version (BGS-SIGMAmobile2012 v1.01) released on our website ( in 2013. The BGS•SIGMAmobile toolkit formed the major part of the first two releases but this new version integrates the BGS•SIGMAdesktop functionality that BGS routinely uses to transform our field

  3. ‘The men who made the breakthrough’: How the British press represented Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards in 1978

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    Katharine Dow


    Full Text Available This article examines how the British press represented Patrick Steptoe and Robert Edwards in the story of the birth of the first ‘test-tube baby’, Louise Brown. In 1978, the British press represented the birth of Louise Brown as both a success and a source of hope. The main pairs of protagonists in this story were Steptoe and Edwards and Lesley and John Brown, who metonymically represented British science and infertile couples, respectively. In the dominant ‘success’ narrative of the birth of Louise Brown as depicted in the British press in 1978, Edwards and Steptoe seemed to embody ‘British’ values of industriousness, perseverance, altruism, ingenuity and teamwork. Thus, their success was simultaneously a British success. With Louise Brown’s birth, in-vitro fertilization came to stand for the potential happiness of infertile people and a bright future for British science and industry.

  4. Irish (Republic) versus British (North West) orthopaedic trainees: what are the differences?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Banks, L N


    British Trainees have gradually had their working week curtained over the last 8 years. The Republic of Ireland Trainees have not been subjected to the European Working Time Directive prior to 2009 and have therefore worked on average, more hours than their British counterparts. We wanted to see if the differing schemes had an impact on recruiting and training orthopaedic surgeons. We surveyed Republic of Ireland orthopaedic specialist registrars (SpRs) and North West (NW) British SpRs\\/specialist trainees (ST3 and above) to see if there were any discernable differences in working patterns and subsequent training exposure. A standard proforma was given to Irish Trainees and to NW SpRs\\/STs at their National or regional teaching (January\\/February 2009). 62% of Irish and 47% of British NW Trainees responded. Irish trainees were more likely to have obtained a post-graduate degree (p = 0.03). The Irish worked more hours per week (p < 0.001) doing more trauma operative lists (p = 0.003) and more total cases per 6 months than the NW British (p = 0.003). This study suggests that more hours worked, equals more operative exposure, without detriment to the academic side of training. Obviously it is not possible to say whether fewer operations make for a poorer surgeon, but the evidence suggests that it may be true.

  5. The discursive construction of Romanian immigration in the British media: Digitized press vs. Television documentaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Florentina Cheregi


    Full Text Available This paper looks at how the media – particularly the British press and television – frames the issue of Romanian immigrants in Great Britain, in the context of the freedom of movement for workers in the European Union. The study focuses on the frames employed by the British journalists in constructing anti-immigration discourses in the digital and the TV sphere, comparatively. This study analyzes the stereotypes about Romanian people used in two British media formats and the way in which they affect Romania’s country image overseas. Using a mixed research approach, combining framing analysis (Entman, 1993 with critical discourse analysis (Van Dijk, 1993, and dispositif analysis (Charaudeau, 2005 this article investigates 271 news items from three of the most read newspapers in the UK (The Guardian, Daily Mail and The Independent, published online during January 2013 – March 2014. Also, the paper analyzes three film documentaries from BBC (Panorama – The Romanians are Coming? – BBC1, The Truth About Immigration – BBC2 and The Great Big Romanian invasion – BBC World News. The analysis shows that the British press and television use both similar and different frames to coverage Romanian migrants. The media also infer the polarization between “Us” (the British media and “Them” (the Romanian citizens.

  6. Identities in the third space? Solidity, elasticity and resilience amongst young British Pakistani Muslims. (United States)

    Mythen, Gabe


    Over the last decade the issue of identity has been prevalent in discussions about British Muslims, with the events of 9/11 serving as a touchstone for media debates about religious, national and cultural affiliations. The 7/7 terrorist attacks in the UK led to young British Pakistanis being subjected to intense public and institutional scrutiny and wider political concerns being expressed about the failure of multiculturalism. Young British Pakistanis have thus had to negotiate and maintain their identities in an environment in which they have been defined as a threat to national security whilst simultaneously being pressurized to align with 'core British values'. Within this context, we convey the findings of a qualitative study involving British Pakistanis living in the North-west of England. In presenting the experiences and perspectives of participants, three interconnected processes salient to the maintenance of identity are delineated: solidity, elasticity and resilience. Having unpacked these processes, we draw upon Bhabha's third space thesis to explore the political potentiality of and the limits to hybridic identities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  7. The basal unconformity of the Nanaimo Group, southwestern British Columbia: a Late Cretaceous storm-swept rocky shoreline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnstone, P D; Mustard, P S; MacEachern, J A


    .... In the southern Gulf Islands of British Columbia, the Comox Formation nonconformably overlies Devonian metavolcanic and Jurassic intrusive rocks and is interpreted to reflect a rocky foreshore...

  8. The British Way of War in North West Europe 1944-45: A Study of Two Infantry Divisions


    Devine, Louis Paul


    This thesis will examine the British way of war as experienced by two British Infantry Divisions - the 43rd ‘Wessex’ and 53rd ‘Welsh’ - during the Overlord campaign in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. The main locus of research centres on the fighting components of those divisions; the infantry battalions and their supporting regiments. In order to understand the way the British fought this part of the war, the thesis will consider the British Army’s history since 1918: its level of expert...

  9. A child of the empire: British sociology and colonialism, 1940s-1960s. (United States)

    Steinmetz, George


    British sociology was established as an academic discipline between 1945 and 1965, just as the British Empire was gearing up for a new phase of developmental colonialism backed by the social and other sciences. Many parts of the emerging sociological discipline became entangled with colonialism. Key themes and methods in sociology and the staff of sociology departments emerged from this colonial context. Historians have tended to place postwar British sociology in the context of expanding higher education and the welfare state, and have overlooked this colonial constellation. The article reconstructs this forgotten moment of disciplinary founding and explores three of the factors that promoted colonial sociology: the Colonial Social Science Research Council, the so-called Asquith universities, and the social research institutes in the colonies; and the involvement of sociologists from the London School of Economics in training colonial officials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia. (United States)

    Sandberg, Dan


    Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot's model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia's five health authorities. The present review details the experiences of regionalizing the program in the Vancouver Coastal Health authority. After fine adjustments to the model were developed and new contracts and criteria changes made, better care for clients was provided than the previous centralized model at a reduced cost to the taxpayer.

  11. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective. (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel


    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  12. Culture and psychosocial function in british and Japanese people with an ostomy. (United States)

    Simmons, Kingsley L; Maekawa, Atsuko; Smith, Jane A


    We compared social and psychological adjustment to surgery ending with an ostomy in British and Japanese patients. In response to a postal survey, 948 ostomy patients (464 British and 484 Japanese), selected at random from respective national databases, provided assessable data on the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23), a validated scale for measurement of psychosocial adjustment to an ostomy. Analysis of variance revealed that country of residence (F1,876 = 50.9, P ostomy. British persons with an ostomy experienced higher psychosocial adjustment to an ostomy than did Japanese respondents. Multivariate analysis based on acceptance, social engagement, anxious-preoccupation, and anger also found that country of residence and time since surgery influenced psychosocial adjustment (Pillai's Trace: V = 0.22, F = 67.15, P ostomy, suggesting that culture influences psychosocial adjustment to life with an ostomy. These findings support the need for culturally informed ostomy care.

  13. An invading army without a spirit of adventure: Media representations of the British in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lawson


    Full Text Available This paper forms part of a wider study of migrant identity within the context of British lifestyle migration to south-west France. Using an integrated methodology of corpus linguistics and discourse analysis (Appraisal, the research is situated within its wider social context by examining how British migration to France is represented within the UK media. The analysis reveals common keywords and patterns of language use that carry negative evaluation with respect to the British, their settlement patterns and behaviour. Lifestyle migration is presented on different levels, with writers distinguishing between a recent and more generalised phenomenon of migration and more established migrants who are represented as having more cultural capital. Readers are positioned to make sociocultural conditioned inferences about the behaviour of the more recent migrants, which also offers a resource for writers to self-identify against such stereotypes.

  14. Polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats with successful treatment of bacterial cyst infection. (United States)

    Nivy, R; Lyons, L A; Aroch, I; Segev, G


    Polycystic kidney disease is the most common inherited disorder in cats. Renal cysts progressively increase in size and number, resulting in a gradual decrease in kidney function. An autosomal dominant mutation in exon 29 of the polycystin-1 gene has been identified, mostly in Persian and Persian-related breeds. This case study describes polycystic kidney disease in four British shorthair cats, of which two had the same genetic mutation reported in Persian and Persian-related cats. This likely reflects introduction of this mutation into the British shorthair breeding line because of previous outcrossing with Persian cats. An infected renal cyst was diagnosed and successfully treated in one of the cats. This is a commonly reported complication in human polycystic kidney disease, and to the authors' knowledge has not previously been reported in cats with polycystic kidney disease. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Red squirrels in the British Isles are infected with leprosy bacilli. (United States)

    Avanzi, Charlotte; Del-Pozo, Jorge; Benjak, Andrej; Stevenson, Karen; Simpson, Victor R; Busso, Philippe; McLuckie, Joyce; Loiseau, Chloé; Lawton, Colin; Schoening, Janne; Shaw, Darren J; Piton, Jérémie; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Velarde-Felix, Jesùs S; McDermott, Fergal; Gordon, Stephen V; Cole, Stewart T; Meredith, Anna L


    Leprosy, caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the British Isles. Red squirrels in Great Britain (Sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. Using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found M. lepromatosis in squirrels from England, Ireland, and Scotland, and M. leprae in squirrels from Brownsea Island, England. Infection was detected in overtly diseased and seemingly healthy animals. Phylogenetic comparisons of British and Irish M. lepromatosis with two Mexican strains from humans show that they diverged from a common ancestor around 27,000 years ago, whereas the M. leprae strain is closest to one that circulated in Medieval England. Red squirrels are thus a reservoir for leprosy in the British Isles. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Comparison of access to services in rural emergency departments in Quebec and British Columbia. (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Audette, Louis-David; Marcoux, Jérémie; Villa, Julie; Archambault, Patrick; Poitras, Julien


    Although emergency departments (EDs) in Canada's rural areas serve approximately 20% of the population, a serious problem in access to health care services has emerged. The objective of this project was to compare access to support services in rural EDs between British Columbia and Quebec. Rural EDs were identified through the Canadian Healthcare Association's Guide to Canadian Healthcare Facilities. We selected hospitals with 24/7 ED physician coverage and hospitalization beds that were located in rural communities (using the rural and small town definition from Statistics Canada). Data were collected from ministries of health, local health authorities, and ED statistics. A telephone interview was administered to collect denominative user data statistics and determine the status of services. British Columbia has more rural EDs (n  =  34) than Quebec (n  =  26). EDs in Quebec have higher volumes (19,310 versus 7,793 annual visits). With respect to support services, 81% of Quebec rural EDs have a 24/7 on-call general surgeon compared to 12% for British Columbia. Nearly 75% of Quebec rural EDs have 24/7 access to computed tomography versus only 3% for British Columbia. Rural EDs in Quebec are also supported by a greater proportion of intensive care units (88% versus 15%); however, British Columbia appears to have more medevac aircraft/helicopters than Quebec. The results suggest that major differences exist in access to support services in rural EDs in British Columbia and Quebec. A nationwide study is justified to address this issue of variability in rural and remote health service delivery and its impact on interfacility transfers and patient outcomes.

  17. As seen on TV: observational study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical dramas (United States)

    Gordon, P N; Williamson, S; Lawler, P G


    Objective: To determine the frequency and accuracy with which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is portrayed in British television medical dramas. Design: Observational study. Subjects: 64 episodes of three major British television medical dramas: Casualty, Cardiac Arrest, and Medics. Main outcome measures: Frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shown on television; age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients undergoing resuscitation; rate of survival through resuscitation. Results: Overall 52 patients had a cardiorespiratory arrest on screen and 3 had a respiratory arrest alone, all the arrests occurring in 40 of the 64 episodes. Of the 52 patients having cardiorespiratory arrest, 32 (62%) underwent an attempt at cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 8 attempts were successful. All 3 of the patients having respiratory arrests alone received ventilatory support and survived. On 48% of occasions, victims of cardiac arrest seemed to be less than 35 years old. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory resuscitation is often depicted in British television medical dramas. Patients portrayed receiving resuscitation are likely to be in a younger age group than in real life. Though the reasons for resuscitation are more varied and more often associated with trauma than in reality, the overall success rate is nevertheless realistic. Widespread overoptimism of patients for survival after resuscitation cannot necessarily be blamed on British television medical dramas. Key messagesA quarter of patients in British television medical dramas who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation on screen seemed to surviveThis figure is comparable to initial survival rates in a series of patients in real lifePatients on television are more likely to suffer cardiac arrest as a result of trauma than in real life, and patients undergoing resuscitation are likely to be younger than patients in real lifeThe overall survival rate of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical drama seems

  18. The Promotion and Reception of British Sculpture Abroad, 1948–1960: Herbert Read, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, and the “Young British Sculptors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Meyric Hughes


    Full Text Available In 1945, Europe lay in ruins. Networks needed to be established, new alliances forged. UNESCO was a child of that time, and the idea of a united, democratic Europe took wing. During the period 1948–60, Modernism was at its height, and its shape was defined in a number of important exhibitions and publications. Herbert Read and others, with the support of the British Council, established an international presence for Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, and the postwar generation of “the Geometry of Fear”. In doing so, they introduced a particularly “English” flavour to the debates about European moral and spiritual reconstruction. Britain pioneered new forms of public patronage and display. In West Germany, the new British sculpture was interpreted as an expression of Western, humanist values, though it also carried intimations of the threat of nuclear war and destruction. Moore’s moderate Modernism and social democratic credentials went down well with artists in communist countries, who were seeking to escape from the narrow prescriptions of socialist realism. Over time, the British Council helped to create, and support, the notion of a self-regenerating sculptural tradition that was carried over until the full impact of globalization began to be felt, towards the end of the 1990s.

  19. Anglobalisation And The Making Of The Third World. The British Empire In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penier Izabella


    Full Text Available The world as we know it is, in a large measure, a product of what Neill Ferguson calls “anglobalization.” Even today it is difficult to assess the legacy of the British Empire. My article focuses on the great famines in British India. It attempts to look at assertions about the Empire’s good work in India through the prism of the research carried out by the leftwing historian Mike Davis, whose seminal 2001 study Late Victorian Holocausts. El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World launched a debate on the human costs of anglobalisation.

  20. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry


    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  1. A Review of Architecture and Climate: An Environmental History of British Architecture, 1600–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Guerci


    Full Text Available Chronologically arranged in eight essays dealing each with a topical chapter of British architectural history, ranging from the Smythson of Hardwick Hall fame to his twentieth century namesakes, Alison and Peter, the book’s aim is to trace a common line of architecture’s adaptation to the British climate throughout the period examined. The central argument is that factors such as location, light and orientation played a fundamental part in the planning of all the examples selected for discussion.

  2. Organised labour and the Batista régime: a British diplomatic\\ud perspective


    Cushion, Stephen


    The important place that British investments occupied in Cuba during the 1950s is reflected in the reports sent home by the ambassador. Having long complained of the low level of productivity, the British Ambassador supported Batista's coup of 1952 in the hope that the de facto government would use its position to reduce labour costs. The régime's use of repression and corruption to reduce the ability of organised labour to defend wages and conditions has not been\\ud generally studied, but th...

  3. Cypriot Archaelogy, Modern Numismatics and Social Engineering: The Iconography of the British Coinage of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiades Hatzopoulos


    Full Text Available This article examines the use of numismatic iconography by the British colonial administration of Cyprus in order, initially, to legitimise its possession of the island and, subsequently, to promote an Eteocypriot, an "authentic Cypriot", identity as counter-poison against Greek nationalism. In this endeavour of social engineering, archaeological items and other symbols from Cyprus' past played a prominent part. The outbreak of the Cypriot guerrilla war for union with Greece in 1955 highlighted the bankruptcy of this operation. Nevertheless, British efforts to evade Cyprus' overwhelmingly Greek past - and present - continued unabated, even after the formal recognition of the island's independence.

  4. (Mismanaging labour markets? The decline of the contemporary global labour market for British seafarers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ruggunan


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate the ways in which states are still significant actors in creating and shaping the nature and characteristics of global labour markets. My argument is demonstrated through an empirical case study of the global labour market for British seafarers. Problem Investigated: The last 30 years has witnessed a decimation of the number of employed British seafarers, particularly at lower rank levels, such as ratings. I contend that despite Britain's long and rich maritime history, the British state has not acted meaningfully to reverse the decline of British seafarers. The lack of meaningful action I contend is an attempt to crew British owned ships with cheaper seafaring labour from Asia, particularly south east Asia. In so doing the British state has contributed to the decline of a once thriving labour market. There has simultaneously been an upsurge in the employment of seafarers of other nationalities, and thus the creation of new labour markets in countries such as the Philippines. This paper is an attempt to understand some of the factors responsible for the decline of the British labour market for seafarers. Methodology and Approach: This paper is the outcome of a larger qualitative study undertaken for my doctoral thesis in industrial sociology which examined the transformation of the global labour market for South African, Filipino and British seafarers. The methodology consists of in depth interviews with maritime officials and trade union leaders. These were conducted in person in London, United Kingdom between 2005 and 2008. These interviews are supported by extensive literature and documentary research, to validate, support and test claims made by my interviewees. Implications and Value of the Research: The theoretical contribution of this paper is to reinsert the state more critically into the literature on labour markets. Empirically, seafaring labour markets are largely ignored by the

  5. Survey of instructions to authors in Indian and British Dental Journals with respect to ethical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Mathur


    Full Text Available Background: Publication can become a symbol of presenting how meticulously a person has followed ethical principles in research. It is the duty of the investigators or authors to carefully read the instructions to authors and generate data with honesty and genuineness. In fulfillment of the basic requisite to publish, clearly defined instructions to authors should be provided by the journal. Aims: To assess the pattern of instructions regarding the ethical requirements given to authors in Indian Dental Journals and tried to compare the same with British Dental Journals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey of ′instructions for authors,′ for analysis of guidelines on ethical processes, was done. Materials and Methods: Instructions to authors of Indian and British Dental Journals indexed in PubMed were reviewed for guidelines with regard to seven key ethical issues. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed in percentages as well as numbers. Results: Of the 10 Indian Dental Journals, 7 (70% cited ethical guidelines such as International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, Committee on Publication Ethics, Indian Council of Medical Research guidelines whereas out of 27 British Dental Journals, 16 (59.25% cited these. Protection of human subjects such as approval from an institutional/independent ethics committee, obtaining informed consent and maintenance of confidentiality of patient records was covered with 8 (80% Indian and 19 (70.3% British Dental Journals. Four (40% Indian and 13 (48.1% instructed about animals welfare. Nine (90% of the Indian and 25 (92.5% British Dental Journals required declaration of conflicts of interest by authors. Publication issues and authorship/contributorship criteria were specified by all 10 Indian and 25 (92.5% and 24 (88.8% British journals respectively. 6 (60% of Indian and 11 (40.75% of British Journals explained about data management, in case of

  6. The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalzell, Thomas


    This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.

  7. A Moral Panic? The Problematization of Forced Marriage in British Newspapers. (United States)

    Anitha, Sundari; Gill, Aisha K


    This article examines the British media's construction of forced marriage (FM) as an urgent social problem in a context where other forms of violence against women are not similarly problematized. A detailed analysis of four British newspapers over a 10-year period demonstrates that media reporting of FM constitutes a moral panic in that it is constructed as a cultural problem that threatens Britain's social order rather than as a specific form of violence against women. Thus, the current problematization of FM restricts discursive spaces for policy debates and hinders attempts to respond to this problem as part of broader efforts to tackle violence against women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Examines the motives and experiences of migrants to Cuba from the British Isles in the 19th Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.


    Migrants from the British Isles played a hitherto little recognised part in the development of Cuban society and economy in the nineteenth century. Although not a numerically large migration, British and Irish merchants, professionals and, above all, workers had a significance for Cuba out of

  9. A very British affair six Britons and the development of time series analysis during the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, T


    This book develops the major themes of time series analysis from its formal beginnings in the early part of the 20th century to the present day through the research of six distinguished British statisticians, all of whose work is characterised by the British traits of pragmatism and the desire to solve practical problems of importance.

  10. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community. (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  11. Lengua de Maynas: ms. Egerton 2881 de la British Library: transcripción y edición

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.


    Lengua de Maynas ms. Egerton 2881 de la British Library Transcripción y edición preparada por Astrid Alexander-Bakkerus University of Amsterdam Con un prólogo de Pieter C. Muysken El presente libro contiene una edición diplomática del manuscrito Lengua de Maynas, ms. Egerton 2881 de la British

  12. Foreign Cultural Policy in the Interbellum: The Italian Dante Alighieri Society and the British Council Contesting the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kessel, T.


    This book considers the growing awareness in the wake of World War I that culture could play an effective political role in international relations. Tamara van Kessel shows how the British created the British Council in support of those cultural aims, which took on particular urgency in light of the

  13. Regulating the access and use of the British gas network; Le modalita` di accesso alla rete britannica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Alessandro [RIE Srl, Bologna (Italy)


    In the UK the Network Code, regulating the access and use of the British gas network and stating gas transportation companies` rights and duties, has fully come into effect since September 1996: in practice, it comprises all rules applying to BG TransCo, the proper British Gas unit transporting and storing gas on third parties` account.

  14. The Influence of Deaf People's Dual Category Status on Sign Language Planning: The British Sign Language (Scotland) Act (2015) (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje


    Through the British Sign Language (Scotland) Act, British Sign Language (BSL) was given legal status in Scotland. The main motives for the Act were a desire to put BSL on a similar footing with Gaelic and the fact that in Scotland, BSL signers are the only group whose first language is not English who must rely on disability discrimination…

  15. A Dichotomous Key for the Identification of Common British Wild Flower Families (United States)

    Wood, Piers


    This article argues the need for, and provides, a dichotomous single access key for the identification of common British wild flower families. A minimum of technical vocabulary is used while at the same time retaining most of the recent botanical names of families. The key provides a user-friendly opportunity for school pupils to become familiar…

  16. British Women, Chemistry, and Poetry: Some Contextual Examples from the 1870s to the 1940s (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, Marelene F.; Rayner-Canham, Geoff W.


    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, British women chemists used poetry as a way of describing their work and as a means of social commentary. As far as we are aware, the chemistry-poetry interface has not previously been explored in the context of women's experience.

  17. Gender Equality and Outsourcing of Domestic Work, Childbearing, and Relationship Stability among British Couples (United States)

    Schober, Pia S.


    This study investigates whether gender inequality in the division of housework and child care may be an obstacle to childbearing and relationship stability among different groups of British couples. Furthermore, it explores whether outsourcing of domestic labor ameliorates any negative effects of domestic work inequality. The empirical…

  18. "Spiritual Friends": An Investigation of Children's Spirituality in the Context of British Urban Secondary Education (United States)

    Birkinshaw, Steve


    This article argues relational consciousness of Self and Other is influenced by multiple significant relationships--what are termed "Spiritual Friends". The research on which this article is based explores the spirituality of children within the context of British urban secondary education, and identifies significant relationships in…

  19. British Muslim University Students' Perceptions of Prevent and Its Impact on Their Sense of Identity (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Szczepek Reed, Beatrice; Said, Fatma; Davies, Ian


    The Prevent strategy at UK universities is designed to reduce the possibility of university students becoming radicalised and so working against them supporting or directly engaging in terrorist activities. In this study, we were concerned to reflect on our reading of some relevant literature by exploring the views of a sample of British Muslim…

  20. The First World War and Its Implications for Education in British Museums. (United States)

    Kavanagh, Gaynor


    Examines how the First World War prompted British museums to change their educational functions. Discusses museums in pre-war Britain, wartime exhibitions and educational activities, the outcome of the war experience, and First World War's implications for education in museums. (GEA)

  1. The british military hospitals in macedonia during the first world war. (United States)

    Cvetkovski, Vladimir

    The paper focusses its attention to the medical work of the British Military hospitals stationed in Macedonia during the First World War, the surgical work carried out under very heavy conditions in improvised operating theatres as well as the treatment of the wounded and sick solders brought from the battlefields on the Macedonian Front.

  2. From Stress to Distress: Conceptualizing the British Family Farming Patriarchal Way of Life (United States)

    Price, Linda; Evans, Nick


    "Rural stress" and "farming stress" are terms that have become commonly appropriated by British health-based academic disciplines, the medical profession and social support networks, especially since the agricultural "crises" of B.S.E. and Foot and Mouth disease. Looking beyond the media headlines, it is apparent that…

  3. The succession dispute to the throne of Lagos and the British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the role and intervention of the British in the internal family dispute relating to the succession to the throne of Lagos that began in the early nineteenth century. That the usuper to the throne of Lagos, Kosoko who was branded a notorious slave trader was abdicated from the throne on the account of his ...

  4. Foreign Sources in the Contemporary Works of British-American Researchers on History of Russian Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel V. Ibneyeva


    Full Text Available The article considers the use of foreign archival sources by modern British and American researchers, specializing in Russian colonization processes in XVI–XVIII centuries. The authors examine the study of archival sources relating to the Russian colonization, deposited in the British archives, as well as their influence on the British historiography of Russian colonization. Additionally, this article analyzes the involvement of unpublished documents from the archives of Turkey by Anglo-American historians, which allow to highlight the history of Russian colonization of Transcaucasia, and the use of sources from the archives of China, tells the story of the accession of Siberia and the Far East to the Russian state. The authors show how archival sources of Russian origin residing abroad ("Hoover archives”, “Yudin collection” at the Library of Congress, "Bakhmeteff Archive" and the materials of the Russian Orthodox Church abroad, were introduced into scientific circulation by foreign researchers. The article defines an influence of archival sources on the development of the British and American historiography of Russian colonization.

  5. The vocabulary of the 'Lengua de Maynas', Ms. Egerton 2881 of the British Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander-Bakkerus, A.


    El manuscrito Egerton 2881 de la British Library (Londres) data del comienzo del siglo XIX. El autor del manuscrito es anónimo. En los folios 7 y 40 recto se encuentran las siguientes observaciones: folio 7 r. : "Es del vso del V.P. Fr. Eusebio Arias"; folio 40 r. : "Pertenesco al P. Fr. Eusebio

  6. Combining Forces: Fostering Sustainability Collaboration between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (United States)

    Munro, Alison; Marcus, Jean; Dolling, Katie; Robinson, John; Wahl, Jennifer


    Purpose: This paper describes the sustainability partnership between the City of Vancouver and the University of British Columbia (UBC) and, in particular, the co-curricular Greenest City Scholars graduate student internship program, which has been developed by the two organizations. Through the program, UBC graduate students work on projects at…

  7. Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in British Columbia School Boards (United States)

    Shewchuk, Samantha


    High profile sexual assault cases by British Columbia elementary school teachers in 2010 revealed BC school boards had "disturbingly inconsistent" child protection policies. As a result of the intense media scrutiny, the BC Ministry of Education required all school boards to reassess and update their policies on reporting suspected child…

  8. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice (United States)

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin


    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  9. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul


    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  10. Parents as Educators of Sex and Relationship Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families (United States)

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul


    Objective: To identify how British families discuss sexual matters and to determine if the use of a multimedia computer program increases knowledge to promote communication about sexual topics. Design: A mixed-method approach in which families were interviewed within the family environment. Method: Twenty families from the north east of England…

  11. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998). (United States)

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  12. A field guide to the Silurian Echinodermata of the British Isles: Part 1 - Eleutherozoa and Rhombifera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, D.N.; Donovan, S.K.; Crabb, P.; Gladwell, D.J.


    The Palaeozoic echinoderms of the British Isles are most diverse in the Silurian and Lower Carboniferous. This guide discusses and illustrates members of all major groups of echinoderms, apart from the crinoids, from the Silurian of these islands. Groups considered include the echinoids (five taxa),

  13. Curriculum, Intellectual Property Rights and Open Educational Resources in British Universities--and Beyond (United States)

    Hawkridge, David; Armellini, Alejandro; Nikoi, Samuel; Rowlett, Tania; Witthaus, Gabi


    Is the curriculum in British universities being influenced by decisions about ownership of intellectual property rights (IPR) in "open educational resources" (OERs) that are available online under Creative Commons licenses, free of charge? This paper provides the context for, describes and analyses three significant examples in British…

  14. Conditions for Success? Gender in Technology-Intensive Courses in British Columbia Secondary Schools. (United States)

    Bryson, Mary; Petrina, Stephen; Braundy, Marcia


    Analyzes provincial trends in gender-differentiated participation and performance of students in technology-intensive courses in British Columbia public secondary education at a time in Canadian history when competence and confidence with a range of technologies are essential for full cultural participation. Represents a step towards the…

  15. The Politics of Curriculum Reform in Canada: The Case of Technology Education in British Columbia. (United States)

    Petrina, Stephen; Dalley, Stephen


    Demonstrates the case of technology education in British Colombia and discusses its invulnerability of teachers to curriculum reform. Draws on historical and survey data related to school practices and Ministry of Education enrollment data disaggregated by sex. Casts these data into a politics of curriculum framework informed by the work of…

  16. A Comparative Analysis of British and Taiwanese Students' Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Fraction Addition (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chuan


    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Desmond KEEGAN


    Full Text Available This book is a major contribution to the fields of distance education research, the field of comparative education and to the history of Chinese and British education.The book undertakes an impossible task: the comparative study of China‘s Radio and TV universities and of the British Open University. The task is impossible because the two entities to be compared are essentially disparate. The British Open University (OUUK is a single university set up at Milton Keynes in the United Kingdom by Royal Charter. China‘s Radio and TV universities, known as the Dianda system, is a network of 45 open universities set up all over China. The essence of the success of the British Open University was its creation as a full university, offering its own university degrees on the same level as all the other universities in the country. The Dianda institutions were set up in what Wei calls the ‗adult higher education sector‘ in China, offering what Wei calls sub-degrees and always regarded as inferior both to the great Chinese universities (Beijing University, Qinghua University, Fudan

  18. The health care experiences of British pensioners migrating to Spain: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; Nolte, Ellen; Green, Judith; la Parra, Daniel; McKee, Martin


    Notwithstanding the importance of cross-border healthcare mobility for Member States very little research has been carried out to understand the experiences of those that move. This paper focuses on a type of patient mobility that has had a significant growth in the past decades. These are pensioners who have moved from Northern European countries to countries in the South. To explore the health care experiences of British pensioners who have migrated to Spain. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews complemented with natural group discussions. Fifty-eight British retirees living in Spain and four that had returned to the UK from Spain. Spanish Autonomous Communities of Valencia and Baleares and the UK. British pensioners reported high satisfaction with their experiences of Spanish health care, in contrast to their more negative experiences of other public services in Spain. The perceived high quality (assessed in terms of thoroughness of care and the cleanliness of facilities) and humanity of care provided were the pivotal features of health care encounters, at all levels of the health care system. Exceptions to the overall positive assessments were transport to health care facilities, personal care in hospitals, long term care, and the management of pain relief, which were compared unfavourably with the UK NHS. In contrast to the existing literature, which suggests widespread problems faced by migrant British pensioners in accessing health care, we identified high levels of satisfaction with services. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. The Control of Sexuality in the Early British Boy Scouts Movement (United States)

    Pryke, Sam


    This article looks at the way in which the early (1907-1922) British Boy Scouts movement attempted to control sexuality through archival examination of the organization's preoccupation with preventing masturbation or, as it was generally referred to, "self abuse". Having briefly outlined the origination and nature of the Scouts, it considers why…

  20. Educational Change and the Women's Movement: Lessons From British Columbia Schools in the 1970s (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane


    This article uses Melucci's approach to social movements to explore how the women"s movement changed education in British Columbia in the 1970s. The women's movement was a multifaceted social phenomenon with multiple agendas and actors. In the early 1970s, it developed a temporary sense of cohesion in the field of education in the context of a…

  1. 77 FR 45869 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the British Columbia Distinct Population... (United States)


    ... component of goshawk diets (Lewis et al. 2006, pp. 1153-1156). Red squirrel densities on the Queen Charlotte... stands by red squirrels. (7) Comment: Prey populations may be more stable within the range of the Queen... Wildlife and Plants; Listing the British Columbia Distinct Population Segment of the Queen Charlotte...

  2. The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro


    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.

  3. The Mental Health of British Adults with Intellectual Impairments Living in General Households (United States)

    Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric; Robertson, Janet; Baines, Susannah


    Background: People with intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning may have poorer mental health than their peers. The present authors sought to (i) estimate the risk of poorer mental health among British adults with and without intellectual impairments and (ii) estimate the extent to which any between-group differences in…

  4. The Succession Dispute to the Throne of Lagos and the British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. This paper examined the role and intervention of the British in the internal family dispute relating to the succession to the throne of Lagos that began in the early nineteenth century. That the usuper to the throne of Lagos, Kosoko who was branded a notorious slave trader was abdicated from the throne on the ...

  5. Lexical Organization in Deaf Children Who Use British Sign Language: Evidence from a Semantic Fluency Task (United States)

    Marshall, Chloe R.; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Herman, Rosalind; Morgan, Gary


    We adapted the semantic fluency task into British Sign Language (BSL). In Study 1, we present data from twenty-two deaf signers aged four to fifteen. We show that the same "cognitive signatures" that characterize this task in spoken languages are also present in deaf children, for example, the semantic clustering of responses. In Study…

  6. From Colonialism to Developing Countries: Surveys and Educational Reform in British Tropical Africa, 1910-1990 (United States)

    Watras, Joseph


    During the first years of the twentieth century, Christian missionaries tried to improve their efforts to bring the message of the Gospel to areas such as British Tropical Africa. The process stemmed from the World Missionary Conference in 1910 in Edinburgh, Scotland, where conference organisers used the then popular method of social surveys to…

  7. The Measurement and Evaluation of Social Attitudes in Two British Cohort Studies (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Bynner, John; Wiggins, Richard; Schoon, Ingrid


    This paper presents an empirical evaluation of the internal consistency and validity of six attitudes scales assessing left-right beliefs, political cynicism, antiracism, libertarian-authoritarian views, and gender equality (two versions) in two large nationally representative samples of the British population born in 1958 and 1970. In the 1958…

  8. Framing Higher Education: Questions and Responses in the British Social Attitudes Survey, 1983-2010 (United States)

    Mountford-Zimdars, Anna; Jones, Steven; Sullivan, Alice; Heath, Anthony


    This article focuses on questions and attitudes towards higher education in the British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey series. First, we analyse the changing BSA questions (1983-2010) in the context of key policy reports. Our results show that changes in the framing of higher education questions correspond with changes in the macro-discourse of…

  9. Corked Hats and "Coronation Street": British and New Zealand Children's Imaginative Geographies of the Other. (United States)

    Holloway, Sarah L.; Valentine, Gill


    Explores the ways British and New Zealand children imagined each other's environments and cultures. Illustrates the sources and importance of stereotypical understandings of landscape, people, and patterns of daily life in other nations, and the ways these may be contested through Internet contact. (JPB)

  10. Suicide by Oxygen Deprivation with Helium: A Preliminary Study of British Columbia Coroner Investigations (United States)

    Ogden, Russel D.; Hassan, Shereen


    This article researches a relatively new suicide method advanced by right-to-die organizations: oxygen deprivation by breathing helium inside a plastic hood. The article begins with a review of the role of the coroner and the history of oxygen deprivation with helium; it then examines 20 Judgements of Inquiry (JOI) by British Columbia coroners…

  11. zulu strategic and tactical options in the face of the british invasion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Until recent years, historians of the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 made little attempt to unravel the strategic and tact~cal options of the Zulu preparing to face the British invasion of their ~!I)gdom. The inadequacy of such an approach was epitomised in the dismissive comments of. Donald Morris, whose book, The Washing of the ...

  12. Uncomfortable Departments: British Historians of Science and the Importance of Disciplinary Communities (United States)

    Fyfe, Aileen


    This paper explores issues around disciplinary belonging and academic identity. Historians of science learn to think and practise like historians in terms of research practice, but this paper shows that British historians of science do not think of themselves as belonging to the disciplinary community of historians. They may be confident that they…

  13. Creating an LNG Ready Worker: British Columbia's Blueprint for Extraction Education (United States)

    Walker, Judith


    Since 2011, the government of British Columbia (BC) has focused on building the Canadian province's economy through the development of a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) sector. In service of this endeavour, the government launched the "Skills for Jobs Blueprint," which attempts to more clearly align BC's education system with resource…

  14. Making sense of the labor market height premium: Evidence from the British Household Panel Survey. (United States)

    Case, Anne; Paxson, Christina; Islam, Mahnaz


    We use data from the British Household Panel Survey to examine the labor market premium in height. Most of the premium is explained by higher average educational attainment and sorting into higher-status occupations and industries by those who are taller.

  15. Forming Communicative Competence of Future TESOL Teachers by Microteaching (Based on British Experience) (United States)

    Bidyuk, Natalya


    The article deals with the analysis of the process of forming communicative competence of future TESOL students by means of microteaching based on the experience of leading British higher education institutions. It has been specified that the phenomenon of communicative competence in scientific discourse originated in the 1960s and connected with…

  16. Facing Up to the Eighties: Health and Welfare Needs of British Elderly. (United States)

    Pinker, Robert A.


    The British National Health Service faces a future in which demand for health services will outpace supply. A public nursing home service may prove to be an economical service. Alternative sources of revenue and cooperation between the public and private sector are needed. (JAC)

  17. Legitimating Status: Perceptions of Meritocracy and Inequality among Undergraduates at an Elite British University (United States)

    Warikoo, Natasha Kumar; Fuhr, Christina


    Given the frequent critiques of elite universities for admitting low numbers of state school graduates and, more recently, British Afro-Caribbean students, how do students attending those universities make meaning of the admissions process? Through an analysis of 46 one-on-one in-depth interviews with undergraduates attending Oxford University, we…

  18. Doll's Pedagogical Theory and Its Enlightenment on British and American Literature Teaching (United States)

    Gang, Xu


    Due to the outmoded teaching method and the popularity of utilitarianism nowadays, the marginalization of British and American literature courses has become a prominent problem for the education of English majors in colleges and universities, but the American postmodern curriculum theorist, Prof. William E. Doll, Jr.'s pedagogical theory, which…

  19. Can British Columbia Achieve Electricity Self-Sufficiency and Meet its Renewable Portfolio Standard?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopinka, A.; Kooten, van G.C.; Wong, L.


    British Columbia’s energy policy is at a crossroads; the province has set a goal of electricity self-sufficiency, a 93% renewable portfolio standard and provincial natural gas strategy that could increase electricity consumption by 2,500-3,800 MW. To ascertain the reality of BC’s supply position, we

  20. Enabling and disabling: disability in the British and Dutch construction sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, L.; van der Meer, M.; Bingham, C.; Michielsens, E.; Miller, S.


    Though the British and Dutch approaches to disability in the construction sector exhibit common features, Britain tends towards a capabilities model compared with the Netherlands which is closer to a social model. The construction sector is considerably more regulated in the Netherlands but is in

  1. Becoming a Researcher: Forms of Capital Associated with "Research Capacity" Trajectories of Young British Social Anthropologists (United States)

    Holligan, Chris


    The paper privileges the "voices" of British social anthropologists examining their perceptions of how their research expertise was acquired. Reference is made to the case of education research in Britain, which, by comparison with social anthropology, reveals limited capacity as measured through performance audits of scientific research…

  2. Censuses compared. A New Benchmark for British and German Manufacturing 1935/1936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fremdling, Rainer; Jong, Herman de; Timmer, Marcel P.


    We present a new estimate of Anglo-German manufacturing output and productivity levels by industry for 1935/36. It is based on newly explored archival data on German manufacturing together with published British census data. We calculate comparative levels of value added, correcting for differences

  3. Identification of metapopulation dynamics among Northern Goshawks of the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and Coastal British Columbia (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; McClaren, Erica L.; Doyle, Frank I.; Titus, K.; Sage, George K.; Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, Judy R.; Talbot, Sandra L.


    Northern Goshawks occupying the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska, and coastal British Columbia nest primarily in old-growth and mature forest, which results in spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of individuals across the landscape. We used microsatellite and mitochondrial data to infer genetic structure, gene flow, and fluctuations in population demography through evolutionary time. Patterns in the genetic signatures were used to assess predictions associated with the three population models: panmixia, metapopulation, and isolated populations. Population genetic structure was observed along with asymmetry in gene flow estimates that changed directionality at different temporal scales, consistent with metapopulation model predictions. Therefore, Northern Goshawk assemblages located in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia interact through a metapopulation framework, though they may not fit the classic model of a metapopulation. Long-term population sources (coastal mainland British Columbia) and sinks (Revillagigedo and Vancouver islands) were identified. However, there was no trend through evolutionary time in the directionality of dispersal among the remaining assemblages, suggestive of a rescue-effect dynamic. Admiralty, Douglas, and Chichagof island complex appears to be an evolutionarily recent source population in the Alexander Archipelago. In addition, Kupreanof island complex and Kispiox Forest District populations have high dispersal rates to populations in close geographic proximity and potentially serve as local source populations. Metapopulation dynamics occurring in the Alexander Archipelago and coastal British Columbia by Northern Goshawks highlight the importance of both occupied and unoccupied habitats to long-term population persistence of goshawks in this region.

  4. Constructing Learning: Adversarial and Collaborative Working in the British Construction Industry (United States)

    Bishop, Dan; Felstead, Alan; Fuller, Alison; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna; Kakavelakis, Konstantinos


    This paper examines two competing systems of work organisation in the British construction industry and their consequences for learning. Under the traditional "adversarial" system, conflict, hostility and litigation between contractors are commonplace. Such a climate actively militates against collective learning and knowledge sharing between…

  5. Understandings of depression: an interview study of Yoruba, Bangladeshi and White British people. (United States)

    Lavender, Hilary; Khondoker, Abul Hussain; Jones, Roger


    Depression remains a major public health problem, but little is known about the views and understandings of depression held by many ethnic groups. Aim. To explore views and understandings of depression in three ethnic groups-Yoruba, Sylheti-speaking Bangladeshi and White British-living in South London. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews, using vignettes describing depressed individuals. General practice and the community in Southwark, South London, UK. Participants. 20 Yoruba, 20 Bangladeshi and 20 White British people, recruited from primary care. Interviews (in English for Yoruba and White British, in Sylheti for the Bangladeshi participants) were recorded and transcribed. Atlas ti software was used to organize the data. Views on the causes and cures for depression were diverse. A diagnosis of depression can have adverse social consequences in all groups. Magic had a role in both causation and cure in the Yoruba and to a lesser extent in the Bangladeshi groups. Religion was important for many people in all groups. Family factors were dominant in the Bangladeshi participants, whilst the White British often identified more 'psychological' causes of depression. Coping methods and health-seeking behaviours included religion, family, friends and neighbours, and becoming more active. Formal psychiatric interventions and taking antidepressants were not priorities. Cultural models of depression, including its causes and treatment, are diverse, and are different among cultural groups. This study raises questions about the value of Western approaches to mild and moderate depression in these groups of patients.

  6. The El Niño Southern Oscillation index and wildfire prediction in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zhen; Kooten, van G.C.


    This study investigates the potential to predict monthly wildfires and area burned in British Columbia's interior using El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and the generalized Pareto (GP) distributions are used, respectively, to account for uncertainty in

  7. Indigenous peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE BRITISH. DOMINIONS AND THE FIRST WORLD WAR. Timothy C. Winegard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2012. 312 pages. Appendices, figures, maps, tables, photographs. Hard cover. ISBN 978-1-107-01493-0. R1 699, 00 ( Timothy Winegard saw active duty in ...

  8. High vowels in southern British English: /u/-fronting does not result in merger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chládková, K.; Hamann, S.R.


    This study reports on the acoustic properties of the front vowel /i/ and the fronted back vowel /u/ in Standard Southern British English (SSBE). These two vowels are realized with very similar (and for some tokens overlapping) values of F2, so that F2 does not seem to be a reliable acoustic cue for

  9. British Students' Perceptions of Ethical Issues in International Marketing: An Empirical Investigation. (United States)

    Amin, Sammy G.


    A survey investigated 122 British business students' perceptions of ethics in international marketing practices, particularly as they are affected by demographic characteristics. In response to 12 specific scenarios, students indicated relatively liberal attitudes. Implications for global marketing specialists and for business education are…

  10. Permanent and Transitory Wage Inequality of British Men, 1975-2001: Year, Age and Cohort Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.; Kalwij, A.S.


    We examine the variance-covariance structure of log-wages over time and over the lifecycle of British men from 1975 to 2001, hereby controlling for cohort effects. Wage inequality has risen sharply during the 1980’s and early 1990’s and remained fairly constant in the second half of the 1990’s. We

  11. Missing Voices: Representations of Autism in British Newspapers, 1999-2008 (United States)

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.


    Past research indicates that newspaper representations of developmental disability reinforce negative stereotypes. The aim of this study was to examine depictions of autism in British newspapers. A qualitative content and discourse analysis of newspaper accounts of autism was conducted over four 1-month time points, every 3 years, between May 1999…

  12. Elemental Germans Klaus Fuchs, Rudolf Peierls and the making of British nuclear culture 1939-59

    CERN Document Server

    Laucht, Christoph


    Christoph Laucht offers the first investigation into the roles played by two German-born emigre atomic scientists, Klaus Fuchs and Rudolf Peierls, in the development of British nuclear culture, especially the practice of nuclear science and the political implications of the atomic scientists' work, from the start of the Second World War until 1959.

  13. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob


    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  14. Social Media as Beat : Tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, M.J.; Graham, T.S.


    While the newspaper industry is in crisis and less time and resources are available for newsgathering, social media turn out to be a convenient and cheap beat for (political) journalism. This article investigates the use of Twitter as a source for newspaper coverage of the 2010 British and Dutch

  15. Shhh… I Need Quiet! Children's Understanding of American, British, and Japanese-accented English Speakers. (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael Frush


    Children's ability to understand speakers with a wide range of dialects and accents is essential for efficient language development and communication in a global society. Here, the impact of regional dialect and foreign-accent variability on children's speech understanding was evaluated in both quiet and noisy conditions. Five- to seven-year-old children ( n = 90) and adults ( n = 96) repeated sentences produced by three speakers with different accents-American English, British English, and Japanese-accented English-in quiet or noisy conditions. Adults had no difficulty understanding any speaker in quiet conditions. Their performance declined for the nonnative speaker with a moderate amount of noise; their performance only substantially declined for the British English speaker (i.e., below 93% correct) when their understanding of the American English speaker was also impeded. In contrast, although children showed accurate word recognition for the American and British English speakers in quiet conditions, they had difficulty understanding the nonnative speaker even under ideal listening conditions. With a moderate amount of noise, their perception of British English speech declined substantially and their ability to understand the nonnative speaker was particularly poor. These results suggest that although school-aged children can understand unfamiliar native dialects under ideal listening conditions, their ability to recognize words in these dialects may be highly susceptible to the influence of environmental degradation. Fully adult-like word identification for speakers with unfamiliar accents and dialects may exhibit a protracted developmental trajectory.

  16. British Students' Academic Writing: Can Academia Help Improve the Writing Skills of Tomorrow's Professionals? (United States)

    Sultan, Nabil


    The problem of poor academic writing among British university students is a major cause of concern for universities and their tutors; and it is also of concern to employers struggling to recruit individuals able to communicate clearly and accurately. This article reports on a study designed to highlight some of the reasons for the lack of writing…

  17. The Frequency and Functions of "Just" in British Academic Spoken English (United States)

    Grant, Lynn E.


    This study investigates the frequency and functions of "just" in British academic spoken English. It adopts the meanings of "just" established by Lindemann and Mauranen, 2001, taken from the occurrences of "just" across five speech events in the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE) to see if they also apply to occurrences of "just"…

  18. Housing and Transport: Access Issues for Disabled International Students in British Universities (United States)

    Soorenian, Armineh


    This article explores two disabled people's "Seven Needs" to independent living, those of "housing" and "transport" issues, in relation to disabled international students in British universities. Firstly, students' living arrangements, including issues related to the suitability of university accommodation to their…

  19. Behavioural Indicators of Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Romanian and British Public Sector Hospitals (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran


    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…

  20. British and American Children's Preferences for Teleo-Functional Explanations of the Natural World. (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah


    Extends earlier work with American children to explore British children's application of teleological explanation to artifacts, biological properties, and properties of nonliving natural phenomena, based on the view that because of lower religiosity in Britain, these children might be less inclined than American children to endorse purpose-based…

  1. Mixed-severity fire regimes in dry forests of southern interior British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Carmen M. Wong


    Historical fire severity is poorly characterized for dry forests in the interior west of North America. We inferred a multicentury history of fire severity from tree rings in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) forests in the southern interior of British Columbia,...

  2. The "Obnoxious Mobilised Minority": Homophobia and Homohysteria in the British National Party, 1982-1999 (United States)

    Severs, George J.


    This article examines the British National Party (BNP)'s opposition to gay men during the 1980s and 1990s. Drawing on the sociological concept of "homohysteria," it examines written material from BNP publications during those decades, looking specifically at the AIDS crisis, the party's belief in a "queer conspiracy," and the…

  3. Trends in breast cancer incidence among women with type-2 diabetes in British general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K.; Peeters, Paul J H L; de Groot, Mark C H; de Boer, Anthonius; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; De Bruin, Marie L.

    Aims: To quantify breast cancer incidence in women with type-2 diabetes and assess age-standardized trends in invasive breast cancer incidence over time and by age groups. Methods: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the British general practice database (Clinical Practice Research

  4. Revised /sup 14/C age for St. Helens Y tephra at Tonquin Pass, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckman, B.H.; Kearney, M.S.; King, R.H.; Beaudoin, A.B.


    The age of a Mount St. Helens set Y tephra at Tonquin Pass, British Columbia, previously assumed to be 4300 years BP, is revised to ca. 3400 years BP, based on bracketing /sup 14/C dates of 3140 +/- 70 (Beta 13558) and 3680 +/- 80 years BP (Beta 13559). The implications of this revision for tephrostratigraphy of this area are discussed.

  5. First Nations, Consultation, and the Rule of Law: Salmon Farming and Colonialism in British Columbia (United States)

    Schreiber, Dorothee


    Many coastal First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia, see consultation as a positive way of getting around the firmly entrenched position of both provincial and federal governments on fish farming. Even those Native groups such as the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council (MTTC) and the Homalco First Nation, who are adamantly…

  6. Wireless and empire geopolitics radio industry and ionosphere in the British Empire 1918-1939

    CERN Document Server

    Anduaga, Aitor


    Although the product of consensus politics, the British Empire was based on communications supremacy and the knowledge of the atmosphere. Focusing on science, industry, government, the military, and education, this book studies the relationship between wireless and Empire throughout the interwar period.

  7. The Impact of "Virtualization" on Independent Study Course Completion Rates: The British Columbia Open University Experiment (United States)

    Giguere, Louis


    In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…

  8. A Contrastive Study of Prosody and Lexical Stress Placement in Singapore English and British English. (United States)

    Ling, Low Ee; Grabe, Esther


    Tests experimentally whether stress placement in polysyllabic words differs in Singapore English (SE) and British English (BE), or whether acoustic correlates of stress differ in the two English varieties. Results suggest word-final stress in SE is not result of lexical stress placement, but combination of lengthening of final-syllable words in…

  9. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia (United States)

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King


    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  10. The economics of Raramuri Criollo versus British crossbred cattle production in the Chihuahuan Desert (United States)

    Preliminary research indicates Raramuri Criollo cattle may range significantly further and forage in areas where traditional breeds rarely venture. They are thought to impose a lighter environmental footprint compared to their mainstream British crossbred counterparts. These small-frame animals are ...

  11. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary


    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  12. Comprehending Sentences with the Body: Action Compatibility in British Sign Language? (United States)

    Vinson, David; Perniss, Pamela; Fox, Neil; Vigliocco, Gabriella


    Previous studies show that reading sentences about actions leads to specific motor activity associated with actually performing those actions. We investigate how sign language input may modulate motor activation, using British Sign Language (BSL) sentences, some of which explicitly encode direction of motion, versus written English, where motion…

  13. A Barking Dog That Never Bites? The British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje


    This article describes and analyses the pathway to the British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill and the strategies used to reach it. Data collection has been done by means of interviews with key players, analysis of official documents, and participant observation. The article discusses the bill in relation to the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005…

  14. The British Concentration Camp Policy during the Anglo-Boer War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the war by the British leaders, historically speaking, one policy remains far more ..... based on his forty-one years of successful service throughout the Empire, .... it was time to place the women and children in camps, the military showed how ill.

  15. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study (United States)

    Boichenko, Maryna


    The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research--talent and talent management--has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement,…

  16. Multiculturalism and Human Rights in Civic Education: The Case of British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Bromley, Patricia


    Background: This paper considers how textbooks resolve the tension between contradictory goals of promoting a cohesive national identity while teaching respect and equality among diverse social groups in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. Purpose: The article presents preliminary results of a larger study examining the content of required civic…

  17. An Evaluation of Native-speaker Judgements of Foreign-accented British and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, W.Z. van den


    This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and

  18. David Hockney’s Early Etchings: Going Transatlantic and Being British

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hammer


    Full Text Available David Hockney’s early autobiographical prints, My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean 1961 and the series A Rake’s Progress 1961–3, are examined in relation to contemporary developments in American art and literature, the artist’s affinities with his British modernist contemporaries and predecessors, and other aspects of his emerging sense of artistic and sexual identity.

  19. Transnational higher education for capacity development? An analysis of British degree programmes in Hong Kong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, W.H.M.; Waters, J.L.


    Drawing upon a project on British transnational education (TNE) programmes offered in Hong Kong, this paper interrogates the capacity development impact of TNE on the students, the Hong Kong Government and the programme providers. It addresses the questions: ‘What capacity is being developed in

  20. Delving into Inquiry Learning in Teacher Education at the University of British Columbia (United States)

    Rushton, Claire; Webb, Andrea S.


    This paper discusses a series of inquiry-based seminars that are central to the teacher education program at the University of British Columbia. This teacher education program reflects the changing curriculum in the province. The new inquiry-based provincial curriculum is being implemented between 2015 and 2018 and the teacher education program is…

  1. Response to the Victims of Domestic Violence: Analysis and Implications of the British Experience. (United States)

    Dwyer, Diane C.


    Examines problem of domestic violence in Great Britain, which has a stronger feminist movement and a much lower level of stranger-to-stranger violence than does the United States. The prevalence rate of domestic violence is quite similar to that of the United States and the British system has been less progressive in its response. (LKS)

  2. The Spelling of Vowels Is Influenced by Australian and British English Dialect Differences (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh


    Two experiments examined the influence of dialect on the spelling of vowel sounds. British and Australian children (6 to 8 years) and university students wrote words whose unstressed vowel sound is spelled i or e and pronounced /I/ or /schwa/. Participants often (mis)spelled these vowel sounds as they pronounced them. When vowels were pronounced…

  3. Caregiver Perceptions of the Community Integration of Adults with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in British Columbia (United States)

    Clark, Erica; Minnes, Patricia; Lutke, Jan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene


    Background: Adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) require support to be part of the community; however, most have few supports other than family and friends. The purpose of this study was to assess caregiver perceptions of community integration of adults with FASD living in British Columbia. Method: The Assimilation, Integration,…

  4. The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative: Five years on. (United States)

    Chari, Aswin; Jamjoom, Aimun A; Edlmann, Ellie; Ahmed, Aminul I; Coulter, Ian C; Ma, Ruichong; May, Paul; Brennan, Paul M; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Kolias, Angelos G


    Since its inception in 2012, the British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative (BNTRC) has established itself as a robust example of a trainee-led research collaborative. This article summarises the work of the collaborative over its first 5 years of existence, outlining the structure, its research projects, impact and future directions.

  5. "Bad Talk" Made Good: Language Variety in Four Caribbean British Children's Poets (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael


    This article looks at how four British-based poets born in the Caribbean exploit the rich language repertoire available to them in their work for children and young people. Following initial consideration of questions of definition and terminology, poetry collections by James Berry, John Agard, Grace Nichols and Valerie Bloom are discussed, with a…

  6. The Succession Dispute to the Throne of Lagos and the British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    slave dealer was re-installed as the ruler of Lagos on the agreement that the British missionaries and traders ..... took possession of Lagos. on December 31, 1851 Akintoye hoisted his flag (white with a Red Cross diagonally) ... abolition of the Traffic in Slaves was signed between Her Majesty the Queen of England and the ...

  7. The impact of developmental visuospatial learning difficulties on British Sign Language. (United States)

    Atkinson, J R; Woll, B; Gathercole, S


    There has been substantial research interest in recent years in the relationship between the development of language and cognition, especially where dissociations can be seen between them. Williams syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by a fractionation of higher cortical functions, with relatively preserved language but marked difficulties with visuospatial constructive cognition, has been extensively studied. The case of Heather, who is remarkably similar to the characteristic phenotype of Williams syndrome in physical appearance and cognitive abilities, but who is also congenitally deaf and a user of British Sign Language, provides the first opportunity to explore the consequences of specific visuospatial learning difficulties on the linguistic system when the language used is visuospatial. Heather shows a pattern of impaired drawing ability and visual form discrimination, but preserved ability to discriminate faces. She has a large vocabulary in British Sign Language, and overall presents a picture of relative competence in British Sign Language grammar. However, she shows specific deficits in those areas of British Sign Language which directly rely on spatial representations for linguistic purposes. A number of theories as to the nature of her impairments and those found in Williams syndrome are discussed, using models of the relationship between language and visuospatial cognition based on data from this unique case.

  8. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.


    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  9. Tiocfaidh ar la : A Critical Examination of British Counterinsurgency Operations in Northern Ireland 1969-1998 (United States)


    127 English, 202. 128 Ibid., 200. 129 Bamford, 585. 130 Supergrass is a British slang term for...commonly referred to the ISU as the “nutting squad” (“nut being Irish slang for head) due to its propensity to execute suspected informants by

  10. Functions of In-House Language: Observations on Data Collected from Some British Financial Institutions. (United States)

    Taylor, M. Ean


    The nonuse of slang terms for cash among British bank and building society cashiers is noted and an explanation sought in the field of social control. The possible relevance of the Whorfian hypothesis is explored, and it is suggested that the in-house terms discussed have social, psychological and representational functions. (Author/CB)

  11. Building “Sound” Industrial Relations in Nigeria: The British and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines measures taken by the British colonial administrationin Nigeria during the early years of the Cold War. I posit that anti-leftistmeasures against labour organisations were central to the success of thecolonial state's policy of “sound” industrial relations in the workplace(private and public). Using primary ...

  12. Year 6 Children: Has the New British Mathematics Curriculum Helped Their Mental Computation? (United States)

    Ineson, Gwen


    This study examines the mental computation strategies used by pupils at the end of primary school. In 1998 a new strategy for teaching mathematics was introduced into British schools (the National Numeracy Strategy) that specifically focused on mental calculation. The first part of the study took place in 1999, one year after the implementation of…

  13. David Hockney’s Early Etchings: Going Transatlantic and Being British


    Hammer, Martin


    David Hockney’s early autobiographical prints, My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean 1961 and the series A Rake’s Progress 1961–3, are examined in relation to contemporary developments in American art and literature, the artist’s affinities with his British modernist contemporaries and predecessors, and other aspects of his emerging sense of artistic and sexual identity.

  14. The Changing Structure of British Higher Education: How Diverse Is It? (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania; Salter, Brian; Tapper, Ted


    With the passage of the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act the British system of higher education formally moved from a binary to a unitary structure. However, ever since successive governments have argued for a diversified model of higher education within which institutions should pursue contrasting goals. This article offers an interpretation…

  15. The Crocodile Pit of Maabdeh, Florence Nightingale, and the British Museum's Acquisition of the Harris Homers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nongbri, Brent


    Two manuscripts of the Iliad acquired in the middle of the nineteenth century by Anthony Charles Harris, the famous “Harris Homers,” are usually said to have been discovered at “the Crocodile Pit at Maabdeh.” The British Museum eventually bought both manuscripts. Yet, the details of both Harris...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Linguists’ Professional Training at British and Ukrainian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komochkova Olga


    Full Text Available We have performed comparative analysis on professional training of linguists at British and Ukrainian universities at administrative and managerial, legislative, organizational and pedagogical, systemic, conceptual, socioeconomic levels. As evidenced above, British and Ukrainian systems of professional training of linguists differ significantly, but simultaneously they are similar to the trends in development. In the first place, the main difference is manifested in the content of curricula. Professional training of linguists in Ukraine is aimed primarily at professional orientation on the national (regional labour market, comprehensive development of personality of future specialists, formation of harmonious development of both general and professional qualities. In British experience, this training is oriented toward the world labour market. In view of the above, it is expedient to update the content of curricula for linguistics, in particular, its focus on professional and researchbased training, taking into account the best practices of foreign experience, in particular British one. An important objective of Ukrainian higher education institutions is to improve quality of teaching professional and special disciplines, provide modern teaching materials, as well as attract foreign specialists to teaching. It is also worthwhile to encourage students to participate in work placements abroad, as it is the case with leading universities in Great Britain. Perspectives for further researches are seen in studying foreign experience in training linguists at leading European universities in order to justify the best aspects of such experience and therefore implement them into practice of professional training of linguists at Ukrainian universities.

  17. Gender Inequalities among Staff in British and German Universities: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind


    The purpose of the present research was to study gender inequality in British and German universities. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with female academics in each country (UK, N = 40; Germany, N = 47). A generational difference of attitude was perceived in academe, with the younger generation clearly more strategic in career…

  18. Organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in British Columbia, Canada


    Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl


    Abstract Plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in British Columbia included Arctium lappa (burdock), Artemisia sp. (wormwood), Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and C. ambrosioides (epazote), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle), Juniperus spp. (juniper), Mentha piperita (peppermint), Nicotiana sp. (tobacco), Papaver somniferum (opium poppy), Rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), Symphytum officinale (comfrey), Taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), ...

  19. Exploration of Older and Younger British Adults' Performance on the Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) (United States)

    Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi


    Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…

  20. The sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in British marine mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Forman


    Full Text Available Serum samples from 101 stranded or bycatch cetaceans from British waters were screened for Toxoplasma gondii-specific antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test. Relatively high seropositivity was recorded in short-beaked Delphinus delphis and this study presents the first documented case of Toxoplasma in a humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae.

  1. British Citizenship, Gender and Migration: The Containment of Cultural Differences and the Stratification of Belonging (United States)

    Morrice, Linda


    Debates about integration, British values and identity, who can belong and who can become a citizen, have been fuelled by concerns about growing cultural diversity in the United Kingdom. To promote a shared sense of national identity and claim a universal and normative citizen subject, the UK government, along with many other western nations, has…

  2. Jefferson's First Declaration of Independence: A Summary View of the Rights of British America Revisited (United States)

    Browne, Stephen Howard


    This essay examines Jefferson's Summary View of the Rights of British America as evidence of his craft as a storyteller. Specifically, I argue that Jefferson deploys a series of narrative renderings, the rhetorical effect of which is to eliminate the possibility of any genuine reconciliation with the English government. On the basis of this…

  3. From "Public Health" to "Safeguarding Children": British Health Visiting in Policy, Practice and Research (United States)

    Peckover, Sue


    This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement with…

  4. Language Policy in British Colonial Education: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century Hong Kong (United States)

    Evans, Stephen


    This article examines the evolution of language-in-education policy in Hong Kong during the first six decades of British rule (1842-1902). In particular, it analyses the changing roles and status of the English and Chinese languages during this formative period in the development of the colony's education system. The textual and statistical data…

  5. The Aesthetics of Everyday Literacies: Home Writing Practices in a British Asian Household (United States)

    Pahl, Kate


    This article explores young people's home literacy practices drawing on an ethnographic study of writing in the home of a British Asian family living in northern England. The theoretical framework comes from the New Literacy Studies, and aesthetic and literary theory. It applies an ethnographic methodology together with an engaged approach to…

  6. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy (United States)

    Richardson, Graeme


    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  7. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001-2006. (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; Millett, Christopher; Polansky, Jonathan R; Glantz, Stanton A


    To estimate youth exposure to smoking in movies in the UK and compare the likely effect with the USA. We collected tobacco occurrences data for 572 top-grossing films in the UK screened from 2001 to 2006 and estimated the number of on-screen tobacco impressions delivered to British youths in this time period. 91% of films in our sample that contained smoking were youth-rated films (British Board of Film Classification rating '15' and lower), delivering at least 1.10 billion tobacco impressions to British youths during theatrical release. British youths were exposed to 28% more smoking impressions in UK youth-rated movies than American youth-rated movies, because 79% of movies rated for adults in the USA ('R') are classified as suitable for youths in the UK ('15' or '12A'). Because there is a dose-response relation between the amount of on-screen exposure to smoking and the likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking, the fact that there is substantially higher exposure to smoking in youth-rated films in the UK than in the USA suggests that the fraction of all youth smoking because of films in the UK is probably larger than in the USA. Other countries with ratings systems that are less conservative (in terms of language and sexuality) than the USA will also be likely to deliver more on-screen tobacco impressions to youths. Assigning an '18' classification to movies that contain smoking would substantially reduce youth exposure to on-screen smoking and, hence, smoking initiation among British youths.

  8. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001–2006 (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; Millett, Christopher; Polansky, Jonathan R


    Objective To estimate youth exposure to smoking in movies in the UK and compare the likely effect with the USA. Methods We collected tobacco occurrences data for 572 top-grossing films in the UK screened from 2001 to 2006 and estimated the number of on-screen tobacco impressions delivered to British youths in this time period. Results 91% of films in our sample that contained smoking were youth-rated films (British Board of Film Classification rating ‘15’ and lower), delivering at least 1.10 billion tobacco impressions to British youths during theatrical release. British youths were exposed to 28% more smoking impressions in UK youth-rated movies than American youth-rated movies, because 79% of movies rated for adults in the USA (‘R’) are classified as suitable for youths in the UK (‘15’ or ‘12A’). Conclusion Because there is a dose-response relation between the amount of on-screen exposure to smoking and the likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking, the fact that there is substantially higher exposure to smoking in youth-rated films in the UK than in the USA suggests that the fraction of all youth smoking because of films in the UK is probably larger than in the USA. Other countries with ratings systems that are less conservative (in terms of language and sexuality) than the USA will also be likely to deliver more on-screen tobacco impressions to youths. Assigning an ‘18’ classification to movies that contain smoking would substantially reduce youth exposure to on-screen smoking and, hence, smoking initiation among British youths. PMID:20197360

  9. Supplement use by UK-based British Army soldiers in training. (United States)

    Casey, Anna; Hughes, Jason; Izard, Rachel M; Greeves, Julie P


    The use of supplements is widespread at all levels of civilian sport and a prevalence of 60-90 % is reported among high-performance UK athletes, including juniors. The prevalence of supplement use among UK-based British Army personnel is not known. The aim of the present study was to establish the point prevalence of supplement use in UK-based British Army soldiers under training (SuTs) and associated staff. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was carried out in 3168 British Army SuTs and soldiers, equating to 3·1 % of regular Army strength, based at eleven Phase 1, 2 and 3 UK Army training sites. Overall, 38 % of the respondents reported current use of supplements, but prevalence varied according to the course attended by the respondents. The number of different supplements used was 4·7 (sd 2·9). Supplements most commonly used were protein bars, powders and drinks (66 %), isotonic carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drinks (49 %), creatine (38 %), recovery sports drinks (35 %), multivitamins (31 %) and vitamin C (25 %). A small proportion of respondents reported the use of amphetamines and similar compounds (1·6 %), cocaine (0·8 %), anabolic androgenic steroids (1·1 %), growth hormone (2·0 %), and other anabolic agents, e.g. testosterone (4·2 %). Logistic regression modelling indicated that, for current users, younger age, being female, smoking and undergoing Officer Cadet training were associated with greater supplement use. This is the first study to investigate the prevalence of dietary and training supplement use in UK-based British military personnel. Self-administration of a wide range of supplements is reported by British military personnel in training, which is at least as great as that reported by those on deployment, and has implications for Defence policy and educational needs.

  10. A comparative analysis of British and Taiwanese students' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fraction addition (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chuan


    This study examines students' procedural and conceptual achievement in fraction addition in England and Taiwan. A total of 1209 participants (561 British students and 648 Taiwanese students) at ages 12 and 13 were recruited from England and Taiwan to take part in the study. A quantitative design by means of a self-designed written test is adopted as central to the methodological considerations. The test has two major parts: the concept part and the skill part. The former is concerned with students' conceptual knowledge of fraction addition and the latter is interested in students' procedural competence when adding fractions. There were statistically significant differences both in concept and skill parts between the British and Taiwanese groups with the latter having a higher score. The analysis of the students' responses to the skill section indicates that the superiority of Taiwanese students' procedural achievements over those of their British peers is because most of the former are able to apply algorithms to adding fractions far more successfully than the latter. Earlier, Hart [1] reported that around 30% of the British students in their study used an erroneous strategy (adding tops and bottoms, for example, 2/3 + 1/7 = 3/10) while adding fractions. This study also finds that nearly the same percentage of the British group remained using this erroneous strategy to add fractions as Hart found in 1981. The study also provides evidence to show that students' understanding of fractions is confused and incomplete, even those who are successfully able to perform operations. More research is needed to be done to help students make sense of the operations and eventually attain computational competence with meaningful grounding in the domain of fractions.

  11. British-Pakistani women's perspectives of diabetes self-management: the role of identity. (United States)

    Majeed-Ariss, Rabiya; Jackson, Cath; Knapp, Peter; Cheater, Francine M


    To explore the effects of type 2 diabetes on British-Pakistani women's identity and its relationship with self-management. Type 2 diabetes is more prevalent and has worse outcomes among some ethnic minority groups. This may be due to poorer self-management and an inadequate match of health services to patient needs. The influence that type 2 diabetes has on British-Pakistani women's identity and subsequent self-management has received limited attention. An explorative qualitative study. Face-to-face semi-structured English and Urdu language interviews were conducted with a purposively selected heterogeneous sample of 15 British-Pakistani women with type 2 diabetes. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Four themes emerged: Perceived change in self emphasised how British-Pakistani women underwent a conscious adaptation of identity following diagnosis; Familiarity with ill health reflected women's adjustment to their changed identity over time; Diagnosis improves social support enabled women to accept changes within themselves and Supporting family is a barrier to self-management demonstrated how family roles were an aspect of women's identities that was resilient to change. The over-arching theme Role re-alignment enables successful self-management encapsulated how self-management was a continuous process where achievements needed to be sustained. Inter-generational differences were also noted: first generation women talked about challenges associated with ageing and co-morbidities; second generation women talked about familial and work roles competing with self-management. The complex nature of British-Pakistani women's self-identification requires consideration when planning and delivering healthcare. Culturally competent practice should recognise how generational status influences self-identity and diabetes self-management in ethnically diverse women. Health professionals should remain mindful of effective self-management occurring alongside, and being

  12. L’objet à l’œuvre dans l’art des British Young Artists Objecting to materialization: Some artworks by Young British Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gould


    Full Text Available While an artwork is never merely an object, the relationship between the two has come to define some of the historical evolutions of art, and especially that of the 20th century, going from representation to presentation. The works of the Young British Artists, at the very end of the century, have suggested a way out of both the dematerialization process inaugurated by some of their elders and the very weighty materialism of the New Sculpture of the eighties with its “truth to material” motto, by adopting a lighter approach, unencumbered with history, which does away with the unbearable heaviness of things.

  13. Small pleasures: adaptation and the past in British film and television Small pleasures: adaptation and the past in British film and television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Caughie


    Full Text Available The adaptation of classic literature, or more precisely the construction of certain literary works as classic—the classic serial—has een a characteristic of British television almost since television began. Certainly, since television resumed its normal service after the break in transmission enforced by World War II, the novels of Jane Austen, the Brontë sisters, Conrad, Dickens, and occasionally Henry James, have been adapted and sometimes readapted. In the mid-1990s, adaptations of Pride and Prejudice (1995, Middlemarch (1994 and Martin Chuzzlewit (1994 not only reaffirmed the status of the BBC as the cornerstone of national broadcasting, but also confirmed its cultural prestige overseas. It also, of course, secured it a healthy slice of the substantial international market in 'quality television’. In the 1980s, endless adaptations of E.M.Foster, suffused with the charms of manners and costume and basking in the warm glow of the past, have made adaptation a cultural dominant in representations of Britain, helping to shape the perception of Britishness - or at least of Englishness - as a quality whose real meaning can be found in the past, and whose commodity value can be found in the heritage industry. Revealingly, the Government Ministry now charged with the administration of culture in Britain has been renamed the Department of National Heritage. The adaptation of classic literature, or more precisely the construction of certain literary works as classic—the classic serial—has een a characteristic of British television almost since television began. Certainly, since television resumed its normal service after the break in transmission enforced by World War II, the novels of Jane Austen, the Brontë sisters, Conrad, Dickens, and occasionally Henry James, have been adapted and sometimes readapted. In the mid-1990s, adaptations of Pride and Prejudice (1995, Middlemarch (1994 and Martin Chuzzlewit (1994 not only reaffirmed the

  14. Sampling location for harbor seal genetics in Washington and British Columbia from 1993-08-25 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0148458) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Using skin samples from 777 unweaned pups collected in 9 different regions in WA state and British Columbia (WA Coastal Estuaries, WA North Coast, British Columbia,...

  15. Building the Old Contemptibles: British Military Transformation and Tactical Development from the Boer War to the Great War, 1899-1914

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risio, Andrew J


    Impressed with the tactical lessons of the Boer War, the British Army reformed its doctrine and training from 1899 to 1914, deploying a combat ready force, the "Old Contemptibles" of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in 1914...

  16. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence. A consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society, endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, S.R. [Imperial College London, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney St, SW3 6NP, London (United Kingdom); Anagnostopoulos, C. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney St, SW3 6NP, London (United Kingdom); Cerqueira, M. [Georgetown University Medical Center, 3800 Reservoir Road NW, WA 20007-2197, Washington DC (United States); Ell, P.J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, The Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); Flint, E.J. [Dudley Group of Hospitals, Wordsley Hospital, DY8 5QX, Stourbridge, West Midlands (United Kingdom); Harbinson, M. [Antrim Area Hospital, Bush Road, Co Antrim, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Kelion, A.D. [Harefield Hospital, Hill End Road, UB9 6JH, Harefield, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Al-Mohammad, A. [Northern General Hospital, Herries Road, S5 7AU, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Prvulovich, E.M. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, The Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); Shaw, L.J. [Suite 225, Atlanta Cardiovascular Research Institute, 5665 Peachtree Dunwoody Road NE, 30342, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Tweddel, A.C. [Castle Hill Hospital, Castle Road, HU16 5JQ, Cottingham, E Yorkshire (United Kingdom)


    This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by

  17. Routine DNA barcoding of Canadian Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) reveals the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla in British Columbia. (United States)

    Saunders, Gary W


    As part of an extensive DNA-based floristic survey of marine macroalgae in Canadian waters, an unexpected sequence for a Gracilaria sp. was generated from British Columbia. Before further molecular analyses and corresponding morphological/anatomical observations this mystery sequence was temporarily entered into our database as Gracilaria BCsp. Continued sampling uncovered this species from four additional locations. A timely collaboration with international colleagues introduced sequences from the invasive Gracilaria vermiculophylla into our cytochrome c oxidase I alignments - these a perfect match to BCsp indicating that this species occurs in British Columbia. A discussion of the origin of this taxon in Canadian waters, whether natural or introduced, is provided. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Strategies adopted by British universities in the field of higher education. Lessons for Romanian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BOŞCOR


    Full Text Available The number of Romanian students who apply to study in foreign universities is increasing each year. The most important advantages of studying abroad are: high standards of teaching, close relationship between university and companies, opportunities for students to work during studies and after graduation, a strong intercultural experience and improved communication skills. The present article presents the results of a research based on a focus group consisting of 8 Romanian students enrolled in 2 famous British universities, who were asked to describe the teaching methods, assessments of students’ work, opportunities to find jobs and internships, quality of facilities, use of information technology in teaching and financial support offered by the government. The results of the study highlight that some strategies adopted by British universities might be successfully used by Romanian universities for attracting international students and for retaining the existing ones.

  19. Sequence variation at the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the British Isles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyfield, L.A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Bristol (United Kingdom); Stephenson, A. [Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom); Cockburn, F. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [and others


    Using mutation and haplotype analysis, we have examined the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in the phenylketonuria populations of four geographical areas of the British Isles: the west of Scotland, southern Wales, and southwestern and southeastern England. The enormous genetic diversity of this locus within the British Isles is demonstrated in the large number of different mutations characterized and in the variety of genetic backgrounds on which individual mutations are found. Allele frequencies of the more common mutations exhibited significant nonrandom distribution in a north/south differentiation. Differences between the west of Scotland and southwestern England may be related to different events in the recent and past histories of their respective populations. Similarities between southern Wales and southeastern England are likely to reflect the heterogeneity that is seen in and around two large capital cities. Finally, comparison with more recently colonized areas of the world corroborates the genealogical origin by range expansion of several mutations. 38 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Brit Crit: Turning Points in British Rock Criticism 1960-1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur; Lindberg, U.; Michelsen, M.


    The article examines the development of rock criticism in the United Kingdom from the perspective of a Bourdieuan field-analysis. Early British rock critics, like Nik Cohn, were international pioneers, a few years later there was a strong American influence, but British rock criticism has always...... had national specific traits and there have been more profound paradigm shifts than in American rock criticism. This is primarily explained by the fact that American rock criticism is more strongly connected to general cultural history, while the UK rock criticism has been more alienated from dominant...... culture and more linked to youth culture. However, also in the UK rock criticism has been part and parcel of the legitimation of rock culture and has moved closer to dominant fields and positions in the cultural hierarchy....